rss_2.0Economic and Regional Studies / Studia Ekonomiczne i Regionalne FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Economic and Regional Studies / Studia Ekonomiczne i Regionalne and Regional Studies / Studia Ekonomiczne i Regionalne Feed for Measuring Mobility in Covid-19 Research<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of the work: </title> <p>The subject of this paper is the mobility research in Europe focused on the COVID-19 pandemic, and the aim is to give a comparative overview on the used methods and datasets of the literature and identify research gaps.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>The method is based on the methodological literature review method.</p> <p>The source of the reviewed literature is the EBSCO online database.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The literature based on the analysed territorial level can be classified. Results show the levels of research are city, national and complex levels. Most research is based on secondary data. Spatial indicators are relevant at a national level. Research gaps have been found in terms of time and space.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>The existing literature based on the analysed territorial level can be classified. Results show there are 3 levels of research; city, national and complex levels, and most research is based on secondary data, primary data collection is relevant only on a city level. Spatial indicators are common on a national level. Research gaps have been found in terms of time and space.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of Macro-Regional Development in the Visegrad Countries, with Special Emphasis on Some Turbulent Periods<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>Monitoring the development of a given region and forecasting its potential changes is an evergreen topic in regional economic analysis. The aim of the current work is to analyse the development path of four Central-Eastern-European countries and create short term forecast for their development.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>The authors discuss and test an autoregressive model for short-run, ex-ante assessment of spatial development using data from four CEE countries (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The research shows that the initial (1995-2021) development trajectories of the countries were still determined by the shocks of the transition period that started after 1990. The analysis shows that further development is essentially determined by inflationary pressures and changes in fiscal and monetary conditions.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>The analysis shows that after a recovery period of 1.5-2 years, the countries could be back on the path of development from 2024 but starting from a lower level and at a more modest pace.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of Social Cooperatives in Hungary Over the Past Ten Years – From a Regional Labour Market Perspective<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of the work: </title> <p>The aim of the research is to show how the effectiveness and regional labour market impact of social cooperatives in Hungary has evolved over the past 10 years. </p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>The research database is based on a database of domestic enterprises. It includes data on the assets and income of social cooperatives for the past 10 years.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>It analyses the evolution of the number of social cooperatives in space and time, in parallel with a legal and support environment. Focusing on a ten-year time horizon, it has examined the areas where the evolution of the number and activity of social cooperatives has had a greater impact on the labour market situation.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>It has shown that changes in the legal environment have significantly increased the number of social cooperatives. It has shown that, despite the increase in numbers, the cooperatives studied have survived in large numbers. It has shown a positive contribution to employment.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Differences in the Management and Financial Performance of Hospitals in Hungary<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>The NUTS2 regions of Hungary show great differences in economic and social terms. For example, in the Budapest region, GDP per capita is around 150% of the EU27 average, while in half of the NUTS2 regions GDP per capita is below 50% of the EU27 average. Can these regional differences be observed in the management and operation of hospitals in Hungary?</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>The balance sheets and income statements of the hospitals were collected from the CREFOPORT database and the missing financial statements were requested directly from the hospitals. The capacity and performance data used in addition to the financial data were taken from the annual statements available on the NEAK website. The data were collected in December 2021 and the beginning of 2022. Specific indicators were constructed from the financial and performance data. The relationships between indicators and regions were first tested by analysis of variance using the ANOVA menu in SPSS. This was followed by a Bonferroni test.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>For wealth indicators and profitability data, the closeness of the relationship is medium for most indicators, but no significant difference was found for any region using post-hoc tests except for one indicator. The indicator ETA shows a weak to medium strength relationship between liquidity indicators and NUTS2 classification, but with Bonferroni post-hoc tests no significant difference between regions except for one relationship (2016, Budapest-Pest). The same can be said when examining occupational indicators.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>There are two- to threefold differences between the minimum and maximum values of GDP per capita and the average income of the regions. However, public hospitals in regions with different levels of development do not show significant differences from a financial and professional point of view. Thus, hospitals with different financial and professional situations are not associated with regions of different development.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Social, Economic and Environmental Resilience – A Case Study of the Hungarian Cities<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of the work: </title> <p>The COVID-19 and 2021-2022 energy crises shed new light on urban resilience. Cities face many more challenges and external shocks. This study aims to measure urban resilience.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>For this purpose, a composite indicator was developed, composed of three (social, economic and environmental) resilience components called the Complex Resilience Index. It is applied to study Hungarian settlements in selected years (2000, 2006, 2012, 2018). Based on the results further analysis was conducted. The spatial structure of urban resilience is studied in two ways. First, the spatial differences between cities in the four selected years was examined using the relative range index, which is the difference between the highest and lowest city values relative to the average. Second, spatial patterns were mapped using one of the most commonly used indicators of spatial autocorrelation, the so-called Local Moran I indicator. The next step is to create five clusters to highlight the differences between groups in terms of population and per capita income in the selected years and to analyse the role of resilience in changing these indicators.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The identification of these groups provides important information for spatial planning and policy. Hungarian settlements were also ranked based on the Complex Resilience Index. The results show that urban resilience can be measured with a composite indicator (Complex Resilience Index) and that the social, economic and environmental resilience components provide further insights. In the Hungarian urban network, the most resilient elements are Budapest, some regional centres, some county capitals, the metropolitan area of Budapest, and the most developed small and medium-sized cities in the Transdanubian region.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>The difference in the Complex Resilience Index between cities increases over time, and as a result, the Local Moran I clusters become narrower. The rate of change in the specific income and its relative spread has the opposite sign to resilience. As resilience increases, the average change in income and its relative spread decreases, and as a result of that, stability increases.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Utilisation and Repayment Behaviour: Evidence from Farmers of Haryana<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>The present paper assesses the loan utilisation and repayment behaviour of loanee or indebted farmers in Haryana, India.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>The study was conducted in Haryana state. The study is based on primary data that have been collected through schedules from a sample of 600 indebted farmers. Proportionate sampling was employed. Further, a percentage is used for data analysis.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The study found that about half of the loan amount was utilised by farmers in nonproductive activities that directly stimulate the debt burden on them, because this type of expenditure did not contribute to the earnings of farmers. Further, around two-fifth of the farmers were regularly repaying their loans, one fifth were defaulters and remaining two-fifth were paying their loan irregularly. Overall, Farmers’ repayment behaviour is not satisfactory.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>The non-productive usage of the loan amount is one of the main causes of their indebtedness. Reducing such expenditure is one of the main challenges for farmers without generating other sources of income.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Mechanisms of the European Trade Network During the Pandemic<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>The economic crisis generated by the COVID-19 pandemic was fundamentally different from those of the past, with unforeseen implication on supply chains and European trade. As the literature regarding the pandemic is vast bibliometric techniques were used to find the most influential themes and authors. The aim of this paper is to test if cascading failure is possible when shocks arise in European trade.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>To characterise the European commerce, network analysis was employed using Eurostat data of imports and exports in the following years: 2018, 2019 and 2020. Trade value indices were also used to characterised European trade during the pandemic and Enterprise Survey run by World Bank for in-depth, cross economies comparisons.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The results from the network analysis characterise the compactness of the network, showing that the European trade network is characterised by robustness.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>Cascading failure has a low probability of occurrence.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Marketing a Science or an Instrumental and Sociotechnical Method of Shaping the Activities of Market, Public Non-Market and Political Organisations? Revival of Regional Cooperation in Central Asia in the Perspective of Hungary’s Eastern Opening Policy<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of the work: </title> <p>This study explores the specifics of strengthening Central Asian regional cooperation and its potential opportunities according to Hungary’s Eastern Opening Policy.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>A two-pronged approach was used to conduct this study, which included a comprehensive literature review of relevant academic publications on regional cooperation, as well as an examination of cooperation projects to identify specific characteristics. Results are explicated using descriptive methodology for the analysis.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>Central Asian regional integration differs from the traditional model, emphasising the importance of historical factors and the strengthening of Turkish ethnic identity as a foundation for unification efforts.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>Foreign economic engagement in Central Asia requires a continuous and assertive presence, along with the development of mutual trust due to the region’s unique historical, cultural and geopolitical context. These tendencies and intentions have been recognised by Hungarian foreign strategy - in line with the Eastern Opening Policy - with good sense and at a good pace.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Women’s Economic Engagement in the Agricultural Economy and Factor Affecting it: A Case Study of Fatehabad District of Haryana State<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>The study analysed women’s contribution to agricultural activities in small, medium and large farm sizes and also examined the socio-economic factors that affect women’s participation in the agricultural sector.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>The study is entirely based on primary data collected from a field survey with the help of a pre-structured questionnaire. A simple tabulated method and multiple regression method has been employed to make conclusions.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The study has revealed that the participation of women in the agricultural sector is the highest in the small and medium farm size and selected socio-economic variables explain the 85.4% association with women’s participation in the selected area.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>The study concluded that employment-wise participation of the respondent’s decreases with the increase in farm size and the relationship between women’s participation and farm size, family income and education is statistically significant.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Trends of Agriculture: Food Grain Production and Area in India<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>The purpose of this study is to determine the area and production status of food grains in India.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>The current study was conducted using secondary data that was gathered from numerous sources, including the Statistical Abstract of Haryana, and the Economic Survey. Between 1991-1992 and 2021-2022, the area and production of food grains have seen a compound growth rate.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The results show a fluctuating trend in area and production during the years 1991-92 to 2021-22. For the study period, the mean average of the production and area of food grains was estimated.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>Agriculture is still a significant sector for the economy from the p erspectives of self-sufficiency and employment, despite the sector’s diminishing GDP proportion over time. The trajectory and expansion of Gross Value Added (GVA), investments in agriculture, and food grain crops were all examined in this article.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Disease as Farmers’ Occupational Disease. The Evaluation of an Increase in Morbidity Rate Tendency Between 2000 and 2019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>The aim of this paper is to make an analysis and evaluation of Lyme disease incidence, understood as a diagnosed farmers’ occupational disease.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>The analysis and an evaluation were made based on materials, data and information originating, among other things, from the following: The analysis and an evaluation were made based on materials, data and information originating, among other things, from the following: The Agricultural Social Insurance Fund, the Main Sanitary Inspectorate and the National Institute of Hygiene, official legal acts published in the Journal of Laws, industry literature, as well as works and publications of researchers dealing with Lyme disease.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The results of this study indicate that Lyme disease is not only the main and dominant occupational disease of farmers, but also an infectious disease having a growing trend among Polish society. Every year, an increase in cases in which Lyme disease spirochete infection was found and diagnosed, is observed. This situation is affected not only by insufficient preventive measures, difficult and ineffective diagnostics, or low awareness of Lyme disease, but also by environmental factors and climate change.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Considering that the disease leads to numerous dangerous health-related consequences, while a protective vaccine has not yet been prepared, it seems extremely important to implement preventive measures and conduct education on prevention among farmers as well as other professional groups and the entire population.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Crop Insurance Performance in Haryana<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of the work</title> <p>The purpose of the study is to evaluate the overall physical and financial performance of the crop insurance schemes in Haryana.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>The study was purely based on secondary data collected from the Department of Agriculture and Farmer Welfare Union of Haryana. The compound annual growth rate and the percentage method have been used to analyse the performance of Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The compound annual growth rate of benefited farmers was higher in the Rabi crop (28%), and in the same way, the overall area covered (1.4%) was also higher in the Rabi crop. The non-loanee farmers adopted Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) without any kind of loan in any scheme such as the Kisan credit card. The growth rates of non-loanee farmers of Rabi and Kharif crops were observed at 143.2% and 184.3% which was highly satisfactory. Loanee farmers were already large in number since the commencement of PMFBY.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>It was found that the parameters such as area covered, loanee, non-loanee farmers and the number of beneficiaries of Rabi and Kharif crops increased and had a significant effect on the farmer’s coverage over the years. Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana gives a positive assurance to farmers. As the number of beneficiaries of this scheme increases and farmers have the assurance that if their crop is damaged due to natural calamities their claim will be settled, they will use a high-yielding variety of seeds, pesticides, herbicides, and new technology, thus production and productivity will increase. They play a vital role in the coverage of cultivated area and will ultimately decide to participate in crop insurance. Hence, this scheme has proved effective in maintaining the farmer’s interest in crop insurance and ensuring the timely settlement of claims, which has been the main driving force in retaining farmers under crop insurance.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Use of the Hierarchical Method to Group the Countries of the European Union According to their Energy and Climate Policies Adopted on the Basis of Directives of the European Parliament<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>The European Union’s energy policy focuses mainly on three areas: reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the energy sector by increasing the use of RES, reducing emissions of harmful pollutants, and increasing the efficiency of the electricity used.</p> <p>Sustainable energy use, on the other hand, is clearly associated with an increased use of renewable energy sources, which ensures energy security, as well as diversification of energy supplies that sustain and improve the quality of the environment.</p> <p>The purpose of the paper is to present the diversity of the countries of the European Union in terms of the actions they take in the field of energy and climate policy resulting from the European Union directives.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>Based on the goals of energy policy presented in the EU directives a number of indicators were selected in order to describe the actions taken by EU member states. After a substantive and statistical verification, 6 variables were left. The use of the Ward’s method made it possible to create groups of countries that are similar in terms of their energy and climate policies.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The most favorable situation in terms of the effects of the climate and energy policy can be observed in the current leaders, that is in Sweden and Finland as well as in Estonia. Central European countries, mainly Poland, have high-emission economies, accompanied by low investment in modern environmentally friendly technologies. This is manifested, among others, in high concentrations of particulate matter, which contributes to poor air quality, categories in which Poland has some of the worst results in the entire EU.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of Methods for Hourly Electricity Demand Forecasting in the Absence of Data – A Case Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Scope and purpose of work</title> <p>This paper examines the impact of the number of gaps in data, the analytical form, and the model type selection criterion on the accuracy of interpolation and extrapolation forecasts for hourly data.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>Forecasts were developed on the basis of predictors that are based on: classical time series forecasting models and regression time series forecasting models, hybrid time series forecasting models and hybrid regression forecasting models for uncleared series, and exponential smoothing models for cleared series of two or three types of seasonal fluctuations, with minimum estimates of errors in interpolation or extrapolation forecasts.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Adaptive and hybrid regression models have proved to have the most favorable predictive properties. Most hybrid time series models for systematic and non-systematic gaps and for both analytical forms are single models that generally describe fluctuations within a 24-hour cycle.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The lowest estimators of prediction errors involving interpolation were obtained for exponential smoothing models, followed by hybrid regression models. A reverse sequence was obtained for extrapolative forecasting.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Discrepancies in the Level of Knowledge-Based Economy in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>This paper analyzes the level of knowledge-based economy (KBE) in terms of sustainable development across the provinces (voivodships) of Poland in 2020. The underlying assumption of this study is that knowledge and skills are one of the fundamental preconditions for successfully implementing the concept of sustainable development.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>In order to calculate the rankings of Polish voivodships a synthetic indicator developed on the basis of the zeroed unitarization method was used.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>There are vast disproportions in the levels of KBE across the voivodeships of Poland. The most advanced KBE was identified in the Mazowieckie Voivodship, and the least developed KBE was found in the Lubuskie voivodship.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The capacity to develop a knowledge-based economy is inextricably interrelated with the quality of the social capital, which is directly attributable to the levels of education. In order to offset the interregional disproportions spending on research and development needs to be increased and the investments in human capital (e.g. through career planning, training, improving the professional qualifications of employees, discretionary bonuses) and new technologies should be expanded.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and During-Pandemic Financial Standing of Companies in Poland Ranked According to the Type of Business Activity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>This paper seeks to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the financial standing of companies classified according to the type of their business activity.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>This paper is based on aggregate data on businesses operating in Poland in the period 2017–2021, grouped according to the type of business activity. The data was published by the Central Statistical Office GUS in Poland. The company status was investigated using the calculated values of diagnostic indicators (return on assets, current financial liquidity, level of debt, stock rotation, and growth in sales). These indicators were normalized with the zero unitarization method to construct a synthetic indicator. The synthetic indicator was then used to generate business rankings.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The vast majority of the examined companies proved to be profitable. In 2020, the profitability and sales revenue of the businesses concerned were found to deteriorate slightly. There has been a downward trend in the rankings for companies operating in the accommodation and catering sector and the manufacturers of petroleum products. Pharmaceutical companies were the businesses that improved and topped the rankings.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The pandemic had a strong negative impact on businesses operating in the market sector of accommodation and catering. The producers of refined petroleum products were also affected. The producers of pharmaceuticals benefited most during the pandemic. There are no clear indicators as to the impact of the pandemic on other types of businesses.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Organic Systems of Sustainable Agriculture in Poland Over the Period 2010–2020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>The purpose of the publication is to present two sustainable farming systems in Poland - the system of integrated production and organic farming in 2010 and 2020.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>Changes in the number of farms over the decade are analyzed. The study used statistical data published by the Central Statistical Office.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>A descriptive method was used, combined with the use of simple dynamics indicators, and a concise review of the literature on the subject was carried out. A decrease in the number of organic farms in 2020 compared to 2010 was noted, while the number of farms using the method of integrated agricultural production increased slightly. A large regional variation in the analyzed farming systems was also noted.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The results lead to the conclusion that sustainable agriculture is not recording the desired growth.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Management Model in Knowledge-Based Organisations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of the work</title> <p>The commercial success of an organisation is based on its unique characteristics which make it stand out from its competitors. It can be the result of as many factors as there are many types of organisations and the goals they pursue. However, there are some invariants among them, which include leadership and management style associated with it. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the possible ways of implementing the idea of a turquoise management model in organisations with strong knowledge-based leadership.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>The subject of the study were medical entities of the SMEs group. A faceto- face and telephone interview with a person holding a leadership role in the treatment unit was chosen as the research method.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results and conclusions</title> <p>An attempt was made to verify the thesis of the possible synergies between turquoise ideas and strong leadership. The paper demonstrates a natural evolution of the leadership model which has resulted from the generation Y and Z entering the labor market, which is characterised by features converging with the turquoise idea of management.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Monograph by Mieczysław Adamowicz and Magdalena Zwolińska-Ligaj “Local Innovation Strategies as an Instrument for Creating Innovation and Supporting Development”, Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska, P. 360