rss_2.0EU agrarian Law FeedSciendo RSS Feed for EU agrarian Law agrarian Law Feed Aspects of the Quinoa Imports Into the EU<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Quinoa is known in the EU as superfood due to the high level of protein, fibre, micronutrients, and amino acids. It is come from South America; however, quinoa is currently grown in various parts of the world. Nevertheless, the domestic continent, especially countries such as Peru and Bolivia, is one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of quinoa. One third of Peru’s quinoa production is imported to European Union. Despite the conclusion of an agreement with Peru and Bolivia that eliminated quinoa tariffs, there are many legal regulations of the EU that affects import of quinoa into the EU countries including the food safety and quality, food labelling, organic labels and nutrition and health claims, food packaging and shipment. The article deals with the most important EU legal norms of quinoa imports that must be complied with when importing quinoa.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Agricultural Policy in the EU and the Ministry of Agriculture in the Czech Republic with a Focus on Environmental and Consumer Protection and Support for Smes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The common agricultural policy and the implementation of this policy represent a relatively high part of the costs in the EU budget. From this point of view, the content of the common agricultural policy is important to meet both the primary objective (production of agricultural products) and the secondary objectives (sustainable development, soil protection, consumer and environmental protection).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Waste Management Program: Case Study of Self–Government Unit of Bački Petrovac in Serbia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As part of the negotiations for EU accession, the Republic of Serbia through Chapter 27 (Poglavlje 27 u Srbiji: Napredak pod ključem<sup>(1)</sup>), has begun the process of establishing a waste management system and adapting it to the goals and acquis communautaire<sup>(2)</sup>. The key document in Serbia that aims for environmental awareness is called the Waste Management Program of the Republic of Serbia. Followed by the Waste Management Program of the Republic of Serbia, the Regional Waste Management Plan for 2019–2028 has been created and is addressing waste management and establishing a Regional Centre in the city of Novi Sad for Waste Management. Furthermore, the Local Waste Management Plan for the self–government unit of Bački Petrovac has been adopted in May 2021.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Overview of Selected Tools and Strategies for Agricultural Land Protection in Slovakia and the European Union<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Agricultural land, as a component of the environment, is one of the irreplaceable natural resources and, at the same time, through its functions, is an integral part of the quality of human lives. Several international institutions or scientists point to problems with land loss or decline in quality and, ultimately, to the increased need for soil protection, based on which governments implement various tools. The aim of the paper is therefore to compile a general overview of existing tools for the protection of agricultural land in Slovakia and to analyse selected strategies for land protection in the EU. The main source of information was represented by literary sources of publications by scientific researchers, Slovak and European bodies or institutions, and, last but not least, legal acts. The paper points to a wide range of existing tools and innovative strategies for the protection of agricultural land in Slovakia and the EU.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Regulation of Unfair Trade Practices in Food Supply Chain<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Recent changes in concentration in the EU markets affected also the organisation of the food supply chains. These significant changes severely impacted especially small and medium–sized enterprises which are likely to be exposed to unfair trading practices. Imbalances in bargaining power between large and small enterprises lead to competition inequalities and unfair trade practices that need a specific legislation governance. This paper provides an overview of the Slovak and EU legislation regulating unfair trade practices in agro–food sector. The main aim of both the European and Slovak legal acts regulating unfair trading practices is to ensure protection and fair income for businesses and quality and wider choice for consumers. In addition, the article also brings the overview of the EU directive transposition to the legal framework of individual EU member states.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue–Border Public Procurement in the European Union<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Joint cross–border public procurement is a public procurement procedure in which a contract is awarded jointly by contracting authorities from two or more Member States. Such an approach con-tributes to the fulfilling potential offered by the EU Single Market. The aim of the paper is to con-tribute to the analytical results focused on the evaluation of joint cross–border procurement. The results are processed on the basis of data selected from TED. The results show that this approach in public procurement is not commonly used by contracting authorities. The use of this approach is dominated by the supply of services and the use of open procedure as a tendering procedure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Soil as a Pathway to Healthy Food in the EU – Project Information<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Globalization and the pressure to increased industrial agriculture result in deterioration of the environment, climate change and a serious threat to human and animal health. Soil contamination affected by the environmental pollution is one of the most pressing issues in the political and expert debate on food safety within the related EU policies as Common Agricultural Policy, EU agri-environmental, EU food policy and EU health policy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Tools in International Environmental Law<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Environmental law concepts are expressed in conventions, international binding laws, state practice and soft law commitments. They may be applicable to all foreign community members. These are widely recognized and even approved in the practice of the state.</p> <p>A special feature of international environmental law is that many environmental issues are governed by non–binding soft–law instruments that allow faster responses to international environmental issues. Governments tend to resist legally binding treaty regulation for different reasons but are much more likely to adopt a written action plan or resolution, at least voicing a political will to address an issue. The numerous constitutional standards of several countries must be followed when negotiating international agreements: for example, the way the national parliament must approve and enforce a treaty. The paper investigates the regulation system of international environmental law.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Legislative Support in the Waste Sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the waste sector, EU Member States implement EU legislation. They rely on EU Directives and their waste legislation and policies. During the evaluated period (2015–2021), the Slovak Republic amended the Waste Act 79/2015 Coll. and issued strategy papers following EU legislation. France adopted its National program for prevention of waste and Finland its National waste management plan. In our research, we use a method of comparison and analysis of selected legislative documents to examine the achievement of the Green Deal’s objectives in the Slovak Republic and selected EU countries. We have shown the legislative process results through research, which indicate the achievement of set waste management goals. In our future research we will focus on building waste management infrastructure in the EU since it is necessary to apply the idea promoting the support of such waste treatment facilities that will be sustainable throughout their existence.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Conditions for Trade in Biological Material of Farm Animals from a Health Perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article addresses issues related to the movement of livestock biological material that is used for reproduction. Its movement may be accompanied by the spread of pathogens. To avoid this, specific instruments have been adopted at EU and national level. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the legal standards adopted in this field, which shape the circulation of biological material in the aspect of livestock health safety. In conclusion, it was stated that the normative solutions established at the EU level lead to the unification and harmonization of conditions concerning trade in biological material of livestock, and thus meet the objectives set out in it. Nevertheless, national regulations should be modified in this respect and supported by executive acts allowing for full implementation of the EU solutions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Selected Indicators Pointing at the Current Condition and Importance of Agricultural Land Protection in Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Agricultural land is currently protected by many subjects and institutions. The characteristics of the soil in terms of its functions and importance for individuals or society from perspectives of several scientific disciplines is dealt with by several authors. The aim of the paper is to point out the current state and importance of the agricultural land protection in Slovakia in connection with the threats that affect its quantity and overall quality. The indicators as the area of agricultural land and the structure of the land fund, the evolution of agricultural land withdrawals for non-agricultural purposes and the current state or structure of legislation and institutions in the field of agricultural land protection in Slovakia were evaluated. The paper pointed out the important role of agricultural land in the country, as its area, especially with the majority of arable land and permanent grasslands, represents the majority of the total area of Slovakia. For several years, however, the volume of agricultural land has been steadily declining. This phenomenon is partly caused by the agricultural land withdrawals, which have now managed to stabilize at an average of 1000ha of withdrawn land per year. In Slovakia, there is currently a large number of legislative acts regulating the protection and agricultural land withdrawals, as well as a wide range of state and non-state institutions that operate in the field of agricultural land protection. The effectiveness of the implementation of legislation and the effectiveness of mutual cooperation of institutions seems questionable focusing on the current state of the land fund, which leads to the need to expand research on these aspects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Book “The Legal and Economic Aspects of Associations and Agricultural Producers in Selected Countries of The World” by Aneta Suchoń (Editor) in Legal Regulations as a Way of Improving Water Management in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents 9 water alerts illustrating the state and problems of water management in Poland three years after the entry of the new Water Act into force on January 1, 2018. The alerts were developed by a group of experts critically assessing some of the introduced legislative changes. The alerts analyzed the main problems related to drought and flood protection as well as the specificity of water management in cities and rural areas. Postulates to improve the legal regulations in the field of water management and financing, its integration with spatial planning and educational needs in this regard were also presented. The content of 8 alerts is briefly discussed, and the problem of water–agriculture interaction is presented in more detail. The article indicates that legal regulations of water management are particularly difficult as they apply to the entire society, almost all economic sectors and the natural environment, and its preparation must be carried out with extreme care after many analyzes and debates.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Soil and Healthy Food in the Jean Monnet Project<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Soil quality issues, together with issues related to healthy food, are becoming key areas of interest at the European level. Both spheres play an important role in the formulation of EU policies such as the EU Common Agricultural Policy, EU Agri–environmental Policy, EU Food Policy but also EU Health Policy. For this reason, deepening knowledge and exchanging experiences in these areas seem to be necessary preconditions for finding ways to respond to current challenges and problems. The project “Quality Soil as a Pathway to Healthy Food in the EU”, acronym FOODIE, also reacts on the mentioned issues. The main aim of the project is to foster an expertise dialogue between the crucial experts (academics, public authorities, professionals from practice) in the field of food/feed management in the EU affecting the achieving the objectives of correlated EU policies and recently adopted European Green Deal.</p> <p>The presented paper is of a disseminating nature and aims to acquaint the reader with the mentioned project.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impacts of Food Taboos and Preferences on Food Security in Developing Countries: Evidence from Ethiopia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Food norms are embodied within all the essential components of food security; availability, access, utilization, and stability. However, the adverse economic influences of these norms are largely under–researched in developing countries. Unique in its scoop, this study thus investigates the impacts of food taboos and preferences (FTP) on food security in Ethiopia, one of the world’s food–insecure nations combined with a culture of strict food norms. On the basis of a qualitative research design with semi–structured in–depth interviews, primary data was collected from eleven key informants of pertinent multidisciplinary backgrounds, experts and decision–makers. The empirical evidence revealed that religious and secular– based FTP have put significant restrictions on the efficient utilization of the existing edible resources in the country. For example, during Orthodox Christian (OC) and Muslim fasting days, the overall food supply chain undergoes economic turbulence. Particularly, the economic challenge of OC fasting is expressed by (1) a decrease in consumption and supply of non–vegan foods, (2) the temporary closure of butcher and dairy shops, (3) an increase in the demand and price of vegan foods, and (4) an overall reduction in consumption and economic transactions. Moreover, the tradition of animal consecration at home has made many Ethiopians to rarely depend on supermarkets, groceries, and other licensed meat shops. In turn, this impedes the country’s endeavor of attracting local and foreign private investors in the general food sector. It also alienates people from access to food labels, meat quality controls, price, size, and choice advantages, all of which are essential for better, adaptive, and stable food utilization. The results discovered in this thesis enrich our understanding on the role of food norms in the economic systems. Particularly, the study sheds light on the indispensable need to consider the subject of FTP in policies and programs aiming to end food insecurity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Tax in Local Government<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Currently the land tax causes difficulties to the managers of agricultural and forest land as it does not fulfill its historical function. Stagnant market for agricultural products together with damages caused by climate changes (floods or droughts) brings complications to the land managers by decreasing their profit. The research focuses on an analysis of land tax in Central Europe and its functioning as a municipal economic tool taking into account environmental protection and usage of nonrenewable resources. The article offers suggestions for municipalities with regard to changes in land taxation which are derived from their influence on agricultural and forest land usage.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Legal Regulation of the Direct Support of Agriculture in The Period of 2004 – 2013<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The Accession Treaty allowed the new Member States to temporarily establish a different system of payment subsidies in agriculture, compared to the system in force in the old Member States. It is a system of the so called Single Area Payment Scheme (SAPS). This system can be used in the Slovak Republic until the end of 2013. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the rules for the direct support of agriculture within the SAPS and its actual implementation in the period 2004 - 2013.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Legal Regulation of Rental Contracts on the Land Rental Market in Slovakia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Rented land accounted for 53% of the total agricultural area at EU-27 level in 2009. Rented land as a proportion of total utilized agricultural area in Slovakia (UAA) is one of the highest (FADN, 2009). That is why land rent plays a very important role. Therefore, the Slovak law maker approved special legal regulation to stabilize the long-term rent of agricultural land. The paper analyses how these legal norms affect the behaviour of the land tenants doing their business activities in the agriculture. Within the paper, the development of the market farmland prices and farmland rental payments development with the administrative land prices and rental payments stipulated by the Slovak national law is analysed. Based on the research results we found out that prices of arable land have statistically significantly increased. In spite of these facts the market prices are still lower than their administrative prices(1) especially in the case of farmland of the highest quality. According to the results the rent payment for one hectare of land is not influenced by the minimum rent payment stipulated by law. Contrary, minimum rental period stipulated by law, legal forms of agricultural enterprises and quality of land have significant impact on the rental payments. The larger acreage of land of one agricultural businessman press down the land rent payments. The legal forms of enterprises as well as the land rent period belong to the dominant factors which influence the land rent payment. (1) Administrative price is a price of farmland stipulated by the law.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Limits of The European and French (New?) Approach on Production Contracts, Interbranch and Producers Organisations<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> From the Single CMO Regulation (Council Regulation (EC) No 1234/2007 of 22 October 2007 establishing a common organization of agricultural markets and on specific provisions for certain agricultural products), the European common law is looking for a new challenge when the French law has been already partially reformed (Law n° 2010 - 874 of 27th of July 2010 and Décret n° 2010 - 1753 of 30th of December 2010). In both cases, Legislators would like to firstly fight against the dispersion of organizing farmer’s concentration in front of food processors (agro processing industry) and supermarkets (food distribution sector); secondly, they try to make the contracts more transparent requiring writing forms. Thus, it deals with the way farmers (farmers or producers Organizations) organize their relationships: what are the opportunities and limitations, what are the new points and specificities in this institutional law? It also deals with contracts requirements, options and freedom the partners may have. Overall this paper may represent a way to think about the meanings and the spirit of the common organization of agricultural markets reform: will it be the good answer face to the successive agricultural economic crises; it is not sure... </p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Union Water Policy in Aspect of Rural Areas Development<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Agriculture and environment are among others the most important priorities of the European Union. Agriculture is strongly influenced by the state of the environment, including water resources. In addition to many other policies, the EU water policy is crucial for the sustainable development of rural areas. Directives are the main tools for implementation of water policy. This article contains an overview of the directives on aspects of quality and quantity of water resources. Within the paper three most important agricultural areas of the Directive are characterized: the Water Framework Directive, the Floods Directive and the Nitrates Directive. Presented mandatory EU action aimed at their implementation and the problems associated with it. Current proposals for changes in the EU water policy are described.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue