rss_2.0East-West Cultural Passage FeedSciendo RSS Feed for East-West Cultural Passage Cultural Passage Feed A New Turn in Translation Studies? Comparative Study of LIQUID Metaphors in English and Romanian Economic Language<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article discusses the economic terminology of English and Romanian from the perspective of Conceptual Metaphor Theory, focusing on the way in which the two languages employ lexical items from the semantic field of liquids in relation to the economy. The approach used here is both quantitative and qualitative. Thus, the study analyses the dictionary distribution in the two languages of words and phrases that fit the LIQUID metaphor of the economy, and tries to formulate statistical conclusions regarding the importance of this metaphor in shaping the vocabulary of the subject. The results of the quantitative analysis are illustrated with examples from economic publications, with an emphasis on those cases where English and Romanian do not share the same conceptual metaphors, and which could thus prove problematic for learners of Business English as well as for professionals working with the two languages. Metaphor researchers studying English and Romanian generally agree that English is more metaphorical in the way it discusses economic phenomena. However, dictionaries and newspaper articles may differ in the extent to which they follow this prediction, with the latter showing a higher density of metaphorical language than the former.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Identities: How Cultural Choices Shape Character Perception in<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article undertakes a comparative analysis of the English and Chinese voice-lines of specific characters in <italic>Genshin Impact – </italic>a well-known open world role-playing video game developed by Mihoyo Technology <italic>– </italic>and examines the cultural implications that might have led to varied translations. By closely scrutinizing linguistic adaptations and cultural nuances, the study aims to shed light on how these differences in translation significantly influence the perception of characters among their respective audiences globally. The research delves into the complex choices made by translators and their impact on character representation, addressing the discourse on the interplay between language and culture, and how these intersect with in-game narratives. In doing so, the article not only offers valuable insights into the intricacies of cross-cultural adaptation in regards to video game localization, but also contributes to a broad understanding of how linguistic choices actively shapes the audience’s perception when navigating the immersive world of <italic>Genshin Impact</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Transfer in Translation. Seamus Heaney’s Poetry: A Case Study<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present article sets out to investigate the rendering of cultural elements in the process of poetry translation, an undertaking that is a strenuous one, given the constraints of form. It looks into and illustrates the many layers of Seamus Heaney’s poetry, pointing at the profusion of allusions to cultural aspects that are embedded in the texts, and that ask the translator to decide whether to “foreignize” or “domesticate” the text. These extratextual features that a translator needs to consider are imbricated with the various textual elements, generating effects that are difficult to replicate in translation, making similarity of effect all the more difficult to achieve.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Problematic Humour in Gender-Focused<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Broadcast from the early 1960s until the early 1970s, <italic>Bewitched </italic>was brought into being with the intention of providing the conventional American family with a constructive emotional outlet for when they would all gather around the TV and spend quality time together. The key demographic at that time consisted of young to middle-aged couples or newlyweds with or without children, basically the real-life versions of the characters portrayed in the show. Nowadays, the target audience has considerably diminished in number as the beloved TV series is no longer on TV. It remains available online for cinephiles and movie amateurs alike. The aim of this article is to methodically translate and analyse the potential setbacks of various comic and outdated instances encountered in the TV show <italic>Bewitched</italic>. It also consists of a thorough investigation of possible problematic linguistic aspects, as well as different sources of humour. Moreover, the target audience will be provided with alternatives in translation and additional explanations and reasonings behind the choices made.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Visually Impaired Translators and Interpreters in Romania: Available Tools and Inclusive Teaching Methods<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article explores the teaching methods used in university classes of Translation and Interpreting with visually impaired students. It is the first essay on this topic applied to the context of Romania. Therefore, it offers basic suggestions of implementing international teaching methods for visually impaired students in Translation and Interpreting in Romanian universities, while also raising awareness about the challenges they face. The literature review is divided into two categories: digital skills and professional skills. In presenting the most essential digital skills a visually impaired translator and interpreter must acquire, the article makes reference to Kornacki’s model which groups technologies according to the necessary skills. The professional skills are discussed in three articles from two different universities, namely the University of Trieste in Italy and the University of Mainz/Germersheim in Germany. The German study described in two articles – one in German and its shorter version in English – gives a detailed perspective on the topic, being the core of the theoretical ideas mentioned in this article. The knowledge acquired by reading this article will most certainly lead Romanian professors to using the optimal approach when teaching emerging visually impaired translators and interpreters. The teaching methods can be put into practice if the right equipment is available and accessibility is implemented in all aspects regarding translation and interpreting.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Flux: Revisiting the Past, Envisioning the Future<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Translation and translators are emerging as powerful catalysts for promoting vibrant cross-cultural interaction among individuals from different backgrounds. Commonly perceived as the process of converting content from one language to another, translation is a nuanced and multifaceted endeavor that transcends mere linguistic conversion. Translators act as adept mediators, deftly navigating the intricate web of diverse texts and cultures while shaping their uniquely insightful perspectives. This article explores the rich historical dimensions of translation, highlighting its deep connections to philosophical beliefs and socio-political dynamics. It also aims to enhance our understanding of the complex nature of this practice by dissecting various dichotomies in translation studies, including contrasting philosophical views of translation and divergent approaches to the art of translation. In today’s interconnected world, the role of the translator has become increasingly indispensable, underscoring that translation goes beyond mere words; it serves as a mirror that reflects the ever-evolving globalized landscape. To chart a path forward, we must recognize the importance of revisiting the past, drawing wisdom from history, and gaining valuable insights for the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Problems Posed by Drama Translation: Translating and Adapting Samuel Beckett’s for the Radio. A Case Study<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present article aims at presenting features specific to translating dramatic texts, the peculiarities of the genre and how these can be tackled in the process of translating. The case study comprises an analysis of the translation and adaptation for radio broadcasting of Samuel Beckett’s <italic>Krapp’s Last Tape</italic>. Theoreticians have constantly pointed out that drama translators should always focus on the performability, speakability, gestural and aural dimensions of the text, given that the final product has to be playable in front of an audience. The ultimate goal is to obtain a text that sounds natural and is easily understood, where the aural and gestural dimensions fit and work together. In order to make the translated text performable in another medium, certain changes are necessary. In the present case study – adapting a play for radio broadcasting –, everything visual becomes aural, and in this process stage directions are the most challenging to be handled. Adding, omitting or rephrasing are options that the translator has to constantly consider.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Morini. . Bloomsbury Academic, 2022. Pp. 166. ISBN: 978-1-3501-9562-2 (hardcover). the Efficiency and Efficacy of Machine-Assisted Literary Translation: A Case Study for English/Romanian and Romanian/English Machine-Assisted Translation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>“If you translate long into the machine, the machine translates back into you,” is one of the issues the present article strives to establish and explore qualitatively. I intend to examine the effectiveness and efficiency of machine-assisted translations of significant literary works from a hermeneutical perspective. Essentially, I analyse the output of automated translation platforms such as Google Translate and compare them to human translation. This investigation is valuable in determining whether translators should exercise caution when utilizing translation platforms for culturally rich literary works. Additionally, the article scrutinizes the localisation, cultural, and grammatical coherence of Homer’s <italic>The Iliad </italic>translated from English to Romanian using the Google Translate platform. The human translations used are rendered into English and Romanian from Greek. As Homer’s Greek remains incomprehensible to the translation platform, we employ a secondary translation technique for a tertiary machine-assisted output. Nonetheless, this approach highlights the serious pitfalls of using translation platforms haphazardly in translation work. This analysis will show how awareness of the machine’s imperfect translation capabilities may, in turn, enhance the human translator’s awareness of what works while translating with the help of a translation application.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Is Sacred: Being and Non-Being in Sarah Hall’s “Theatre 6”<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The short story “Theatre 6” is one of three post-apocalyptic short stories included in Sarah Hall’s collection <italic>Madame Zero</italic>, first broadcast on BBC Radio 4 in 2013. The story is inspired by the real-life case of Savita Halappanavar, who died of septic shock at Galway University Hospital in 2012 because of being denied an abortion on grounds of septic miscarriage. The text paints a dystopian vision of a not so far away future where the Hunter fetal care act legislatively places the life of unborn babies higher than the one of mothers. The protagonists are a genderless anaesthesiologist, Dr. Rosinski, and a nameless patient, brought to a London hospital in septic shock, following a denied abortion in spite of a miscarriage suffered several days before. The time of narration is uncertain; however, the story is generally taken to be placed in a future where present-day anti-abortion tendencies have taken over the British judicial system. The story discusses the being/non-being dichotomy from a variety of perspectives: life-death, morals-hypocrisy, religion-secularism, male-female, empathy-bureaucracy, truth-duplicity. The ultimate question the text raises is what or whose life is sacred in a world that has jettisoned all semblance of sanity?</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue“My Nine-Digit American-Dream”: Undocumentedness and Unwelcomeness in<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The community-based performance <italic>Do You Know Who I Am?</italic> (2013; Motus Theater, Boulder; dir. Kirsten Wilson) relates the lived experience in the U.S. under the DACA (Deferred Action for Child Arrivals) programme, told by an undocumented Mexican cast. By reclaiming the label ‘undocumented migrants’ whose residency on American land without legal authorisation implies a dehumanising dimension of the ‘illegal alien,’ the cast defines the state of <italic>undocumentedness</italic> as the lived conditions of vulnerability, exploitation, displacement and perpetual fear determined by living under ‘illegality’ and non-citizenship. My purpose is to analyse the stylistic and thematic oratorical components of the dramatic performance in line with the ontological construction of its performers as undocumented – undocumentedness itself becomes a “space of legal nonexistence” in Susan Coutin’s understanding –, unwelcome (by virtue of Derrida’s theorisation of the standards of <italic>hostipitality</italic>), as well as subjects/objects of racial hatred. Immigrants become collective projections of criminality, a threat to the nation within a “we” against “them” horizontal conflict (Ahmed 51). Within this framework, the performance consolidates an ontology of the Mexican migrant rooted in social stigma and the constructedness of labels, and undocumentedness becomes the locus of a collective imaginarium with repercussions on the immigrant’s survival in society.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’s Thunderous Echoes: and<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The <italic>strandentwining</italic> intertext of <italic>Finnegans Wake</italic> both obscures and unveils meaning. The cultural ramifications of James Joyce’s intertext, however, run deep, as he subjects the relevant intertexts to subsequent rewritings in order to multiply meaning. In such context, intertextuality in itself can be likened to a translation, whereby otherness is adapted into a literary space to enable the construction or reconstruction of new significance, thus facilitating a far-reaching cross-cultural dialogue; both author and readers, in turn, assume the role of <italic>poeta doctus</italic> and <italic>litteratus doctus</italic>, respectively. Accordingly, the intertexts Joyce has sewn into the text are in constant transformation both <italic>via</italic> their medium and their audience, as is the case with the Viconian intertext. Giambattista Vico’s <italic>The New Science</italic> was carefully integrated by Joyce into <italic>Finnegans Wake1</italic> and adapted to Irish society; Vico’s philosophical thought, which permeates the <italic>Wake,</italic> provides structure and enables the layering of intertextual units, thus multiplying significations and intended meanings. Vico’s theories on language and history enable diachronic and anachronic explorations within the <italic>Wake</italic>, as well as a simultaneous existence of different systems of thought. Joyce’s use of the thunderwords as a primal linguistic expression, coupled with his creative cultural exploits and the systematic structuring of the <italic>Wake</italic> find their origin in Vico’ <italic>The New Science.</italic></p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Literature: Dictatorship in Junot Díaz’s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article explores the political dimension of Junot Díaz’s work, focusing on the figure of the dictator as depicted in the footnotes to <italic>The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao</italic>, in an attempt to analyze his view of the “dangers of dictatorship” in both literature and politics and to prove that the political attitudes of writers influence the way their literature “does” politics. Thus, a thorough analysis of the footnotes exposes <italic>The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao</italic> as a story about a nerd in New Jersey “dictated” by the narrator, which is challenged by the story of Rafael Leonidas Trujillo who “dictated” the recent history of the Dominican Republic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Reading between the Lines: Old and New Vulnerabilities Afro-Oriental Religious Eco-Political Space and the Modernist Backlash in by Nkemngong Nkengasong and by Cyrus Mistry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article examines the representation of the connection between religious beliefs and the natural environment around sacred places in <italic>God Was African</italic> by Nkemngong Nkengasong and <italic>Chronicles of a Corpse Bearer</italic> by Cyrus Mistry. Comparing the eco-cycle around Zoroastrian Fire Temples, the Towers of Silence in Bombay and the shrines of Fuondem and other gods in Lewoh traditional religion, this article argues that the inter-connectivity between these Parsi-Bangwa religions reveals that gods reside in our immediate environment and only our eco-politics can preserve this supernatural connection. Using ecocriticism, therefore, I contend that the Parsis in India and the Bangwa in Lebialem revere and protect natural abodes of the gods like earth, water, hills, valleys, forests and fire against the devastating environmental crises heralded by the modernist backlash. The modern transformation of these sacred places into sources of generating renewable and artificial energies accounts for the different physical and ideological conflicts that abound in the two novels. As such, by protecting the different forms of life that inhabit these sacred places, this article concludes that Nkengasong’s and Mistry’s eco-poetical language and style in <italic>God Was African</italic> and <italic>Chronicles of a Corpse Bearer</italic> reflect Lewoh traditional religion, Zoroastrianism and the environment, participating in the Afro-Oriental artistic crusade for biophilia and environmentally friendly belief systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Points of Rupture in Eavan Boland’s Poetry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article sets out to explore the ambiguities and points of rupture in the lyrical works of one of the best-known Irish poets of the last fifty years, Eavan Boland. I intend to zoom in on poetic sequences where the text does not flow seamlessly and will try to find possible explanations for these ruptures, illuminating, in the process, the merits of a poet who has tried to recuperate the image of the Irish woman, saving it from stereotypes and cliches. However, I will also shed light on how Boland herself falls prey to more or less the same stereotypes. What the article ultimately does is raise questions which are still waiting for answers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, Defamiliarization and Cognitive Science: Andrew Crumey’s and Richard Powers’<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present article considers two metafictional novels published at the end of the 20<sup>th</sup> century against the background of cognitive literary studies. The formal features of the novels are discussed with a view to the way they defamiliarize various concepts: fiction itself, consciousness, memory, science, art, reading, the internet, artificial intelligence, etc. The novels’ attempts at fostering a dialogue between fiction and the humanities, on the one hand, and science and technology, on the other, are mirrored by the reader’s vacillation between engagement and detachment and the effects of the texts’ self-reflexivity on the reader’s mind.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Morpheme: Cross-Linguistic Occurrences of Phonaesthemic Structures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article below sets out to demonstrate that a long-time underestimated concept in linguistics, the phonaestheme, may find its rightful place in morphological theory alongside the morpheme, traditionally defined as the smallest linguistic unit carrying meaning. The analysis includes a critical survey of literature in the field intended to offer a more comprehensive and integrated theoretical perspective on the nature of the phonaestheme and reject the idea that the sign is exclusively arbitrary. Once this objective has been achieved, the focus of the article will switch to determining how phonaesthemic meaning occurs cross-linguistically and to what extent. In order to achieve this, Margaret Magnus’s phonosemantic classification will be discussed and applied in the case of Romanian phonaesthemes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Equiano’s Biography: Fact or/and Fiction<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article analyzes the documentation available in an attempt to settle the controversy over the “true” date and place of birth of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavo Vassa, the African. Several original documents are analyzed, and the data is compared to the information provided by the author himself in his <italic>The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African. Written by Himself</italic>, first published in London, in 1789. According to these documents (a baptismal record and a muster book), he was not born in Africa, in Igboland (in today’s Nigeria) as he argued in his autobiography, but in South Carolina, as he declared before those who recorded the information in the official documents. The issue of authenticity is more relevant for historical research than for literary criticism; in the case of the latter, the accuracy of the data does not significantly impact upon the literary value of his work. In conclusion, the dispute is pertinent only in the liminal space where the two contexts (historical research and literary analysis) overlap, and it currently operates with information whose relevance and usefulness depend on the framework against which it is judged.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue