rss_2.0Environmental & Socio-economic Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Environmental & Socio-economic Studies & Socio-economic Studies Feed use and land cover change in East Java from 2015 to 2021: Use optical imagery and Google Earth engine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study analysed the changes in land use and land cover (LULC) in East Java Province by comparing two LULC maps interpreted from optical imagery. The images captured from 2015 to 2017 were selected to represent the initial LULC maps. Then, the images collected from 2020 to 2021 were considered the recent LULC maps. The input imagery was prepared using the Google Earth engine (GEE). The Random Forest algorithm was used for classification. In this study, eight significant LULC classes were categorised, i.e., built-up area (BU), heterogeneous-agricultural land (HAL), bare soil (BS), paddy field (PF), open water (OW), vegetation (VG), shrubland (SH), and wetland (WL). Next, the training samples were interpreted from Google Earth Pro. Then, the GEE satellite base map and the ground control points (GCPs) were collected. The collected GCPs were split into 70% training and 30% validation data. The results showed that significant LULC Change was more marked in the most urbanised areas (in and around the big cities), followed by LULC change in and around medium towns and rural areas. Four classes experienced an area increase, i.e., BU (+30.23%), HAL (+30.77%), BS (+24.52%), and PF (+14.36%). As a consequence, the other four classes compensated for the increase, i.e., OW (−32.79%), VG (−25.72%), SH (−6.59%), and WL (−25.53%). Regional development from 2015 to 2021 has increased built-up areas. Conversely, the development has reduced OW, VG, SH, and WL. The LULC changes have significantly changed the natural landscape to a human-dominated one.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue risks in agrophytocoenoses under the influence of segetal phytobiota<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article the influence of abiotic factors on agrophytocoenoses is considered, these are: moisture supply, rising air temperature, increasing carbon dioxide concentration, and the probability of environmental risks in particular. The degree of ecological risk has been established. Environmental risks due to the influence of climate change on agrophytocoenoses have been identified and substantiated and are: the spread of adventive and invasive plant species; loss of competitiveness of agrophytocoenosis crops relative to segetal phytobiota; increase in the number of species and distribution areas of segetal phytobiota; change in the sown area, productivity and quality of the harvest of agricultural crops; acquisition of tolerance of segetal phytobiota of agrocoenoses to herbicides and deterioration of their effectiveness under agroclimatic fluctuations. All of the above-mentioned environmental risks, which are associated with aggravation of the phytosanitary condition of crops inevitably, lead to a loss of the productivity of agrocoenoses. They lead to a decrease in the quality of the obtained plant and agricultural products as well. Along with the loss of productivity of the weedy agrocoenosis, there are environmental risks caused by the increased need for the use of plant protection products to ensure the control of the phytosanitary state of the agrocoenosis. Ensuring the reduction of environmental risks and enhancing the ecological safety of agrocoenoses is timely environmental monitoring, considering appropriate agronomic, protective, and preventive measures. These measures increase the adaptive capacity of agrocoenoses. r atmospheric levels in analyzing pertinent cases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue sustainable supply of raw materials and an innovative method of testing metallurgical coal blends<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Coke production is a strategic branch of the Polish, European and global economy. Economic growth is linked to the demand for high steel products, which is also connected to higher coke production. A sustainable supply of raw materials – like metallurgical coal – requires balanced, cost effective and environmentally friendly mining, to provide the best quality of coal and coke. There are various types of steelmaking coals mined in Poland (in the Upper Silesia Coal Basin), thus laboratory tests on extracted coals need to be undertaken in order to create safe mixtures of coals (coal blends) which will be processed in the blast furnace. With this mind a new tool – the safety calculation model – has been developed and implemented by the CLP-B Laboratory. This new approach taken by the laboratory is a multi-component analysis which assesses the possible risk associated with the transformation of coal blends during the coking process in the furnace. The new calculation model allows for the sustainable management of raw materials such as coking (steelmaking) coals – to produce the best quality of coke in safe conditions. In the new proposed formula, the parameters identified as critical ones for assessing the safety of the furnace feed, are moisture, ash and sulphur content, volatile matter, pressure expansion, dilatation, shrinkage, volume, CRI and CSR.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue land use in Vietnam in the context of urbanization: status and policy implications<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article generalizes the urbanization process and its impact on agricultural land use in Vietnam. The high rate of urbanization has led to a great demand for purchasing agricultural products, especially high-quality ones, and as a result, this affects agricultural development. On one hand, it offers new chances to expand the domestic market and to encourage exports. On the other hand, the conversion of agricultural land into non-agricultural land under accelerated urbanization leads to a large area of arable land being abandoned or polluted, consequently affecting food security and sustainable development. Therefore, to meet the people’s food needs in the context of urbanization, it is necessary to have proper solutions to improve the efficiency of agricultural land use, such as: implementing land laws aimed at developing agricultural production in the direction of large-scale, concentrated commodities; executing land-use planning, performing agricultural production planning towards specialized cultivation with a stable term to ensure profitable investment; boosting the restructuring of the agricultural sector; developing collective and cooperative economics in agriculture; having policies to support, forecast, and search for markets for consumption and the processing of agricultural products; creating a transparent land-use rights market.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue analysis for groundwater in the area of the municipal waste landfill in Sosnowiec, South Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Risk assessment for groundwater allows for preventive activities in the field of environmental monitoring. The risk assessment for groundwater in the area of the municipal waste landfill in Sosnowiec was carried out using the Nemerov Index (NPI) and the Enrichment Index (EF), as well as a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis and a risk matrix. It was performed on the basis of the database from 2014-2019 for ten piezometers belonging to the landfill’s observation network. In the case of the risk matrix, 20 risks were identified regarding climatic conditions, landfill infrastructure and employees. The SWOT analysis considered the strengths and weaknesses of the facility as well as opportunities related to technological development and threats related primarily to the location of the facility within the landscape. The risk assessment indices were calculated for the following parameters: electrolytic conductivity, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, TOC, HCO<sub>3</sub>, Cl, SO<sub>4</sub>, and NH<sub>4</sub>. The highest values of the NPI index exceeded 3,500 (in a single measurement), while for the EF index the values reached almost 500. These prove the impact of this facility on the quality of groundwater. However, hydrochemical background value and the value of the immobile parameter are also important. This article uses limit values for the first class of groundwater quality. The results of above mentioned methods indicate a medium risk to groundwater, and the opportunities and strengths of the facility outweigh the negative aspects of the plant’s operation. Further research should include the identification of additional risk factors and the likely response to risk.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and climate change: An eco-religious approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An eco-religious approach is one that combines religious beliefs with ecological awareness, thus giving rise to responsibility for the natural environment, such as the threat of a climate crisis due to climate change, as part of the understanding of religion itself. This approach is not universally accepted because views on climate change, and the role of humans in addressing it, can vary among different religions and religious traditions. This research explores the relationship between religiosity and climate change, with a focus on the concept of an eco-religious approach. The aim was to understand how religiosity can influence climate change using the ecological footprint as a proxy. The cross-country robust regression analysis method was employed to address this objective. Robustness and sensitivity model checks were also performed, resulting in reliable regression analysis that can be generalized to various situations. The results of the study suggest that increased religiosity is associated with a decrease in per person ecological footprint. This research suggests a transformation of religious values towards a more inclusive eco-religious perspective, encompassing bio-centric and eco-centric ethics, and not just anthropocentric views. Collaboration between religious and non-religious communities is key in addressing climate change. Religious institutions are also identified as essential agents in mobilizing environmental movements, participating in international forums, and incorporating climate change issues into educational curricula. This research supports the potential of religiosity as a positive catalyst in global efforts to preserve environmental sustainability and address the holistic challenges of climate change.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the impact of weather patterns on exceptional flooding events in the Nekor watershed, NE Morocco<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigates the recurring floods within the Nekor Basin of NE Morocco, a phenomenon dating back to 1944. A multitude of factors has contributed to these recurrent floods, which profoundly affect the northern region encompassing the Nekor Plain. The research primarily investigates the influence of specific weather conditions on the surge of water levels in “Wadi Nekor” and the ensuing consequences when the valley veers from its primary course. The research findings strongly indicate that a significant portion of these flood events can be attributed to “Cut-Off Low” (COL) and atmospheric rivers (ARs), frequently aligning with mean sea level pressure (MSLP) systems located over, or in proximity to, the Moroccan region. This study employs a systematic classification and arrangement methodology for both upper and lower atmospheric levels in analyzing pertinent cases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in regional settlement systems in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article is an attempt to identify regularities in changes in regional settlement systems in Poland with an indication of the elements that showed the highest population dynamics (growth or decline) in particular periods, thus contributing to changes in the structure of these systems. In order to show similarities and differences in the course of the analyzed changes, univariate statistical measures (median, quartiles) were used. This allowed for presenting a dynamic typology of these changes in order to show their cyclical nature and spatial diversity. The results show that these processes do not occur in a similar direction in all regions. The model of consistent changes in the size structure of cities concerns the settlement core of the country (Mazowieckie, Wielkopolskie, Małopolskie), while the resequential changes generally took place in the agricultural peripheries of the country (Podlaskie, Warmińsko-mazurskie), which were drained from the demographic potential by the migration outflow of the population the earliest, as well as in industrial regions (Śląskie, Łódzkie), where the political and economic transformation significantly affected population processes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of biosphere reserves: How to build awareness of their importance for sustainable development?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The biosphere reserves are hybrid territories united protected and non-protected areas with the soft economic and social activities. They bring unique opportunities for local people, businesses and other relevant stakeholders. However, because of low public awareness the potential of some biosphere reserves, is not adequately utilized. This article addresses the research gap related to the identification of the importance of promoting the sustainable development of biosphere reserves and the possibilities of exploiting and enhancing their spatial development. The aim of the research was to clarify the role and importance of promotion for the sustainable development of biosphere reserves. It was focused on investigating the importance of promotion tools in terms of creating awareness of biosphere reserves. The research took place in two Slovak biosphere reserves – Poľana and the Tatras. This article identifies and analyzes the use of promotional tools in these two selected biosphere reserves through secondary sources (websites, profiles on social networks) and in-depth interviews with the managers of these biosphere reserves. The awareness of biosphere reserves was researched with the use of a questionnaire survey in both biosphere reserves. This article defines the problem areas and opportunities, which may contribute to the development of awareness about biosphere reserves which is inevitable for their further sustainable development. The research results confirmed that their promotion influenced the sustainable development of the biosphere reserves. Thanks to their accurate promotion, entrepreneurs and residents can better evaluate the impact of their activities on the sustainability of a biosphere reserve. This contributes to reducing the conflicts that arise between nature protection and economic and social profit.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue communities in Mendoza, Argentina: Exploring social aspects of urban agriculture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Global food production and security are current challenges. This is reflected, among other things, in the fact that more than 690 million people suffer from hunger or food shortages. The availability of nutritious food is critical for disease control and immune function. In this context, urban agriculture is promoted as a way to ensure access to food, which has developed due to rising prices, food shortages and urban growth. However, there is a lack of in-depth knowledge on the impacts as well as barriers to implementation. Therefore, this study investigates vegetable consumption patterns in the metropolitan city of Mendoza in Argentina, as well as interest in vegetable production, opinions on urban agriculture and barriers. Quantitative research methods were used, and a citizen survey was conducted. The data was analysed using SPSS software and correlations were determined using chi-square. The results show strong interest from citizen in urban agriculture, but also barriers such as lack of time and resources. Successful implementation requires initiative, political will, and acceptance. The results are consistent with other studies and could be further explored in longitudinal studies to assess effectiveness. This is helpful given the importance of urban agriculture and vegetable consumption for sustainable food production and supply.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and anthropogenic factors affecting human and Tapanuli orangutan () conflict in Sumatran tropical rain forest, Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Tapanuli orangutan (<italic>Pongo tapanuliensis</italic>) is a critically endangered species that must be conserved. One of the locations where it is found is Dolok Sipirok Natural Reserve. The threat to this species arises from land use of agriculture and accessibility to the area, resulting in <italic>human-orangutan</italic> conflict. Identification of conflict areas is necessary. Information on the contributing factors to conflicts between humans and orangutans is also important. This research analyzed the relationship between spatial characteristics with conflict location. The factors including distance to the forest boundary, road, and the river, slope, altitude, and land cover were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using Rank Spearman correlation coefficient was. The results showed that distance to farmland and altitude were the main factors affecting the conflict, while the weakest factor was distance from the road. Arse Nauli village was the place where most conflicts occurred. The most robust relationship with conflict was altitude.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue change as a factor enhancing the invasiveness of alien species<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Climate is one of the key factors governing the biological invasions of alien species, thus its change may have significant consequences for the scale of this process. We analyzed the predicted influence of climate change on the invasiveness of alien species in Poland and identified species susceptible to climate change. A total of 60 species of alien plants and 58 animals were assessed through an expert elicitation process. For 79 species climate change was assessed as the factor enhancing the likelihood of introduction, establishment, spread and/or impact in the future. Currently, the majority of these species are not widespread in Poland, and this list includes species totally absent, or present only in cultivation and captivity. Climate change will increase the number of high-risk invasive alien species (IAS) from 38 to 63. Species originating in warmer parts of the world are most susceptible to climate change. The majority of the high-risk IAS are regulated under the EU and Polish legislature. However, no restrictions have been imposed on some of the high-risk IAS. Since climate change will further increase their invasiveness, implementation of legal provisions towards these species is recommended.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue evaluation of the effectiveness of distance learning using ICT in geographical education. From the experiences of teachers in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the results of a survey conducted among Polish geography teachers. The purpose of the research was to examine use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in geographical education, carried out remotely after the end of the Lockdown. The collected opinions show that the vast majority of teachers now use information obtained from the Internet and free applications in lessons much more often than before the Covid-19 pandemic. The forced abandonment of traditional classroom learning and its replacement with distance learning has contributed to the development of new skills among teachers and students. Despite the initial reluctance caused by the lack of preparation for the use of new information technologies, geography teachers see many advantages to remote teaching using ICT. In the opinion of those surveyed, the acquired practical digital and communication skills have a positive impact on the teaching of geography. Respondents emphasized that distance learning should only be a supplement to traditional education and used in exceptional situations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of aeolian processes in Pleistocene deposits in the foreland of the<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents the degree of aeolization of Pleistocene deposits in the foreground of the European sand belt in southern Poland. Ten of the 13 sites were established in the Oświęcim Basin and three in the south part of the Silesian Upland. Attention was focused on four types of deposits formed during three glaciations (Sanian, Odranian, Vistulian): boulder clay, fluvioglacial sands and gravels, end moraine deposits, and aeolian sands. Quartz grain abrasion (for the 0.8–1.0 mm fraction) was examined by mechanical graniformametry and the morphoscopic method. The record of aeolian processes in analyzed deposits is the presence of quartz grains RM (very well-rounded and mat) and EM/RM (moderately rounded and mat). They were found in deposits of various origins and ages but in variable proportions. Considering only the average percentage of grains RM, it should be regarded that abrasion of deposits is low in the case of fluvioglacial deposits, moderate in the case of glacial deposits, and good in the case of aeolian deposits. However, the key factor in determining the degree of abrasion is the share of EM/RM grains, which in the abovementioned deposits are seven, three, and twice as many as RM grains. Therefore, the most noteworthy research result is the very high total share of grains with aeolian abrasion (RM + EM/RM), amounting on average to 84.1% for Odranian fluvioglacial deposits, 86.7% for Sanian glacial deposits and 92.6% for Late Glacial aeolian deposits. It means that in the study area, glacial and fluvioglacial transport included deposits with good aeolian abrasion obtained in the periglacial environment before the transgression of the ice sheets. Probably due to the longer persistence of periglacial conditions in southern Poland, compared to its central and northern parts, the degree of aeolization of fluvioglacial and glacial deposits is better. At the same time, there is a significant differentiation in the aeolization of fluvioglacial deposits within the outwash plain in the foreland of the maximum extent of the Odranian ice sheet. In its proximal part, near the front of the ice sheet, fluvioglacial deposits are characterized by much worse abrasion of quartz grains than in the distal part.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue a better environmental performance translates into a better financial performance: A study of the European food industry<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examined the relationship between Environmental Performance (EP) and Financial Performance (FP) in the European food industry. The food industry is essential for population sustenance, but the rising population and the consequent increase in food production demand have implications for climate change. The aim of this study was to determine if businesses that consume water more efficiently and have lower CO<sub>2</sub> emission intensities might experience improved financial performance. Financial and environmental data were sourced from external databases and company reports, and both quantile regression and correlation analyses were conducted. The results reveal that various sectors within the food industry exhibit different linkages between Environmental Performance and Financial Performance. Furthermore, our findings indicate that water use efficiency can significantly influence financial performance, either positively or negatively, while CO<sub>2</sub> emission intensity did not exhibit a definitive impact on Financial Performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue resilience to collapse: a cross-country study of tourist spending in Europe during the COVID-19 pandemic<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism sector in Europe, particularly on tourist spending on transport, accommodation, and restaurants. The data used in the study were sourced from Eurostat statistics for the years 2019 and 2021. As part of the research method, a cartodiagram was used to present the percentage changes in tourist spending in selected European countries. Additionally, an analysis of the percentage change in spending on transport, restaurants, and accommodation in 2021 compared to 2019 was conducted using the ggplot2 package implemented in the R programming language. The study results indicate a varied situation regarding declines in tourist spending in 2021 compared to 2019, with smaller decreases noted in Central European countries, suggesting greater resilience to the pandemic crisis. Despite the declines, Germany and France maintained the highest spending values in 2021, underscoring their key role in the European tourism market. Conclusions from the study suggest that tourism-related spending has a huge impact on the economy. A more thorough understanding of how tourists spend money during their travels, including during a pandemic, can help better tailor tourism offers to their needs. By implementing the recommendations in the article, countries can better prepare for future challenges, build more resilient tourism industries, and ensure sustainable growth in the postpandemic era.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue comparative study of urban land use efficiency of the cities of Hai Phong and Can Tho, Vietnam<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The process of urbanisation involves shifts in space and population, and other socio-economic factors, and has far-reaching effects on the use of urban land. Governing affects the process of urbanisation. This study aimed to compare the results of urban land use of two large cities in Vietnam, Hai Phong and Can Tho. To accomplish this, the research used input data from JAXA land cover maps and population data from GSO in order to compute indicators on the effectiveness of urban land use (ULUE) between the years 2000 to 2020. The results indicate that the amount of land used for urban development has increased significantly in both of these locations, whereas the amount of land used for rice cultivation and agricultural purposes has decreased. In particular, the proportions of these two types of land have a greater tendency to decrease in Hai Phong than in Can Tho. In addition, urban land use has not yet achieved efficiency in either of these localities; however, urban land use in Hai Phong demonstrates a significantly higher level of efficiency when compared to that of Can Tho.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the activities of Eurasian beaver on local plants and vegetation cover – an overview<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Eurasian beaver has a significant impact on biotic and abiotic resources, thus it is known as an “ecosystem engineer”. Currently, the beaver population in Eurasia is estimated at more than 1.4 million individuals due to successful reintroductions in many countries. The recognition of its impact on ecosystems is increasing every year, therefore this article summarizes the current knowledge of how the Eurasian beaver affects the local flora and vegetation in the area where it settles. Beavers initiate a transformation of their closest surroundings with the dams and ponds they create by forming wetlands, and the newly developed vegetation is richer in plant species than previously. Beaver activities lead to a decrease in local woody plant resources and an increase in the species diversity of herbaceous plants. Beavers also cause damage to agricultural crops when they feed on cultivated plants. Observed changes can vary over time and landscape scales due to local conditions and persistence of beaver occurrence. Understanding how beavers affect plants and vegetation may be helpful not only in the protection of the species itself, but also in better management of the areas where they occur.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue approach to acquiring knowledge of the personal carbon footprint in Cartagena, in the Colombian Caribbean region<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>CO<sub>2</sub> is the main greenhouse gas due to the large volumes emitted by anthropogenic activities, which is why it is necessary to implement strategies that allow the identification of potential sources of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions in order to design and implement strategies to reduce them. The aim of this research was to estimate the personal carbon footprint in the city of Cartagena. Through the use of a calculator available on the web and the use of social networks, the personal carbon footprint was estimated and its relationship with some sociodemographic and spatial aspects was characterized. The carbon footprint of the inhabitants of Cartagena varies between 0.4 and 17.6 TonEquivCO<sub>2</sub> per year, in addition, there were no differences in terms of sex and age groups. On the other hand, the personal carbon footprint at the spatial level is relatively homogeneous, with a slight distribution of values greater than 9 TonEquivCO<sub>2</sub> in the area where people with a lower socioeconomic status live. The results suggest the need to prioritize strategies to reduce the carbon footprint in these places.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue sequestration potential of trees from urban green spaces of Kolhapur city, Maharashtra, India<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study was an investigation into the carbon storage and sequestration of trees grown in the green spaces of Kolhapur city, Maharashtra. Urban gardens and green spaces, mainly considering big trees, have a great potential to sequester carbon from the atmosphere and to mitigate the impacts of climate change in cities. Total ten green pockets (gardens) were selected from Kolhapur city. This study was a sustainability initiative to inventory tree species from the green pockets and to assess their carbon sequestration potential for improved urban planning in the future. The above ground biomass (AGB) and below ground biomass (BGB) were estimated by a non destructive method. This included the measurement of tree height and diameter. A total of 29 species of trees were recorded during the study with a storage potential of 688.77 tons of carbon dioxide. <italic>Polyalthia longifolia </italic>was found to sequester maximum carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) followed by <italic>Albizia saman </italic>and <italic>Mangifera indica</italic>. This research highlights the role of urban forests or green spaces and gardens, not only as ornamental and aesthetic plantations but also for mitigating the impacts of climate change at a local level. Well planned urban spaces and urban trees have a major role as green vegetation cover which can act as a carbon sink with high potential which will help in policy making and decision making in the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue