rss_2.0ExELL FeedSciendo RSS Feed for ExELLhttps://sciendo.com/journal/EXELLhttps://www.sciendo.comExELL Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/65700bf179f7550bc9e9e33a/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/EXELL140216The power of metaphor in thesis writing processhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2023-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article contributes to the discussion of writing at the master’s level by investigating metaphors underlying the process of writing a master’s thesis from the perspective of graduate students. The analysis focuses on the use of metaphors in semi-structured interviews conducted with graduate students who defended their thesis and reflected on the whole process. Their metaphor use is non-elicited and this rhetorical device is spontaneously used showing that thesis writers conceptualize their research and all it entails in metaphorical terms to a significant extent. Despite the fact that thesis writers themselves were not encouraged to pay attention to or use metaphorical language, their narratives reveal the interplay of metaphors when describing the writing process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2023-00102023-12-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Persuasive strategies in grant recommendation letters written by senior faculty in a Ghanaian universityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2023-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The genre system of grant application has gained attention from researchers in Applied Linguistics, Discourse Studies, and Higher Education. However, the grant recommendation letter (GRL), also known as the “letter of support”, has been understudied in this system. To address this gap, this study examined the persuasive strategies used in GRLs. Using Aristotle’s Theory of Persuasion and a qualitative inductive discourse analysis, we analysed 90 GRLS. The findings revealed that GRLs employ different frequencies of ethos, logos, and pathos to influence the grant committee. The writers primarily emphasised rational justifications for the applicant’s qualifications, while also demonstrating ethos through appropriate personal traits. Personal pronouns were used to perform discursive functions as well. Based on the findings, we offer implications for pedagogy and further research on GRLs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2023-00092023-12-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Resilience in virtual education: Designing and validating a scale in higher educationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2023-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) equips learners in all settings with the knowledge, skills, attributes, and visions essential for coping with the diverse challenges they will encounter in their educational endeavors. The emergence of COVID-19 influenced different aspects of human life including education. Thanks to technology, especially ICT, Virtual Education (VE) provides the opportunity to continue education in such crises. Amidst this pandemic, many students, especially university students, encountered various challenges and impediments that resulted from VE. One of the factors which can affect VE is learners’ resilience. Therefore, it is of high importance to measure university students’ Resilience in Virtual Education (RVE) to recognize the advantages and disadvantages of this type of education and support ESD. The main purpose of this study is to design and validate a comprehensive instrument for measuring university students’ RVE. Furthermore, to confirm the validity and reliability of the instrument, its nexus with a closely related construct, i.e., second language (L2) buoyancy was explored. To measure students’ RVE, a new scale (RVE Scale), comprising 33 items, was designed. It was designed based on the operational definition of academic resilience and was adapted to accommodate the requirements of VE. It measures six aspects of learners’ resilience: emotional, motivational, cognitive, metacognitive, persistence, and sociability. To measure L2 buoyancy, a relevant scale designed by Jahedizadeh et al. (2019) was utilized. It consists of 27 items with four factors; the factors include sustainability, regularity adaptation, positive personal eligibility, and positive acceptance of academic life. A total of 412 university students participated in the present research. The results obtained via Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) substantiated the validity of the newly designed scale and all the factors and items. The results attested to the criterion-related validity of the scale.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2023-00112023-12-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Clause complexing in research-article abstracts: Comparing human- and AI-generated textshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2023-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The ability of chatbots to produce plausible, human-like responses raises questions about the extent of their similarity with original texts. Using a modified version of Halliday’s clause-complexing framework, this study compared 50 abstracts of scientific research articles from Nature with generated versions produced by Bard, ChatGPT, and Poe Assistant. None of the chatbots matched the original abstracts in all categories. The only chatbot that came closest was ChatGPT, but differences in the use of finite adverbial clauses and –<italic>ing</italic> elaborating clauses were detected. Incorporating distinct grammatical features in the algorithms of AI-detection tools is crucially needed to enhance the reliability of their results. A genre-based approach to detecting AI-generated content is recommended.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2023-00082023-12-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Power relations through the prism of critical discourse analysis and systemic functional grammarhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2023-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper aims to evaluate the role of language in a specific socio-political context. It offers a critical approach and evaluation of the political statements of the European Union representatives regarding the process of the accession of Bosnia and Hercegovina to the European Union. The focus of the linguistic investigation is on the identification of language structures that participate in the development of communicative models that enable the establishment of power relations between participating entities. The linguistic data is obtained through systemic functional grammar and evaluated using critical discourse analysis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2023-00072023-11-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Homogeneity and heterogeneity in lexical stress placement among Ugandan speakers of English as an L2: a view from usage-based perspectivehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2023-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study delineates divergences that set apart the Ugandan accent from RP with respect to primary lexical stress placement, as well as divergences that evince variability among Ugandans. For example, differences from RP were (almost) homogenously observed in the words <italic>effect, cassava, agreement</italic>, <italic>arrest, alarm</italic>, with stress placed on the first syllable of all these nouns, while inter-speaker variability was substantially observed in words such as <italic>bursar, further,</italic> with some speakers placing stress on both syllables of the words, while others had the stress on the first syllable only. Analogy and underlying substrate influence account for the divergences, with substrate influence considered along the lines of what Wells (1982) refers to as ‘lexical distribution.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2023-00062023-11-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Acquisition of English nominal suffix - by advanced EFL learners: a view from usage-based perspectivehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2023-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study investigated advanced Croatian EFL learners’ knowledge of five meanings of the English nominal (deverbal) suffix -<italic>er</italic>. It probed their ability to comprehend and produce corpus-rare and presumably unentrenched -<italic>er</italic> nouns in their prototypical agent and instrument meanings and their non-prototypical patient, locative, and causative meanings. It was hypothesized that participants would deal effortlessly with agent and instrument meanings of the low-frequency nouns since the corpus-attested high type frequency of -<italic>er</italic> agents and instruments, among others, suggests the existence of productive corresponding schemas. We hypothesized that participants would struggle with patient, locative and causative meanings of the low-frequency nouns since the corpus-attested low type frequency of the three functions arguably does not support their association with -<italic>er</italic>. A recognition and a production test were administered to two separate groups of English majors at a Croatian public university (n = 131). Results confirm general usage-based predictions about better performance with low-frequency agent and instrument -<italic>er</italic> nouns. However, a detailed examination reveals unexpected results, which confirm that frequency, however important, is not the only factor to include in a future model of EFL learners’ derivational proficiency.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2023-00052023-11-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Examining the key factors behind foreign language anxiety (FLA) in online teaching of English for Specific Purposes (ESP)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Though foreign language anxiety (FLA) has long been recognized as an important affective factor in second language learning, its impact is worth studying in new educational contexts of emergency remote teaching in response to the COVID-19 outbreak. The present study examines the key factors behind FLA in online teaching of English for Specific Purposes (ESP). The research was conducted among a sample of 171 first-year undergraduate university students of Economics &amp; Business economics and Informatics at the Juraj Dobrila University of Pula, Croatia, during the winter semester of 2020/2021. The research instrument used was a 33-item questionnaire adapted from the FLCAS scale (Horwitz et al., 1986) to reflect the online ESP classroom environment. The main results indicate that various background factors, such as gender, self-assessed levels of proficiency, length of learning English and frequency of English language use, significantly influence the reported levels of language anxiety. Furthermore, the study establishes the underlying structure of FLA, with five factors positively correlated with overall language anxiety at the. 01 level of statistical significance: speech anxiety, evaluation and comprehension anxiety, online ESP classroom environment, anxiety of talking to native speakers, and lack of motivation for online class attendance. Finally, multiple regression analysis shows that the five aspects of FLA, alongside the variables of gender and self-assessed pronunciation proficiency, represent statistically significant predictors of the total level of FLA among online ESP learners. The other independent variables are confirmed to be unreliable in predicting the overall level of language anxiety in an online ESP classroom.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2022-00052022-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Through linguo-stylistic analysis to a new retranslation of the ballad “Hasanaginica“https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The new retranslation of the ballad “Hasanaginica” brings about an interpretation grounded in comprehensive scholarly research, which a linguo-stylistic analysis of both its source text (ST) and 25 published (re)translations represent. This retranslation is designed to make a notable difference reflected in its aspiration to achieve optimal equivalence on all levels of expression, minding its metrics, rhythm, sound figures, as much as its lexical choices and syntactic structures. One of the paper’s main aims is to compensate for the linguistic and stylistic flaws recognized in the previous translations of this ballad, which were not always erroneous deviations from a semantic correspondence, but interpretations informed by a fundamental incomprehension of the religio-cultural circumstances shaping the world of the ballad.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2022-00062022-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The analysis of youth-related anglicisms among Bosnian youth - knowledge of their original form and meaning and attitudes towards themhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The importance of the English language in a contemporary globalized world leads to borrowing of English words into many languages, including Bosnian. The current research investigates the knowledge of the original English written form and translation of the English-origin youth-related words (anglicisms) among young native speakers of Bosnian. The study included 345 Bosnian and Herzegovinian high school students, both males and females, in 9 cities. The findings revealed that the usage of Anglicisms among Bosnian youth is not so frequent and that young people in Bosnia and Herzegovina are more familiar with the original written forms than with their translation/synonyms in the Bosnian language. Moreover, knowledge of these two forms of anglicisms shows variation only relative to a grade in English, while gender and age were found to be irrelevant. Also, no difference was shown in the knowledge of anglicisms in different fields: sports, fashion, and science and technology. Further research is recommended to study these and other youth-related anglicisms on a larger population sample.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2022-00072022-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Teacher target language input and young learners’ aural comprehension of Englishhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2022-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The quantity of target language input available to learners contributes to the understanding of target language development. The present paper reports on a longitudinal study of the relationship between the amount of non-native teachers’ EFL input and learners’ aural achievement in instructed SLA. Young learners (N=132) were followed over a three-year period. High variability in teacher use of EFL was found. Results of correlational analyses and group comparisons pointed to a longitudinal advantage of participants exposed to instruction dominated by teacher target language use during their first two years of formal EFL learning. Directions for future research on the use of different languages and their relation to learners’ achievement are discussed in the context of early formal foreign language study.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2022-00012022-03-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Intertextuality in media discourse: A reader’s perspectivehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2022-0003<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article is a part of a research project on how intertextuality is perceived by readers of media texts. The focus of the article is on how intertextual references are recognized, interpreted, and substituted by EFL respondents. Based on the results of the survey, conclusions are drawn to address the following research questions – whether respondents can recognize intertextual references as such in the context, whether they can interpret an utterance despite failing to detect intertextual segments, and whether there exists a correspondence between recognizability of an intertextual reference and attempts at defining and/or replacing it. This paper is an attempt to empirically verify theoretical views on intertextuality. The results of the survey provide insights into how intertextuality is perceived by respondents.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2022-00032022-03-08T00:00:00.000+00:00An analysis of lexicogrammatical development in English textbooks in Turkey: A usage-based construction grammar approachhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2022-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article measures the syntactic development indices in grade 5-12 English textbooks in Turkey. Through a usage-based construction grammar approach, it argues that the textbooks show an inconsistent development in verb-argument constructions (VAC) and other usage-based indices. The study employs an automatic software tool that detects variations in these indices and runs a statistical analysis on a corpus compiled by the author. Statistically significant results demonstrate that textbooks lack lexicogrammatical variation. As such, learners who use these textbooks are likely to experience a limited array of VACs that are limited in lemma-construction combinations. Findings also indicate that learners may not be exposed to the conventional usage patterns and frequencies of VACs when compared against a reference corpus. These findings may have an influence on the learners’ generalization process, their low-proficiency level in English, and poor idiomatic uses of the language.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2022-00022022-03-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Euphemistic strategies in Algerian Arabic and American Englishhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2022-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study aims to explore the use of euphemistic strategies by Algerians and Americans when dealing with three unpleasant topics: death, lying, and disease. It also examines the effect of degree of formality on the use of euphemistic strategies. To achieve this objective, a discourse completion task (DCT) was distributed to 21 Algerians and 21 Americans. The data were analysed using SPSS. The data analysis revealed that there are some differences and similarities between the two groups. The euphemistic strategies used by the Americans when they deal with death topics are <italic>synonyms</italic> and <italic>part for the whole</italic>. The Algerians use <italic>part for the whole, overstatement,</italic> and <italic>synonyms</italic> when they deal with death. Regarding the topic of lying, the Americans employ strategies of <italic>understatement</italic> and <italic>deletion</italic>, whereas the Algerians use <italic>understatement</italic> and <italic>metaphor</italic>. As for the topic of disease, the Americans use <italic>vagueness</italic>, and the Algerians use <italic>vagueness</italic>, <italic>metaphor</italic>, and <italic>deletion</italic>. These findings reveal that both groups resort to euphemism when dealing with these three unpleasant topics. However, their use of euphemistic strategies is culture-bound.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2022-00042022-03-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Differences in EFL learners’ burnout levels and receptive language skills with regard to the mindfulness-based instructionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2021-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The main aim of education is to provide students with academic knowledge and skills. In this process, some students experience burnout, which negatively affects their productivity and effectiveness. This study experimentally examines the impact of mindfulness-based instruction on burnout and students’ achievement in receptive language skills among 64 learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) via a mixed-methods approach (QUAN→ qual) within a single framework. The techniques implemented in the experimental group, i. e. 32 participants, included <italic>observance of all experience</italic>, <italic>analyzing</italic>, <italic>planning</italic>, <italic>judging</italic>, <italic>reasoning</italic>, and <italic>fantasizing</italic> (van Vreeswijk et al., 2014). Furthermore, the techniques were inspired by Pirson et al. (2012) conceptualization that mindfulness comprises novelty producing, novelty seeking, engagement, and flexibility. The results of posttest revealed these techniques efficiently enhanced the abovementioned variables.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2021-00042021-08-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Corpus based study of verbs and as an example of assistance in pedagogical settingshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2021-0003<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The use of synonymy and near-synonymy allows us to differently express similar ideas and meanings, as well as perspectives. However, their use and nuances may be unclear to language learners, such as the selected case of the verbs <italic>explain</italic> and <italic>clarify</italic>. This paper examines the usage of the two verbs by looking into corpus data and uses Sinclair's methodological procedure as an alternative to dictionary references. Also included is a discussion of aspects and criticisms of corpus linguistics, mentions (and uses of) computer technologies for the analysis of language by discovering usage patterns, significant exceptions and semantic prosody, and exploring whether using corpora in the classroom would be beneficial to language learners.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2021-00032021-08-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Emergency online learning during the first Covid-19 period: students’ perspectives from Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Poland and Turkeyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2021-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In spring 2020 both teachers and learners experienced the interruption of education as it had been established for over 150 years and seemed to be unchangeable. The paper focuses on students’ perspectives on how they perceive the changes in learning due to the pandemic educational emergency response based on the results of a survey of students in four countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Poland and Turkey. We aim at discussing the data collected at the end of the 2019-2020 Spring semester. The research focuses on the accessibility of the tools for learning, modes of instruction, as well as interaction patterns. In addition, we present students’ opinions on the difficulties they experienced, the learning strategies they adopted and what aspects of online learning should remain as a regular educational practice after the pandemic period.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2021-00022021-08-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Hedging functions of extraposed clauses in English and declarative subject clauses in Croatian academic writinghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2021-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In academic writing stance is often conveyed by means of extraposed <italic>that-</italic>clauses (<italic>It is possible that the results were misinterpreted.</italic>). The impersonal form of a matrix predicate allows writers to express attitudes without assuming responsibility for the claim, which renders extraposition particularly convenient for hedging (Biber et al., 1999). The equivalent clause type in Croatian refers to declarative subject <italic>da-</italic>clauses (<italic>Moguće je da su rezultati krivo protumačeni</italic>.). The study examines the hedging potential of the target clauses in research articles in English and Croatian. Raising awareness of the way hedged stance is conveyed in cross-cultural academic writing may provide important implications for academic writing instruction particularly in a non-native English context.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2021-00012021-08-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Collocations of high frequency words in nursing research articles and The Academic Collocation List: Similarities and differenceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2020-0011<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The main objective of this corpus-based study is to research the most frequent two-word collocations in the corpus of nursing scientific articles and compare this newly assembled list of nursing collocations with the Academic Collocation List (ACL). The nursing scientific articles corpus (NSAC) used in this study comprises 1,119,441 words from 262 articles of 10 high-quality journals from the Medical Library Association list which nursing students can freely access. The focus is on noun-noun and noun-adjective collocations. The selected articles were converted into txt files using the ABBYY Fine Reader. WordSmith Tools 7.0 and TermeX were used for noun and collocation extraction. The newly assembled Nursing Collocation List (NCL) and the ACL were compared using Microsoft Excel 2016. A total of 488 collocations were identified in the NSAC and the NCL contains 234 (47.9%) noun + noun and 254 (52.1%) adjective + noun collocation combinations. The most frequent two-word collocation is <italic>health care</italic> and it appeared 618 times in the NSAC. The ACL (2,469) and the NCL (488) share 123 two-word collocations. Although there are some correspondences between collocations in the two corpora, key nursing collocations with notably higher frequencies are identified in the NSAC (365). Despite the fact that the ACL is the most extensive collocation list across different academic fields and it certainly plays an important role in teaching English as a foreign language, this study suggests that it does not provide key nursing collocations for improvement of nursing collocation competence.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2020-00112020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00English goes digital: Framing pre-service teachers’ perceptions of a learning management system in their EFL studieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2020-0013<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article introduces and discusses an empirical investigation that aimed to establish how pre-service teachers of English (hereinafter “participants”) framed their perceptions of Canvas, a learning management system (LMS), in their studies of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). In the present study, the participants and their respective controls (i.e., non-teacher EFL students) were requested to write a short reflective essay associated with the use of the LMS in their EFL course. All participants and the control group used Canvas as their LMS. The corpus of the participants’ and controls’ reflective essays was analysed qualitatively by means of framing analysis. The results of the qualitative framing analysis revealed that whilst there were similarities in the participants’ and controls’ framing, the corpus of the participants’ essays involved instances of framing that were specific to the participants’ perceptions of Canvas. These findings and their linguo-didactic implications were further presented in the article.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/exell-2020-00132020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1