rss_2.0Economic and Regional Studies / Studia Ekonomiczne i Regionalne FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Economic and Regional Studies / Studia Ekonomiczne i Regionalnehttps://sciendo.com/journal/ERShttps://www.sciendo.comEconomic and Regional Studies / Studia Ekonomiczne i Regionalne Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6471c4a8215d2f6c89db040a/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/ERS140216Reserves, prices, and policy: An empirical analysis of strategic crop reserves in Arab nationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>In recent years, global food systems have faced challenges like disasters, extreme weather events, and market fluctuations, such as the Ukraine-Russia conflict. This study analyses strategic crop reserves, specifically for wheat and rice, in Arab countries. It examines the objectives and obstacles associated with these reserves.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>different statistical methods have been used, including regression analysis and neural network prediction models.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Findings reveal significant agricultural production deficits in Arab economies. However, some countries maintain substantial crop reserves. We found an inverse relationship between wheat reserves and wheat prices. Additionally, energy prices correlate positively with agricultural commodity prices. Forecasting models anticipate short-term global grain stock stability but predict short-term increases in agricultural price indices (until 2024) followed by long-term decreases (by 2030).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Policymakers should support agricultural strategies, particularly for strategic crops. To address current challenges, we suggest securing long-term contracts for strategic crops, diversifying suppliers, and avoiding reliance on a few sources.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00122024-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Loan repayment behavior of beneficiary farmers in primary agricultural cooperative societies in Haryana (India)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>The study examined the loan repayment behavior of beneficiary farmers in Primary Agricultural Cooperative Societies in the State of Haryana, India.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>The findings were based on primary as well as secondary data. The secondary data was collected for the period of 2006-2007 to 2018-2019. The primary data was collected in the second quarter of 2022.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The study concluded that year-wise the maximum percentage of defaulter farmers was 34.97% in 2008-2009 due to the debt relief scheme announced by the Government of India in 2008. Furthermore, it revealed that about 75% of beneficiary farmers repaid their loans regularly after receiving the benefit of interest subvention at 7% by the government of India and the state government. The findings on primary data concluded that most farmers have been repaying their loans regularly, and less than 10% of beneficiary farmers defaulted. The main reason for the default was a loan without security and the anticipation of a loan waive-off scheme. About 19% of beneficiary farmers have been repaying their loans irregularly due to the short time within which loan repayments needed to be made.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The short time of loan repayment is the main cause of irregular loan repayment behavior. The period of repayment of loans should be extended for one year and it should be considered from the loan issuance date.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00192024-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Marginal propensity to import and terms of trade: Panel granger causality evidence from the East African Community (EAC)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>The nexus between the terms of trade and marginal propensity to import and the consequent policy options arising from it among economic blocs is an area that has not been given due attention in the literature. The focus of the current paper is to examine the link between the marginal propensity to import and the terms of trade in the East African Community (EAC).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>The authors discuss and test a panel Granger causality model which is complemented with the test of impulse response function and variance decomposition using data from five EAC countries (Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Kenya and Burundi).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The long-run result of the study indicated that causality runs from all the variables to the terms of trade. In the short-run, results reveal that both the marginal propensity to import and the export of manufactures Grangercaused terms of trade without a feedback. The results of the impulse response function revealed that the terms of trade responded positively to shocks in the marginal propensity to import only in the first period, but afterwards the response turned negative in all the other periods. The terms of trade were equally found to respond positively to shocks in inflation rate in all the periods. The variance decomposition results indicated that apart from shocks to itself which was 100% in the first period, marginal propensity to import contributed about 0.0458% of shocks to the terms of trade, and this rose continuously in all the periods.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The analysis shows that both in the long-run and the short-run, marginal propensity to import determines the terms of trade among the EAC countries.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00142024-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00The development of Southeast Asia’s digital economy: current status, development motivation and challengeshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the digital economy in Southeast Asia (SEA). It evaluates SEA’s digital economy industry from various perspectives, analysing the reasons for its rapid development as a non-core innovation area of the digital economy.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>A comprehensive literature review and descriptive methodology were used to produce this paper. The methods used included defining the evaluation criteria of the digital economy and summarising and sorting out the development of SEA’s digital economy.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>With respect to theory, this paper analyses the current status of SEA’s digital economy, which helps deepen our understanding of the new trends in SEA’s economic development. As regards practicalities, it provides suggestions for how SEA countries can further improve the development model of the digital economy.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The paper assesses SEA’s digital economy and identifies the driving factors that enable the region to rapidly develop digital economy industries. The first set of factors are national-level policies, a unified market, population structure, and mobile penetration rate. The second set of factors are regional, as SEA can benefit from digital economic spillover from countries such as China and the United States. The third set of factors is global. The transfer of the global industrial chain has also facilitated the development of the digital economy in the region. This paper hypothesises that national-level factors are decisive, enabling a non-core innovation area such as SEA to develop rapidly, while regional-level and global-level factors are auxiliary.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00172024-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Conditions of women holding management positions in Polandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>The aim of the research was to identify and assess the professional problems of women who hold managerial positions. In addition, factors influencing the female style of management were identified and the level of discrimination against women as well as the level of gender equality in Poland and in the European Union was assessed, using the gender equality index.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>Secondary data from the European Institute for Gender Equality were used. The opinion of women was found out on the basis of the survey research.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Based on the data collected from the European Institute for Gender Equality, it was found that Poland is close to achieving gender equality in management – 43% of all management positions in Poland were held by women. However, the respondents had a different opinion on this subject. Less than 17% of the respondents stated that men and women are treated the same.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Such a result may be influenced by the existing phenomenon of discrimination, differences in remuneration despite performing the same functions, burdening women with raising children and the existing stereotypes that men perform better in managerial positions, women are less courageous, and men are more available. Therefore, steps should be taken to provide real support for women in the development of their careers, promote gender equality and counteract discrimination.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00152024-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on regional economic integration in the Maghreb region – an Algerian perspectivehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>This article focuses on the most evident effects of COVID-19 influenced by the elements of the regional economic landscape, emphasizing the importance of shock and crisis management plans. Algeria could benefit from revitalizing the construction of the North African bloc and enhancing cooperation in the Maghreb. The main objective of this work is to identify the most urgent challenges related to the socio-economic impact of COVID-19 on the regional economic landscape, and the economic integration of Algeria highlights the importance of shock and crisis management plans.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>This study is based on a descriptive statistical analysis of the key economic indicators in the Maghreb region, with a special emphasis on Algeria.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The results obtained have allowed us to outline the strategies adopted by Maghreb countries as part of economic reforms aimed at strengthening regional integration.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has presented significant challenges for elements of the regional economic landscape in the Maghreb. The countries of the Maghreb should reduce barriers to trade and investment and link their infrastructure networks. They should focus their efforts on liberalizing trade in goods and services, as well as financial and labour markets.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00162024-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00The economic consequences of armed conflicts in selected Eurasian countries at the turn of the 21st centuryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>The subject-matter of this paper is the economic situation in selected Eurasian countries affected by armed conflict at the turn of the 21st century. The aim of the paper is to assess the strength and impact of such conflict on the economic development of the affected countries from its outbreak until 2022.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>The paper is based on an analysis of selected macroeconomic indicators using the Solow–Swan model by means of the Cobb-Douglas production function.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Armed conflict had a significant impact on the economic situation in Ukraine and Bosnia and Herzegovina, affected Croatian economy to the most insignificant extent and had a moderate impact on socio-economic development in other states.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>An armed conflict manifests itself in economic collapse, capital outflow and changes in the economic structure. What should be important for states emerging from an armed conflict is the development of technology and schooling on the one hand and the stabilisation of the implementation of economic policies aimed at avoiding a similar situation in the future on the other hand.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00112024-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00European values: a comparative culture analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>This study investigates the contradictions within European values and the challenges to social inclusivity, advocating for a broader perspective that recognises diverse historical and cultural contexts. It critiques Eurocentrism and explores alternative views such as Islam, Afrocentrism, and Ubuntu, proposing a more inclusive framework for global human rights and values, as well as research on social-economic development.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>The paper uses legal, historical and political methods to analyse the European Union’s foundational in the context of rising intolerance and debates on immigration and LGBT rights, drawing on theoretical insights to highlight the significance of non-Western perspectives. Main sources are historic records and monographs by other authors.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The authors identify the complexities within European values, emphasising the need for a more inclusive understanding that transcends Eurocentric narratives in the dimensions of social and economic development.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Advocating for an expanded dialogue on human rights, this study suggests incorporating diverse cultural philosophies to enhance Europe’s approach to inclusivity and unity.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00182024-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Economic and social exclusion in the European Community in the years 2011-2022https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>The subject-matter and aim of this paper is to present the extent of poverty and economic and social exclusion in the countries of the European Union (EU-27). The specific aim is the comparative assessment and reduction of these processes between 2011 and 2022.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>The paper is based on an analysis of official EUROSTAT statistics. The TOPSIS taxonomic method was used for comparative evaluation, making it possible to measure and assess synthetically the variation of poverty across countries in dynamic terms for the selected years 2011, 2016 and 2022.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>On the basis of the collected empirical material, a multivariate synthetic assessment of the level of economic and social exclusion in all EU-27 member states was made. The extent of the variation and changes in this process were compared in dynamic terms using the taxonomic approach.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The analysis of the results confirmed the existence of considerable variation in the occurrence of the “components” of economic and social exclusion. The results of the multivariate analysis helped made it possible to prepare a ranking and typology of similarities between countries. The analysis confirms the partial achievement of the poverty-reducing goals of the EU strategies, although not to the same extent and in the same pace, by EU countries.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00202024-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00The relationship between foreign direct investment and trade openness: Evidence from six developed economieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>In recent years, the competition for economic dominance globally has led developed economies increasingly to focus on outward foreign direct investment (FDI) and exports to other developing nations. However, there has been a notable research gap, with most studies concentrating on assessing the significance of FDI and trade openness in developing countries, while less attention has been paid to developed countries. This study explores the relationship between FDI and trade openness with economic growth in six developed economies.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>Utilising annual data spanning from 1990 to 2022 from the World Bank, the study employs the panel Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) method for analysis.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The estimated results indicate a negative long-run relationship and a positive short-run effect of FDI in the selected economies. Furthermore, the findings reveal a positive long-run association and a negative short-run impact of trade openness. The causality test indicated a bidirectional relationship between trade openness and economic growth.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The study suggests that various governments should enhance their investment environments to leverage the benefits of FDI inflows.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00132024-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of the Logistics Sector on Poland’s Economic Growth 2018-2022https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0008<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>Analysis of the impact of the logistics sector on Poland’s economic growth 2018-2022. The aim is to understand how logistics processes, including freight and passenger transport, sales of transport products and services, and warehouse management, affect key national economic indicators such as GDP and GNI.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>Economic and logistics dataset from CSO for Poland 2018-2022. The analysis methods used include correlation analysis, linear regression, cluster analysis and time series analysis, providing an in-depth understanding of the relationship between the logistics sector and economic growth.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>There is a significant positive correlation between the development of the logistics sector and Poland’s GDP growth, with a clear impact of freight and logistics efficiency on key economic indicators.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>Investment in and modernisation of the logistics sector is essential for Poland’s economic growth, suggesting the need to further develop infrastructure and innovation in this area.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00082024-04-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Collaboration Between University and Industry in Algeria: Beyond Geographical Proximity. Case Study of University Research Laboratories in Algeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0003<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>This study explores the challenges and opportunities of collaboration between Algerian universities and industrial enterprises, emphasizing the influence of social and cognitive proximity on successful partnerships, irrespective of geographical proximity.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>: Utilizing qualitative methods, the study includes semi-structured interviews with 16 directors of university research laboratories across the nation. Its aim is to analyze whether cultural or cognitive disparities play a role in collaboration challenges.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>: The study revealed that cognitive proximity stands out as a pivotal factor, as shared or complementary skills and knowledge foster synergies, enhance mutual understanding, and facilitate effective communication. This, in turn, leads to successful research collaborations and tailored training initiatives aligned with market needs. Additionally, social and cultural proximity is highlighted as a significant element, simplifying exchanges and strengthening trust among stakeholders. The study underscores the importance of close social relationships in improving communication and facilitating the exchange of ideas, ultimately reinforcing collaborative efforts between universities and industry. This shows that geographical proximity is not truly a crucial element for successful collaboration.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>: This study proposes several measures to enhance collaboration. It sets the groundwork for future investigations by exploring the perspectives of industrial stakeholders, thereby enriching the discourse on collaborative initiatives between academia and industry in Algeria.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00032024-04-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessing the Extent of Financial Inclusion Through Bank Office Expansion in Haryanahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0007<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>The study presents a comprehensive analysis of the banking sector in Haryana from 2007 to 2022.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>The study is based on secondary data. The number of bank branches, deposits, and credits in the state are just a few economic indicators covered in the Statistical Abstract of Haryana. The compound growth rate is calculated to assess the growth of a bank.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The findings reveal a consistent rising trend in bank branches, credit and deposits of commercial banks. Notable trends include increasing bank branches, a surge in deposits and robust credit growth, indicating a dynamic and thriving banking sector. The Credit-Deposit ratio gradually increased from 2007 to 2011, reaching a peak in 2012 at 102.10%.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>The overall number of bank offices has increased dramatically due to the state’s growing financial sector. The steady expansion in bank branches indicates a sustained effort to improve accessibility and financial inclusion.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00072024-04-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Behavioral Aspects of Investments in Renewable Energy Sources on the Example of Podkarpackie Provincehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0009<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>The subject of the study consists of the biasess made when investing in photovoltaic panels. The purpose of the study is to identify biasess associated with investing in renewable energy sources.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>Data from a survey conducted among owners of photovoltaic installations in Subcarpathia were used. The literature has identified papers on factors other than behavioral errors affecting investments in photovoltaic panels.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>Respondents succumbed to the anchoring effect, the error of positive retrospection, information bias, choice-supportive bias and framing bias when deciding to invest in photovoltaic panels.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>The research conducted makes it possible to confirm that people’s behavior while investing is influenced by non-economic factors. Knowledge of behavioral biases can allow one to calibrate financial incentives in order to influence customers more effectively.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00092024-04-02T00:00:00.000+00:00The Size of a Company and the Intensity of Use of Accrual-Based Earnings Management and Real Earnings Management Toolshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0006<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>The aim of the study is to analyse the relationship between the degree of use of accrual-based earnings management and real earnings management instruments and the size of public companies.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>The empirical analyses are based on the results of a survey of finance and accounting professionals representing 124 non-financial companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The Kruskal-Wallis test (along with tests of intergroup comparisons) was considered the primary method for assessing the relationships occurring between the variables considered.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The research showed that the intensity of using accrual-based earnings management and real earnings management tools is statistically dependent on both the value of generated net revenues from the sale of products, goods and materials and the value of total assets of a given company. However, a greater diversification of the values of variables describing the degree of use of earnings management instruments was recorded in individual sub-populations separated on the basis of the value of realised sales.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>The research appears to be relevant from the perspective of a further search for the determinants of financial performance manipulation in the Polish capital market.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00062024-04-02T00:00:00.000+00:00The Role of the Local Government in Fostering Entrepreneurship – Evidence from Municipalities in the Kraków Metropolitan Areahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work</title> <p>The study was conducted in the municipalities of the Kraków Metropolitan Area. It aims to identify models for supporting local entrepreneurship and assess their effectiveness. The effectiveness of the models was evaluated by measuring the diversity and changes in the number of enterprises in the area. We also presented entrepreneurs’ opinions on their satisfaction with specific policies.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>Secondary ( literature and statistical data) and primary data sources were used in the paper. The primary source was a survey among entrepreneurs. The survey research to assess the performance of entrepreneurship policy involved 21 municipalities. We apply a mixed-method approach here (comparative indicator analysis, cluster analysis and Kruskal-Wallis tests).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The research demonstrated that the policy involving entrepreneurship support through tax instruments (reduced local tax rates) does not contribute significantly to providing entrepreneurship-fostering conditions. The study revealed that the level of entrepreneurship may be affected more by the expenditure policy, such as the municipality’s efforts to establish special economic zones, organise training, establish business information points, etc.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>Local governments (LG) that are attractive to investors (such as easily available infrastructure and proximity to markets) should adopt high property-tax rates. The tax is undervalued in peri-urban municipalities (compared to property value) and does not burden the business. Second, LG should focus on hard projects. They should intensify spatial planning and land management to ensure space for business to grow. It will entail conflicts and balancing the needs of diverse social groups, but it must be done to stimulate local socioeconomic development.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00022024-04-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of the Pit Changes Introduced in 2022 as Part of the “Polish Deal”https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>The subject of this paper is to evaluate the ‘Polish Deal’ programme introduced in 2022 in the tax area. The purpose of this article is to show the impact of the ‘Polish Deal’ legislation on net salaries of persons employed under an employment contract.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>The paper is based on an analysis of legal provisions in the tax area, being one of the pillars of the ‘Polish Deal’. A simulation of the impact of the new tax rules on net salaries introduced from the beginning of January 2022 (‘Polish Deal 1’) and from the beginning of July 2022 (‘Polish Deal 2’) has been carried out.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The new personal taxation rules introduced by the ‘Polish Deal’ have contributed to an increase in net salaries of employees receiving a gross salary of less than PLN 12,000 per month and a reduction in the labour income of employees earning a salary above this amount.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>By strengthening the degree of progressivity, the reform of the tax system under the ‘Polish Deal’ has significantly affected the net income of natural persons receiving remuneration under an employment relationship. However, the new tax rules introduced in a fast-track manner by the ‘Polish Deal’ have raised a number of controversies among both employers and employees.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00052024-04-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Review of the Monograph by Anna Nowak, Aneta Jarosz-Angowska, Hanna Klikocka, Artur Krukowski, Renata Kubik, Armand Kasztelan Entitled “The Potential of Polish Agriculture in Comparison to EU Countries in Terms of Ensuring Food and Energy Security”. Scientific and Publishing Institute “Spatium” Sp. Z O.O.https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0010ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00102024-04-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Regional Development Funds: Creation Rationale and Models of Operationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>The purpose of the article is to present the creation of Regional Development Funds (Regionalne Fundusze Rozwoju - RFR) in Poland, their organisational models and factors influencing their development and choice of model. The research is also focused on the analysis of the variety of RFRs and their sources.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>The research collects and presents data on RFRs operating in Poland, and analyses these data in the context of selected legal and administrative conditions.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The analysis showed significant variation among RFRs in terms of functional/ organisational models and scale of operation. The choice of an operating model for an RDF is influenced by factors such as the maturity of regional financial markets, the amount of RDF funds and the types of financial instruments offered.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>The study highlights the development of the financial market segment working with local authorities and businesses over the past decade. It draws attention to an increasing importance of financial instruments and institutions in development policies implemented by voivodeship governments.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00012024-04-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Determinants of Trade Flow in the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS): Does Governance Matter?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Subject and purpose of work: </title> <p>This study analyzes the determinants of intra-ECCAS trade, with special attention paid to the role of institutional quality from 1996 to 2021.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods: </title> <p>The study conducts descriptive analysis and utilizes a Negative Binomial Pseudo Maximum Likelihood to analyze the determinants of intra-ECCAS trade.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results: </title> <p>The results suggest that gross domestic product (GDP), population, time taken for export shipment in the exporting countries and the bilateral real exchange rate of the importing partner country enhance intra-ECCAS trade flow. On the other hand, distance, two trading partners being landlocked, time for importing countries and bilateral real exchange rate of the exporting partner discourage this. Furthermore, the findings reveal that institutions are vital to intra-ECCAS trade.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions: </title> <p>T he key d rivers of intra-ECCAS t rade a re GDP, population, t ime t aken for export shipment in the exporting countries, bilateral real exchange rate of the importing partner country, and institutions’ quality measures.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ers-2024-00042024-04-02T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1