rss_2.0Forum of Clinical Oncology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Forum of Clinical Oncologyhttps://sciendo.com/journal/FCOhttps://www.sciendo.comForum of Clinical Oncology Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6113acb9927d846dfda25fd3/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/FCO140216Evaluation of lymph node adequacy in patients with colorectal cancer: Results from a referral center in Iranhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>The presence of lymph node metastasis is one of the most important prognostic factors for long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, thorough pathologic examination of at least 12 lymph nodes is essential for accurate staging of this disease, as well as for choosing the best adjuvant treatment. The aim of this study is to assess the adequacy of lymph node harvest in patients with colorectal cancer.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>This observational, cross-sectional study was performed on 584 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma who had undergone surgery from 2012 to 2017. Thereafter, the relevant demographic, pathological, and surgical data were extracted from the patients' medical records; and a relationship between the number of evaluated lymph nodes and other variables was also assessed.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Among 584 studies cases in this study, 336 (57.5%) subjects had fewer than 12 evaluated lymph nodes. Mean and median number of the evaluated lymph nodes were calculated as 10.7 (±5.6) and 10, respectively. The patients aged 60 years old and older and the cases with tumors located in descending colon and rectum were observed to have a higher likelihood of inadequate lymph node retrieval. After an average follow-up of a 60-month period, 63% of the patients were alive. For the patients in whom fewer than 12 lymph nodes had been assessed, the median survival was estimated to be 48 months. For the patients in whom the number of evaluated lymph nodes was ≥12, median survival was calculated to be 54 months.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>The number of lymph nodes evaluated in our study was less than the standard number in more than half of the patients. Among various other factors, older age and tumor location in descending colon and rectum are found to be associated with suboptimal assessment of lymph nodes. The number of lymph nodes dissected is also associated with survival.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2022-00052022-12-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Survival rate and prognostic factors of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Indonesia: A single-center retrospective studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy in Asia. Most patients in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital have been diagnosed with an advanced stage. There had not been any survival study for OSCC in Indonesia. This study aimed to investigate the survival rate and prognostic factors of OSCC in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>A retrospective cohort study was conducted on OSCC patients diagnosed and treated in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital from 2014 to 2018. Data regarding age, gender, site of the primary lesion, clinical stage of the disease, tumor differentiation, invasion, and surgical margins were collected. The main outcomes measured were overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). The predictors of survival were then determined.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Result</title> <p>169 patients were included. The majority of patients were male (51.5%) and above 50 years old (55.6%). The most prevalent tumor site was the tongue (72.8%) followed by buccal mucosa (13%). The majority (82.2%) of patients had advanced (clinical stage IV) disease at diagnosis. A smaller majority of patients had a well-differentiated tumor (60.4%) and a low-grade tumor (53.8%). The worst one-year and two-year overall survival rates were found in the stage IV group (53.5% and 37.5%, respectively). The disease-specific survival rate was 66.9%.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The one-year and two-year overall survival rates of OSCC in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital were 58.6% and 43.1%. Moreover, clinical stage, tumor size, and lymph node involvement were the most significant prognostic factors for OSCC.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-00132022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Epigenetics and cancer – A dependence relationshiphttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2022-0025ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2022-00252022-10-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Two Distinct Nutritional Assessment Tools Have Dissimilar Outcomes in a Sample of Older Adult Patients With Cancerhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Malnutrition is strongly associated with negative outcomes in aged populations with cancer. Several studies have compared the outcomes of nutritional-screening tools, but knowledge specifically covering older adult patients with cancer remains limited. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of two tools, the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) <italic>versus</italic> the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) for this population.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Method</title><p>Cross-sectional study with 432 participants who consented to participate and were enrolled at admission to medical and surgical wards of a tertiary referral hospital. The participants’ nutritional statuses were simultaneously assessed using the PG-SGA and the MNA, and the outcomes compared using the kappa statistical test. The Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC) was employed to calculate the MNA sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and was compared with PG-SGA.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Prevalence of good nourishment was observed in 62.5% and 61.1% of the participants, as detected by PG-SGA and MNA, respectively. Both tools concurred moderately (kappa = 0.453). Importantly, there were significant differences in the diagnosis of malnutrition (7.6% vs. 4.6%, p = 0.000). The MNA showed sensitivity of 72.2% and specificity of 75.9% in detecting good nourishment for the population investigated.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>The MNA may not present greater sensitivity, possibly due to a lack of coverage of gastrointestinal symptoms. It is a quick and efficient tool for nutritional assessment of older adult patients with cancer, but as it is more specific than sensitive, caution is recommended when identifying borderline or early malnourished individuals of this population.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-00162022-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Development of bioflavonoid containing chemotherapeutic delivery systems for UV-damaged skin and kangri cancerhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>The lower abdomen and inner thighs are most likely to become affected by kangri cancer because those areas are exposed to continuous exposure to kangri.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title><p>In this article, formulation and characterization of a water-in-oil microemulsion of 5-fluorouracil with rutin (R-5FU) for better skin penetration and inhibition of kangri cancer (skin cancer surfactant) is discussed.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Method</title><p>To produce R-5-FU microemulsions, surfactant-cosurfactant was mixed with oil. Distilled water was added dropwise with the help of a burette by gentle stirring at a constant temperature. The surfactant and co-surfactant were mixed into three particular ratios 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1. Further characterizations were performed, such as visual inspection and thermodynamic stability including a stress test and centrifugation. In visual inspection included assessment of the colour, homogeneity, and odour of the formulation of FU microemulsion.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Result</title><p>All three microemulsions, labeled RME1, RME2, and RME3, are highly stable. An oval shape of surface morphology of 5-FU was noticed by using a TEM image. The viscosity of RME3 was found to be 17.25±0.22 pa-s. The average globule size was 100–300 nm for all three RME. The results of human cadaver skin permeability are almost of the same pattern, butRME3 indicates the best skin permeability with negligible side effects on the skin.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>The quantity of 5-FU released from all formulations at 3-hr ranged from 95.57% to 83.67%. None of the three formulations resulted in skin irritation, with irritancy score of zero (IS=0). Observation revealed no lysis, hemorrhage, or coagulation after application.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-00122022-10-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumours: A Single-Centre Experiencehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives</title> <p>Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours (GI-NETs) are actually malignant tumours, and their most common location of metastasis is the liver. In this study, we define the epidemiologic features of NETs and investigate the demographic factors, clinicopathologic features, survival, and the oncologic results related to GI-NETs.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and Methods</title> <p>In this 10-year study (2009–2019), all GI and liver NETs were taken out from the pathology records. When classification based on the WHO classification criteria, patients were categorized based on their location, sex, age, and proliferative index. After studying clinical charts of GI-NET cases, a complete panel of IHC markers such as Chromogranin A, ‘Ki67’ and synaptophysin were used. Results: Based on published data, the liver is not a common primary site for NETs; most liver lesions are most likely to have been metastases. The mean age of patients at diagnosis was 52.72 years. In this research, 27.78% of patients had colon NETs and 27.78 liver. Two (11.11%) patients were classified as stage II, seven (38.89%) as stage III, and one (5.56%) as stage IV. After a 120-month follow-up, 13 (72.22%) patients with colorectal NETs were alive, and 5 (27.78%) of the patients had died.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Treatment of colon and rectal NETs is difficult because it affects the patient's initial site of involvement, and this often makes treatment difficult for the patient. With suitable management, the prognosis can be positive with long survival, but it is related to the tumour variation grade, the efficiency of the selected treatment, and also to the patient's adherence to the follow-up.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2022-00042022-10-15T00:00:00.000+00:00 struggle to survive: A tough lesson for cancer and oncology research journalshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Tumor Biology</italic>, owned by the International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers and currently published by IOS Press, lost its Clarivate impact factor of 3.650 in 2017. It has been plagued by over 100 retractions due to paper mills (including a batch of 15 papers published between 2014 and 2016 that were retracted at the end of 2021), faked peer reviews, and forged research. According to PubMed, the number of papers published by <italic>Tumor Biology</italic> has been reduced to a mere trickle, dropping from 707 in 2017 to 66 in 2018. It is unclear how <italic>Tumor Biology</italic> will be able to recover from such disastrous reputational damage and whether there is even merit in continuing its publication. Other journals for cancer and oncology research would do well to observe this case closely and learn from its mistakes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2022-00012022-04-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Paraneoplastic pemphigus associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervixhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Paraneoplastic pemphigus is an autoimmune skin and mucosal disorder, rarely associated with solid malignancies, with devastating impact.