rss_2.0Environmental & Socio-economic Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Environmental & Socio-economic Studies & Socio-economic Studies Feed a better environmental performance translates into a better financial performance: A study of the European food industry<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examined the relationship between Environmental Performance (EP) and Financial Performance (FP) in the European food industry. The food industry is essential for population sustenance, but the rising population and the consequent increase in food production demand have implications for climate change. The aim of this study was to determine if businesses that consume water more efficiently and have lower CO<sub>2</sub> emission intensities might experience improved financial performance. Financial and environmental data were sourced from external databases and company reports, and both quantile regression and correlation analyses were conducted. The results reveal that various sectors within the food industry exhibit different linkages between Environmental Performance and Financial Performance. Furthermore, our findings indicate that water use efficiency can significantly influence financial performance, either positively or negatively, while CO<sub>2</sub> emission intensity did not exhibit a definitive impact on Financial Performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue resilience to collapse: a cross-country study of tourist spending in Europe during the COVID-19 pandemic<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism sector in Europe, particularly on tourist spending on transport, accommodation, and restaurants. The data used in the study were sourced from Eurostat statistics for the years 2019 and 2021. As part of the research method, a cartodiagram was used to present the percentage changes in tourist spending in selected European countries. Additionally, an analysis of the percentage change in spending on transport, restaurants, and accommodation in 2021 compared to 2019 was conducted using the ggplot2 package implemented in the R programming language. The study results indicate a varied situation regarding declines in tourist spending in 2021 compared to 2019, with smaller decreases noted in Central European countries, suggesting greater resilience to the pandemic crisis. Despite the declines, Germany and France maintained the highest spending values in 2021, underscoring their key role in the European tourism market. Conclusions from the study suggest that tourism-related spending has a huge impact on the economy. A more thorough understanding of how tourists spend money during their travels, including during a pandemic, can help better tailor tourism offers to their needs. By implementing the recommendations in the article, countries can better prepare for future challenges, build more resilient tourism industries, and ensure sustainable growth in the postpandemic era.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue comparative study of urban land use efficiency of the cities of Hai Phong and Can Tho, Vietnam<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The process of urbanisation involves shifts in space and population, and other socio-economic factors, and has far-reaching effects on the use of urban land. Governing affects the process of urbanisation. This study aimed to compare the results of urban land use of two large cities in Vietnam, Hai Phong and Can Tho. To accomplish this, the research used input data from JAXA land cover maps and population data from GSO in order to compute indicators on the effectiveness of urban land use (ULUE) between the years 2000 to 2020. The results indicate that the amount of land used for urban development has increased significantly in both of these locations, whereas the amount of land used for rice cultivation and agricultural purposes has decreased. In particular, the proportions of these two types of land have a greater tendency to decrease in Hai Phong than in Can Tho. In addition, urban land use has not yet achieved efficiency in either of these localities; however, urban land use in Hai Phong demonstrates a significantly higher level of efficiency when compared to that of Can Tho.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the activities of Eurasian beaver on local plants and vegetation cover – an overview<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Eurasian beaver has a significant impact on biotic and abiotic resources, thus it is known as an “ecosystem engineer”. Currently, the beaver population in Eurasia is estimated at more than 1.4 million individuals due to successful reintroductions in many countries. The recognition of its impact on ecosystems is increasing every year, therefore this article summarizes the current knowledge of how the Eurasian beaver affects the local flora and vegetation in the area where it settles. Beavers initiate a transformation of their closest surroundings with the dams and ponds they create by forming wetlands, and the newly developed vegetation is richer in plant species than previously. Beaver activities lead to a decrease in local woody plant resources and an increase in the species diversity of herbaceous plants. Beavers also cause damage to agricultural crops when they feed on cultivated plants. Observed changes can vary over time and landscape scales due to local conditions and persistence of beaver occurrence. Understanding how beavers affect plants and vegetation may be helpful not only in the protection of the species itself, but also in better management of the areas where they occur.