rss_2.0Engineering Management in Production and Services FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Engineering Management in Production and Serviceshttps://sciendo.com/journal/EMJhttps://www.sciendo.comEngineering Management in Production and Services Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6471bf48215d2f6c89daf931/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/EMJ140216Supervised multilabel classification techniques for categorising customer requirements during the conceptual phase in the new product developmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2024-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research aims to provide the decision-maker with a framework for determining customer requirements during product development. The proposed framework is based on sentiment analysis and supervised multilabel classification techniques. Therefore, the proposed technique can categorise customer reviews based on the “product design criteria” label and the “sentiment of the review” label. To achieve the research goal, the research presented in this article uses the existing product development framework presented in the literature. The modification is conducted especially in the conceptual stage of product development, in which the voice of the customer or a customer review is obtained from the scraping, and a multilabel classification technique is performed to categorise customer reviews. The proposed framework is tested by using the set data on women’s clothing reviews from an e-commerce site downloaded from <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="http://www.kaggle.com">www.kaggle.com</ext-link> based on data by Agarap (2018). The result shows that the proposed framework can categorise customer reviews. The research presented in this paper has contributed by proposing a technique based on sentiment analysis and multilabel classification that can be used to categorise customers during product development. The research presented in this paper answers one of the concerns in the categorisation of needs raised by Shabestari et al. (2019), namely, the unclear rules or main attributes of a requirement that make these needs fall into certain categories. Categorising customer requirements allows decision-makers to determine the direction of product development to meet customer needs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2024-00032024-04-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Sub-disciplines in management sciences: criteria of sub-division in theory and research practicehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2024-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper aims to identify the key criteria for distinguishing sub-disciplines in management sciences and evaluate their application in national and international science classifications. Documents from 16 different countries and areas were studied semantically. Triangulation was used to study 16 sub-discipline classifications and survey expert opinions among 31 representatives of management sciences from Poland and China to achieve the paper’s purpose. Based on the results, the classifications use various criteria for categorising sub-disciplines, with the key criteria being (1) resources, (2) activity areas, (3) management concepts and methods, and (4) types of organisations. Meanwhile, the extent of their use is well in line with the expectations of the management sciences community representatives participating in the survey. The paper proposes a theoretical framework of 13 distinguishing criteria and characterises 16 classifications of sub-disciplines in management science from different countries. The theoretical considerations provide a good insight into the logic of creating a classification of sub-disciplines. They also provide a better description and understanding of the role of research specialisations in building the identity, organisation, and development of the management sciences community. The results align with a discussion on improving the classifications of management sciences’ sub-disciplines. They are essential in identifying future and promising research specialisations within management sciences. They are helpful in the process of reviewing and/or placing particular research issues or problems in specific sub-disciplines of management sciences.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2024-00012024-04-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Knowledge transfer in interim management projectshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2024-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to define the role of knowledge in a triad of factors determining effectiveness in Interim Management (IM) projects. The discussion is based on the authors’ research concept, which, in addition to knowledge, also explores the categories of trust and power. A longitudinal study using the empirical-inductive approach was conducted in Poland between 2019 and 2021. It included ten enterprises that implemented IM projects in the studied period. The results presented in this article confirm the importance of the empirically adopted study factors, including the transfer of knowledge between the Interim Manager and the client’s (organisation’s) project team. A significant relationship between the level of knowledge and the levels of trust and power emerges as particularly evident. Research can be continued to verify the authors’ initial findings and include the proposed research tools and entities representing different sectors, management cultures and geographical regions in search of additional variables and their correlations with trust, power and knowledge. The research conclusions may prove applicable to both Interim Managers (IMs) and their clients (organisations). They can be used not only for pre-project planning but also during the IM projects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2024-00042024-04-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Performance