rss_2.0Economic and Regional Studies / Studia Ekonomiczne i Regionalne FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Economic and Regional Studies / Studia Ekonomiczne i Regionalne and Regional Studies / Studia Ekonomiczne i Regionalne Feed of the Logistics Sector on Poland’s Economic Growth 2018-2022<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>Analysis of the impact of the logistics sector on Poland’s economic growth 2018-2022. The aim is to understand how logistics processes, including freight and passenger transport, sales of transport products and services, and warehouse management, affect key national economic indicators such as GDP and GNI.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>Economic and logistics dataset from CSO for Poland 2018-2022. The analysis methods used include correlation analysis, linear regression, cluster analysis and time series analysis, providing an in-depth understanding of the relationship between the logistics sector and economic growth.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>There is a significant positive correlation between the development of the logistics sector and Poland’s GDP growth, with a clear impact of freight and logistics efficiency on key economic indicators.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>Investment in and modernisation of the logistics sector is essential for Poland’s economic growth, suggesting the need to further develop infrastructure and innovation in this area.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Between University and Industry in Algeria: Beyond Geographical Proximity. Case Study of University Research Laboratories in Algeria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>This study explores the challenges and opportunities of collaboration between Algerian universities and industrial enterprises, emphasizing the influence of social and cognitive proximity on successful partnerships, irrespective of geographical proximity.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>: Utilizing qualitative methods, the study includes semi-structured interviews with 16 directors of university research laboratories across the nation. Its aim is to analyze whether cultural or cognitive disparities play a role in collaboration challenges.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>: The study revealed that cognitive proximity stands out as a pivotal factor, as shared or complementary skills and knowledge foster synergies, enhance mutual understanding, and facilitate effective communication. This, in turn, leads to successful research collaborations and tailored training initiatives aligned with market needs. Additionally, social and cultural proximity is highlighted as a significant element, simplifying exchanges and strengthening trust among stakeholders. The study underscores the importance of close social relationships in improving communication and facilitating the exchange of ideas, ultimately reinforcing collaborative efforts between universities and industry. This shows that geographical proximity is not truly a crucial element for successful collaboration.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>: This study proposes several measures to enhance collaboration. It sets the groundwork for future investigations by exploring the perspectives of industrial stakeholders, thereby enriching the discourse on collaborative initiatives between academia and industry in Algeria.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Extent of Financial Inclusion Through Bank Office Expansion in Haryana<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>The study presents a comprehensive analysis of the banking sector in Haryana from 2007 to 2022.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>The study is based on secondary data. The number of bank branches, deposits, and credits in the state are just a few economic indicators covered in the Statistical Abstract of Haryana. The compound growth rate is calculated to assess the growth of a bank.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The findings reveal a consistent rising trend in bank branches, credit and deposits of commercial banks. Notable trends include increasing bank branches, a surge in deposits and robust credit growth, indicating a dynamic and thriving banking sector. The Credit-Deposit ratio gradually increased from 2007 to 2011, reaching a peak in 2012 at 102.10%.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>The overall number of bank offices has increased dramatically due to the state’s growing financial sector. The steady expansion in bank branches indicates a sustained effort to improve accessibility and financial inclusion.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Aspects of Investments in Renewable Energy Sources on the Example of Podkarpackie Province<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>The subject of the study consists of the biasess made when investing in photovoltaic panels. The purpose of the study is to identify biasess associated with investing in renewable energy sources.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>Data from a survey conducted among owners of photovoltaic installations in Subcarpathia were used. The literature has identified papers on factors other than behavioral errors affecting investments in photovoltaic panels.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>Respondents succumbed to the anchoring effect, the error of positive retrospection, information bias, choice-supportive bias and framing bias when deciding to invest in photovoltaic panels.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>The research conducted makes it possible to confirm that people’s behavior while investing is influenced by non-economic factors. Knowledge of behavioral biases can allow one to calibrate financial incentives in order to influence customers more effectively.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Size of a Company and the Intensity of Use of Accrual-Based Earnings Management and Real Earnings Management Tools<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>The aim of the study is to analyse the relationship between the degree of use of accrual-based earnings management and real earnings management instruments and the size of public companies.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>The empirical analyses are based on the results of a survey of finance and accounting professionals representing 124 non-financial companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The Kruskal-Wallis test (along with tests of intergroup comparisons) was considered the primary method for assessing the relationships occurring between the variables considered.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The research showed that the intensity of using accrual-based earnings management and real earnings management tools is statistically dependent on both the value of generated net revenues from the sale of products, goods and materials and the value of total assets of a given company. However, a greater diversification of the values of variables describing the degree of use of earnings management instruments was recorded in individual sub-populations separated on the basis of the value of realised sales.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>The research appears to be relevant from the perspective of a further search for the determinants of financial performance manipulation in the Polish capital market.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of the Local Government in Fostering Entrepreneurship – Evidence from Municipalities in the Kraków Metropolitan Area<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>The study was conducted in the municipalities of the Kraków Metropolitan Area. It aims to identify models for supporting local entrepreneurship and assess their effectiveness. The effectiveness of the models was evaluated by measuring the diversity and changes in the number of enterprises in the area. We also presented entrepreneurs’ opinions on their satisfaction with specific policies.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>Secondary ( literature and statistical data) and primary data sources were used in the paper. The primary source was a survey among entrepreneurs. The survey research to assess the performance of entrepreneurship policy involved 21 municipalities. We apply a mixed-method approach here (comparative indicator analysis, cluster analysis and Kruskal-Wallis tests).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The research demonstrated that the policy involving entrepreneurship support through tax instruments (reduced local tax rates) does not contribute significantly to providing entrepreneurship-fostering conditions. The study revealed that the level of entrepreneurship may be affected more by the expenditure policy, such as the municipality’s efforts to establish special economic zones, organise training, establish business information points, etc.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>Local governments (LG) that are attractive to investors (such as easily available infrastructure and proximity to markets) should adopt high property-tax rates. The tax is undervalued in peri-urban municipalities (compared to property value) and does not burden the business. Second, LG should focus on hard projects. They should intensify spatial planning and land management to ensure space for business to grow. It will entail conflicts and balancing the needs of diverse social groups, but it must be done to stimulate local socioeconomic development.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Pit Changes Introduced in 2022 as Part of the “Polish Deal”<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>The subject of this paper is to evaluate the ‘Polish Deal’ programme introduced in 2022 in the tax area. The purpose of this article is to show the impact of the ‘Polish Deal’ legislation on net salaries of persons employed under an employment contract.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>The paper is based on an analysis of legal provisions in the tax area, being one of the pillars of the ‘Polish Deal’. A simulation of the impact of the new tax rules on net salaries introduced from the beginning of January 2022 (‘Polish Deal 1’) and from the beginning of July 2022 (‘Polish Deal 2’) has been carried out.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The new personal taxation rules introduced by the ‘Polish Deal’ have contributed to an increase in net salaries of employees receiving a gross salary of less than PLN 12,000 per month and a reduction in the labour income of employees earning a salary above this amount.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>By strengthening the degree of progressivity, the reform of the tax system under the ‘Polish Deal’ has significantly affected the net income of natural persons receiving remuneration under an employment relationship. However, the new tax rules introduced in a fast-track manner by the ‘Polish Deal’ have raised a number of controversies among both employers and employees.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Monograph by Anna Nowak, Aneta Jarosz-Angowska, Hanna Klikocka, Artur Krukowski, Renata Kubik, Armand Kasztelan Entitled “The Potential of Polish Agriculture in Comparison to EU Countries in Terms of Ensuring Food and Energy Security”. Scientific and Publishing Institute “Spatium” Sp. Z O.O. Development Funds: Creation Rationale and Models of Operation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>The purpose of the article is to present the creation of Regional Development Funds (Regionalne Fundusze Rozwoju - RFR) in Poland, their organisational models and factors influencing their development and choice of model. The research is also focused on the analysis of the variety of RFRs and their sources.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>The research collects and presents data on RFRs operating in Poland, and analyses these data in the context of selected legal and administrative conditions.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The analysis showed significant variation among RFRs in terms of functional/ organisational models and scale of operation. The choice of an operating model for an RDF is influenced by factors such as the maturity of regional financial markets, the amount of RDF funds and the types of financial instruments offered.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>The study highlights the development of the financial market segment working with local authorities and businesses over the past decade. It draws attention to an increasing importance of financial instruments and institutions in development policies implemented by voivodeship governments.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Trade Flow in the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS): Does Governance Matter?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>This study analyzes the determinants of intra-ECCAS trade, with special attention paid to the role of institutional quality from 1996 to 2021.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>The study conducts descriptive analysis and utilizes a Negative Binomial Pseudo Maximum Likelihood to analyze the determinants of intra-ECCAS trade.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The results suggest that gross domestic product (GDP), population, time taken for export shipment in the exporting countries and the bilateral real exchange rate of the importing partner country enhance intra-ECCAS trade flow. On the other hand, distance, two trading partners being landlocked, time for importing countries and bilateral real exchange rate of the exporting partner discourage this. Furthermore, the findings reveal that institutions are vital to intra-ECCAS trade.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>T he key d rivers of intra-ECCAS t rade a re GDP, population, t ime t aken for export shipment in the exporting countries, bilateral real exchange rate of the importing partner country, and institutions’ quality measures.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Cooperatives’ Growth and Improvement Strategies in Time of Pandemic Crisis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>This study seeks to assess and analyse cooperative performance using PEARLS and a partial Balanced Scorecard (BSC) tool at savings and credit cooperatives (SCCs) in Eastern Indonesia.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>Both primary and secondary data as well as time series analysis were used, which consists of a financial perspective (PEARLS) and customer perspective from 2019 up to 2021. The study used the quantitative research method based on balanced scorecard analysis.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The results show that in terms of financial performance during the pandemic, it must be admitted that several indicators did not achieve the target. In terms of asset utilisation, cooperatives need to develop a new marketing strategy so that their financial resources can be managed to improve the welfare of members. The pandemic is indeed one of the reasons that the financial asset resources owned cannot be attributed to the community, because many community members have experienced a decline in their economic capacity.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The applicable strategies to improve SCC performance are: applying innovations in marketing, and improving employee productivity in generating income for savings and credit cooperatives.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Monograph by Konrad Żak, Teresa Janicka-Michalak Entitled “Functioning of Pharmacies in Poland: Economic and Legal Conditions”, Biała Podlaska 2022, PP. 568 Causal Relationship Between Income Deprivation and Depression with Special Emphases on the Importance of Spatiality<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>This paper focuses on the causal relationship between territorial levels of income deprivation and depression. It seeks to shed light on the importance of spatial dependence in said relationship.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>The paper uses the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation as a data source to model the level of depression present across Scotland dependent on income deprivation and health and education control variables. OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) modelling is used to confirm causality and a SARMA (Spatial Autoregressive Moving Average) model is built to capture the spatial dimension as well.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Evidence is found that geographical space has an effect on the relationship between depression and deprivation, and the presence of spillover effects to neighbouring areas, and hence a multiplier effect can also be assumed.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Taking the found spatial multiplier effect into account when making resource allocation decisions could help to better target policies regarding e.g. social wellbeing and mental health.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Aimed at Combating COVID-19 Pandemic and Economic Crisis in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>The aim of the paper is to present the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland and measures undertaken in order to prevent the spread of the disease and mitigate its results. The specific objective concerns evaluation of anti-crisis measures enacted during the pandemic in Poland.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>The paper is based on an analysis of official data provided by state institutions and reports on the course of the pandemic in Poland, as well as academic papers on the subject matter in question. The author employed an analytical and descriptive method in order to outline the course and assess the economic and social phenomena occurring during the pandemic.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The state of the pandemic in Poland was announced on March 2020 and lifted in May 2023. During that period, Poland experienced two major waves of increased infections and excess deaths, which led to significant biological, economic and social damage, as well as major losses. The state has implemented an efficient and quite effective anti-pandemic measures aimed at protecting the lives and health of citizens, as well as anti-crisis policies to counter and limit the adverse effects of the ongoing pandemic in the form of an extensive financial aid in the form of the so-called Anti-Crisis Fund, which was continuously replenished.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic in Poland was an unprecedented and unpredictable phenomenon, which resulted in clear threat to the life and health of the population. It also brought upon a danger of an economic recession and social crisis, which could have resulted in deep economic crisis. The anti-pandemic measures introduced by the Polish government, as well as the anti-crisis measures implemented in quick succession, saved the country from a deep crisis and recession. There is a need for further research into the causes, course, as well as the immediate and long-term impacts of the pandemic.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Economics: An Eternal Economic Order<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>This short paper deals with Sanatan Economics and explains its importance and why Sanatan Economics should be studied.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>The work is based on the principles of Sanatan Dharma. The content is based on the Sanatan Scriptures, available literature, and the authors’ understanding of Sanatan Economics.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Sanatan economics (in a narrow sense, it may be called Hindu Economics) deals with ethical principles, self-sufficiency, balanced economic growth, and responsible use of resources while considering the broader societal and moral context of economic activities. It should be used for the betterment of human life and positive societal change in terms of economic order, because sustainability, balanced economic growth, value-based economic decisions, vocals for local, self-sufficiency, and moral and ethical decisions are the needs of the present economic order.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The study of Sanatan Economics enlightens the path for the betterment of societal economic change.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Return of Pensioners to the Labour Market in the Macro-Region of Eastern Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>The aim of the study is to determine the scale of the phenomenon of pensioners remaining on the labour market and their potential readiness to return, as well as the determinants of this phenomenon in the peripheral areas of the macro-region of Eastern Poland.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>The results of a survey conducted in 2021 among pensioners from Podlaskie, Lubelskie and Podkarpackie Voivodeships were used.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Simultaneous receipt of a pension and continued employment occurred in the case of 36.9% of the surveyed sample, 10% of the respondents were not working but declared their readiness to return to the labour market. The reasons for remaining unemployed mainly included: lack of suitable job offers, health problems and unwillingness to work.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The specificity of the problems of unemployed pensioners in the macro-region of Eastern Poland suggests the need for regional activation measures in social policy, taking into account the existing potential of elderly people.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Pattern of Prices and Arrivals of Agricultural Commodities Through e-NAM: A Case Study of Sirsa Apmc in Haryana<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>The study examined the market profile and status of Electronic National Agriculture Market (e-NAM) in Sirsa Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) The study also analysed the arrival and price pattern of major agricultural commodities before and after the implementation of e-NAM in the study area.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>For the present study, both primary and secondary data were used. The study was conducted between the years 2011-2012 to 2020-2021. The Compound Growth Rate (CGR) was computed for both the period before and after the implementation of e-NAM (2016-2017 to 2020-2021) to examine the growth of total arrivals, lots, traded quantity and value of commodities.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The study shows incremental growth in the total number of arrived, quantity and traded value except for traded lots of commodities. The study observed that almost all required facilities for implementing e-NAM were available at the APMC yard.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The present study concluded that the overall impact of e-NAM has been positive on the arrivals and prices of major agricultural commodities in Sirsa APMC.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in the core-Periphery Structure of the Framework Programme’s Regional Network<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>The aim of this paper is to measure whether the regions lagging behind in the European knowledge field could get closer to the core of the Framework Programmes’ (FP) R&amp;D network.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>Annual snapshots of the network have been analysed between 2004-2014. With the use of four different core-periphery measures, regions with converging and diverging tendencies have been identified. The author analysed how the results vary with different regions and indicators used.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The few core regions of the network in the eastern bloc tend to diverge from the core, while almost none of the peripheral regions in these countries could even get to the semi-periphery of the network in the examined timeframe.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Although one of the goals of the EU with the European Research Area was to help peripheral regions catch up, this has not yet happened in the case of the examined collaborative R&amp;D network.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Farms with Various Directions of Production Development<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>The subject of the study was investments in farms with various directions of production development. The aim of the study was to identify the scope of pro-development investments and the most important determinants of their implementation in farms located in the area of the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodeship.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>A questionnaire survey was used as a research tool to determine the opinion of the surveyed farmers with regard to planned investments related to farm development among other things. In 2022, information was obtained from 433 farms.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Respondents planning to develop conventional production, production based on the principles of precision agriculture and production of energy crops most often considered the purchase of machinery and equipment. Farms oriented towards organic production more clearly emphasised investments in agricultural land and in commercial infrastructure.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Institutional measures aimed at supporting investment processes on farms in a rational manner, should be even more strongly oriented towards increasing the possibilities of external financing and advisory support for better adjustment of investments to the planned direction of development of a particular entity, as well as ensuring administrative facilitations favouring simplification of the investment process.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Explanatory Approach: Digital Marketing Implementation Acceleration Programme that Supports the Marketing Performance of Msme Actors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>Because there was a reduced market for their products as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, several micro, small &amp; medium-sized enterprise (MSME) actors went out of business. One way to boost marketing performance is through digital marketing. The goal of this study is to create a strategy that will hasten the adoption of digital marketing for MSMEs. This study was focused on the Association of Retired Workers and Families (Pertakina), an SME of Blitar Regency, which has various kinds of businesses producing very varied and creative products, including food, drinks, services, and handicrafts.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>This study used mixed methods with a sequential explanatory design, which combined quantitative research methods in the first stage, followed by sequential qualitative research. Using a straightforward random sampling technique, 72 MSME actors who have used digital marketing were chosen as samples. Quantitative data samples are MSME actors who have used digital marketing to market their products. An initial sample of qualitative data sources was selected purposively, using the chairman of Pertakina Blitar and Pertakina MSMEs as the key informant. Subsequent informants were then selected by snowball sampling based on the information given by the key informant; they were Pertakina MSME actors who have not done digital marketing. The researchers consider the sample to be saturated (data saturation) with as many as 18 respondents. The information was gathered through literature reviews, surveys, interviews, observations, and documentation.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The results show that digital marketing has a significant effect on marketing performance. The barriers to implementing digital marketing are lack of qualified human resources, infrastructure needs, internet networks, and the ability to produce content. Additionally, the acceleration programme was created based on the barriers in implementing digital marketing identified in this study to enhance the marketing effectiveness of MSME players.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>It is suggested that Pertakina conduct training by a competent trainer in the field of digital marketing technology to improve the MSMEs actors’ abilities. Furthermore, this can be done in collaboration with the government and universities.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue