rss_2.0Engineering Management in Production and Services FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Engineering Management in Production and Services Management in Production and Services 's Cover of the prevention through design (PtD) concept among design engineers in the Philippines<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The “Prevention through Design” (PtD) concept considers construction safety during the design process. Several countries are currently practising PtD, including the UK, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, and the USA, which is still not the case in the Philippines. The study presented in this paper aimed to indicate the current level of awareness of the PtD concept among the structural engineers and purposed to generate a basis of initiatives to introduce or improve the understanding and adoption of PtD in the Philippines. A knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was distributed to survey respondents selected through a snowball sampling method, consisting of structural engineers currently working in the Philippines. Sixty-one (61) structural engineers responded and were analysed in this study. Results indicated that PtD was relatively a new concept for most structural engineers in the Philippines. Similarly, the designers’ knowledge of the concept was still low. However, structural engineers viewed PtD as necessary and its implementation as essential in the construction industry. Despite the known concerns in the PtD implementation, structural engineers favoured the adoption of the concept. The paper also discussed challenges and key drivers for implementing PtD in the Philippines based on the questionnaire results and supporting literature reviews. The findings and methodology presented in this paper could serve as a baseline for a larger sample size covering other design trades, such as architectural, electrical, and mechanical design services leading to the broader adoption of PtD in the Philippines. Furthermore, the framework of this study could also apply to other countries with similar contexts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Digital twin technology — awareness, implementation problems and benefits<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aiming to ensure current market needs, manufacturing companies search for tools and methodologies that would help them deliver their products efficiently and cost-effectively and enable them to become a part of Industry 4.0. Digital twins are a technology created based on the idea of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The solution helps recreate physical devices in virtual space based on gathered data. It supports performance tests, configuration changes, and predictive maintenance without engaging existing machines. The paper aims to gain knowledge about the awareness level of the digital twin technology among industry representatives and identify the most important problems that stand in the way of implementing the technology in enterprises. The research focused on market awareness of the described technology. It also examined how companies use employee suggestions to improve their organisations and the factors that influence process efficiency. The methods used for the research were a literature review and cross-sectional survey conducted with 50 employees of manufacturing and IT companies. The research showed the need to implement digital twins in enterprises. Half of the survey respondents replied that the technology would help improve the efficiency of the company’s processes. The main benefit of the conducted research is identified awareness of the technology among industry representatives. In the future, the research will be extended to include the analysis of specific cases affecting the implementation of digital twins in enterprises.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Long-term trend of electric vehicle sales in Thailand<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research study aims at examining the long-term trend of EV sales in Thailand, utilising the system dynamics (SD) modelling approach. This approach is commonly used to model complex systems with causal relationships among key factors within the system. The developed SD model consists of five key factors affecting electric vehicle (EV) sales, namely, the environment, economy, charging infrastructure, government support, and battery maintenance. The simulation results show the increase in EV sales by ten times in the next 20 years with implementation plans related to the five key factors. The government support factor is the most important in enhancing EV sales in the short term. Several government support plans should be initiated to attract more EV consumers, such as subsidies and tax reductions. The environment and charging infrastructure factors are crucial to increasing EV sales in the long term. The enforcement of the CO<sub>2</sub> tax and the provision of charging stations all around the country should be established to achieve a sustainable EV market in the long term. This research study contributes to the Thai government and automotive industry to better understand the complex relationships among key factors affecting EV sales. The related sectors may use the study results to plan for EV campaigns to promote the use of EVs and achieve a sustainable EV market.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Factors affecting project performance in emerging construction firms: a moderated mediation model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research study explores the relationship between customer focus and the performance of construction projects undertaken by small companies. Additionally, process management in these companies has been studied as a mediator in explaining the relationship between customer focus and project performance. A moderated mediation model has been proposed to investigate the role of strategic planning and its effects on project outcomes. Data was gathered from 326 staff members working at different levels of management in some of Pakistan’s emerging construction companies owned by young entrepreneurs. The study’s findings revealed a positive relationship between customer focus and project performance mediated by process management. Moderation analysis indicates a significant relationship between process management and project performance when moderated by strategic planning. Constraints to the study have been identified, and suggestions for future research have been offered.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Adaptation of Polish regions to the challenges and opportunities of the Belt and Road Initiative<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is an international project focused on creating a network of infrastructure and strengthening trade links, primarily between China and Europe. Transport of goods within the BRI is conducted through one maritime and six rail economic corridors, one of which (New Eurasian Land Bridge) crosses the territory of Poland. This article covers issues related to the impact of the BRI on the regions of the participating countries and aims to determine the position of Podlaskie voivodeship compared to other Polish voivodeships in the BRI. To achieve this aim, a multi-stage study was conducted, including the design of a set of quantitative factors determining the position of voivodeships in the BRI, evaluation of the importance of the factors during the expert study, collection and normalisation of quantitative data, and comparative analysis of the factors. Research results show that, given the adopted methodology, the Podlaskie voivodeship is ranked 11th out of 16 Polish voivodeships in terms of its position in the BRI. This article’s findings contribute to the discussion on development opportunities in the Podlaskie region in the BRI context. They also motivate comprehensive research on the strategy for the widest possible inclusion of Podlaskie in the BRI’s activities and provide an important stimulus for the region’s development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00An integrated approach for supply chain risk management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Currently, every company is competing to improve the performance of their supply chain, and the efforts include loss mitigation, which requires risk management. This study aims to identify risks and develop risk mitigation strategies for Indonesia’s “PT. SPLP” company. First, this study identifies every risk in the Supply Chain Operation Reference to determine the causes. A mitigation strategy is formulated based on the criteria. According to the study results, each division faced specific risks, and the best mitigation strategy was a briefing at the beginning of each shift. The results indicate that different data processing methods used by companies lead to various risks and mitigation strategy results. Risk management is carried out and evaluated at “PT. SPLP” regularly.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Order picking and loading-dock arrival punctuality performance indicators for supply chain management: A case study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Supply chain activity control is an essential part of Supply Chain Management (SCM), ensuring compliance with customer requirements. This paper presents a case study into the control of SCM activities. The study analysed two areas involving two different SC links associated with order picking, and outsourced truck freights, respectively. The studied company had problems with these links. An approach based on developing a KPI (Key Performance Indicator) was proposed to address the issues. Consequently, different affected processes were analysed and characterised, considering the relevant data for defining a KPI. Then, strategies and methods were devised for data collection and processing regarding the system’s current state. Finally, tools were designed to facilitate the interpretation of the system’s current state and thus, pave the way for the decision-making process on corrective measures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Blockchain technology applicability in New Zealand’s prefabricated construction industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Different industries are modernising their systems and introducing innovations to their management practices. However, the construction industry is recognised for its lack of technological systems on which the success of this sector is deemed to be heavily dependent. Previous studies have focused on enhancing the off-site construction supply chain. However, studies on the importance and utilisation of technology in this sub-sector are scarce, predominantly where the efficiency of off-site supply chain management is stalled as a consequence of the slow implementation of technology. Thus, this article employs an exploratory approach by providing insight into the applicability of blockchain technology in New Zealand’s off-site construction and demonstrates the benefits associated with the adoption of this technology. A literature review was used to identify stakeholders’ interrelationships in different stages of prefabrication projects. Then, a pilot interview from industry experts followed by a questionnaire survey was used to determine the involvement of stakeholders in different phases and the benefits that blockchain technology can bring to this industry. The results indicate that using blockchain as a secure information management system could improve the integration of prefabrication supply systems by producing a collaborative atmosphere amongst the organisations involved.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Understanding the adoption of autonomous vehicles in Thailand: an extended TAM approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are receiving attention in many countries, including Thailand. However, implementing an intelligent transport system has many challenges, such as safety and reliability and the lack of policy supporting such technology use, leading to hazards for passengers and pedestrians. Hence, factors affecting the adoption of autonomous vehicles require better understanding. This research proposes and employs an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by integrating ethical standards, legal concerns, and trust to predict the intended use of autonomous vehicles by Thai citizens. A total of 318 questionnaires were collected from online panel respondents. Research hypotheses were tested using a structural equation modelling approach. The study results suggest that ethical standards have a significant positive effect on the intention to use the technology. Meanwhile, the intention was negatively affected by perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and legal concerns. On the other hand, the results indicate that perceived ease of use directly affected trust, leading to AV adoption. However, other factors influenced trust insignificantly. This study demonstrates the vital role of trust in AV adoption. The study also suggests ideas for further study and discusses the implications for the government and autonomous vehicle companies. The article aims to forecast a success factor that the Thai government should use to consider the policy for autonomous vehicle adoption in Thailand. This paper relies on the technology acceptance model to assess and forecast autonomous vehicle adoption. The theoretical model also includes ethical issues, legal concerns and trust in technology. The model was analysed using the structure equation modelling technique to confirm the factor affecting Thailand’s successful autonomous vehicle adoption. This research confirmed that ethical standards, legal concerns, and trust in technology are the factors significantly affecting the intention to use an autonomous vehicle in Thailand. On the other hand, the perceived ease of use significantly affects the trust in autonomous vehicle technology. This research found that such social factors as ethical standards, legal concerns, and trust in technology affect technology adoption significantly, especially technology related to AI operation. Therefore, the technology acceptance model could be modified to confirm technology adoption in terms of social factors. The government could use the research results to develop a public policy for the regulation and standard supporting autonomous vehicle adoption in Thailand.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Green last-mile route planning for efficient e-commerce distribution<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to design vehicle routes based on cost minimisation and the minimisation of greenhouse gasses (GHG) emissions to help companies solve the vehicle routing problem with pickup and delivery (VRPPD) via particle swarm optimisation (PSO). An effective metaheuristics search technique called particle swarm optimisation (PSO) was applied to design the optimal route for these problems. Simulated data from Li and Lim (2001) were used to evaluate the PSO performance for solving green vehicle routing problems with pickup and delivery (Green VRPPD). The findings suggest that green vehicle routing problems with pickup and delivery should be used when distributing products to customers living in a specific area called a cluster. However, the design of vehicle routes by Green VRPPD costs more when used to distribute products to customers living randomly in a coverage service area. When logistics providers decide to use Green VRPPD instead of VRPPD, they need to be concerned about possible higher costs if an increase in the number of vehicles is needed. PSO has been confirmed for solving VRPPD effectively. The study compared the results based on the use of two different objective functions with fuel consumption from diesel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). It indicates that solving VRPPD by considering the emissions of direct greenhouse gases as an objective function provides cleaner routes, rather than considering total cost as the objective function for all test cases. However, as Green VRPPD requires more vehicles and longer travel distances, this requires a greater total cost than considering the total cost as the objective function. Considering the types of fuels used, it is obvious that LPG is more environmentally friendly than diesel by up to 53.61 %. This paper should be of interest to a broad readership, including those concerned with vehicle routing problems, transportation, logistics, and environmental management. The findings suggest that green vehicle routing problems with pickup and delivery should be used when distributing products to a cluster. However, the design of vehicle routes by Green VRPPD costs more when used to distribute products to customers living randomly in a coverage service area. When logistics providers decide to use Green VRPPD instead of VRPPD, they need to be concerned about possible higher costs if an increase in the number of vehicles is needed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of factors responsible for delays in the execution of adequately funded construction projects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many research efforts have identified funding as a critical factor responsible for the delays in the execution of construction projects. These funding challenges affect the client and contractors alike. However, there is limited information on why delays occur in sponsored projects with evidently adequate funding. Therefore, the study focuses on exploring the factors that impact the cash flow during the execution of sponsored construction projects. The multiple-site case-study method of qualitative research was adopted, involving five universities benefiting from the infrastructure funding provided by a government agency in Nigeria. The Delphi technique was used for data collection and analysis, complemented with interviews. The findings identified six factors causing the delays. They were divided into internal and external factors. The internal factors are faulty contractor selection processes resulting in delays by contractors and the failure to complete appropriate phases of a project. The external factors include the delays in the project management system of the funding agency in terms of inspection, monitoring, evaluation and progress certification. The research identified that the combined effect of internal and external factors negatively impacts the project cash flow, which in turn influences project delivery delays. Therefore, this study recommends improvements in the in-house contractor selection processes and the decentralisation of the project inspection, monitoring and evaluation operations of the funding agency. This will facilitate timely inspection, audit, and progress certification, enabling the early release of the second tranche of the project fund. This will ameliorate the negative effects arising due to low cash flow and associated delays in project delivery.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Towards Industry 4.0: digital transformation of traditional safety shoes manufacturer in Thailand with a development of production tracking system<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There are many digital transformation challenges going forward towards Industry 4.0 in Thailand, especially for the traditional manufacturing firms that have been operating without digital technologies. The paper presents a case study of a safety shoe manufacturer, CPL Group Public Company Limited, adopting digital technologies to transform its production system of 40 years. It presents a conceptual design for production tracking based on IoT technologies for productivity improvement. This research uses inductive case study research design by interviewing executives and participating in the digital tracking development project using IoT sensors and image processing. The findings show the key success factors of digital transformation in manufacturing, strategies required for development, and the conceptual design of the production tracking system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Use of Target Costing methodology in the construction of wood-aluminium windows — case study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper concerns the practical application of Target Costing to a specific product of the woodworking industry with a particular emphasis on customer needs and value analysis principles concerning individual components and functions of the product — a wood-aluminium window Gemini Quadrat FB. Based on principles of value analyses, the study used the functional cost analysis, the quantified target cost index of relevant components and the target cost chart for the allowable cost of components. Two levels of the q parameter — 5 % and 10 % — were used to construct the target cost chart. The target price (EUR 513.19) was assessed. The target production cost was at the level of allowable production costs (EUR 379.31). The results were used to confirm that the ideal value of the target cost index was not achieved for any component, and a higher value of the parameter q can be marked as soft. The paper provides assumptions for the assessment of possible alternatives and potential corrections. The case study presents the description of the Target Costing methodology along with the nuanced characteristics of the approaches used by various authors and the strengths and benefits of using the method.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Challenges and barriers to connecting World Class Manufacturing and continuous improvement processes to Industry 4.0 paradigms<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper exposes the difficulties in integrating “Industry 4.0 Practices” and “World-Class Manufacturing” due to the rapid expansion of production systems and the increasingly complex data monitoring. The applied methodology was to study multiple cases with the aid of a semi-structured questionnaire. The analysis comprised responses of 15 large companies with different expertise from five countries and three continents. The results show that when a company’s strategy is linked to Industry 4.0 practices and the World-Class Manufacturing method, they boost productivity by monitoring the shop floor, applying analytical tools, and spreading the organisational culture aimed at improving processes. The results also indicate that human resources are essential in this integration. The conclusion indicates robust barriers to the increasing progress of these procedures, such as the costs associated with the use of technologies, the lack of knowledge of the applied methods and tools, the lack of trained and qualified human resources, and the resistance of people to the use and application of the newly adopted practices. The continuous improvement practices do not keep up with the speed of development that the Industry 4.0 practices propose, requiring studies directed to “World-Class Manufacturing” and “Industry 4.0 practices”. Although there is a coexistence of improvement and innovation in world-class manufacturers, the literature has not yet provided a complete understanding of how this coexistence can be achieved at the manufacturing level. Therefore, the paper presents the main actions to overcome these barriers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Applying blended foresight methods for revealing incentives and future strategies of key national innovation system players<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper aims to develop and apply a methodological approach that could help to reveal incentives and future strategies of key National Innovation System (NIS) players considering the influence of global social, economic, scientific, technological and ecological trends. To fulfil this aim, a blended foresight methodology was applied, grounded on the platform of economic and classic foresight theory and considering four possible directions for using foresight methods: investigating and building a common vision; supporting evidence-based decisions; promoting communication and participation; inducing transformation and integration into the decision-making process. The main results and findings of the research include a list of 19 global trends, defined from literature analysis and the author’s expert knowledge, a short description of their influence on key NIS players, including society, business, infrastructure and institutions, science, education and government; and mapping more than 35 different foresight methods that could be used for revealing incentives and future strategies of key NIS players. The article’s theoretical contribution to economic theory consists of several parts. First, a NIS conception is examined through the prism of global trends and a dynamic aspect, whereas it is mostly investigated from statistical and static perspectives. Second, applying foresight as an instrument for researching NIS as a system is a developing academic area with some theoretical gaps, considered in this article by designing a conceptional research framework. Third, blending different foresight methods is always a craft, and the approach applied in this article contributes to it. Finally, the article presents several important trends which will appear in NIS and its key players’ transformation in the nearest 5–10 years. From practical implications, this article could be useful for proactive policymakers in the field of science, technology and innovation policy at national and regional levels for designing and providing measures for supporting innovation systems effectively. Foresight practitioners and experts are offered useful, practical ideas of different foresight methods and their possible combinations for everyday activities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Competences of innovation brokers - experiences of the GoSmart BSR project<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper attempts to create a universal model of competences for international innovation brokers combining knowledge, skills and attitudes in the context of tasks aimed at internationalisation and development of innovation in SMEs. The article reviews the relevant literature, uses a bibliometric study identifying the brokers’ attributes, innovation and competences using the VOSviewer tool, and presents qualitative research — a case study of the GoSmart BSR project. The paper resulted in a synthetic model of competences for international innovation brokers, taking a holistic approach to defining competences. The presented model is a synthesis of previous experiences with formulating competences for international innovation brokers. The elements of the model of competences and their components are equally significant for accelerating the internationalisation of SMEs and implementing innovations. This model is practical and universal, so it can be used in various organisations working towards the internationalisation and innovation of SMEs. Lessons learned from the GoSmart BSR project can be an inspiration to experiment and introduce new ideas and concepts. The identified competence elements can be considered universal and key in the work of an international innovation broker, but neither their list nor competence components are exhaustive. Therefore, the issues discussed in the article may form the basis for further research in this area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Determination of black spots by using accident equivalent number and upper control limit on rural roads of Thailand<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Department of Rural Roads (DRR) is one of the highway authorities in Thailand responsible for over 48 000 kilometres of rural roads and highway networks. One of its responsibilities is to provide better road safety management. In road safety procedures, black spots are usually identified by observing the frequency of accidents at a particular road section. This research aims to develop a model that includes levels of accident severity in the black spot identification process. The classification of severity levels includes fatalities, serious injuries, minor injuries, and damaged property only. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is employed to derive the weight of each severity level. The identification model is developed using Equivalent Accident Number (EAN) and Upper Control Limit (UCL). The data applied in the model are obtained from the road accident investigation of DRR. Five roads — Nakhon Ratchasima 3052, Chonburi 1032, Nonthaburi 3021, Samutprakarn 2001 and Chiangmai 3029 — have been selected based on the top frequency accident recorded in the last three years. Based on the results of black spots identified in the study, most accidents occurred from frontal and rear-ended impacts due to exceeded speed limits. The article discusses recommendations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Managing inter-departmental project delivery to enhance customer satisfaction<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The National Department of Public Works and Infrastructure (NDPWI), an agency for infrastructure development in South Africa, provides accommodation and other infrastructure to various public service departments. Each department communicates its infrastructure requirements with the NDPWI. However, there are usually time lags between project briefing and the actual delivery of the infrastructure. Therefore, this article aims to explore the causes of delays and offer solutions to enhance customer satisfaction. The case study method of qualitative research was adopted. Data were collected from the NDPWI regional offices in Bloemfontein, Cape Town and Kimberley, and the professional service department at the head office in Pretoria, among purposively selected participants not below the deputy director level. The Delphi technique was used as an instrument for data collection and complemented during a focus group session. The findings revealed that the major factors contributing to delays included poor planning by the project execution team (PET), ineffective project monitoring and overcentralisation of the decision-making process. The findings, conclusions and recommendations of this research provide useful information for organisational restructuring, the training and continuous retraining of project personnel, especially the project managers. These steps hold the potential for ameliorating the negative effects of delay in the execution of construction projects by the NDPWI.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Barriers related to the implementation of intelligent transport systems in cities - the Polish local government’s perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Intelligent transport systems (ITS) are undoubtedly an opportunity for the sustainable development of smart cities today. ITS is based on advanced transport technologies that help minimise the emission of harmful substances to the environment. Smart mobility and ITS are related to the use of ICT. The implementation of technologically advanced ITS is associated with several benefits, barriers and difficulties. However, transport, ITS and smart mobility (as a component of a smart city) are indicated as the most desirable option for sustainable urban transport systems. The article aims to identify barriers related to the implementation of ITS in cities from the point of view of people responsible for the organisation of urban transport representing the local government of selected voivodship cities in Poland. The goal formulated in this way allowed to identify the following research question: what are the problems and barriers of implementing ITS in the city from the local government’s perspective? To achieve the paper’s aim, the author based their analysis on a qualitative technique of collecting empirical data. Ten individual in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of local governments (vice-mayors and members of urban transport organisers) in voivodship cities, which represented six Polish macro-regions. Research results and findings indicate the main categories and subcategories of barriers related to the ITS implementation. The identified barriers are grouped into the following categories: economic, social, organisational, technological and legal. The contribution is twofold: first, in the presentation of the theoretical and practical barriers to ITS in juxtaposition; and second, in identifying the intelligent transportation impact, which affects the provision of being a smarter city. The findings can positively influence as important factors for local governments to focus on intelligent transport.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Achieving career satisfaction through fostering innovation: lessons from the engineering profession in the Australian public sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper proposes a novel approach that integrates the capability of empirical validation of structural equation modelling (SEM) and the prediction ability of Bayesian networks (BN). The Hybrid SEM–BN approach was used as a decision support framework to examine the interplay between salient organisational constructs and their ability to influence engineers’ career satisfaction in the Australian Public Service (APS). The results emphasise that the ambidextrous culture for innovation was the most important factor that needed to be implemented in their organisation. Managerial implications are recommended for senior managers on how they can implement innovation culture to increase workplace innovation, which could, in turn, help reduce the turnover rate of engineers employed in the APS.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1