evaluation method of the service quality dimensions using Six Sigma metrics, the main components’ quality indicator and the geometric capacity indicatorhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2024-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research aims to propose an evaluation and monitoring method with the Six Sigma performance metrics, the main component quality indicator, and the geometric capacity indicator to control service quality dimensions. The research was quantitative and evaluative. It was developed using primary historical information on the quality criteria of hotel service in twelve periods of 2019. It was possible to demonstrate that the geometric indicator was the most demanding capacity with a value of 0.91163, followed by the multivariate main components’ indicator with a value of 0.9559, establishing as a relevant finding the integrality of the three performance criteria to evaluate a service. Topics of service quality, Six Sigma metrics, multivariate main component and geometric capacity indicators were addressed as a theoretical foundation. The research provides a unique contribution in the form of an innovative and efficient continuous improvement method, which makes services more reliable and accurate. Univariate and multivariate statistics were intensively used to evaluate and improve the dimensions of a service from different perspectives. This method has not been considered from the same approach despite its great usefulness in quality control.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2024-00052024-04-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Circular manufacturing and Industry 5.0. assessing material flows in the manufacturing process in relation to e-waste streamshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2024-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article aims (1) to evaluate material flows in the manufacturing process reflecting the level of circular manufacturing of European Union countries and (2) to estimate the relationship between the level of circular manufacturing and the volume of e-waste put on the market, illustrating the implementation effect of Industry 5.0 technologies. A systematic country classification was created according to development conditions for environmentally sustainable enterprises and trends in e-waste volumes. Multidimensional data analysis and the linear ordering method were used to achieve the research objectives. The dynamics of changes in the identified variables were analysed using dynamics indexes and the average annual rate of change. Relationships were estimated using Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient. The main research result is the estimated synthetic development measure illustrating the level of circular manufacturing in the context of material flows. Significant differences were observed between the synthetic development measure values representing the level of circular manufacturing in European Union countries. This means countries’ circular manufacturing levels are significantly higher than others. Moreover, the values of correlation coefficients were estimated between the level of circular manufacturing and the volume of e-waste put on the market and between the average annual rate of change of the synthetic development measure and the average annual rate of change of the e-waste volume. The coefficient values do not confirm a statistically significant relationship between the indicated variables. Most countries have average conditions for developing environmentally sustainable businesses, but at the same time, they show negative trends in the volume of e-waste generated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2024-00092024-04-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of the technological structure of the work programme of construction companieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2024-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The commercial performance of a construction company (CC) largely depends on the planned work programme. The annual CC work programme is a set of objects of a specific purpose and structure (a building system). The programme has the following characteristics: first, the number of objects; second, the construction technologies provided for in the projects (fully prefabricated, monolithic, brick, etc.); third, the variation of work scopes among objects; and fourth, the construction technology. These CC work programme features are interrelated, i.e., aligned with each other, forming the technological structure (TS) of the CC work programme. Once these attributes were formalised, four partial indicators were obtained: the first assesses the variation in construction objects’ sizes; the second — their number; the third — the number of applied technologies; and the fourth — the technologies. The importance of these indicators was assessed to combine them into an indicator of the technological structure of the annual CC work programme. Its quantitative assessment has scientific and practical importance, providing an opportunity to analyse its impact on the results of commercial activities, to improve the organisational management structure of the company, etc.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2024-00082024-04-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Supply Chain 4.0: what the supply chains of the future might look likehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2024-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article mainly aims to try and create a new concept for developing logistics and supply chains in the era of Industry 4.0. Analyses of development trends in logistics and production management were used to create the new logistics and supply chain concept. Conclusions were used from the analyses of how the modern concepts of Industry 4.0, Logistics 4.0, Supply Chain 4.0, and 5.0 work. Analyses of the benefits of applying modern management concepts in these areas were carried out and criticised because of their inadequacies, which became apparent during the recent crises in the world. Although the sources of the crises were different, they could be eliminated by reconfiguring logistics systems and supply chains. The results aim to answer three questions: (1) Has the time come to change the current way of looking at logistics and supply chains? (2) What could Supply Chain 4.0 look like using Industry 4.0 tools? (3) How should Supply Chain 4.0 address the logistics and supply chain challenges? The presented answers do not exhaust the topic but rather open up a discussion on logistics and supply chains of the future. The presented concept allows for a completely new global and local view of logistics chains. The structure of the presented model can be subjected to scenario analysis using agent-based simulation modelling due to the structure’s emergent nature. The new approach can significantly benefit the development of local production centres and global supply networks. The benefits mainly come from reducing the environmental impact of manufacturing and logistics processes from the moment the new product idea is conceived.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2024-00062024-04-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Gerontechnology ranking using the TOPSIS methodshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2024-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Population ageing is a major challenge affecting the future of science and technology policy and governance in industrialised societies. In this context, a key element is ensuring adequate protection, safety and care for older people when needed. The solution to enable active and healthy ageing is innovative technologies called gerontechnologies, which support older people. However, there is a knowledge gap regarding the systematic analysis and evaluation of gerontechnologies, which requires research in theoretical and empirical aspects. There is a need to focus on developing and supporting gerontechnologies to help older people reach their full potential in different spheres of life. Research should focus on analysing these technologies, their effectiveness and their impact on the quality of life of older people. This paper evaluates, analyses and builds a ranking of several selected technologies: (1) the wheelchair based on artificial intelligence Wheelie7, (2) the humanoid Rudy Robot, and (3) the wristband/watch VitalBand. The research was conducted in Poland. Based on a literature review, the authors identified relevant technologies to improve the quality of life of older people. These technologies were then assessed by people over 40 against various criteria. This age group was chosen because the issues of gerontechnology concern these people now in the context of their parents using the technology and being potential users of gerontechnology in 20–30 years. The study answered the following research questions: (1) What are the criteria for evaluating technologies that enhance the quality of life for older individuals? (2) How were the selected gerontechnologies evaluated? (3) How should the TOPSIS method be applied to build a ranking of gerontechnologies? (4) Which of the selected gerontechnologies was rated the highest by potential users?</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2024-00072024-04-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluating the current state of Digital Era Governance application in local government units in the Małopolska regionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2024-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study aims to determine the implementation degree of Digital Era Governance (DEG) in selected local government units (LGU) of Małopolskie Voivodeship and to show differences in the effectiveness of digitalisation in LGUs depending on the level of local government, i.e., the county and the municipality. The study employs a model of digital maturity intended specifically for public administration. This model assesses six dimensions of digital maturity, namely, digitalisation-focused management, openness to stakeholders’ (partners’) needs, digital competencies of employees, digitalisation of processes, digital technologies, and e-innovativeness. The study results indicate that the examined local government units in the Małopolska region suffer from a low level of digital maturity. In particular, the results show that the implementation of digital technologies and the digital competencies of staff are the most developed dimensions of digitalisation in the examined local government units. In turn, e-innovation and process digitalisation are the least developed areas and require further improvement. Additionally, digital maturity is lower at the municipal than county level. These findings confirm the thesis that New Public Management affects the development of local government and highlights the increasing role played by Digital Era Governance. In contrast to most studies on public administrations, this study focuses on the local government level. It employs the original model of digital maturity in the field of public administration. This study intends to contribute to the concept of Digital Era Governance by focusing on the digitalisation of LGUs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2024-00022024-04-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation into the Key Barriers to Achieving UK “Construction 2025” Strategy Targetshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-0032<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The “Construction 2025” is a United Kingdom (UK) Government Strategy introduced in 2013 to improve the construction industry in the United Kingdom by meeting outlined performance targets by 2025. However, with only a few years left to reach the targets, it is unclear how much industry is advancing to meet them. This paper reviews the progress to achieve the Strategy targets. The data collected from 96 UK construction professionals was utilised to assess the key barriers to achieving the UK “Construction 2025” Strategy targets. Results indicate that industry professionals are uncertain about reaching the reduction in overall cost and time targets by 2025. However, they are more positive about reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the trade gap. In terms of the key barriers, the results revealed a reluctance to adopt change, lack of implementation of new technology, fragmentation in the industry, and failure to adopt modern construction methods as the key barriers to the Strategy targets. The research is the first attempt at a comprehensive assessment of the progress and barriers to the UK “Construction 2025” Strategy. The results reinforce the call for government initiatives to transform the industry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-00322023-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Artificial Intelligence in the Smart City — A Literature Reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-0028<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The influence of artificial intelligence (AI) in smart cities has resulted in enhanced efficiency, accessibility, and improved quality of life. However, this integration has brought forth new challenges, particularly concerning data security and privacy due to the widespread use of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. The article aims to provide a classification of scientific research relating to artificial intelligence in smart city issues and to identify emerging directions of future research. A systematic literature review based on bibliometric analysis of Scopus and Web of Science databases was conducted for the study. Research query included TITLE-ABS-KEY (“smart city” AND “artificial intelligence”) in the case of Scopus and TS = (“smart city” AND “artificial intelligence”) in the case of the Web of Sciences database. For the purpose of the analysis, 3101 publication records were qualified. Based on bibliometric analysis, seven research areas were identified: safety, living, energy, mobility, health, pollution, and industry. Urban mobility has seen significant innovations through AI applications, such as autonomous vehicles (AVs), electric vehicles (EVs), and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), yet security concerns persist, necessitating further research in this area. AI’s impact extends to energy management and sustainability practices, demanding standardised regulations to guide future research in renewable energy adoption and developing integrated local energy systems. Additionally, AI’s applications in health, environmental management, and the industrial sector require further investigation to address data handling, privacy, security, and societal implications, ensuring responsible and sustainable digitisation in smart cities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-00282023-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Reshoring and Friendshoring as Factors in Changing the Geography of International Supply Chainshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-0026<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The text covers the projection of the potential impact of the currently observed processes in the world economy on the international supply chains’ geography. The economic effects of the pandemic, the modern trade war and Russia’s aggression towards Ukraine are considered key factors in changing this geography. When examining the importance of these factors, the matrix of three components of global supply chains is adopted: production centres, transport corridors and consumption centres. The reasoning allowed for rejecting both the scenario of maintaining the so-called hyper-globalisation and forming a bilateral system of two isolated and hostile economic systems. The presented arguments lead to the expectation of a mixed solution in the form of the simultaneous existence of a system of high globalisation and concentrated regional systems. The primary objective of this study is to identify and assess emerging trends in the configuration of international supply chains. On this basis, it is also intended to identify the most likely scenario for the future formation of the geography of international supply chains. The research used the literature study methodology and deductive inference of the consequences of the identified processes taken as premises for reasoning. The above-presented arguments lead to the assumption that the so-called hyper-globalisation is probably unsustainable. Various economic, political, technological and social factors make it impossible to sustain, let alone further develop, the current logic of shaping the global economic system. A world economy system with a hybrid structure is expected to emerge. The model of full globalisation will coexist with the model of a multilateral structure with a regional character centred around the main consumption and production centres. The factors determining the evolution of economic globalisation have been systematised. Their potential impact is described, and a likely scenario for change is presented. The achieved results can contribute to the design of economic policy at the level of individual countries and their groupings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-00262023-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of Human Energy Expenditure on Order Picking Productivity: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study in a Zone Picking Systemhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-0025<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article aims to investigate the impact of allowable human energy expenditure (HEE) of order pickers on the throughput of workers in manual order zone picking systems MOP. The method used in this research is the Monte Carlo simulation, used while considering many human and job factors. The results showed that a worker’s gender and an item’s weight have little effect on the HEE. On the other hand, body weight, walking speed, distance travelled, and the targeted zone significantly impacted the HEE, rest allowance, and throughput. For example, male pickers at a weight of 75 kg can move up to speed to 1 m/s and pick up items weighing up to 5 kg without reaching the allowable HEE rate, equal to 4.3 kcal/min, and, thus, no rest is needed. Female pickers at a weight of 75 kg reach the allowable HEE rate, equal to 2.6 kcal/min, at a very low speed of approximately 0.1 m/s when picking up items up to 5 kg, and, thus, frequent rest is needed, which leads to low throughput. To increase the throughput of female pickers, they can be assigned to pick up lighter items. Utilising Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the HEE in MOP while considering many factors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-00252023-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Towards Integration of Business Process Management and Knowledge Management. IT Systems’ Perspectivehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-0027<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The processes of globalisation, the ongoing threat of the COVID-19 epidemic, the continuing war in Ukraine, and constantly emerging new technological solutions require organisations to adapt to changes constantly. Meanwhile, implemented business process management (BPM) often fails to integrate processes and knowledge resources. The awareness of the IT systems’ role in management processes is still lacking. These premises influenced the implementation of the main research goal to identify the approach of Polish private and public enterprises and various industries to the BPM integration with knowledge management (MK) in the context of using new information technologies. The presented research results justify the usefulness of building relationships between the process and knowledge resources under dynamically changing conditions using IT systems. The diagnostic survey results confirmed the key importance of developing such BPM and MK elements as evidence-based decisions, strategic goals, measurement systems, databases, digital innovations, and IT use for data processing. The presented material can support managers of various organisation types in decision-making processes by fully understanding the IT systems’ role and potential in process and knowledge management. Also, the article’s implications are a source of guidelines, helping organisations to implement management systems based on modern technologies. The value of the publication is a wide range of respondents: 107 large, medium, small, and micro-enterprises operating in Poland. The article’s research results also concern economic activities such as production, logistics, transport, banking, insurance, IT, telecommunications/ media, public administration, healthcare/pharmaceuticals, consulting, energy, and construction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-00272023-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Hierarchical Risk Communication Management Framework for Construction Projectshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-0031<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Risk, as an effect of uncertainty, is associated with every human activity. Like any other industry, construction companies are eager to reduce the uncertainty of reluctant events. A well-planned risk communication system could contribute to the success of a construction project. A proper announcement protocol could be a mitigating lever for identified or unidentified risks during planning and monitoring processes. This research aims to present a risk communication management system (RCMS) for construction companies involved in large projects. The proposed model includes a step-by-step communication procedure considering the authority level within the organisational hierarchical structure. The model aims to remove the ambiguity of risk communications during the construction process under uncertain conditions. It leaves no or little room for the emergence of unplanned risks. The proposed communication structure has been implemented in GRC cladding construction projects, and the risk communication time and response have been significantly improved.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-00312023-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Smart Fruit Growing Through Digital Twin Paradigm: Systematic Review and Technology Gap Analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-0033<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article provides a systematic review of innovations in smart fruit-growing. The research aims to highlight the technological gap and define the optimal studies in the near future moving toward smart fruit-growing based on a systematic review of literature for the period 2021–2022. The research object is the technological gap until the smart fruit-growing. The research question of the systematic review was related to understanding the current application of vehicles, IoT, satellites, artificial intelligence, and digital twins, as well as active studies in these directions. The authors used the PRISMA 2020 approach to select and synthesise the relevant literature. The Scopus database was applied as an information source for the systematic review, completed from 10 May to 14 August 2022. Forty-three scientific articles were included in the study. As a result, the technology gap analysis was completed to highlight the current studies and the research trends in the near future moving toward smart fruit-growing. The proposed material will be useful background information for leaders and researchers working in smart agriculture and horticulture to make their strategic decisions considering future challenges and to optimise orchard management or study directions. Considering the current challenges, authors advise paying attention to decision-making, expert, and recommendation systems through the digital twin paradigm. This study will help the scientific community plan future studies optimising research to accelerate the transfer to new smart fruit-growing technologies as it is not sufficient to develop an innovation, but it must be done at the appropriate time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-00332023-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Generative AI in the Manufacturing Process: Theoretical Considerationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-0029<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper aims to identify how digital transformation and Generative Artificial Intelligence (GAI), in particular, affect the manufacturing processes. Several dimensions of the Industry 4.0 field have been considered, such as the design of new products, workforce and skill optimisation, enhancing quality control, predictive maintenance, demand forecasting, and marketing strategy. The paper adopts qualitative research based on a critical review approach. It provides evidence of the GAI technology support in the mentioned areas. Appropriate use of emerging technology allows managers to transform manufacturing by optimising processes, improving product design, enhancing quality control, and contributing to overall efficiency and innovation in the industry. Simultaneously, GAI technologies facilitate predictive analytics to forecast and anticipate future demand, quality issues, and potential risks, improve a marketing strategy and identify market trends.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-00292023-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative Study on Workforce Transformation Strategy and SME Policies in Indonesia and Malaysiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-0024<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to compare efforts to digitise SMEs in Indonesia and Malaysia, particularly in the Central Java and Kuala Terengganu regions, especially in the cultural context and perceptions of SME owners, in terms of workforce transformation. Data were collected on the creative industry SMEs in Central Java and Kuala Terengganu, with a sample size of 241 at each location. The collected data were then analysed using the ANOVA difference test and the SPSS regression test. This study’s results prove differences in the levels of agile leadership, organisational ambidexterity and workforce transformation in SMEs in Central Java, Indonesia and Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. Agile leadership and organisational ambidexterity have also been shown to positively and significantly affect workforce transformation. The results of this study contribute to improving the theoretical understanding of SME workforce transformation in Indonesia and Malaysia, particularly the development of academic science in management. In addition, this study also provides information, recommendations, and references to SME entrepreneurs related to strategic planning to optimise performance in maintaining the sustainability of their businesses. This study also provides a practical contribution as a reference for improving the performance of SMEs in Indonesia and Malaysia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-00242023-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Towards Intelligent Automation (IA): Literature Review on the Evolution of Robotic Process Automation (RPA), its Challenges, and Future Trendshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-0030<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Robotic Process Automation (RPA) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) integration offer great potential for the future of corporate automation and increased productivity. RPA rapidly evolves into Intelligent Process Automation (IPA) by incorporating advanced technologies and capabilities beyond simple task automation. The paper aims to identify the organisational, technological, and human-centred challenges that companies face in transitioning from RPA to IPA. The research process involved conducting the scientific literature search using the ResearchRabbit AI tool, which provided a set of reference papers relevant to the formulated research questions. As a result of the conducted literature review, the authors identified key challenges and possible countermeasures for companies transitioning from RPA to IPA. The resulting collection of reference scientific articles formed the basis for this study’s content and substantive analysis. Furthermore, this study contributes by identifying artificial intelligence techniques and algorithms, such as Natural Language Processing (NLP), Machine Learning (ML), Deep Learning (DL), predictive analytics, and others, that can be integrated with RPA to facilitate the transition to IPA. The paper also offers insights into potential future research areas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-00302023-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Manufacturing equipment retrofitting towards Industry 4.0 standards — a systematic overview of the literaturehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main purpose of this paper is a systematic literature review on retrofitting tools, equipment, and infrastructure in the industrial domain. The methods used for the research were a systematic literature review: publication analysis, selection of databases, and appropriate modification of queries in individual databases. Findings were presented using a map of keywords, clusters, and charts. The main result of the conducted research was the identification of the main trends in the retrofitting area. The trends developed within the review can support further research into the direction of retrofitting methods and the factors determining the choice of specific techniques and tools in the digitalisation of manufacturing enterprises.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/emj-2023-00172023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1