rss_2.0Ekológia (Bratislava) FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Ekológia (Bratislava)ógia (Bratislava) Feed in the Synergic Accumulation of Toxic Elements in Pelagic and Benthic Fish from Glacier-Fed Rivers of the Dzungarian Alatau<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The determination of potentially toxic element concentrations in fish is an important topic from the point of view of both nature conservation and human consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the concentrations of S, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, and P in benthic and pelagic fish species in the Karatal river, which is fed by melting glaciers from the Dzungarian Alatau in Kazakhstan. In September 2022, 48 fish samples were collected. It has been demonstrated that the accumulation of chemical elements in fish species can be explained by both the physiological parameters of the fish species and the influence of glaciers that feed river habitats. The data presented in this study provide a synergistic view of pollutants affecting fish populations. Benthic fish contained more manganese and strontium than pelagic species, while the mutual accumulation of potassium, chromium, rubidium, and molybdenum was higher in pelagic fish. The synergistic concentration of calcium and phosphorus in pelagic fish was higher than that in benthic species, while the amount of zinc and sulfur was higher in benthic animals. Relatively elevated levels of mercury in fish were found. The study contributes to the discussion about the role of glacial environments in loading pollutants to aquatic systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Influence of Heavy Metal Pollution on the Pigment Content in the Assimilation Apparatus of Poplar Cultivars in the Conditions of the Iron Ore Region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We carried out studies of the translocation of heavy metals in the soils of Kryvyi Rih. The peculiarities of the accumulation of heavy metals in the assimilation apparatus of seven poplar cultivars were clarified. The maximum rates of translocation of heavy metals were detected at the monitoring site of the industrial site of Northern Iron Ore Dressing Combine (henceforth referred to as Pivnichnyi HZK or PivnHZK). In the leaves of poplars “Lvivska,” “Hradizhzka,” and “I-45/51,” cadmium, one of the highly toxic elements, accumulates 25–30 times more than in the leaves of control plants. High rates of accumulation of heavy metals lead to a violation of the functioning of the plant organism at the physiological and biochemical levels, as evidenced by changes in the content of chlorophyll <italic>a</italic> and <italic>b</italic>. The amount of the main pigments of photosynthesis in the leaves of poplar cultivars under conditions of environmental pollution with heavy metals is lower than in the control, which indicates the inclusion of plant signaling mechanisms. At the same time, the amount of carotenoids in the organs of assimilation of poplars growing on the industrial sites of Northern and Central Iron Ore Dressing Combines (henceforth referred to as Central HZK or CHZK) increases and indicates the realization of their protective functions. The investigated cultivars can be divided into two groups according to the intensity of changes in pigment content. The first group (with a decrease in chlorophylls up to 2 times and an increase in the amount of carotenoids up to 2.5 times) includes “I-45/51,” “Lvivska,” and “Hradizhzka,” and the second group (with a decrease in chlorophylls by more than 2 times and an increase in the amount of carotenoids by more than 2.5 times) includes “Keliberdynska,” “Robusta,” “Sacrau-59,” and “Tronco.” This fact indicates better adaptation and greater resistance of cultivars of the first group to the action of heavy metals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue as the Basic Potential of the Regional Development (Case Study: The Važec Village, Slovakia)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The development of each spatial unit is determined by the capital, whether natural or socioeconomic, which it possesses. Natural capital is determined by the properties of individual natural components of the landscape, both abiotic and biotic sources. Socioeconomic capital is linked to a socioeconomic activities in the landscape. Capital creates certain prerequisites for the development of individual socioeconomic activities. Society does not always optimally use the offered potential, which is connected with the manifestation of various environmental problems. The paper focuses on the presentation of the methodical procedure of natural capital evaluation on the example of the village of Važec. The methodological procedure is based on an integrated approach to the landscape. It focuses on the assessment of both natural capital and limiting factors resulting from the development of socioeconomic activities, namely: – positive arising from the needs of nature and landscape protection, as well as from the protection of natural resources, – negative (stress factors) linked to the contamination of environmental components, which in retrospect in relation to socioeconomic activities act as hygienic limits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Study of Wild Grossh. and Grossh. ( MILL.) in Azerbaijan<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Knowing the distribution and eco-geography of native <italic>Onobrychis altissima</italic> and <italic>O. cyri</italic> in Azerbaijan is critical for the implementation of strategies for their conservation and sustainable use. This study includes 27 specimens from nine wild populations of <italic>O. altissima</italic> and <italic>O. cyri</italic> collected from their natural habitats in Azerbaijan. The aims of this study are to provide a detailed morphological and eco-geographic characterization of <italic>O. altissima</italic> and <italic>O. cyri</italic>, to determine the distribution and environmental variables that define the eco-geographic zones native to Azerbaijan, and also to determine the priority areas for <italic>in situ</italic> conservation of native <italic>Onobrychis</italic> germplasm in Azerbaijan. Besides, research work was carried out for the purpose of clarifying the distribution areas, discovering more resistant species for selection, as well as enriching the genetic resources and Her-barium Fund. The specimens were biometrically assessed using 34 quantitative and 10 qualitative morphological characters. At each site, we recorded eco-geographic data regarding longitude, latitude, altitude, slope inclination, slope orientation, maximum and minimum temperatures, annual precipitation, relief, as well as soil traits including texture, humus, organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, phosphorus pentoxide, potassium oxide, and magnesium. Cluster analysis of morphological characters showed that the nine populations could be divided into three main groups. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) of eco-geographic data is discussed. The article presents tables and phenograms reflecting some eco-geographic information and a distribution map of the species.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’s Consortium Ties with (A. Kern.) Fritsch., 1922 on the Example of Forest Parks and City Phytocenoses in Kyiv City (Ukraine)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Parthenocissus inserta</italic> (A. Kern.) Fritsch. adapts to living in the forests of Ukraine. The influence of <italic>P. inserta</italic> on native species and its consortial ties with representatives of the secondary ranges biota, in particular birds, has not been studied. The purpose of this study is to make an inventory of the consorts’ ornithocomplexes of <italic>P. inserta</italic>, to give a comparative analysis of topic and trophic consorts as a result of an introduced species’ participation in the transformation of habitat’s conditions. The material was collected from 2019 to 2022 in forest parks and urban green spaces of the Kyiv city. The bird distribution was determined by the standard method of counting birds at points. Exactly 12.2 ha of <italic>P. inserta</italic> plantations were surveyed. Trophic consortium relationships of <italic>P. inserta</italic> with 32 bird species and topic ones with six bird species were revealed. The species composition of consorts was higher in forest fragments than in urban plantations (26 and 21 species, respectively). In the ornithocomplexes of <italic>P. inserta</italic> consorts in forest biotopes, there was a smaller pressure of dominant species and a more evenly ranked distribution of species by abundance than in urbanized ones. The similarity of the consort’s species composition in urbanized and natural biotopes according to the Sorensen index was 0.64, in consorts 1 and 2 of the consortium concentres was 0.32, and in topic and trophic consorts was 0.27. According to the status of stay in the region, trophic consorts of P. <italic>inserta</italic> were mainly resident birds – 20 species (62.50%), wintering birds – six species (18.75%), and birds migrating through the region – six species of birds (18.75%). Among the topic consorts, there were four species of sedentary species and two species arriving for nesting. Principal component analysis revealed the largest positive relationship between <italic>P. inserta</italic> planting area and the number of consort bird species nesting (0.999) and feeding (0.889) on girlish vine plants. We predict that in the future, <italic>P. inserta</italic> will be more strongly woven into the matter cycle of the secondary range ecosystems. The study of consortial relationships between invasive plants and birds, taking into account the knowledge of the ecological characteristics of consort birds, will make it possible to more effectively prevent the spread of plants into natural biotopes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Structure of Populations of (Lamiaceae) in Uzbekistan Under Drought Climate<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current study presents data on the structure of populations of an endemic species <italic>Phlomis nubilans</italic> Zakirov under a drought climate. The rare species <italic>P. nubilans</italic> belongs to the respective endemic genus of Uzbekistan. We studied the ontogenetic structure of populations, and the current state of <italic>P. nubilans</italic> populations was estimated based on a set of climate factors.</p> <p>The study focused on the ontogenetic structure of two populations of <italic>P. nubilans</italic>, revealing that the examined populations grew under drought conditions. The ontogenetic structure was incomplete, that is, it did not include all age groups. Their ontogenetic spectrum was centered and coincided with the characteristic spectrum. The research determined that the ontogenetic type was mature. The studied populations do have not any young plants (juvenile, immature, virginal) due to extreme drought conditions and various factors of elimination, including irregular seed propagation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Dynamics of North African Steppe (Case Study of the Moulouya Plateau In Morocco)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The North African steppe areas represent a heritage of great economic and ecological importance. These areas, which were once prosperous, are currently experiencing significant degradation and a decrease in productivity due to several factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of the steppe vegetation, identify the responsible factors, and present perspectives for their management and restoration. The methodological approach adopted for the characterization of climatic and socioeconomic conditions and the analysis of vegetation dynamics combined classical geomatics methods with a data mining method by mobilizing several sources and on important temporal horizons. This study was optimized by using the Google Earth Engine platform. Results showed that steppe areas are characterized by their plant richness and great potential for resilience despite their low vegetation cover. The analysis of the dynamics of change has highlighted a regressive trend in steppe vegetation during the study period (1995–2020). This study has been able to highlight the extent of the dynamics of the steppes in the study area during the last 26 years and to identify the human activity as the main trigger for the transformation that steppe areas are currently undergoing. Such results improve our knowledge of these areas and open perspectives for their management.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Approach for Analysis and Assessment of the Pollution Indices of the Struma River in the Bulgarian Section<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this work, 13 pollution indices in 10 stations of the Struma river in the Bulgarian section are investigated: temperature (T°C), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), oxygen saturation (SO<sub>2</sub>), electrical conductivity (EC), biological oxygen demand (BOD), permanganate oxidation (KMn<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>), ammonia nitrogen (NH<sub>3</sub>-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO<sub>2</sub>-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO<sub>3</sub>-N), orthophosphates (PO<sub>4</sub>), dissolved substances (DS), and unsolved substances (US). The analysis and assessment of the studied indices of pollution of the Struma river in the Bulgarian section is carried out by means of a recently proposed multi-criteria decision-making method called intercriteria decision analysis (ICDA). Application of ICDA showed that we have a degree of agreement for T°C for all stations with very few exceptions. This also applies to DO, KMn<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>, SO<sub>2</sub> and EC. We had a degree of disagreement for all other indices. From the conducted research, it can be concluded that for all indicators, it is necessary to develop mathematical models in the studied stations according to the studied indicators of the Struma river in Bulgaria. The application of ICDA allows us to examine the correlations between individual indicators and eliminate those that are highly dependent on each other.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Condition of the Protected Area of Endangered Asian Arowana () Golden-Red in East-Central Sumatra, Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The only location for the protection of Arowana golden-red in its natural habitat is in east-central Sumatra. Currently, the area is being invaded by oil palm plantations. This research identified the present conditions in that conservation area, specifically focusing on land-use situation and aquatic organism distribution and diversity. We designated four sampling sites according to the stratification of river flows that pass through the Arowana golden-red conservation area and present land use. The research showed that oil palm plantation was the largest land use in the Arowana golden-red conservation area covering 61.2% (2,310.84 ha). The swamp forest which is the habitat of Arowana golden-red only remained at 6.99% (263.98 ha). In the study area, aquatic organisms were identified as 47 species with a total of 424 individuals: 7 genera of Benthos, 11 species of Planktonic algae, and 29 species of Fish. The diversity index was in the range of 0.46–2.45. The diversity of aquatic organisms was found to be comparable to or higher than other areas in Malaysia and Indonesia such as Aceh province and Kalimantan. However, only 31 individuals of Arowana golden-red were found in the swamp forest in Middle Mahato. This site should be a priority area to save the Arowana golden-red.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Responses of (L.) L. Seeds From Tessala Mount (Northwest of Algeria) to Different Controlled Environmental Conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This work is part of the <italic>exsitu</italic> conservation of <italic>Ruta montana</italic> (L.) L., a spontaneous Rutaceae, known for its many therapeutic properties. The aim is to study, under controlled conditions, the effects of daylight and darkness, temperature, salt, and water stress on the germination of its seeds. Salt stress was induced by different molar concentrations of NaCl (0–200 mM), and water stress was simulated using different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG<sub>6000</sub>) corresponding to different water potentials (0-1.2 MPa).</p> <p>The results obtained showed that <italic>R. montana</italic> seeds were viable and could germinate both in daylight and in continuous darkness. Germination was possible at temperatures between 10 and 30 °C, with the maximum final germination percentage (FGP = 81.66%) recorded at 20 °C. At this optimum temperature, FGP decreased significantly when the seeds were placed under salt and water stress (<italic>p</italic>&lt; 0.01).This decrease became more and more significant when the osmotic pressure induced by NaCl increased and when the water potential induced by PEG<sub>6000</sub> in the medium decreased. The depressive effect of salt and water stress on FGP was verified by a linear regression analysis, which showed high values of the coefficient of determination (<italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup>):0.934 for water stress and 0.890 for salt stress. This effect on the velocity coefficient and latency time was more moderate or lower. The thresholds of tolerance to salinity and water deficit found were 150 mM and −1 MPa, respectively, for which the lowest FGP values were recorded with 16.25% for water stress and 11.10% for salt stress.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of Fruit Tree–Based Agroforestry and Monoculture in Tackling Climate Change Challenges: Evidence from Sofi District, Ethiopia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The effects of climate change have hit the agriculture sector in Africa hard. Making adjustments to adapt to the changing environment is critical for countries like Ethiopia, whose primary source of income is subsistence agriculture, which is heavily reliant on rainfall. As a result, establishing context-specific adaptation approaches is crucial for reducing the adverse effects of climate change. This study was conducted at Sofi district, Harari Regional State, Ethiopia, to compare the contribution of fruit tree–based agroforestry and monoculture in tackling climate change challenges. To choose two kebeles and 102 household heads, multistage random sampling was used. Soil and biomass measurements were used to collect soil samples and biomass samples. According to the findings of the study, there are significant differences in how agroforestry and monoculture smallholder farmers deal with climate change challenges in terms of livelihood strategies, with agroforestry smallholders being more resilient. Carbon stock accumulation was estimated to be 453.32 mg ha<sup>−1</sup> in agroforestry and 124.7 mg ha<sup>−1</sup> in monoculture, where no trees were found on monoculture land. The findings of the study demonstrated that carbon stock accumulation was statistically significant between the mean of soil organic carbon agroforestry land use. Agroforestry systems, in general, contribute significantly more to smallholder livelihoods, as well as the socioeconomic system, in the face of climate change concerns. Incorporating smallholders into an agroforestry system for long-term livelihood sustainability requires support in the form of resources, training, and research. In the face of climate change threats, local, regional, and national governments, as well as financial institutions and other agricultural credit providers, must support smallholders.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of photosynthetic pigments in (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud., L. (All.), L. and L. during the season in the area of the Bardača pond (Republika Srpska)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It is known that aquatic macrophytes are an important part of freshwater ecosystems, and that they play a different role in their structure and functioning. Their presence and distribution depends on water temperature and transparency, nutrient content, conductivity, pH, chemical composition and water circulation. Therefore, the goal of our research was to determine the influence and interrelationship of physicochemical parameters of water on the content of photosynthetic pigments in aquatic macrophytes of Lake Necik, in the Ramsar area of Bardača (Republic of Srpska). Content of total chlorophyll (<italic>a</italic> + <italic>b</italic>) during the growing season (June–October) ranged from 0.231 to 1.145 mg g<sup>−1</sup> FW in <italic>Phragmites communis</italic> Trin. ex Steud., from 0.061 to 0.541 mg g<sup>−1</sup> FW in <italic>Salvinia natans</italic> L. (All.), from 0.063 to 0.626 mg g<sup>−1</sup> FW in <italic>Utricularia vulgaris</italic> L. and from 0.063 to 0.443 mg g<sup>−1</sup> FW in <italic>Ceratophyllum demersum</italic> L. Research has shown that floating and submerged macrophytes have a lower ratio of chlorophyll <italic>a</italic>/<italic>b</italic> compared to emergent hydrophytes, which is most likely the result of stress caused by increased light intensity and temperature. Seasonal variations in the content of photosynthetic pigments indicated that the species <italic>Phragmites communis</italic> proved to be more tolerant to the stress caused by the influence of various abiotic factors, while <italic>Salvinia natans</italic> proved to be more sensitive. Spearmon’s correlation coefficient of the physicochemical parameters of water and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments of macrophytes showed a significant influence of certain abiotic factors (temperature, transparency and nutrients) on the content of pigments in the leaves of <italic>Phragmites communis, Salvinia natans</italic>, <italic>Utricularia vulgaris</italic> and <italic>Ceratophyllum demersum</italic> L.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue assessment of nighttime anthropization in the Comoé National Park in Côte d’Ivoira (West Africa)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Protected areas play a crucial role in preserving biological diversity, providing ecosystem services, and regulating hydroclimatic processes. However, the environmental balance of these areas is increasingly under threat due to rapid population growth, high demand for natural resources, and the effects of global warming. To address this, sustainable management of protected areas is essential. This study aims to develop a methodology for monitoring and assessing levels of nocturnal anthropogenic aggression in the Comoé National Park (CNP) in Côte d’Ivoire. By using geospatial data from the Day/Night Band of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS/DNB), the study characterizes the nocturnal anthropization of CNP through the use of several indices. First, light reflectance density is used to identify nighttime light emission foci. Second, the lighted area density index (LADI) is employed to understand the nature of nocturnal activities taking place within CNP, as indicated by artificial light at night (ALAN). Finally, the light intensity index (LII) is used to evaluate the degree of influence of nocturnal anthropogenic activities on biodiversity. The study also found important activities through LADI and observed a high level of light pollution in CNP. Ultimately, the findings of this study indicate that there is a significant level of nocturnal anthropization within CNP, highlighting the need for effective management and conservation efforts in the area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of flower meadows in an urbanized environment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With increasing urbanization, it is necessary to create green infrastructure in cities and urban areas to improve not only the quality of life for residents, but also the health and sustainability of local ecosystems. One effective way to create green spaces is by establishing meadows filled with diverse plant species. These meadows can provide numerous benefits, such as aiding pollinator conservation, improving air and water quality, and increasing biodiversity. Therefore, creating these meadows is an important component of urban ecology. Seven types of flower meadow mixtures from a Czech company were sown in 12 plots within the Hliník Urban Park in Nové Zámky, Slovak Republic. The development of the vegetation and the impact of maintenance management and climatic factors were monitored during the vegetation period of 2021‒2022, and the plots are still being monitored. The results of the flower meadow research in 2021 showed that improper maintenance and insufficient precipitation negatively influenced the vegetation’s development. Grasses were most prevalent during the summer months, while legumes were more common in the spring months. The analysis of the plots revealed that four out of 12 plots were dominated by annuals and grasses, which were the most abundant throughout the entire vegetation period. In 2022, it was observed that grasses were most prevalent in May, legumes in June and July, and annuals occurred sporadically in all plots. Insufficient precipitation and high temperatures in 2022 created unfavorable conditions for the thriving of the flower meadow vegetation, resulting in a high proportion of opportunistic species. Due to the impact of stress factors, the vegetation in the plots dried up.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and repartition of Odonatofauna in the lotic and lentic waters of the Djurdjura and Soumman regions of Kabylia (North Central Algeria)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study is to examine the Odonata fauna structure and composition in Kabylia’s wetlands (central north Algeria) by sampling 36 potential sites (16 wadis and 20 water reservoirs) in the two main departments of this region, namely, the Kabylia of Djurdjura (Tizi Ouzou) and the Kabylia of Soummam (Bejaia). This region has one of the most important hydrographic systems in Algeria and a wide range of exceptional wetlands due to its important rainfall regime. A lack of studies, especially in the western part of the region (Tizi Ouzou), prompts a specific inventory and ecological analysis of the Odonata population over a period of 6 months (from April to September 2021). Forty species of Odonata have been recorded in Kabylia, of which <italic>Pyrrhosoma nymphula</italic> represents a new record for Algeria, raising the reference list to 64 species. There are four northern African endemic species and among these, we report on the rediscovery of the critically endangered (EN) <italic>Calopteryx exul</italic> in Algeria, recorded in the 19th century and deemed to have been extinct after an absence of more than a century; <italic>Gomphus lucasii</italic> is assessed as vulnerable (VU) and <italic>Enallagma deserti</italic> and <italic>Platycnemis subdilatata</italic> are judged as least concern (LC).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue between variations in ecological conditions and the dynamics of intra-specific morphological diversity of Asso in Algeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research work focused on the study of morphological diversity in 270 types of <italic>Artemisia herba-alba,</italic> known as “white wormwood,” from different bioclimatic stages and its relationship with the distribution and adaptation of the species. The phenotypic parameters studied include the aerial vegetative part of the leaves and the flowers. The existing relationships between the ecological conditions and the genetic dynamics expressed by the morphological polymorphism of the populations concerned have been established. Results obtained allowed us to admit that we have two ecotypes in Algeria: the first one has five flowers per capitulum and can be found at the level of the three bioclimatic floors studied; whereas the second one has eight flowers per capitulum occupying only the territories with a Saharan climate. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and UPGMA dendrogram allowed us to observe a very significant intra- and inter-population morphological polymorphism at the level of each site and between the different sites. This wide variability thus observed for <italic>A. herba-alba</italic> could help research on a large collection of individuals and therefore to choose the most effective ecotypes in order to reintroduce this species in the steppe areas of Algeria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and ecology of terrestrial gastropods of the Kabylia region (northern Algeria)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The snail and slug fauna of the Kabylia region (Bouira and Tizi-Ouzou) was studied during the years 2018/2019 and 2020/2021, focusing on seven stations belonging to three altitudinal levels (low, middle, and high altitude). A total of 5111 individuals were collected and 29 species were identified, with confirmation of the existence of <italic>Leiostyla anglica</italic> in the Kabylia region. Our results showed that altitude has a significant effect on the distribution and abundance of terrestrial gastropods in the study area – the low-altitude sites had the highest number of species (S = 21), while the high-altitude sites had the lowest species richness (S = 10).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue dynamics and wintering behavior of the black–headed gull at El Mellah lagoon (Northeastern Algeria)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The population dynamics and behavior of the black-headed gull of an Algerian coastal wetland, El Mellah lagoon (Lake Mellah), were studied during three consecutive wintering seasons (2018–2021). Maximum numbers of the species were counted in December and January depending on the year. A peak of 536 individuals was recorded in the first half of December 2018, another of 538 individuals in the second half of December 2019, and a final peak of 636 birds in the first half of January 2021. Diurnal activity patterns showed that feeding was the primary behavior, with a mean of 24% for the three seasons. It was followed by sleeping (21%), swimming (19%), preening (18%), and flight (17%). Black-headed gulls appeared to be more active in the morning than at other times of the day.</p> <p>This study attempts to provide recent and unpublished data on the wintering and behavior of the black-headed gull, which remains poorly documented in North Africa and particularly in Algeria, and highlights the patterns of wetland use by these species, which could help to evaluate the importance of certain areas and develop management plans specific to coastal habitats and their avifaunal diversity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and enhancement of the coastal area of the wilaya of El Tarf (Algeria): Automatic analysis using computer tools<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The coastline of El Tarf province, stretching for 90 km, presents a great variety of forms and complex ecosystems that need to be protected. The Coastal Law 02-02 was established to achieve this goal by using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing to assess the degree of implementation of this law on the ground. This evaluation highlighted a significant evolution of land use in the coastal zone of El Tarf province over a period of 32 years, from 1990 to 2022. In 1990, the area was predominantly forested (55.08%) with a proportion of agricultural land of 27.26% and a significant portion of wetland areas (17.26%). Over time, the forested area decreased to reach 48.58% in 2022, while agricultural land and urban areas increased. This evolution suggests increasing pressure on natural resources, with potential implications for the environment and biodiversity of the region. Despite the 2002 Coastal Law 02-02s which sets specific provisions for the protection and enhancement of the coastline, it is important to emphasize the importance of sustainable management of natural resources and land use in the region. It is essential to implement measures to protect the fragile ecosystems of the region and ensure the sustainability of natural resource use to preserve the environment and biodiversity of the region for future generations. This analysis could also eventually enable decision-makers to have supporting elements to evolve the law 02.02 with the aim of better preserving the coastal area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and seasonal variation of wader community (Aves, Charadriiformes) in the Mekhada Marsh (northeastern Algeria)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Our study was conducted between October 2021 and April 2022 at the Mekhada marsh, a wetland of international importance, located in northeastern Algeria. This site hosts large concentrations of waterbirds in winter, including waders. Through this investigation in the region, we proposed to characterise and analyse the population structure of this group of birds, which remains very poorly documented in Algeria. The results obtained indicate the presence of 16 species belonging to three families and nine genera. The maximum number of birds was counted in January 2022 (2417 individuals).</p> <p>The inventoried species showed two phenological statuses (wintering and sedentary breeding). Among these, three are listed on the IUCN Red List as lapwing <italic>Vanellus vanellus</italic>; the others are listed on international bird protection agreements (AEWA, Convention of Migratory Species of Wild Animals [CMS] or are protected by Algerian legislation.</p> <p>The present study gives interesting and unpublished data on a group of birds that has been little investigated in Algeria and on a wetland that, due to its large area and various habitats, remains little or undocumented, particularly in terms of its ornithological richness, which is of great interest.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue