rss_2.0Environmental & Socio-economic Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Environmental & Socio-economic Studies & Socio-economic Studies Feed dynamics of the taxonomic composition of the alien fraction of the urban flora in the Kyiv urban area, Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents the results of an investigation into the recent taxonomic composition of the alien fraction of the urban flora in the Kyiv urban area (KUA). Its main dynamic tendencies over the last 20 years have been highlighted, along with the most probable phytoinvasive threats. The obtained linear regression equation allowed forecasting for the growth in the abundance of alien plant species against the background of the enlargement of the Kyiv urban area (r=0.53) and its human population numbers (r=0.87). The alien fraction of the urban flora of the KUA contains 717 taxa of vascular plants (668 species, 41 subspecies, 6 varieties, 1 form and 1 nothoform). In the past 20 years, the number of species of the urban flora of the KUA has increased by at least 166 alien taxa, some of which are representatives of new genera, families, and orders for our flora. This enrichment of the taxonomic structure of the alien fraction in the urban flora of the KUA has caused changes in the ratio of life forms, ecotypes, invasiveness of species, and other features. We specified probable invasive threats, conditioned by the formation of the group of new woody species, hydrophytes capable of rapidly accumulating their phytomass, some genera complexes involving alien and local species, which are inclined to hybridization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue engagement in waste reduction: A critical component for Gunung Sewu Geopark conservation, Yogyakarta, Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The key to achieving an effective and sustainable geopark waste management system is fostering community participation. This research about the Gunung Sewu Geopark, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, examines the phases and levels of community participation in waste reduction. The study involved surveying 1,757 respondents aged 18 and above using door-to-door questionnaires, which were analysed using the conditional probability method to determine participation stages and levels. The results indicate that community participation in waste reduction activities, such as composting and recycling is inadequate, with only 21.12% of respondents participating in the decision-making stage, 1.99% participating in the implementation stage, and 0.68% finding waste reduction activities valuable. Rural community participation level scores were 0.68 and categorised as very low. The incomplete stages of participation and low levels of participation are significant challenges for implementing sustainable waste management and maintaining conservation principles in Gunung Sewu Geopark. Further research could be conducted to determine the driving factors that most influence rural community participation so that geopark policymakers can develop strategies to increase participation more effectively and to targets.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue critical mass events 30 years on – are they an urban mobility movement or a bicycle festival?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The issue of inequality in the use of urban transport space is particularly important in today’s car-saturated cities. Increasing the convenience, safety and respect for the rights of vulnerable road users, including in particular pedestrians and cyclists, is emerging as a particular challenge. Grassroots initiatives of city residents, who become cycling advocates and cycling activists, are confronting this problem. Among various forms of activism there is also the organisation of ‘critical masses’, which were originally intended to remind us about the rights of this group of road users through a simultaneous passage of multiple cyclists through the streets of the city. From the late 20th century to the present day, such events have undergone change. The aim of this study was to investigate how today’s critical masses differ from their 1990s prototypes. The research analysed bike critical masses organised in Poland, a country with an underdeveloped cycling culture and low cycling modal share. At one such event, a survey was also conducted to determine why participants chose to attend. The study confirmed that contemporary bicycle critical masses are recreational events promoting cycling.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue spatial analysis of one of the regional logistics clusters in central Poland using GIS<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Logistics services are a consequence of increasingly rapid economic development and globalisation. More and more facilities with adequate transport accessibility are being created for the storage of goods, which form logistics clusters. They emerged later in Central and Eastern Europe than in the United States and Western Europe. Investment in Poland's first logistics parks can be linked to the political and economic transformation in 1989, Poland's accession to the European Union in 2004, the development of motorways, and Poland's integration into the global economy. In the second decade of the 21st century, there are more than a dozen places in Poland that can be called logistics clusters. The purpose of this research was to geographically analyse a selected regional cluster located in Lodz voivodeship, as well as its links to the transport network of Poland and Europe. Geostatistical and GIS methods were used for spatial analysis. It was shown that its spatial distribution is strongly related to the A1 highway, the intersection of the A1 and A2 highways and the voivodeship city of Lodz. The characteristics of the geographic environment give reason to suggest that it has great development potential and is worthy of further observation and comparative studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue dynamics of financial development, environmental degradation, economic growth and population health in the Economic Community of West African States<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>By exploring the nexus between financial development and population health in the ECOWAS region we contribute to the debate on population health and also examine the direction of causality between population health and its determinants. We utilised a panel dataset of 11 ECOWAS nations from 1990-2019. The study used the augmented mean group (AMG) estimator to examine the long-run associations among the chosen variables. The empirical results indicate that financial development and economic growth are positive drivers of population health. The analysis also demonstrates that lower population health is associated with increased environmental degradation (CO<sub>2</sub> emissions) in the ECOWAS region. However, regarding the country-specific analysis, the impact of the determinants of population health varied per country. The empirical estimates of the Dumitrescu Hurlin panel causality tests reveal a bidirectional causality between population health and its determinants. The empirical outcomes offer new insights for policymakers by means of financial development, environmental degradation, and income as economic tools to promote population health by guiding finance, growth, and environmental policies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue dynamics of recolonization by plants in the Aleppo pine and Cork oak forests in Bejaia region, central north Algeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In August 2021, very intense fires swept through various forested areas in northern Algeria, particularly in Kabylia. The population dynamics of <italic>Cistus salviifolius</italic> and <italic>Cistus monspeliensis</italic> were studied along a post-fire successional gradient during the first nine months (September 2021 – May 2022), in two forest communities: the Cork oak (<italic>Quercus suber</italic>) and the Aleppo pine (<italic>Pinus halepensis</italic>) forests in the coastal zone of Bejaia province. The <italic>Cistus</italic> spp. germinations were counted monthly in each forest on 10 plots of 1 m<sup>2</sup>, evenly distributed along 2 transects of 45 m each. The results showed that the majority of germinations occur in December with 207.5 ± 24.2 seedlings in the Cork oak forest and 171.3 ± 18.0 seedlings in the Aleppo pine forest. Student's t-test does not reveal significant differences for December between the two communities. During the first months following the fire (September and October 2021), germinations were almost absent. The monthly rainfall in September 2021 was estimated at 16.25 mm, an insufficient amount for effective germination. Late germination results in an extension of its period, showed a high rate in January 2022 with 42.2 ± 2.1 and 11.5 ± 0.8 seedlings, respectively, in the Cork oak forest and the pine forest. Beyond January, germination was practically nonexistent in both communities. Therefore, the majority of the seed germination was concentrated in November, December, and January with a unimodal germination pattern.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue legal instruments for air protection against low emissions in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A fundamental problem during the heating season is the above-normal concentrations of pollutants, especially particulate matter, which are often exceeded. Currently, the main source of air pollution in Poland is low emissions, which consists of from the inefficient burning of fossil fuels in single-family homes and road transportation. This article discusses the permissible particulate matter standards and identifies the anti-smog resolution as a legal instrument to reduce low emissions. For the purpose of this research, field measurements of particulate matter of various fractions were carried out using the specialist equipment of the University Laboratories for Atmosphere Control of the University of Silesia in Katowice. Field measurements were carried out in early 2023 using the Overhead Mobile Laboratory and the Field Mobile Laboratory in selected districts of Katowice. When conducting the study, attention was paid to the type of development, which determines the specifics of heating and the proximity of roads, which are a source of traffic pollution. Due to the high variability of atmospheric conditions and other components, such as current traffic, the data should be treated as indicative. The results of the study depend primarily on the conditions found and reflect the situation at a particular place and time. The occurrence of low emissions was confirmed by the results of the study, which showed very high concentrations of particulate matter in the southern districts of Katowice, where single-family old buildings predominate and building heating is unsuitable. An impact of automobile traffic on air quality was found.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue use and land cover change in East Java from 2015 to 2021: Use optical imagery and Google Earth engine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study analysed the changes in land use and land cover (LULC) in East Java Province by comparing two LULC maps interpreted from optical imagery. The images captured from 2015 to 2017 were selected to represent the initial LULC maps. Then, the images collected from 2020 to 2021 were considered the recent LULC maps. The input imagery was prepared using the Google Earth engine (GEE). The Random Forest algorithm was used for classification. In this study, eight significant LULC classes were categorised, i.e., built-up area (BU), heterogeneous-agricultural land (HAL), bare soil (BS), paddy field (PF), open water (OW), vegetation (VG), shrubland (SH), and wetland (WL). Next, the training samples were interpreted from Google Earth Pro. Then, the GEE satellite base map and the ground control points (GCPs) were collected. The collected GCPs were split into 70% training and 30% validation data. The results showed that significant LULC Change was more marked in the most urbanised areas (in and around the big cities), followed by LULC change in and around medium towns and rural areas. Four classes experienced an area increase, i.e., BU (+30.23%), HAL (+30.77%), BS (+24.52%), and PF (+14.36%). As a consequence, the other four classes compensated for the increase, i.e., OW (−32.79%), VG (−25.72%), SH (−6.59%), and WL (−25.53%). Regional development from 2015 to 2021 has increased built-up areas. Conversely, the development has reduced OW, VG, SH, and WL. The LULC changes have significantly changed the natural landscape to a human-dominated one.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue risks in agrophytocoenoses under the influence of segetal phytobiota<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article the influence of abiotic factors on agrophytocoenoses is considered, these are: moisture supply, rising air temperature, increasing carbon dioxide concentration, and the probability of environmental risks in particular. The degree of ecological risk has been established. Environmental risks due to the influence of climate change on agrophytocoenoses have been identified and substantiated and are: the spread of adventive and invasive plant species; loss of competitiveness of agrophytocoenosis crops relative to segetal phytobiota; increase in the number of species and distribution areas of segetal phytobiota; change in the sown area, productivity and quality of the harvest of agricultural crops; acquisition of tolerance of segetal phytobiota of agrocoenoses to herbicides and deterioration of their effectiveness under agroclimatic fluctuations. All of the above-mentioned environmental risks, which are associated with aggravation of the phytosanitary condition of crops inevitably, lead to a loss of the productivity of agrocoenoses. They lead to a decrease in the quality of the obtained plant and agricultural products as well. Along with the loss of productivity of the weedy agrocoenosis, there are environmental risks caused by the increased need for the use of plant protection products to ensure the control of the phytosanitary state of the agrocoenosis. Ensuring the reduction of environmental risks and enhancing the ecological safety of agrocoenoses is timely environmental monitoring, considering appropriate agronomic, protective, and preventive measures. These measures increase the adaptive capacity of agrocoenoses. r atmospheric levels in analyzing pertinent cases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue sustainable supply of raw materials and an innovative method of testing metallurgical coal blends<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Coke production is a strategic branch of the Polish, European and global economy. Economic growth is linked to the demand for high steel products, which is also connected to higher coke production. A sustainable supply of raw materials – like metallurgical coal – requires balanced, cost effective and environmentally friendly mining, to provide the best quality of coal and coke. There are various types of steelmaking coals mined in Poland (in the Upper Silesia Coal Basin), thus laboratory tests on extracted coals need to be undertaken in order to create safe mixtures of coals (coal blends) which will be processed in the blast furnace. With this mind a new tool – the safety calculation model – has been developed and implemented by the CLP-B Laboratory. This new approach taken by the laboratory is a multi-component analysis which assesses the possible risk associated with the transformation of coal blends during the coking process in the furnace. The new calculation model allows for the sustainable management of raw materials such as coking (steelmaking) coals – to produce the best quality of coke in safe conditions. In the new proposed formula, the parameters identified as critical ones for assessing the safety of the furnace feed, are moisture, ash and sulphur content, volatile matter, pressure expansion, dilatation, shrinkage, volume, CRI and CSR.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue land use in Vietnam in the context of urbanization: status and policy implications<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article generalizes the urbanization process and its impact on agricultural land use in Vietnam. The high rate of urbanization has led to a great demand for purchasing agricultural products, especially high-quality ones, and as a result, this affects agricultural development. On one hand, it offers new chances to expand the domestic market and to encourage exports. On the other hand, the conversion of agricultural land into non-agricultural land under accelerated urbanization leads to a large area of arable land being abandoned or polluted, consequently affecting food security and sustainable development. Therefore, to meet the people’s food needs in the context of urbanization, it is necessary to have proper solutions to improve the efficiency of agricultural land use, such as: implementing land laws aimed at developing agricultural production in the direction of large-scale, concentrated commodities; executing land-use planning, performing agricultural production planning towards specialized cultivation with a stable term to ensure profitable investment; boosting the restructuring of the agricultural sector; developing collective and cooperative economics in agriculture; having policies to support, forecast, and search for markets for consumption and the processing of agricultural products; creating a transparent land-use rights market.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue analysis for groundwater in the area of the municipal waste landfill in Sosnowiec, South Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Risk assessment for groundwater allows for preventive activities in the field of environmental monitoring. The risk assessment for groundwater in the area of the municipal waste landfill in Sosnowiec was carried out using the Nemerov Index (NPI) and the Enrichment Index (EF), as well as a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis and a risk matrix. It was performed on the basis of the database from 2014-2019 for ten piezometers belonging to the landfill’s observation network. In the case of the risk matrix, 20 risks were identified regarding climatic conditions, landfill infrastructure and employees. The SWOT analysis considered the strengths and weaknesses of the facility as well as opportunities related to technological development and threats related primarily to the location of the facility within the landscape. The risk assessment indices were calculated for the following parameters: electrolytic conductivity, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, TOC, HCO<sub>3</sub>, Cl, SO<sub>4</sub>, and NH<sub>4</sub>. The highest values of the NPI index exceeded 3,500 (in a single measurement), while for the EF index the values reached almost 500. These prove the impact of this facility on the quality of groundwater. However, hydrochemical background value and the value of the immobile parameter are also important. This article uses limit values for the first class of groundwater quality. The results of above mentioned methods indicate a medium risk to groundwater, and the opportunities and strengths of the facility outweigh the negative aspects of the plant’s operation. Further research should include the identification of additional risk factors and the likely response to risk.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and climate change: An eco-religious approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An eco-religious approach is one that combines religious beliefs with ecological awareness, thus giving rise to responsibility for the natural environment, such as the threat of a climate crisis due to climate change, as part of the understanding of religion itself. This approach is not universally accepted because views on climate change, and the role of humans in addressing it, can vary among different religions and religious traditions. This research explores the relationship between religiosity and climate change, with a focus on the concept of an eco-religious approach. The aim was to understand how religiosity can influence climate change using the ecological footprint as a proxy. The cross-country robust regression analysis method was employed to address this objective. Robustness and sensitivity model checks were also performed, resulting in reliable regression analysis that can be generalized to various situations. The results of the study suggest that increased religiosity is associated with a decrease in per person ecological footprint. This research suggests a transformation of religious values towards a more inclusive eco-religious perspective, encompassing bio-centric and eco-centric ethics, and not just anthropocentric views. Collaboration between religious and non-religious communities is key in addressing climate change. Religious institutions are also identified as essential agents in mobilizing environmental movements, participating in international forums, and incorporating climate change issues into educational curricula. This research supports the potential of religiosity as a positive catalyst in global efforts to preserve environmental sustainability and address the holistic challenges of climate change.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the impact of weather patterns on exceptional flooding events in the Nekor watershed, NE Morocco<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigates the recurring floods within the Nekor Basin of NE Morocco, a phenomenon dating back to 1944. A multitude of factors has contributed to these recurrent floods, which profoundly affect the northern region encompassing the Nekor Plain. The research primarily investigates the influence of specific weather conditions on the surge of water levels in “Wadi Nekor” and the ensuing consequences when the valley veers from its primary course. The research findings strongly indicate that a significant portion of these flood events can be attributed to “Cut-Off Low” (COL) and atmospheric rivers (ARs), frequently aligning with mean sea level pressure (MSLP) systems located over, or in proximity to, the Moroccan region. This study employs a systematic classification and arrangement methodology for both upper and lower atmospheric levels in analyzing pertinent cases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in regional settlement systems in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article is an attempt to identify regularities in changes in regional settlement systems in Poland with an indication of the elements that showed the highest population dynamics (growth or decline) in particular periods, thus contributing to changes in the structure of these systems. In order to show similarities and differences in the course of the analyzed changes, univariate statistical measures (median, quartiles) were used. This allowed for presenting a dynamic typology of these changes in order to show their cyclical nature and spatial diversity. The results show that these processes do not occur in a similar direction in all regions. The model of consistent changes in the size structure of cities concerns the settlement core of the country (Mazowieckie, Wielkopolskie, Małopolskie), while the resequential changes generally took place in the agricultural peripheries of the country (Podlaskie, Warmińsko-mazurskie), which were drained from the demographic potential by the migration outflow of the population the earliest, as well as in industrial regions (Śląskie, Łódzkie), where the political and economic transformation significantly affected population processes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of biosphere reserves: How to build awareness of their importance for sustainable development?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The biosphere reserves are hybrid territories united protected and non-protected areas with the soft economic and social activities. They bring unique opportunities for local people, businesses and other relevant stakeholders. However, because of low public awareness the potential of some biosphere reserves, is not adequately utilized. This article addresses the research gap related to the identification of the importance of promoting the sustainable development of biosphere reserves and the possibilities of exploiting and enhancing their spatial development. The aim of the research was to clarify the role and importance of promotion for the sustainable development of biosphere reserves. It was focused on investigating the importance of promotion tools in terms of creating awareness of biosphere reserves. The research took place in two Slovak biosphere reserves – Poľana and the Tatras. This article identifies and analyzes the use of promotional tools in these two selected biosphere reserves through secondary sources (websites, profiles on social networks) and in-depth interviews with the managers of these biosphere reserves. The awareness of biosphere reserves was researched with the use of a questionnaire survey in both biosphere reserves. This article defines the problem areas and opportunities, which may contribute to the development of awareness about biosphere reserves which is inevitable for their further sustainable development. The research results confirmed that their promotion influenced the sustainable development of the biosphere reserves. Thanks to their accurate promotion, entrepreneurs and residents can better evaluate the impact of their activities on the sustainability of a biosphere reserve. This contributes to reducing the conflicts that arise between nature protection and economic and social profit.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue communities in Mendoza, Argentina: Exploring social aspects of urban agriculture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Global food production and security are current challenges. This is reflected, among other things, in the fact that more than 690 million people suffer from hunger or food shortages. The availability of nutritious food is critical for disease control and immune function. In this context, urban agriculture is promoted as a way to ensure access to food, which has developed due to rising prices, food shortages and urban growth. However, there is a lack of in-depth knowledge on the impacts as well as barriers to implementation. Therefore, this study investigates vegetable consumption patterns in the metropolitan city of Mendoza in Argentina, as well as interest in vegetable production, opinions on urban agriculture and barriers. Quantitative research methods were used, and a citizen survey was conducted. The data was analysed using SPSS software and correlations were determined using chi-square. The results show strong interest from citizen in urban agriculture, but also barriers such as lack of time and resources. Successful implementation requires initiative, political will, and acceptance. The results are consistent with other studies and could be further explored in longitudinal studies to assess effectiveness. This is helpful given the importance of urban agriculture and vegetable consumption for sustainable food production and supply.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and anthropogenic factors affecting human and Tapanuli orangutan () conflict in Sumatran tropical rain forest, Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Tapanuli orangutan (<italic>Pongo tapanuliensis</italic>) is a critically endangered species that must be conserved. One of the locations where it is found is Dolok Sipirok Natural Reserve. The threat to this species arises from land use of agriculture and accessibility to the area, resulting in <italic>human-orangutan</italic> conflict. Identification of conflict areas is necessary. Information on the contributing factors to conflicts between humans and orangutans is also important. This research analyzed the relationship between spatial characteristics with conflict location. The factors including distance to the forest boundary, road, and the river, slope, altitude, and land cover were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using Rank Spearman correlation coefficient was. The results showed that distance to farmland and altitude were the main factors affecting the conflict, while the weakest factor was distance from the road. Arse Nauli village was the place where most conflicts occurred. The most robust relationship with conflict was altitude.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue change as a factor enhancing the invasiveness of alien species<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Climate is one of the key factors governing the biological invasions of alien species, thus its change may have significant consequences for the scale of this process. We analyzed the predicted influence of climate change on the invasiveness of alien species in Poland and identified species susceptible to climate change. A total of 60 species of alien plants and 58 animals were assessed through an expert elicitation process. For 79 species climate change was assessed as the factor enhancing the likelihood of introduction, establishment, spread and/or impact in the future. Currently, the majority of these species are not widespread in Poland, and this list includes species totally absent, or present only in cultivation and captivity. Climate change will increase the number of high-risk invasive alien species (IAS) from 38 to 63. Species originating in warmer parts of the world are most susceptible to climate change. The majority of the high-risk IAS are regulated under the EU and Polish legislature. However, no restrictions have been imposed on some of the high-risk IAS. Since climate change will further increase their invasiveness, implementation of legal provisions towards these species is recommended.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue evaluation of the effectiveness of distance learning using ICT in geographical education. From the experiences of teachers in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the results of a survey conducted among Polish geography teachers. The purpose of the research was to examine use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in geographical education, carried out remotely after the end of the Lockdown. The collected opinions show that the vast majority of teachers now use information obtained from the Internet and free applications in lessons much more often than before the Covid-19 pandemic. The forced abandonment of traditional classroom learning and its replacement with distance learning has contributed to the development of new skills among teachers and students. Despite the initial reluctance caused by the lack of preparation for the use of new information technologies, geography teachers see many advantages to remote teaching using ICT. In the opinion of those surveyed, the acquired practical digital and communication skills have a positive impact on the teaching of geography. Respondents emphasized that distance learning should only be a supplement to traditional education and used in exceptional situations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue