rss_2.0Eat, Sleep, Work FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Eat, Sleep, Workhttps://sciendo.com/journal/ESWhttps://www.sciendo.comEat, Sleep, Work Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6471c57e215d2f6c89db0633/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/ESW140216Testing the Rip Van Winkle Effect: Sleep Extension following Nominal and Restricted Sleephttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/esw-2020-001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The negative effects of sleep loss on sleepiness, performance, and mood have been well-documented. Less is known, however, about possible negative effects of sleep extension and findings are inconsistent. This study investigated the Rip Van Winkle effect, comparing the effects of a single night of sleep extension (11 h time-in-bed, TIB) to control sleep (8.5 h TIB) following three nights on a nominal (8.5 h TIB) or restricted (6.5 h TIB) sleep schedule. Nine healthy males (mean age 21 y; mean habitual sleep 7.9 h) participated in a four-way cross-over design. Participants completed sleepiness and mood scales, a range of performance tasks, and multiple sleep latency tests approximately every two hours following in-laboratory baseline and experimental nights. Objective sleepiness was reduced (i.e., sleep onset latency was delayed) following sleep extension under both nominal and restricted baseline conditions. Self-reported mood was modestly improved following sleep extension. No changes in subjective sleepiness or objectively measured performance were observed across conditions. The results indicate that one night of sleep extension, following either nominal or restricted sleep, can reduce objective sleepiness but does not appear to consistently alter performance or subjective sleepiness.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/esw-2020-0012022-09-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Timing - Understanding Central and Peripheral Clockshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/esw-2020-002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>From the discovery of the first clock genes outside of the ‘master clock’ – the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) – to now, there has been extensive research into the location of these peripheral clocks and how they relate to the SCN and other timing signals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge in this area. Areas discussed will include: How the timing of sleep and wake in mammals is controlled by the central clock; how physiological processes during sleep and wake in mammals are coordinated by peripheral clocks; what changes in environmental signals affect the timing of SCN and peripheral clocks; how we measure central and peripheral clock timing; which environmental signals can entrain the SCN and peripheral clocks; and how disturbances in central and peripheral clock timing due to aspects of modern lifestyles including shiftwork and jet lag, as well as biological aspects such as blindness and chronotype, may have negative impacts on our health. By understanding how our biological timing systems work, we may be able to develop strategies to minimise disturbances in central and peripheral clock timing and therefore the associated negative health outcomes observed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/esw-2020-0022022-09-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Understanding the Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Women’s Sexual Lives: A Discourse Analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/esw-2020-004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper reports on a post-structural feminist study that examined how discourses about child sexual abuse frame understandings of the impact of abuse on women’s sexual lives. The study considered the overarching question ‘What discourses associated with the impact of child sexual abuse on women’s sexual lives are reproduced, resisted or invisible in the narratives of women who have been abused and the professionals who work with them?’ Discourse generates the experiences that are possible, including what people think and do and their material circumstances. The research method involved three related studies that included a survey and interviews with professionals who work with women who have experienced child sexual abuse, and interviews with women who have histories of child sexual abuse. Thematic and Foucauldian discursive analysis identified powerful, gendered, heteronormative discourses about female sexuality, child sexual abuse and its impact on women’s sexual lives. This report will briefly overview previous research in the area, the theoretical approach and research methods employed in the study and outline the three overarching thematic representations in the accounts of the women and the professionals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/esw-2020-0042022-09-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Long-Term Evaluation of an Australian Peer Outdoor Support Therapy for Contemporary War Veteranshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/esw-2020-003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>War veterans experience psychological disorders as a result of deployment. Peer outdoor support therapy (POST) may be an alternative or complementary therapy, as part of the larger field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), to traditional psychological approaches for the treatment of psychological disorders arising from deployment. The long-term benefit of Trojan’s Trek, an Australian POST, was evaluated for its benefits on wellbeing, depression, anxiety, and stress. Nine male participants who participated in Trojan’s Trek during 2013 completed four self-report questionnaires across four time-points, as follows: General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), Life Satisfaction Questions (LSQ), Positive and Negative Interactions Scale (PNI), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales short-version (DASS-21). Questionnaires were administered pre-Trek, immediately post-Trek, at 2-3-month follow-up, and 9-month follow-up. The resultant data were analyzed using Reliable Change Indexes (RCI). Depression, anxiety, and stress decreased, and wellbeing increased, post-trek. Reliable decreases for depression, anxiety and stress, and reliable increases in Self-Efficacy were observed post-trek. Positive outcomes for participants were achieved immediately post-Trek and over a nine-month period. POST may supplement current empirically supported psychological treatments for psychological disorders arising from deployment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/esw-2020-0032022-09-01T00:00:00.000+00:00A Case Study of Meditation to Reduce Alcohol Use Disorder Symptomology in Veteran PTSD Comorbidityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21913/jdrssesw.v2i1.1337<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) comorbidity is becoming a rising issue within the military veteran community, highlighted by research indicating individuals diagnosed with PTSD are more likely to have a drinking problem (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_jdrssesw.v2i1.1337_ref_001">1</xref>). The implementation of meditation as an alternative form of stress release was aimed at reducing PTSD symptomology and therefore reducing factors that lead to drinking. One male veteran (28y of age) was recruited to complete a two-week intervention.</p> <p>The participant completed a behavioural diary noting alcohol consumption and mood. Following a one-week baseline period, an interview was undertaken to determine reasons for alcohol consumption and potential reasons and motivations for the cessation of drinking. A meditation and mantra intervention was implemented for one week. Meditation was able to decrease alcohol consumption by reducing PTSD symptomology (baseline consumption M=6.26; SD=4.38 standard drinks per day vs M=3.53; SD=3.44) standard drinks per day during the intervention), however, day-to-day variability was evident. These results indicate that meditation as an alternative to drinking alcohol can be implemented as a successful form of treatment for PTSD symptomology in the short term. However, these findings are specific to this case study and need to be reproduced in larger samples and over a longer period of time to determine if they can be applied to the general population.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21913/jdrssesw.v2i1.13372022-09-16T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effects of Social Support on the Relationship between Infant Sleep and Postnatal Depressionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21913/JDRSS.v2i1.1287<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>To date, research on social support as a factor affecting the relationship between infant sleep and postnatal depression (PND) has not been widely examined. This study aimed to determine the extent to which social support affects this relationship. The sample consisted of 108 caregivers of children between 6-18 months of age. Participants completed an online survey comprised of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, The Social Provisions Scale and The Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Results indicated that parents of children who were sleep disturbed had higher levels of PND and less social support. Correlations between PND and nocturnal sleep (<italic>r</italic> = -0.231, <italic>p</italic> =0.016) and nocturnal wakefulness (<italic>r</italic> = -0.228, <italic>p</italic> = 0.018) were significant. Social support was also significantly correlated with nocturnal sleep (<italic>r</italic> = 0.329, <italic>p</italic> = 0.001) and nocturnal wakefulness (<italic>r</italic> = 0.199, <italic>p</italic> = 0.039). A significant negative relationship between social support and PND was found (<italic>r</italic> = -0.539, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001). No moderating effect of social support on the relationship between child sleep disturbance and PND was found for either nocturnal sleep duration (<italic>b</italic> = -0.014, 95% CI [-0.099, 0.071], <italic>t</italic> = -0.33, <italic>p</italic> = 0.745) or nocturnal wakefulness (<italic>b</italic> = 0.065, 95% CI [-0.267, 0.396], <italic>t</italic> = 0.39, <italic>p</italic> = 0.700). Overall, the results suggest that social support may have an impact on parental PND and child sleep disturbance. Although a significant moderating effect of social support was not found, the significant correlations support the need for further research in this area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21913/JDRSS.v2i1.12872022-09-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Napping on night shift: Powerful tool or hazard?https://sciendo.com/article/10.21913/JDRSSesw.v1i1.1042ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21913/JDRSSesw.v1i1.10422020-01-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Behavioural observation as a means of assessing sleepiness related driving impairment in obstructive sleep apnoeahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/esw-2019-001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study compared the temporal pattern of non-verbal behaviours (actions not directly related to task performance) in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) drivers under monotonous driving conditions following sleep restriction versus normal sleep. Seventeen patients with untreated severe OSA completed a 90-minute driving simulator task during mid-afternoon under two experimental conditions: prior normal habitual sleep (~8h) and prior sleep restriction (4h time in bed). Steering deviation and crash events were identified using a driving simulator. Non-verbal behaviours (self-centred gestures, non-verbal facial activities, postural adjustments, non-self-centred gestures and eye closures) were identified using video recording and a behavioural ethogram. Participants demonstrated increased steering deviation over the drive (p&lt;0.001) and following sleep restriction (p&lt;0.001). All non-verbal behaviours, except non-verbal facial activities, increased over the drive (all p&lt;0.01). Compared to normal sleep condition, the incidence rate was 2.1 times higher for eye closures (95%CI 1.75-2.60) and 1.5 times higher for postural adjustments (95%CI 1.29-1.72) following sleep restriction, while non-self-centred gestures reduced by 50% (IRR 0.53, 95%CI 0.36-0.78), all p&lt;0.01. In the 10 minute period prior to simulator crash events, eye closure frequency increased compared to equivalent periods without a crash event 2.1 (95%CI 1.4-3.8, p&lt;0.01). Kaplain-Meier analyses showed a progressive cessation of non-verbal facial activities leading up to crash events (X²=6.2, p=0.013). Although eye-closure appears to be a more sensitive marker of poor vigilance, behavioural observation could provide a novel further method for assessing vigilance failure in OSA and could assist in the development of novel video-based in-car devices for detection of driver sleepiness/ fatigue.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/esw-2019-0012020-10-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of an enclosure rotation on the activity budgets of two captive giant pandas : An observational case studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21913/JDRSSesw.v1i1.1200<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Captive giant pandas are reported in the literature to perform stereotypic behaviours which are considered to be a behavioural indicator of stress. Although environmental enrichment techniques are commonly used to prevent and/or mitigate performance of stereotypic behaviour in captive giant pandas, evaluation of such techniques is rarely undertaken or reported. This study used behavioural observation methodologies to evaluate the impact of an enclosure rotation as enrichment on the activity budgets of two captive giant pandas, Funi and Wang Wang, housed at the Adelaide Zoo in South Australia. Instantaneous time sampling methods were used to record the giant pandas’ behaviour and location in each enclosure at 180-second intervals over a total of 180 hours (132 baseline hours, 48 post-intervention hours). Following the enclosure rotation, Funi demonstrated a reduction in performance of stereotypic pacing (from 11% of scans at baseline to 4% of scans post-intervention), as well as a notable decrease in frequency of performance of stereotypic somersaults with this aberrant behaviour ceasing completely on the 8th day of data collection post-enclosure rotation. Whilst Wang Wang’s performance of stereotypic pacing remained comparably stable across the study period (about 6 – 7% of scans), the enclosure rotation led to a marked increase in sexual communication behaviours and moderate increases in overall activity. Findings from this case study indicate that enclosure rotations may be an effective behavioural enrichment technique for reducing performance of stereotypic behaviours and increasing behavioural repertoire and activity in zoo-housed giant pandas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21913/JDRSSesw.v1i1.12002020-09-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Behavioural observation as a means of assessing sleepiness related driving impairment in obstructive sleep apnoeahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21913/JDRSSesw.v1i1.981<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study compared the temporal pattern of non-verbal behaviours (actions not directly related to task performance) in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) drivers under monotonous driving conditions following sleep restriction versus normal sleep. Seventeen patients with untreated severe OSA completed a 90-minute driving simulator task during mid-afternoon under two experimental conditions: prior normal habitual sleep (~8h) and prior sleep restriction (4h time in bed). Steering deviation and crash events were identified using a driving simulator. Non-verbal behaviours (self-centred gestures, non-verbal facial activities, postural adjustments, non-self-centred gestures and eye closures) were identified using video recording and a behavioural ethogram. Participants demonstrated increased steering deviation over the drive (p&lt;0.001) and following sleep restriction (p&lt;0.001). All non-verbal behaviours, except non-verbal facial activities, increased over the drive (all p&lt;0.01). Compared to normal sleep condition, the incidence rate was 2.1 times higher for eye closures (95%CI 1.75-2.60) and 1.5 times higher for postural adjustments (95%CI 1.29-1.72) following sleep restriction, while non-self-centred gestures reduced by 50% (IRR 0.53, 95%CI 0.36-0.78), all p&lt;0.01. In the 10 minute period prior to simulator crash events, eye closure frequency increased compared to equivalent periods without a crash event 2.1 (95%CI 1.4-3.8, p&lt;0.01). Kaplain-Meier analyses showed a progressive cessation of non-verbal facial activities leading up to crash events (X²=6.2, p=0.013). Although eye-closure appears to be a more sensitive marker of poor vigilance, behavioural observation could provide a novel further method for assessing vigilance failure in OSA and could assist in the development of novel video-based in-car devices for detection of driver sleepiness/ fatigue.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21913/JDRSSesw.v1i1.9812020-01-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Can pregnant women accurately report snoring? A pilot studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21913/JDRSSesw.v1i1.1219<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sleep-Disordered Breathing (SDB) has been associated with possible negative outcomes, such as preeclampsia and foetal growth restriction. SDB screening tools have been developed for use within general populations. These included the use of self-reports and objective measurements. Seventeen pregnant women within their 34th to 37th week of pregnancy were recruited. Participants undertook an overnight study within their home and SDB symptoms were monitored using the Watch-PAT 200 and an infra-red video camera. The women were administered an online questionnaire comprised of the Multivariable Apnea Risk Index (MAP Index) and the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire (BNSQ). More than half of our participants (n = 10) were identified as snorers while much fewer (n = 4) met the current cut off for diagnosis of mild SDB. Investigation of concordance and predictive value of self-report measures compared to standard video-scoring and Watch-PAT 200 determined SDB indicators suggests that self-reports may not provide an accurate assessment of SBD symptoms in late pregnancy. Self-report in this study, resulted in an underestimation of the number of participants who experienced SDB symptoms. This was a pilot study, with a small sample size. However, our study lends weight to others that found poor predictive value of common scales to detect SDB in pregnancy. Future study is therefore needed to validate screening tools, which may need to be a combination of measures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21913/JDRSSesw.v1i1.12192022-09-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of returning to a daytime schedule on sleep, performance and mood after simulated fixed and rotating split shift scheduleshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21913/JDRSSesw.v1i1.1224<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Split shift schedules which minimise consecutive hours awake and maintain adequate total sleep time per 24h may be a suita-ble alternative to long shifts. However, when returning to a daytime schedule (RTDS), performance and sleep deficits may occur as a result of changing the timing of sleep and wake periods. The first aim of the current study was to check whether fixed and rotating split shift schedules with 20h time in bed (TIB) per 48h minimised cumulative deficits in sleep, performance and mood. The second aim was to investigate whether RTDS following these shift schedules had a negative impact on sleep, per-formance and mood. Twenty four participants (10M, 21-36y) completed a 9-day laboratory study with two 10h baseline sleeps (22:00h-08:00h); one of three shift conditions for four 24h periods: one of two 6h on / 6h off schedules, (Fixed A: 5h TIB at 03:00h/15:00h, or Fixed B: 5h TIB at 09:00h/21:00h), or an 8h on / 8h off schedule (Rotating: 6h40 TIB); and RTDS with 10h TIB for 2-nights (22:00h-08:00h). Psychomotor vigilance was stable throughout the shift schedule period. Subjective sleepi-ness (p&lt;0.001), positive affect (p&lt;0.01) and negative affect (p&lt;0.001) were all significantly worse by the second 48h shift schedule period (SS2) compared to baseline (BL). Amount of Stage R sleep was significantly lower by SS2 compared to BL. Subjective sleepiness and positive affect returned to BL levels upon RTDS. Negative affect was significantly higher than BL upon RTDS (p&lt;0.001). Stage R sleep was not significantly different to BL upon RTDS, however amount of N3 sleep upon RTDS was significantly reduced compared to BL in the Fixed B condition. For all conditions, sleep onset latency, N2 onset latency and N3 onset latency were significantly longer during RTDS compared to baseline (p&lt;0.05). Consistent with previous litera-ture, split shift schedules did not result in cumulative impairments to sleep and performance. However, findings suggest that workers may still experience sleepiness and worsened mood. Switching back to a daytime schedule may also result in delays in falling asleep and also deep sleep</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21913/JDRSSesw.v1i1.12242022-09-30T00:00:00.000+00:00A behavioural modification intervention to reduce snack food consumption focusing on external situational cues: The case study you can’t read between meals without ruining your appetite!https://sciendo.com/article/10.21913/JDRSSesw.v1i1.1221<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Currently, obesity is a leading threat to optimal health and wellbeing in Australia. Offsetting risks of acute and chronic disease and disability, a balanced diet offers a sound investment against premature morbidity and mortality commonly associated with obesity. Demonstrated empirically to lead to weight gain, consumption of snack foods lacking in nutritional value (“indulgences”) threatens a healthy lifestyle and is as prevalent as 90% in some populations. Thus, finding strategies to counteract habitual snacking on “indulgences” is imperative. External stimuli (objects, events or people) can influence food consumption. Changing exposure to external cues may be used to reduce snacking. This case study (n=1) investigated effects of a behavioural modification intervention using classical and operant conditioning techniques to reduce snack food ingestion over one week. Specifically, modifications to situational cues including meal versus snack schema activation and a fixed-interval sweet reward provided a holistic ‘internal-external’ environmental strategic approach. One hypothesis was proposed; the intervention would be associated with a reduction in snack food consumption during the seven-day intervention period. Results indicated the number of snacks consumed was significantly reduced during the intervention. While methodological limitations precluded causal claims and strength and direction of relationships, evidence supported a behavioural modification approach to reduce snacking. Moreover, results demonstrate the complexity of human eating behaviours, Rather than attributing overeating to individual “choice,” findings highlight a number of situational factors that may be altered to reduce snacking on indulgent foods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21913/JDRSSesw.v1i1.12212022-09-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The art of train driving: Flexing the boundaries to manage risk within an inflexible systemhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21913/JDRSSesw.v1i1.1228ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21913/JDRSSesw.v1i1.12282022-09-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1