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue approach to acquiring knowledge of the personal carbon footprint in Cartagena, in the Colombian Caribbean region<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>CO<sub>2</sub> is the main greenhouse gas due to the large volumes emitted by anthropogenic activities, which is why it is necessary to implement strategies that allow the identification of potential sources of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions in order to design and implement strategies to reduce them. The aim of this research was to estimate the personal carbon footprint in the city of Cartagena. Through the use of a calculator available on the web and the use of social networks, the personal carbon footprint was estimated and its relationship with some sociodemographic and spatial aspects was characterized. The carbon footprint of the inhabitants of Cartagena varies between 0.4 and 17.6 TonEquivCO<sub>2</sub> per year, in addition, there were no differences in terms of sex and age groups. On the other hand, the personal carbon footprint at the spatial level is relatively homogeneous, with a slight distribution of values greater than 9 TonEquivCO<sub>2</sub> in the area where people with a lower socioeconomic status live. The results suggest the need to prioritize strategies to reduce the carbon footprint in these places.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue sequestration potential of trees from urban green spaces of Kolhapur city, Maharashtra, India<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study was an investigation into the carbon storage and sequestration of trees grown in the green spaces of Kolhapur city, Maharashtra. Urban gardens and green spaces, mainly considering big trees, have a great potential to sequester carbon from the atmosphere and to mitigate the impacts of climate change in cities. Total ten green pockets (gardens) were selected from Kolhapur city. This study was a sustainability initiative to inventory tree species from the green pockets and to assess their carbon sequestration potential for improved urban planning in the future. The above ground biomass (AGB) and below ground biomass (BGB) were estimated by a non destructive method. This included the measurement of tree height and diameter. A total of 29 species of trees were recorded during the study with a storage potential of 688.77 tons of carbon dioxide. <italic>Polyalthia longifolia </italic>was found to sequester maximum carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) followed by <italic>Albizia saman </italic>and <italic>Mangifera indica</italic>. This research highlights the role of urban forests or green spaces and gardens, not only as ornamental and aesthetic plantations but also for mitigating the impacts of climate change at a local level. Well planned urban spaces and urban trees have a major role as green vegetation cover which can act as a carbon sink with high potential which will help in policy making and decision making in the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue impact of weather conditions on the quality of groundwater in the area of a municipal waste landfill<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The quality of groundwater in the source area of pollution depends on many factors, including the weather and hydrogeological conditions within the given area. Anassessment of water quality can be carried out based on data obtained from sensors placed in boreholes. This research examined the influence of air and water temperature, groundwater table position and precipitation on the value of electrical conductivity in groundwater in a selected piezometer belonging to the monitoring network of the Quaternary aquifer in the area of a waste landfill site in Tychy-Urbanowice in southern Poland. The influence of individual factors was checked by using twenty neural network architectures of a Multilayer Perceptron Model (MLP). Each of these indicated factors were selected as input variables. Ultimately, three neural networks were selected, which were characterized by the smallest validation and test errors and showed the highest learning quality. The significance of individual variables for the effectiveness of the model was checked using a global sensitivity analysis. Three selected MLP models contained seven to nine neurons in the hidden layer and used a linear or exponential function as the hidden and output activation. The maximum test quality was 0.8369, while the smallest test error was 0.0011. The results of the sensitivity analysis highlighted the important role of water temperature and water table position on the conductivity value. The obtained goodness of fit results of the models to the input data allowed us to conclude that the MLP was applicable to such forecasts and can be extended by the analysis of further factors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue services, vulnerability and threat levels of Ramsar wetlands in the complex of Aurès Sbkhates, North-Eastern Algeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A socio-economic study were carried out in the wetlands complex of Aurès Sebkhates, in North Eastern Algeria. This study aimed to identify the ecosystem services obtained by local stakeholders, describe the anthropogenic impacts and evaluate the vulnerability and threat levels of three Ramsar wetlands: Garaet Timerganine (freshwater), Garaet Annk Djemel &amp; El Merhsel (brackish water) and Sebkhet Ezzmoul (salt water). A socio-economic survey was conducted of 70 randomly selected households (social group) and 24 people belonging to the local administration (focus group). Vulnerability and threat levels were analyzed. Provisioning and monetary value are the most relevant ecosystem services (water pumping, grazing, agriculture, area for recreation, plant and egg collection, salt mining). Indirect ecosystem services rendered by the studied wetlands (water treatment/flood control) are only known by the focus group. 95% of the surveyed locals believed that the studied wetlands have experienced significant degradation in recent years mainly by human activity. Our results revealed significant threats due to salt mining and the excessive water pumping practiced within the three sites. Natural stressors such as drying out, erosion and siltation also contribute to the disturbance of these wetlands. Analysis of vulnerability (Vt) and threat (T) indices revealed that Garaet Timerganine is highly vulnerable (Vt= 1.48; T = 17.16), Ezzmoul is moderately vulnerable (Vt = 0.23; T = 2.3) and Annk Djemel &amp; El Merhsel are weakly vulnerable (Vt = 0.04; T = 0.28). This study highlighted the most vulnerable wetlands in order to prioritize them and to build a strategy for conservation and their wise use.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue formal transformations in sustainable urban structures in Kufa City, Iraq<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research discusses the formal transformation in urban structure, all the cities around the world have undergone a series of formal transformations, resulting in radical transformations to their functions. And to calculate this transformation the descriptive analytical method was applied to this research. First, local urban management data and Landsat-9 visual data were used after processing by GIS. Then, the data were processed mathematically based on their engineering sequences. The aims of this research were as follows: to explore the formal transformations in cities, their dimensions and their consequences and impacts; to identify the underlying causes of their occurrence by deriving realistic results from trends in such degrees of transformation; and to reduce the adverse effects and to establish a sustainable urban structure by taking Kufa City as a model. The research covered the following two time periods: 2002-2012 and 2012-2022, as they represent the time during which Kufa City experienced remarkable formal transformation in urban structure as a result of urbanisation and random growth. Different forms of land use were identified, and formal transformations were analysed. The results showed that the largest transformation occurred when the agricultural land transformed into construction land; which was used in different ways than the original intent. The land uses were visualised digitally at high resolution. The transformation in land use led to formal transformations in the city structure, both planned and randomly implemented. The other objective of this research is to address misuse of the city’s infrastructure; however, sustainability was not considered for several reasons. The agricultural land represents the nutritional value of the city as it provides Kufa and nearby cities with agricultural products. It also represents the green barrier as the environmental conduit for the city. This research recommends managing population growth by using basic city schemes of planning and predicting formal transformations. This approach is the basis for transforming city structures by identifying future structural features in sustainable ways.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and phytoecological diversity of Holm Oak forests in the Belezma Massif Biosphere Reserve, North-East Algeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The holm oak is a species that forms interesting stands in the Belezma National Park (PNB). Studying it has allowed us to understand it’s ecological and phytoecological characteristics. Despite the importance of this species, individual trees remain exposed to multiple threats. Surveys were carried out at the level of the massifs of Kassrou and Om rkhaa which enabled us to carry out the floristic groups of the Holm oak. The study area is characterized by high floristic diversity, with 120 plant species belonging to 106 genera and 34 families, 46 of which are not included in the list of flora of the Belezma National Park. The most dominant families are Asteraceae (32 species; i.e., 27%) and Fabaceae (13 species; i.e., 11%), which are also families that are frequently found in Algeria, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The study of the phytogeographical spectrum shows that the field stations studied are dominated by the Mediterranean element (75%, 58%). Analysis of the biological types revealed the predominance of hemicryptophytes (30.33%). Therophytes were present with a high percentage at the two study sites (21%, 32%); the disturbance indices were respectively 46%, and 50%, showing high anthropogenic pressure. It is important to take the necessary measures for the preservation and conservation of this precious heritage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and potential landscape functions of areas with the remnants of World War II bombing in the Koźle Basin, southern Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Wars bring civilisation and environmental disasters. In the forests and wetlands of the Koźle Basin (southern Poland), clusters of bomb craters remain, which are associated with the air campaign conducted by the USAAF to disable the Third Reich’s fuel facilities. They are among the most spectacular in Europe today. There are nearly 6,000 large bomb craters with a diameter of 7-15 meters and smaller ones from the fall of unexploded ordnance. These areas, with their characteristic scarred relief, currently pose difficulties in terms of economic use. The depressions left after the bombs fell, naturally became small sedimentation basins and niches that were taken over by nature. Landscape and nature mapping of the surveyed areas, altered by the bombing, in conjunction with historical data, suggest that they require protection in the form of two landscape-nature protected complexes (a form of landscape protection in Poland). They can serve as environmental and historical education zones, wildlife sanctuaries, as well as areas for the introduction and reintroduction of species. This is important in a region where hundreds of years of agricultural dominance, as well as decades of intensive industrial development and urban settlement, have caused major changes in the natural environment and degradation of its structures. Similar historical sites, trails and cultural parks dedicated to the war campaigns have been introduced in different European countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue outcomes of the livelihoods of displaced households after hydropower dam construction: A case study in Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Millions of people have been displaced and resettled worldwide to build hydroelectric dams. Most of the previous studies show that the livelihoods of the resettled people have been getting worse, but these studies have only been evaluated over a short time frame and only selected two-time periods for assessment, including before and after displacement. Few follow-up and evaluation studies have been conducted for periods longer than 10 years. Therefore, this study conducted a study that was long-term at a resettlement site for hydropower construction in Vietnam to observe the change in livelihoods over more than 12 years of the people that were resettled. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the research to determine livelihood outcomes and to explain the causes of changes in livelihood pathways after resettlement. Our findings indicate that the loss of productive land for upland rice and dry crops was the greatest challenge for displaced households. Households which were headed by women, or those that were handicapped, were more susceptible to land loss. Displaced people also lost their traditional jobs and faced food insecurity because they did not have productive land for cultivating rice and cassava crops. As a result of this significant reduction in economic and food conditions, displaced households could not maintain their culture and religion, and the coherence of Bo Hon, the study village gradually decreased. However, displaced households made a faster recovery in income generation than other communities displaced by hydropower dams in Vietnam after 12 years. They could generate more income because they live near Hue city and receive strong support from local authorities. Through this study, it has been shown that the selection and arrangement of a suitable resettlement site with good access to the job market will be a prerequisite to help displaced households to adapt and develop their livelihoods after resettlement in conditions of limited access to natural resources.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue directions of the study of plant invasions in Russia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article is focused on the analysis of major approaches to plant invasion research used by Russian researchers. They fall within three main groups: 1. Conventional approaches to floristic analysis based on the Russian scientific tradition of floristic research, 2. Approaches focused on the study of the fraction of invasive flora, making blacklists and regional Black books, 3. New comprehensive approaches based on a synthesis of methods used in botany, geo-information technology and population genetics. Multivariate statistical methods allow for the visualization of various data, including those on alien species group structures in various regions. They make it possible to identify boundaries of ecological niches occupied by plants in respect to climate-and-environmental or ecological variables. An assessment of current statistical interdependence between alien plant characteristics and scores of factors limiting their dissemination facilitates the making of predictive models of plant invasion. Examples of multivariate statistical methods used in invasion biology were analyzed, along with different approaches to the study of the variability of alien species. Alien and invasive fractions of the flora of the Trans-Siberian Railway were analyzed not by administrative units but by natural biomes. This approach allowed us to assess the correlation between the number of invasive species with different natural-climatic and floristic characteristics of biomes. The publication of "Black Books" of various administrative subjects of Russia according to a unified methodology allowed us to make an inventory of invasive species over the vast territory of the country. The experience gained by Russian researchers may be further used for developing universal approaches to plant invasion research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue alien plants in Poland – the state of research and the use of the results in practice<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The participation of species of alien origin in the flora of individual regions of the world is increasing. A large proportion of these species pose a threat to biodiversity. Issues of the dynamics of changes in the flora and the scale and pace of the processes, with particular emphasis on the biology, ecology, chorology, and genetic variability of the populations of plants of alien origin, including those alien species which are invasive, have been the subject of many years of research in this field in Poland. The present study is an overview of the state of research on invasive plant species in Poland, including the main results of the basic and applied research which have provided the basis for (i) the preparation of a list of invasive plant species for Poland; (ii) assessing the degree of invasiveness of the species analysed, in accordance with the adoption of criteria and the development of methodological solutions. In this work, a new version of the list of invasive plant species has been prepared on the basis of earlier studies, combining theoretical and practical aspects of definition, and it is compared with the list of invasive alien plant species considered to constitute a threat to the EU and Poland as a member country. The categorization (risk assessment) of invasive alien species along with the identification of the most endangered types of natural habitats is often used in practice in the management of invasive plants in Poland. The results of our research have fed into the formulation of legal regulations at the global and regional levels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue current status of the plant invasions in Belarus<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article provides a review of the current status of plant invasions in Belarus. As a result of this research into the alien flora between 2008 and 2020 a list of 52 invasive plant species that threaten biodiversity, human health, and economic has been compiled. About 300 taxa of non-native plants are currently classified as potentially invasive. The list of invasive plant species has been proposed in this article in accordance with trends in the invasive processes is the basis for the monitoring and management of plant invasions in Belarus. The preliminary data from the previous field seasons showed a significant increase in the population abundance and distribution of <italic>Swida alba</italic>, <italic>Rudbeckia laciniata</italic> and <italic>Artemisia abrotanum</italic>. Enrichment of the flora occurs due to the introduction of aggressive plants. Hybridization between native and alien plant species leads to the appearance of hybrids, which often have an invasive potential, and can invade not only disturbed habitats but also natural plant communities. The invasive properties, expansion, and aggressive behavior of these invasive plants of the alien flora of Belarus has led to significant, often irreversible, changes in the natural vegetation and vegetation cover. Invasive species such as <italic>Solidago canadensis</italic>, <italic>S. gigantea</italic>, <italic>Echynocystis lobata</italic>, <italic>Impatiens glandulifera</italic> are marked by rapid expansion over past decades, and <italic>Heracleum sosnowskyi</italic>, <italic>Solidago canadensis</italic>, <italic>S. gigantea</italic>, <italic>Echinocystis lobata</italic>, <italic>Impatiens parviflora</italic>, <italic>Acer negundo</italic>, <italic>Robinia pseudoacacia</italic>, <italic>Bidens frondosa</italic>, have invaded more recently.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue alien plant species in Romania of European Union concern<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An assessement of the alien plants of Romania was conducted which considered the requirements of Regulation 1143/2014 of the European Union (EU). Thus, available data about the presence, invasiveness, distribution, pathways of introduction and their known impact in the territory of Romania were analysed. We found that of 36 plant species of EU concern, four are already established in Romania and widespread, at least locally or regionally: <italic>Ailanthus altissima</italic>, <italic>Asclepias syriaca</italic>, <italic>Elodea nuttallii</italic> and <italic>Impatiens glandulifera</italic>. For <italic>Humulus scandens</italic> there are some reports, but its presence and status require confirmation. <italic>Heracleum sosnowskyi</italic> and <italic>Ludwigia peploides</italic> are confirmed for only one location for each species. The presence of <italic>Cabomba caroliniana</italic> and <italic>Myriophyllum aquaticum</italic> in Romania is not confirmed. Most of the records are intentional introductions for ornamental purposes. Regarding their invasiveness, given the geographical origin and history of invasion in warmer climate regions (e.g., tropical, subtropical), many of the species listed as being of EU concern do not currently constitute a real threat to Romania, for the time being, but may do in a climate change scenario for the 2070s. Data about the impact of alien plant species and their management in Romania are scattered or completely missing. Coordinated institutional efforts are needed to increase the efficiency of the management of alien species at national and local level. These efforts should include: enhancing the legislation and the capacity of public institutions to manage invasive species, increasing the research interest in the science of this topic and promoting real measures to mitigate, control and remove alien plants.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue (invasive) vascular plants in Slovakia – a story of successful plant immigrants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article summarises the history of research into alien plants and plant communities in Slovakia (Central Europe). Earlier periods are reviewed briefly with reference to literature sources dealing with those periods more comprehensively. A milestone in the research was the publication of the Inventory of the alien flora of Slovakia in 2012 with a complete list of alien vascular plants. The last ten years are discussed more extensively in the article in four sections devoted to i) newly found alien plants, ii) distribution and habitat relations, iii) plant invasions, iv) citizen science based on the comprehensive excerption of literature sources. A list of 51 newly published alien taxa within the last ten years is also included with information on the year of their first occurrence in the wild in Slovakia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to the special issue: The current status of invasive plants in Central-Eastern Europe invasions in Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We present a comprehensive review of the plant invasions of 42 alien species and their impact on vegetation cover in Ukraine. Among these species, those currently posing the greatest threat to the environment have been identified. The structural features of this group were analyzed. In the life form spectrum the phanerophytes and therophytes are dominant, in the ecological spectrum the mesophytes are dominant, and kenophytes predominate at the time of immigration. Among the examined species, plants of North American origin predominate, agriophytes prevail by their degree of naturalization, and ergasiophytes are predominant by their way of entry. The participation of invasive species in natural and anthropogenic plant communities and biotopes was analyzed. These species are a stable component of grasses, scrub and forest habitats. Most of these invasive plants (33 species) are observed in anthropogenic habitats (I). Slightly fewer species of the studied group prefer habitat types E (25), F and G (22 each), although the largest invasions are observed exactly in these biotopes. Invasive species are characterized by eurytopicity. Four species have the greatest ecological plasticity, each of these is found in six types of habitats: <italic>Ailanthus altissima</italic> (B, F, G, I, J, H), <italic>Amaranthus retroflexus</italic> (C, E, F, G, I, J), <italic>Opuntia humifusa</italic> (B, E, F, G, H, I) and <italic>Xanthium albinum</italic> (B, C, E, F, G, I). <italic>Erigeron canadensis</italic> is found in five habitat types (C, E, F, G, I). The studied group is characterized by an insignificant regional specificity of the species composition, high invasive potential and stability of population reproduction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue plant invasion in the ruderal vegetation of Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the results of an analysis of the alien flora of the ruderal vegetation of Ukraine. A total of 325 alien species which belong to 58 families and 198 genera were identified. The total anthropogenization index of the ruderal phytocoenoses is 19.8%. It was established that the highest level of anthropogenization was found in the phytocoenoses of <italic>Polygono-Poetea annuae</italic>, <italic>Stellarietea mediae</italic> and <italic>Plantaginetea majoris</italic>. The leading families of the non-native fraction of the studied plant communities were <italic>Asteraceae</italic>, <italic>Brassicaceae</italic> and <italic>Poaceae</italic>. It has been revealed that in the biomorphological spectrum of alien plants therophytes prevailed. The ecological analysis has shown the predominance of submesophytes, acidophytes, semieutrophytes, acarbonatophytes and heminitrophytes plants. It was established that according to the arrival time the kenophytes predominate and by the degree of naturalization – the epoecophytes. Comparison of the alien species composition of the ruderal plant communities by means of Jaccard’s indices showed the most similarity between the classes <italic>Polygono-Poetea annuae</italic> and <italic>Plantaginetea majoris</italic>, <italic>Robinietea</italic> and <italic>Galio-Urticetea</italic>, <italic>Stellarietea mediae</italic> and <italic>Artemisietea vulgaris</italic>. For the separate classes the indices of archaeophytization, kenophytization, modernization and fluctuation of the flora were calculated. It has been established that there are 23 highly invasive species in the ruderal vegetation of Ukraine and among these <italic>Ambrosia artemisiifolia</italic>, <italic>Anisantha tectorum</italic>, <italic>Grindelia squarrosa</italic>, <italic>Heracleum mantegazzianum</italic>, <italic>H. pubescens</italic> and <italic>Xanthium oreintale ssp. riparium</italic> are transformers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue