rss_2.0ExELL FeedSciendo RSS Feed for ExELL 's Cover strategies in Algerian Arabic and American English<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study aims to explore the use of euphemistic strategies by Algerians and Americans when dealing with three unpleasant topics: death, lying, and disease. It also examines the effect of degree of formality on the use of euphemistic strategies. To achieve this objective, a discourse completion task (DCT) was distributed to 21 Algerians and 21 Americans. The data were analysed using SPSS. The data analysis revealed that there are some differences and similarities between the two groups. The euphemistic strategies used by the Americans when they deal with death topics are <italic>synonyms</italic> and <italic>part for the whole</italic>. The Algerians use <italic>part for the whole, overstatement,</italic> and <italic>synonyms</italic> when they deal with death. Regarding the topic of lying, the Americans employ strategies of <italic>understatement</italic> and <italic>deletion</italic>, whereas the Algerians use <italic>understatement</italic> and <italic>metaphor</italic>. As for the topic of disease, the Americans use <italic>vagueness</italic>, and the Algerians use <italic>vagueness</italic>, <italic>metaphor</italic>, and <italic>deletion</italic>. These findings reveal that both groups resort to euphemism when dealing with these three unpleasant topics. However, their use of euphemistic strategies is culture-bound.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-08T00:00:00.000+00:00An analysis of lexicogrammatical development in English textbooks in Turkey: A usage-based construction grammar approach<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article measures the syntactic development indices in grade 5-12 English textbooks in Turkey. Through a usage-based construction grammar approach, it argues that the textbooks show an inconsistent development in verb-argument constructions (VAC) and other usage-based indices. The study employs an automatic software tool that detects variations in these indices and runs a statistical analysis on a corpus compiled by the author. Statistically significant results demonstrate that textbooks lack lexicogrammatical variation. As such, learners who use these textbooks are likely to experience a limited array of VACs that are limited in lemma-construction combinations. Findings also indicate that learners may not be exposed to the conventional usage patterns and frequencies of VACs when compared against a reference corpus. These findings may have an influence on the learners’ generalization process, their low-proficiency level in English, and poor idiomatic uses of the language.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Intertextuality in media discourse: A reader’s perspective<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article is a part of a research project on how intertextuality is perceived by readers of media texts. The focus of the article is on how intertextual references are recognized, interpreted, and substituted by EFL respondents. Based on the results of the survey, conclusions are drawn to address the following research questions – whether respondents can recognize intertextual references as such in the context, whether they can interpret an utterance despite failing to detect intertextual segments, and whether there exists a correspondence between recognizability of an intertextual reference and attempts at defining and/or replacing it. This paper is an attempt to empirically verify theoretical views on intertextuality. The results of the survey provide insights into how intertextuality is perceived by respondents.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Teacher target language input and young learners’ aural comprehension of English<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The quantity of target language input available to learners contributes to the understanding of target language development. The present paper reports on a longitudinal study of the relationship between the amount of non-native teachers’ EFL input and learners’ aural achievement in instructed SLA. Young learners (N=132) were followed over a three-year period. High variability in teacher use of EFL was found. Results of correlational analyses and group comparisons pointed to a longitudinal advantage of participants exposed to instruction dominated by teacher target language use during their first two years of formal EFL learning. Directions for future research on the use of different languages and their relation to learners’ achievement are discussed in the context of early formal foreign language study.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Hedging functions of extraposed clauses in English and declarative subject clauses in Croatian academic writing<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In academic writing stance is often conveyed by means of extraposed <italic>that-</italic>clauses (<italic>It is possible that the results were misinterpreted.</italic>). The impersonal form of a matrix predicate allows writers to express attitudes without assuming responsibility for the claim, which renders extraposition particularly convenient for hedging (Biber et al., 1999). The equivalent clause type in Croatian refers to declarative subject <italic>da-</italic>clauses (<italic>Moguće je da su rezultati krivo protumačeni</italic>.). The study examines the hedging potential of the target clauses in research articles in English and Croatian. Raising awareness of the way hedged stance is conveyed in cross-cultural academic writing may provide important implications for academic writing instruction particularly in a non-native English context.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Emergency online learning during the first Covid-19 period: students’ perspectives from Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Poland and Turkey<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In spring 2020 both teachers and learners experienced the interruption of education as it had been established for over 150 years and seemed to be unchangeable. The paper focuses on students’ perspectives on how they perceive the changes in learning due to the pandemic educational emergency response based on the results of a survey of students in four countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Poland and Turkey. We aim at discussing the data collected at the end of the 2019-2020 Spring semester. The research focuses on the accessibility of the tools for learning, modes of instruction, as well as interaction patterns. In addition, we present students’ opinions on the difficulties they experienced, the learning strategies they adopted and what aspects of online learning should remain as a regular educational practice after the pandemic period.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Corpus based study of verbs and as an example of assistance in pedagogical settings<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The use of synonymy and near-synonymy allows us to differently express similar ideas and meanings, as well as perspectives. However, their use and nuances may be unclear to language learners, such as the selected case of the verbs <italic>explain</italic> and <italic>clarify</italic>. This paper examines the usage of the two verbs by looking into corpus data and uses Sinclair's methodological procedure as an alternative to dictionary references. Also included is a discussion of aspects and criticisms of corpus linguistics, mentions (and uses of) computer technologies for the analysis of language by discovering usage patterns, significant exceptions and semantic prosody, and exploring whether using corpora in the classroom would be beneficial to language learners.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Differences in EFL learners’ burnout levels and receptive language skills with regard to the mindfulness-based instruction<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The main aim of education is to provide students with academic knowledge and skills. In this process, some students experience burnout, which negatively affects their productivity and effectiveness. This study experimentally examines the impact of mindfulness-based instruction on burnout and students’ achievement in receptive language skills among 64 learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) via a mixed-methods approach (QUAN→ qual) within a single framework. The techniques implemented in the experimental group, i. e. 32 participants, included <italic>observance of all experience</italic>, <italic>analyzing</italic>, <italic>planning</italic>, <italic>judging</italic>, <italic>reasoning</italic>, and <italic>fantasizing</italic> (van Vreeswijk et al., 2014). Furthermore, the techniques were inspired by Pirson et al. (2012) conceptualization that mindfulness comprises novelty producing, novelty seeking, engagement, and flexibility. The results of posttest revealed these techniques efficiently enhanced the abovementioned variables.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Rhetorical questions as aggressive, friendly or sarcastic/ironical questions with imposed answers<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Rhetorical questions (RQs), as a cross-breed of questions and statements, represent an effective tool in putting forward the Speaker’s ideas, as well as influencing the ideas and opinions of other people. Because of their communicative effectiveness and multifunctionality, they are frequently used in different contexts and for different purposes, and, as such, they represent an interesting topic for further research. The aim of this paper is threefold: (i) to explore the nature of the implied answer to RQs, (ii) to offer a classification of RQs based on the Speaker’s communication style, and (iii) to examine whether (or to what extent) the Speaker-Addressee relationship (peer-to-peer, superior-to-inferior, inferior-to-superior) influences the selection and frequency of use of different types of RQs. Using Stalnaker’s (2002) model of Common Ground and Caponigro and Sprouse’s (2007) concepts of Speaker’s and Addressee’s Beliefs, the author redefines the nature of the answers implied by RQs, claiming that they are imposed on the Addressee rather than mutually recognized as obvious. Based on the model of communication styles as defined by Yuan et al. (2018), RQs are classified into aggressive, friendly and sarcastic/ironical questions with imposed answers. The analysis of the corpus, which consisted of 275 RQs taken from ten American movie scripts, showed that friendly RQs are more common than the other two types, and that, in instances where one of the interlocutors is in a superior position, superior-to-inferior RQs are by far more common than vice versa. The finding that RQs asked by inferiors make up less than a third of RQs occurring between interlocutors with different social standing is in line with the view that answers to RQs are imposed on Addressees.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Collocations of high frequency words in nursing research articles and The Academic Collocation List: Similarities and differences<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The main objective of this corpus-based study is to research the most frequent two-word collocations in the corpus of nursing scientific articles and compare this newly assembled list of nursing collocations with the Academic Collocation List (ACL). The nursing scientific articles corpus (NSAC) used in this study comprises 1,119,441 words from 262 articles of 10 high-quality journals from the Medical Library Association list which nursing students can freely access. The focus is on noun-noun and noun-adjective collocations. The selected articles were converted into txt files using the ABBYY Fine Reader. WordSmith Tools 7.0 and TermeX were used for noun and collocation extraction. The newly assembled Nursing Collocation List (NCL) and the ACL were compared using Microsoft Excel 2016. A total of 488 collocations were identified in the NSAC and the NCL contains 234 (47.9%) noun + noun and 254 (52.1%) adjective + noun collocation combinations. The most frequent two-word collocation is <italic>health care</italic> and it appeared 618 times in the NSAC. The ACL (2,469) and the NCL (488) share 123 two-word collocations. Although there are some correspondences between collocations in the two corpora, key nursing collocations with notably higher frequencies are identified in the NSAC (365). Despite the fact that the ACL is the most extensive collocation list across different academic fields and it certainly plays an important role in teaching English as a foreign language, this study suggests that it does not provide key nursing collocations for improvement of nursing collocation competence.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00English goes digital: Framing pre-service teachers’ perceptions of a learning management system in their EFL studies<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article introduces and discusses an empirical investigation that aimed to establish how pre-service teachers of English (hereinafter “participants”) framed their perceptions of Canvas, a learning management system (LMS), in their studies of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). In the present study, the participants and their respective controls (i.e., non-teacher EFL students) were requested to write a short reflective essay associated with the use of the LMS in their EFL course. All participants and the control group used Canvas as their LMS. The corpus of the participants’ and controls’ reflective essays was analysed qualitatively by means of framing analysis. The results of the qualitative framing analysis revealed that whilst there were similarities in the participants’ and controls’ framing, the corpus of the participants’ essays involved instances of framing that were specific to the participants’ perceptions of Canvas. These findings and their linguo-didactic implications were further presented in the article.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Computer assisted language learning in English language classrooms in Bosnia and Herzegovina<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper examines the application of computer assisted language learning (CALL) in English language classes in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The research was designed as an empirical examination of the attitudes of teachers and students on the successful application of computer assisted language learning in English language classrooms in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Lack of motivation is one the problems that most teachers are faced with. There are many causes of poor motivation, but one of them is certainly the unattractiveness and dullness of traditional methods, teaching materials and resources. However, many authors with educational experience point out that the use of information technology can positively influence students’ motivation and encourage them to work actively. While adults, as digital immigrants, might not use modern information technology excessively, children and teens are true digital natives, who have grown up with the latest technologies and use them with great pleasure in all aspects of their lives adapting them to their needs (Prensky, 2001). The results obtained in this research are an indicator of the current attitude of teachers and students towards these issues, but they also highlight some important necessary reforms in the field of teacher education.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00English language students’ productive and receptive knowledge of collocations<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The importance of collocations in second language learning has been recognized in the past few decades. There have been numerous studies in L2 acquisition research that investigated how the knowledge and use of collocations at different levels of proficiency affect learners’ communicative competence and language performance. Moreover, it seems important to mention that most of the studies investigating the collocational knowledge of students learning English as their L2, indicated students’ poor performance (Fayez-Hussein 1990; Aghbar 1990; Bahns and Eldaw 1993; Stubbs 2002; Wray 2002; Nasselhauf 2005; Ozaki 2011). The aim of this paper is to explain the notion of collocation as well as its most common classification, and to point out the importance of its proper use for English language students who are native speakers of the Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian (BCS) language. Furthermore, this study examines the productive and receptive knowledge of lexical collocations in order to access students’ collocational competence. The results indicate students’ poor collocational knowledge. This can be due to the fact that collocations of the language students are learning are interfering with the collocations of their mother tongue, but also due to the way students are taught English (vocabulary negligence in comparison with grammar and unawareness of the importance of collocations in language learning).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Where do we go from here? Method and pedagogy in language teaching<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Language-teaching methods such as audio-lingualism or task-based instruction have been promoted at different times as the ‘best’ way to teach a foreign language. Each such method prescribes a set of learning procedures rooted in a particular theoretical conceptualization of the nature of language and language acquisition, based on linguistic and applied linguistics research. It is suggested in this article that the principles guiding teachers in selecting procedures should not be dictated by any particular method recommended by researchers or theoreticians, but should be rather defined as a pedagogy of language teaching, shaped by various general pedagogical – not only language-learning – considerations, as well as by local factors, and determined by the teacher her- or himself.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00The phonesthetics of blends: A lexicographic study of cognitive blends in the OED<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This preliminary study of 285 morphological and cognitive blends (attestation dates 1200-2012) aims to investigate the role of phonesthemes in the structuring of the English lexicon. A study of <italic>OED</italic> word origins shows a disparity between older (1200-1900) and recent blends (1903-2012). Sound symbolism plays an overriding role in over 50% of older blends, leading to a study of initial phonesthemes (i.e. consonant clusters). Several case studies of diachronic semantic shift attested in the <italic>OED</italic> point to the existence of multidirectional motivation ties. This preliminary study supports the psycholinguistic theory that 1) there is a structured secondary sound symbolism in English, and that 2) it is still productive today and may play a role in the creation of neologisms as well as ensuring their survival (see Bergen, 2010: 52). A more in-depth usage-based analysis using sophisticated measurement tools is the next step in the study.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Exploration of the relationship between word-association and learners’ lexical development with a focus on American L1 and Croatian L2 speakers<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Vocabulary acquisition is a dynamic process and there is a constant change in the way words are stored in the mental lexicon. Word association tests are used in linguistic research to observe to which extent mental mapping can be understood. This paper presents the results of a word association game consisting of seven words administered to second language speakers, and native speakers for comparative purposes. The results indicate the possibility of a link between experiences and associations, which leads to the recommendation for teachers to create activities and new experiences that demand the learner’s personal involvement in expanding their vocabulary.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-02-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Why is “not infrequent” not always “frequent”? Double negation in political discourse<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The aim of this paper is to view double negation in the light of its semantic and pragmatic meaning. While double negation in logic gives a positive value, in natural languages, besides having positive entailment, it can have a range of different implicatures and functions. Thus, depending on different discoursal factors, double negation can be used for different motives, e.g. the speaker is not sure whether a certain proposition is true or is sure that it is not true, to name just one. The analysis is carried out on the database consisting of the reports, interviews and articles of the High Representative and his associates in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from 1995 to 2001.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-02-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Learners’ preferences towards Corrective feedback in writing assignments in tertiary education<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> For several decades, there has been a heated debate about the value of providing corrective feedback in writing assignments in English as a foreign language (EFL) classes. Despite the fact that corrective feedback in writing has been analysed from various angles, learners’ expectations regarding feedback given by language instructors are still to be considered, especially in different learning settings. Student attitudes have been found to be associated with motivation, proficiency, learner anxiety, autonomous learning, etc. (Elwood &amp; Bode, 2014). Thus, the aim of this paper was to compare EFL learners’ attitudes towards corrective feedback and self-evaluation of writing skills in different learning settings. Students at two technological universities in France and Lithuania were surveyed and asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire combining the Likert scale and rank order questions. The results indicate that frequency of writing assignments seems to have little or no impact on students’ self-evaluation of writing skills. Moreover, although the two groups of students showed preference for feedback on different error types (e.g., feedback on structure vs. feedback on grammar), nevertheless, indirect corrective feedback with a clue was favoured by all the respondents.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-02-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Collocational competence of primary and secondary school students<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of the paper is to test collocational competence of primary and secondary school students to establish the most frequent problems they encounter. Based on these collocational errors teachers could devise their teaching material and help students in improving their collocational competence.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-10-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The learner’s own language<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The learner’s own language (commonly referred to as ‘L1’ or ‘first language’) has been neglected as a resource in the learning of another language and, in some contexts, it has been banned altogether. The arguments in favour of own-language exclusion are not supported by research and the policy is not followed by a majority of teachers. A reconsideration of these arguments and an awareness of practical suggestions for drawing on the learners’ own language as a resource for learning may help language teachers to enrich their repertoire of teaching techniques and activities.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-10-08T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1