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Patients and methods</title> <p>Herein, we report the case of a middle-aged patient who presented with recalcitrant stomatitis and was ultimately diagnosed with advanced-stage cervical cancer.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Despite the prompt initiation of immunosuppressive medications, in parallel with systemic therapy for her underlying neoplasm, she eventually died within 10 months.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Considering its heterogeneous clinicopathological and immunological manifestations, paraneoplastic pemphigus remains a genuine diagnostic challenge, whereas its abysmal prognosis highlights the need of additional effective immunosuppressants.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2022-00022022-09-08T00:00:00.000+00:0027 Hellenic Conference of Clinical Oncologyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-0025ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-00252022-07-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Survival Study in Pediatric Patients with Medulloblastoma in a General Hospital in Tehran, Iranhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Brain tumours are the most common solid tumours that afflict the pediatric population. Me-dulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumour in children, constituting nearly 20% of all pediatric brain tumours. This study is an evaluation of overall survival rate of pediatric MB tumour patients after one year, three years, five years, and ten years according to case studies. From 22 June 2009 to 19 December 2019, a total of 22 patients ranging in age from 1 to 14 years old underwent tumour removal. These patients were followed to determine survival rate. Tumours were classified into three pathological subtypes: The first was classic MB, the second was desmoplastic nodular MB and MB with extensive nodularity, and the third was large cell and anaplastic MB. Patients who were 3 years old or older had a better survival rate than younger patients (log-rank test; p = 0.01). The survival probability in the older children group (55%) was significant compared to the group of younger children (29%). The Kaplan–Meier survival curves of the patients were significantly different. The ten-year survival rates in the average- and high-risk groups were 64.4% and 86.0%, respectively. After a follow-up of 120 months (median range = 60 months), recurrence or progression was observed in 22 patients and 15 patients were still alive. The estimated 10-year overall survival rates for all patients were 49.36 ± 38.33. MB patients’ survival rate was quite good in our hospital. More than half of the patients, most of whom had large cell anaplastic and classic type MB, survived the 10-year follow-up period without any problems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-00042022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00 and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiology and possible associationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cryptosporidiosis is an important protozoan disease with serious public health implications. The contribution of <italic>Cryptosporidium</italic> to colorectal cancer is still vaguely studied, but little evidence from experimental and epidemiological studies has suggested a possible association. This review discusses the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and colorectal cancer and attempts to unravel the possible link between the two diseases using epidemiological, pathological, molecular, and immunological evidence. The review stressed the need to undertake more studies in this relatively neglected field.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-00092022-05-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Concentration of circulating tumour DNA in patients with metastatic gastric cancer and its prognostic significancehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The amount of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in the blood of patients with gastric cancer was found to be higher than that of healthy controls (69.1 ng/<italic>μ</italic>L vs. 34.8 ng/<italic>μ</italic>L). Patients with cfDNA ≤ 50 ng/<italic>μ</italic>L were found to have an increased overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) than in patients with cfDNA &gt; 50 ng/<italic>μ</italic>L.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-00102022-05-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Oncological outcomes of testicular cancer patients: 10 years of experiences resulting from a single university-based hospitalhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Purpose</title><p>To explore clinical and pathological characteristics of testicular cancer and also identify factors associated with its oncological outcomes. Testicular cancer has a very good prognosis. Actually, we aim to report on 10 years of experience in the real-world practice of treating testicular cancer in a university-based hospital.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>This is a retrospective cohort study of testicular cancer patients in Songklanagarind hospital; from January 2007 and December 2016, all eligible testicular cancer patients were included. Clinical characteristics (age, physical examination findings, tumour markers, histopathology, clinical stage, and initial treatment) and clinical outcomes were collected. These patients were divided into two groups: seminoma patients (seminomas) and non-seminoma patients (non-seminomas). Clinical characteristics and outcomes of treatment were analysed, and factors associated with oncological outcomes were identified.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>In 45 patients, median age 33 years, with diagnosis of testicular cancer, seminomas and non-seminomas were responsible for 23 (52.8%) and 22 (49%) of the cases, respectively. The median time of follow-up was 80.6 months (range: 1.8 to 120 months). The five-year OS was 94.7% and 57.1% in the seminoma and non-seminoma groups, respectively. For non-seminomas, five-year OS were 71.4%, 50%, and 42.9% in stage Ib–IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc, respectively, and for seminoma they were 92.3% and 100% in stage Ib–IIIa and IIIb, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that non-seminoma, higher staging, and higher IGCCC risk were associated with poorer survival, significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05).</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>Seminoma has a good prognosis and survival at all stages, whereas, in the non-seminoma group, higher staging and IGCCC risk were independent factors associated with a poorer prognosis.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-00112022-05-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Sialic acids: An Avenue to Target Cancer Progression, Metastasis, and Resistance to Therapyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Sialic acids are alpha-keto acids with nine carbons that are commonly present in the terminal sugars of glycans on glycoproteins and glycolipids on the cell surface. Sialic acids have a role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes by interacting with carbohydrates and proteins, communicating between cells, and acting as cell surface receptors for viruses and bacteria. Several studies have shown the aberrant pattern of sialic acids on cancer cells due to change in their glycosylation status. This pattern may be attributed to various physiological and pathological changes occurring in tumour cells. Hypersialylation in tumours, its involvement in tumour growth, immune evasion and escape from the apoptotic pathway, metastasis formation, and therapeutic resistance have all been fairly well investigated.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>A PubMed search was conducted and published articles in different studies from 2000 to 2020 were included and reviewed. Here, we discuss current outcomes that emphasize the unfavourable effects of hypersialylation on multiple aspects of tumour genesis, immune evasion, metastasis and resistance to therapy.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>These recent investigations have found that aberrant sialylation is an essential process for tumour cells to evade immune surveillance and maintain their malignancy. Together, these noteworthy views provide a solid platform for designing and developing therapeutic approaches that target hypersialylation of cancer cells.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-00062022-04-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Outcomes of Port A Catheter Implantations in Cancer Patients: Experience in 102 Caseshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Aim</title><p>This study evaluates cancer patients undergoing port catheter implantation.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Patients and methods</title><p>The study was conducted among patients admitted to the cardiovascular department of Düzce State Hospital from June 2018 to July 2020. The inclusion criterion was the implantation of a vascular port for at during 2 years. One hundred and two patients were enrolled in the study. The most common acute outcomes such as pneumothorax, haemothorax, thoracic duct damage and cardiac tamponade and the demographic characteristics of all patients were recorded. Patients were evaluated for the late complications of port catheter, such as thrombosis, infection and kinking, catheter fracture and occlusion.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Complications of port catheter occurred early (≤30 days) and delayed (&gt;30 days) at rates of up to 8% and 15%, respectively. The most common early and late complications were pneumothorax and non-functional port (occlusion, thrombosis, kinking), respectively.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>Thrombosis is the most common cause of dysfunction in central port catheters used in the treatment of cancer patients. Routine radiological imaging can help in early detection of catheter-related complications.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-00082022-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Clinicopathological characteristics in women with breast cancer in extreme ages in Greece: A single centre experiencehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in Greek women. The highest incidence occurs in patients aged 40–70 years. However, the emergence of the disease in women under 40 and over 80 years old is a significant problem in everyday practice, because of the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for these age groups. The objective of this study is to investigate clinicopathological characteristics of Greek women under 40 and over 80 diagnosed with breast cancer during 2019–2020 in a specialized Breast Cancer Surgical Centre, as well as the pathological characteristics of their disease and the therapeutic measures applied to these women.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Aim of the study</title> <p>The aim of this study is to compare clinical and pathological characteristics of breast cancer in a group of Greek premenopausal women younger than 40 years of age with a group of elderly women older than 80 years old, who were treated in a surgical breast centre in Greece during the last two years.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Patients and Methods</title> <p>During the last 2 years, 21 women under 40 and 22 women older than 80 were diagnosed with breast cancer in our Centre.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Invasive ductal adenocarcinoma was the most frequent histological type for both Groups: Most younger women underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy, while the majority of older patients received hormonal therapy after surgery.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>There were no statistically significant differences between women under 40 and women over 80 in the study sample regarding their clinicopathological characteristics. However, younger women underwent more therapeutic modalities (i.e.adjuvant treatments in addition to surgery) than older ones.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-00072022-02-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Systemic Treatment of Ewing Sarcoma: Current Options and Future Perspectiveshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an uncommon malignant neoplasm, mostly affecting young adults and adolescents. Surgical excision, irradiation, and combinations of multiple chemotherapeutic agents are currently used as a multimodal strategy for the treatment of local and oligometastatic disease. Although ES usually responds to the primary treatment, relapsed and primarily refractory disease remains a difficult therapeutic challenge. The growing understanding of cancer biology and the subsequent development of new therapeutic strategies have been put at the service of research in recurrent and refractory ES, generating a great number of ongoing studies with compounds that could find superior clinical outcomes in the years to come. This review gathers the current available information on the treatment and clinical investigation of ES and aims to be a point of support for future research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-00052022-02-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Immunotherapy-Induced Acute Hepatitis in the Elderly: The Case of a Patient with Urothelial Carcinoma and a Review of the Literaturehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cancer immunotherapy is an emerging beneficial treatment for cancer that acts by activating the immune system to produce antitumour effects. In particular, immune checkpoint therapy has recently provided novel strategies for cancer treatments. Nevertheless, these new therapeutic approaches have introduced immune-related adverse events to clinical practice. In the elderly, checkpoint inhibitors might have limited efficacy because of immunosenescence. Limited literature data demonstrate a higher incidence of irAEs and an earlier discontinuation of immunotherapy in these patients. We report the case of an 89-year-old male patient with metastatic urothelial carcinoma, who presented with Grade 4 immune-related hepatitis after receiving pembrolizumab treatment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2021-00032022-02-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Clinical and biological implications of Hippo pathway dysregulation in sarcomashttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2018-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Sarcomas are mesenchymal malignant tumors with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Hippo pathway is a recently discovered pathway normally involved in organ development and wound healing. Hippo signaling is often altered in solid tumors. The molecular elements of Hippo signaling include MST1/2 and LATS1/2 kinases which phosphorylate and regulate the activity of YAP and TAZ co-transcriptional activators. Hippo pathway cross-talks with several molecular pathways with known oncogenic function. In sarcomas Hippo signaling plays a pivotal role in tumorigenesis, evolution and resistance in chemotherapy regimens. Targeting Hippo pathway could potentially improve prognosis and outcome of sarcoma patients.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2018-00022019-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Functional And Survival Outcome Of Egyptian Children And Adolescents With Malignant Bone Tumors: An Experience In A Setting Of Limited Health Resourcehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2018-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_fco-2018-0001_s_006_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c17b1Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d6279400e2994_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c17b1aAa">Objective</title><p>Evaluate outcome of paediatric malignant bone tumours at Ain Shams University, Egypt, from January 2003 to July 2016.</p></sec><sec id="j_fco-2018-0001_s_007_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c17b2Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d6279400e3001_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c17b2aAa">Methods</title><p>Retrospective data analysis regarding clinico-epidemiological aspects, treatment outcomes, survival analysis and musculoskeletal tumour society score (MSTS score).</p></sec><sec id="j_fco-2018-0001_s_008_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c17b3Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d6279400e3008_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c17b3aAa">Results</title><p>The study included 37 patients; 22 had Ewing sarcoma (ES) and 15 had osteosarcoma, male: female ratio 0.85:1, median ages of 11. The overall frequency was 2.3% among all cancers. There is wide range of time lag until diagnosis. Patients with ES were significantly younger than those with osteosarcoma were. Swelling was the most common presenting symptom and femur was the most common affected site. Fifteen patients fulfilled MSTS criteria; most of them had excellent MSTS score, which significantly affected by type of surgery. ES patients were treated with POG#9354/CCG#7942 protocols and osteosarcoma with CCG#7921 protocol. Limb salvage was the most common type for surgical local control. Most common cause of death was relapse, whereas infection was the most common complication of treatment. 1-year, 2-year, 3-year overall-survival of osteosarcoma were 93.3%, 40%, and 13.3% respectively and 77.3%, 40.9%, and 18.2% respectively for ES. 1-year, 2-year, 3-year event-free-survival were 80%, 40%, and 13.3% respectively and 72.7%, 22.7%, and 18.2% respectively for ES patients.</p></sec><sec id="j_fco-2018-0001_s_009_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c17b4Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d6279400e3015_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c17b4aAa">Conclusion</title><p>Although survival rates for malignant bone tumours are still unsatisfactory, the functional outcome of extremity tumours after limb salvage procedures is promising</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fco-2018-00012019-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1