rss_2.0Folia Forestalia Polonica FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Folia Forestalia Polonica Forestalia Polonica Feed diversity of the Carpathian capercaillie in space and time<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Knowledge about changes occurring in the genetic structure of populations is extremely important in the case of endangered species. Research studies conducted in space and time allow us to identify factors that are influencing gene flow. Especially in the case of species occurring in the form of dispersed, more or less isolated populations, this is crucial for developing effective conservation strategies. The Carpathians are one of the most important capercaillies stronghold in Central Europe. The population here is fragmented, and at least, some groups of birds are small and isolated. This study aimed to determine whether the genetic structure of the capercaillie in the Polish part of the Carpathians has changed over the last decade. The research was conducted in three Polish national parks: Babia Góra National Park (BAB), Gorce (GOR) and Tatra (TAT). A total of over 1,300 non-invasive samples were collected for genetic analyses in two periods: 2010–2013 and 2021–2022. Individuals were identified using microsatellite markers. It was found that during the research period, there were approximately 200 capercaillie individuals in the Parks. The level of genetic variability in individual strongholds has not changed significantly. However, traces of a new gene pool were found in BAB, which could have appeared from other areas of the Carpathians where the species is being reintroduced. GOR shows features of a sink population: low genetic variability, low number of individuals and gradual decline in emigration. During the period covered by the study, the genetic structure has changed little: the studied strongholds are partially genetically isolated, but gene flow between BAB and GOR appears to be increasingly limited. TAT is a hybrid and transition zone for gene flow between smaller strongholds. The results emphasize the importance of areas with stable, numerous populations for the survival of smaller, peripheral groups of the capercaillie in mountain areas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and magnetic field as novel elicitors improve seed germination and early growth of Mediterranean cypress<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to investigate the possibility of increasing the germination traits and early growth characteristics of Mediterranean cypress by applying nanopriming and magnetic field. To perform nanopriming, seeds were primed with nanochitin, nanochitosan and nanocellulose at a concentration of 1% for 2 h. For magnetopriming, the seeds were exposed to a magnetic field at three levels (20, 30 and 40 mT) for 1, 10 and 20 min and then sown. In combined treatment, the seeds were exposed to the magnetic field and then primed in nanoparticle solutions at the same treatments as mentioned earlier, and were planted. Non-exposed seeds were used as a control. The selected seed germination parameters (the percentage and speed of germination, stem and radicle length, collar root diameter, fresh and dry weights of the radicle and stem, number of leaves and leaf area) of young seedlings were examined. The interaction of nano × magnetic resulted in significant differences in the number of leaves, leaf area, length of the radicle, length of the stem, fresh weight of the radicle, fresh weight of the stem and stem dry weight traits. The results showed that among all the applied treatments, 10 min magnetism to 20 mT and then priming with 1% solution of nanocellulose was the best. It increased the germination percentage (1.31 times), germination rate (1.46 times), number of leaves (1.57 times), leaf area (1.36 times) and radicle length (1.74 times) compared to the control (no treatment). A 20-min treatment under a 30-mT magnetic field (without nanoprime) is also recommended.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue“Sosny Taborskie” nature reserve as a refuge for rare and threatened forest lichens<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the results of a lichenological inventory carried out in the “Tabórz Pine” nature reserve, which protects a unique old-growth forest dominated by Scots pine and European beech. The aim of the research was to document the taxonomic and ecological diversity of the lichen biota in the reserve and, on this basis, determine the role and importance of this site as a refuge for stenoecious forest lichens. In an area of 95.32 ha, 118 species of lichens were found, including 43 species included in the Polish national Red List along with 17 species having the status of lowland old-growth forests in Poland. These values allow the reserve to be included in the group of important forest lichen refuges in north-eastern Poland. The obtained results also prove that mixing tree species with complementary ecological features can modify the functioning of the forest not only in terms of its economic features, but also its ecological role in shaping and protecting the species diversity of forest lichens.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue patterns in rubber agroforestry () developed by the communities of Menggala Mas Village, Lampung Province, Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The agroforestry system provides important economic and ecological benefits for local communities, one of which is obtained from the application of planting patterns and plants species in it. This research aims to explain the planting pattern of rubber agroforestry developed by the community in Menggala Mas Village, Lampung Province, Indonesia. The approach in this research is qualitative. Data collection methods included observation, in-depth interviews, and documentation studies. The planting patterns of agroforestry system on their rubber plants were analysed. The research results showed that there are three agroforestry planting patterns implemented by the community, namely, alley cropping, trees along border and random mixture. The dominant combinations in alley cropping were rubber/karet (<italic>Hevea brasiliensis</italic>) – pulai (<italic>Alstonia scholaris</italic>) and rubber–mentru (<italic>Schima wallichii</italic>) – kayu afrika (<italic>Maesopsis eminii</italic>). The dominant combinations in trees along border were rubber–akasia (<italic>Acacia auriculiformis</italic>), rubber–jackfruit (<italic>Artocarpus heterophyllus</italic>) – cempedak (<italic>Artocarpus integer</italic>) and rubber–petai (<italic>Parkia speciosa</italic>) – jati (<italic>Tectona grandis</italic>). The dominant combinations in the random mixture were rubber–jengkol (<italic>Pithecellobium lobatum</italic>), rubber–petai–jengkol–akasia, rubber–jackfruit–cempedak, rubber–pulai–mengkudu (<italic>Morinda citrifolia L.</italic>) – jengkol and rubber–banana (<italic>Musa paradisiaca</italic>) – gadung (<italic>Dioscorea hispida</italic>) – sungkai (<italic>Peronema canescens</italic> Jack). Forty-one plant species were found. The local community wants to develop this planting pattern because the rubber agroforestry planting pattern can provide direct and indirect benefits such as a greater variety of plants which can increase their income; also, the products can be sold or consumed by the family, as a fence, fire break or barrier to other farmers’ land, can provide shade to reduce hot temperatures when farmers are working, and can reduce the risk of flooding and soil erosion to support soil and water conservation within the ‘<italic>Omou</italic>’ (garden/forest). The government and agricultural extension workers need to carry out regular guidance and outreach programmes regarding rubber agroforestry development strategies to increase public knowledge.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue identification of the bark beetle (Stebbing, 1909) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) infesting subsp. (Wall. & G.Don) Cif., along with a brief biological synopsis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Jammu and Kashmir's Govindpora (Ramban) and Salamabad (Baramulla), horticultural nurseries with a majority of <italic>Olea europaea</italic> subsp. <italic>cuspidata</italic> (Wall. &amp; G.Don) Cif. plantings were examined for possible bark beetle attacks. These olive tree plantations are infested with a variety of insect pests, but the bark beetle <italic>Hylesinus macmahoni</italic> (Stebbing, 1909) did significant harm to the olive trees that carry fruit. The beetle attacks and consumes the phloem tissues of the plant during its development, causing the afflicted trees to become weak and eventually die. At both sites, infestations of <italic>H. macmahoni</italic> were discovered. The cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was used to validate the species' diagnosis, and its morphological characteristics were re-described. The species has a polygynous matting system (one male and two females), producing two full and a third partial generation annually in Kashmir.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue interpersonal skills of a game warden as part an employee soft skills assessment from a commitment and performance perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study presents an innovative, proprietary concept of identifying soft skills predisposing individuals to occupy a forestry position, along with the definition and discussion of key factors constituting the assessment criteria. The authors provide their individual perspective on the specific personality traits and attitudes relevant to the assessment of an employee's soft skills concerning their suitability for the given position. Six fundamental categories of skills and attitudes within the realm of soft skills for foresters were identified and proposed for evaluation. These categories included the following: <list list-type="order"> <list-item><p>Collaboration and information flow management: This category assessed the ability to effectively collaborate with other company employees and the sense of responsibility for achieving the team's goals. Special attention was paid to how information was communicated, facilitating planning, making changes and executing task effectively.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>Initiative and engagement: This category focused on the ability and willingness to seek and implement new solutions. It identified and proposed an assessment system for actions such as the forester's submission of new ideas and solutions to emerging problems, their engagement and identification with the company, their drive to improve existing work methods, and their adaptability to new tasks and working conditions resulting from changes.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>Shaping a positive company image: This category involved evaluating the attitude that leads to dignified and ethical representation of the company through appropriate appearance, behaviour and attitude. It encompassed aspects such as building strong relationships with customers, business partners and the company's environment, making agreements aligned with the company's interests and taking active steps to enhance the positive image of the forestry operation.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>Collaboration with external entities: This category analysed constructive actions defined as the interaction of the forestry district with external entities aimed at creating a favourable business climate for forestry operations.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>Independence and decision-making: In this category, competencies for independently managing the Forest District were discussed, without the need for direct supervision. The proposed assessment system considered the traits predisposing the forester to make quick and accurate decisions, anticipate their consequences, take personal responsibility for task execution and accept the consequences of their own or their team's work results.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>Developing subordinates: The final category analysed teamwork skills, with a particular focus on actions aimed at the systematic development of subordinates, recognising potential, and identifying areas for improvement and providing subordinates with opportunities to gain experience and enhance their qualifications and professional competencies.</p></list-item></list></p> <p>The assessment of the forester's soft skills in each category was based on a descriptive classification of their behaviour, which was assigned to five groups: unacceptable, below expectations, good, very good and outstanding. An illustrative description of employee behaviour facilitating their classification into one of these groups was developed for each evaluation category. The research results are presented in a <xref ref-type="table" rid="j_ffp-2023-0022_tab_001">Table 1</xref>, which shows the identified traits, the system for their identification (specified behaviours subject to assessment) and the assessment system. A rating system based on descriptive indicators was proposed to facilitate a homogeneous and repeatable employee assessment process, which is one of the fundamental elements of human resource management.</p> <p>In today's world, the concept of sustainable development is being replaced by efforts to sustain the system through its regeneration at the economic, social and sociological levels. Therefore, the presented concept of identifying and evaluating soft skills was compared with the principles of management in the Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity, Ambiguity (VUCA) environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for the construction of firebreaks along public roads in selected European countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Firebreaks are one of the protective measures used to safeguard forests in case of fire. Their purpose is to limit the possibility of fire spreading. This article describes how these protective measures are implemented along public roads in selected European countries. Based on the information gathered, it was found that there is a wide variety of approaches to firebreaks’ construction, mostly due to different climatic and geomorphological conditions that influence the overall risk of forest fires. The forms of firebreaks used in Europe along public roads are either a mineralised belt (without vegetation) or a cleared belt of materials that are particularly susceptible to ignition and fire spread. Methods combining both are also used.</p> <p>In Poland, there is a Type A belt, that is, a 30-m-wide belt at the border of a roadway or a facility that is free of dead trees, lying branches and felled or broken trees. In the absence of pan-European rules on preventive measures to protect forests from road fires, it might be helpful to establish a set of best practices that could assist in the revision of guidelines in individual countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of sales, costs and demands for timber species in selected timber markets of Plateau State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, analysis of sales, costs and demands for timber species was carried out in selected timber markets of Plateau State, Nigeria. Association as well as relationship between factors influencing timber sales, costs and demands were investigated, and the dependency of timber sales on factors affecting it was ascertained. Data obtained through administration of 400 structured questionnaires were analysed. Results from the use of descriptive statistics showed that <italic>Khaya senegalensis</italic> (mahogany) was the mostly demanded timber species by consumers, and that the cost per timber species for most of the sawn woods ranged between N1001 and N1500, which was equivalent to US $2.42–$3.63 using the current conversion rate of Nigerian Naira 413.83 to 1US dollar. Pairwise use of Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC) indicated positive correlation between timber sales and variables representing costs, demands, stored timber and spoiled timber species. F-test statistics showed that timber sales were significantly affected, and <italic>t</italic>-test aided identification of the extent to which timber sales were affected by costs, demands, stored timber and spoiled timber species. Further analysis of results using multiple linear regression (MLR) gave a model representing dependence of timber sales on factors affecting them. With a positive correlation and relationship between variables, possibility of future increase in timber sales may be experienced due to increase in demand coupled with other factors. Therefore, timber regulatory agencies have to put in place measures to encourage planting of trees such as <italic>Khaya senegalensis</italic> (mahogany), whose timber species are mainly demanded by consumers of wood products, and curb excessive overexploitation of forests in Plateau State, Nigeria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the genetic diversity and population structures of black locust ( L.) stands in Poland based on simple sequence repeat markers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Black locust (<italic>Robinia pseudoacacia</italic> L.) was introduced in Poland over 200 years ago, and its distribution area now covers the whole country, with the highest concentration of occurrence in the western part. Breeding of this species has been started in Poland for about 20 years, albeit on a limited scale, and two selected seed stands, 34 plus trees and two seed orchards have been registered. So far, selection efforts have not been coupled with the recognition of variation in the genetic structure of local populations. To fill the knowledge gap on genetic diversity, we selected the seven qualitatively best populations of <italic>R. pseudoacacia</italic> for our study. To clarify the origin of the Polish population of <italic>R. pseudoacacia</italic>, a sample from a seed stand in eastern Germany and from a seed orchard with Hungarian clones from the Oborniki Śląskie Forest District was added. In this study, three microsatellites were used to evaluate genotypes: Rops15, Rops16 and Rops18, with the Rops15 locus (motif AG) showing hypermutability. Moderate or high variability was observed in all microsatellite loci examined, with a total of 27 alleles identified. In all stands, the average observed number of alleles per locus was higher than the average effective number of alleles per locus. Three main clusters have been identified in the genetic structure of the population, one of which is represented by the population from the Regional Directorate of State Forests in Zielona Góra. The second group comprised the populations from Mieszkowice, the populations Pińczów and Wołów, and the population from Germany. The last one included population from Strzelce and Oborniki Śląskie, where the population from Hungary is represented. This may be of great importance for practice. Perhaps it is worth postulating the separation of two seed regions. Under most scenarios, climate change is projected to change the distribution of forest types and tree species in all biomes. It can be assumed that the importance of black locust in times of climate change is likely to increase.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue aspects of the methodological approach in the progeny testing of European larch in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Poland, the tree improvement programme was initiated in 2004, but the trials for European larch (<italic>Larix decidua</italic> Mill.) did not start until 2021. Our aim is to present certain aspects of the methodological approach of progeny testing for this species. The European larch, known for its rapid growth among native coniferous trees in Europe, holds great promise for forest breeding. Unfortunately, its natural range in Poland is limited, with rare but well-known valuable provenances. In 2023, six progeny tests were established using the same 130 open-pollinated families, derived from plus trees originating from valuable seed regions (Md51, Md61, Md71) and areas below 52° N latitude. After a decade of growth, the results will be used to identify valuable genotypes and establish advanced-generation seed orchards.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue analyses of land consolidation in case of the highly fragmentated of parcels<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Spatial planning and arrangement work of rural areas is constantly being renovated to improve the living conditions, land distribution and to facilitate work in this area by reducing the costs of transport. The most effective solution is consolidation and exchange of land, which is a difficult and time-consuming process. However, it significantly facilitates everyday functioning of the inhabitants of the village. It assumes reduction of plots of land belonging to the farm by increasing the area of other plots, regulating the shape, ensuring access to the public road and shortening the distances of individual farmland to their habitats (built on site). The purpose of this work was the analysis of land consolidation and exchange process for the village of Lukowa with the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) tools. Primary aim set at the beginning of the project is to compare the state before the land consolidation and the design of the parcel posting after consolidation. QGIS free software has been used to solve this problem. Two basic activities were carried out to compare the distance between built-up land and the remaining farmland. For this purpose, two analyses were performed: network analyses assuming the calculation of distance along the shape of roads and linear analyses determining the shortest distances between plots on a straight line. The work considers the real land distribution, the calculation of which is a time-consuming task. Many factors must be considered to accurately determine the correct distances. It is shown what difficulties and problems occur during the collection of data for analysis, with the correct indication of habitats and indicating the road network or aggregation of adjacent plots of one owner.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue affects the choice of forestry profession by Ukrainian students?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Currently, Ukraine is outlining a problem with the recruitment of students to the Faculty of Forestry. The solution to this problem is possible only if the necessity of transformation of the forestry industry and the corresponding transformation of the forestry education system are realised. Based on the study of scientific literature, the main motivating factors, according to which future students decide to become foresters, were identified. These factors were included in a questionnaire offered to first-year forestry students. The results of the questionnaire were compared with the data from the scientific articles. As a result, some aspects to pay attention to in order to increase the attractiveness of forestry as a field of study were identified. It was found that the predominant motivating factors for choosing a forestry profession are enjoyment of nature, recreation in nature, spending time in the fresh air, concern for the environment and interest in forests. Salary of forestry specialists proved to be the strongest factor for hesitation in choosing the profession. The next step of our research will probably be to investigate the opinion of Ukrainian students about the quality of educational programmes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue pine stands in the Left-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>The article presents the results of the research on the features of <italic>Pinus sylvestris</italic> L. condition and productivity in forest stands of the Left-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine (in Kharkiv and Sumy regions) for 2006–2021. The study was carried out using the ‘Forests of Ukraine’ Database as of 01.01.2017, and the results of field research at 30 temporary sample plots (TSP), 3 permanent sample plots (PSP) (in 2006–2018), and 13 monitoring plots (2009–2021). Generally accepted methods and new standards were used.</p> <p>The dynamics of forestry and evaluation indicators of Scots pine stands at sample plots were analyzed and compared with high-productive Scots pine stands. The characteristics of natural regeneration are given. It was revealed that the age structure of pine stands is not optimal: there is an excess of middle-aged stand areas.</p> <p>Changes in the structure and development of managed Scots pine stands with respect to changing environmental conditions were observed for 2009–2021. Studied forest stands showed a tendency for negative changes in stand structural characteristics related to regeneration and growth.</p> <p>Drought mainly in combination with even medium anthropogenic impact can further worsen the health status of Scots pine stands in lowland areas of the Left-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Thus, the formulation of forest management measures to mitigate the impact of these stress factors is needed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to research and classification of forest fuel<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Forests of Ukraine and the whole world in recent decades are regularly exposed to uncontrolled large wildfires. In Ukraine, huge forest areas were burnt in 2009, 2014 and 2015. In 2018, even the northern Scandinavian countries suffered from forest fires. Global climate change (increasing average temperature and aridity) is expected to contribute to the increasing number and area of fires in the future. The occurrence of fire is impossible without the presence of a source of fire, oxygen and fuel (so-called triangle of fire), but only forest fuel (FF) can be controlled by forestry treatment or by prescribed fire. Effective fire management is impossible without the knowledge of the distribution and qualitative characteristics of FFs. This article provides brief information on the history of research studies on FF in Ukraine and in the countries of the former Soviet Union and the factors that influence the formation of reserves and structure of FF. According to those research articles, the most important factors were soil and climatic conditions and characteristics of plantations. Information about the trends in accumulation of FFs in the Ukrainian pine forests is given. After the evaluation of the research works about FF, it was concluded that the study of fuel in Ukraine is fragmentary, and such studies should be continued, but necessarily after the unification of the methods of sampling and recording data about FF. In the future, this work allows the mapping of FF at the national level. The need to continue collecting field data from forest ecosystems is indicated by the use of new world-class methods for the development of fuel models, taking into account the local conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue variation in nutrient composition in the leaves of two species<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Trees happen to be a prominent source of nutritive fodders and provide sufficient nutrients to the cattle throughout the year. The leaves of two <italic>Bauhinia</italic> species, that is, <italic>Bauhinia retusa</italic> and <italic>Bauhinia variegata</italic>, were collected in different seasons from their natural growing habitats. The collected leaves were air-dried to make a fine powder, and the nutrient concentrations were estimated as per the standard processes. Significant variations were recorded in the nutritive values of both species in different seasons. The leaves of <italic>B. retusa</italic> revealed highest dry matter and total carbohydrate in the summer season, while the rainy season exhibited the highest value of ash per cent and crude protein.The ether extract and nitrogen-free extract per cent were higher in the winter season, and the maximum crude fibre and organic matter per cent were prominent in the spring season. In case of <italic>B. variegata</italic> leaves, the dry matter, nitrogen-free extract, ash and ether extract per cent were higher in the winter season. The highest crude fibre percent and total carbohydrate were found to be the maximum in the rainy season, and crude protein was higher in summer season. The results of the present study revealed that the both <italic>Bauhinia</italic> species are good sources of green fodder for cattle, especially in the rainy season in case of <italic>B. retusa</italic> and in the summer season for <italic>B. variegata</italic>, to correct the deficiency of protein in animals in the hill state of Uttarakhand, India.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the evaluation of forest areas based on Landsat data using free software<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Ever-evolving technologies are enabling us to obtain information about the world around us ever more quickly and precisely. This state of affairs contributes to the growing need to store and analyse data. For today’s scientists, this is a challenge because it involves analyses on a global scale. This also applies to spatial data, vast amounts of which are made available online. The Google Earth Engine platform is such a place on the web. It is not just a catalogue for browsing, but above all an environment for programming useful applications. Among free software, it is difficult to find one that is not dependent on the parameters of the computer. In the case of Google Earth Engine, the processes programmed by the user are executed on powerful external servers, and the user only gets the finished result, which he can download to his computer and use in further work. The initial chapters introduce the basic concepts and characterise the specifics of working in this environment, taking into account the limitations of the platform. Then, the individual stages of the algorithm developed by the authors are described, trying to explain well the reasons for the use of particular methods and functions. In order to verify the correctness of the obtained results, existing databases on the subject and published research results of other authors were used.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of various approaches of multispectral and radar data fusion for modelling of aboveground forest biomass<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Five different data fusion techniques (multiple linear regression (MLR), high-pass filtering (HPF), intensity hue saturation (IHS), wavelet transformation (WT) and the hybrid method WT + IHS) have been applied to model the aboveground forest biomass (AGB) in this study. The RapidEye multispectral image and the PALSAR radar image were used in research as sources of remote sensing data. Five models for estimating forest AGB were built and analysed using data from test area in Chernihiv region (Ukrainian Polissya). Correlation and min–max accuracy have been calculated for each model to measure the model performance. Among all the data fusion approaches used in the study, the high-pass filtering method has shown the greatest efficiency.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and economic effectiveness of young black locust tree stands on afforested sulphur opencast mine sites<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>The correct selection of the species composition of afforestation in relation to the habitat conditions has a decisive impact on the effects of forest reclamation. In most of the reclaimed forestry areas in Poland, the stands enter the prelogging period, and it is possible to assess the first economic and production effects of reclamation. The assessment was made based on the analysis of the size of the harvested wood during the intermediate cutting on the heap of the former ‘Piaseczno’ opencast sulphur mine located in southern Poland and managed by the State Forests. At this stage of development, <italic>Robinia pseudoacacia</italic> played a large role in obtaining a good income from the sale of intermediate cutting wood and economic effects. The obtained results may be important in the context of indicating alternative directions for reclamation and afforestation of post-mining areas, e.g., for plantation purposes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue use of attractants in reducing the occurrence of the (Ehrh.)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Black cherry, which occurs in European forests, contributes to their distortion or degradation of native ecosystems. Therefore, measures are taken to reduce its occurrence. One of them is the biological method involving grazing animals.</p> <p>The aim of this research was to develop and identify an attractant that would increase the attractiveness of black cherry as a feeding base for deer, which would limit its occurrence.</p> <p>This research was carried out in Zielonka (17.10941 E 52.553975 N). In the experiment, 3-year-olds were used: <italic>Tilia cordata, Acer pseudoplatanus, A. platanoides, Fagus sylvatica</italic> and <italic>Prunus serotina</italic>. Before planting the seedlings, their height was measured. The control (K, 10 trees) consisted of trees of each species that were not sprayed with attractants. Another set of 10 trees were treated over the entire surface of the shoots with a bait mixture (MW), and the next 10 trees were sprayed with a 10% aqueous solution of NaCl. The attractant spraying was repeated six times. All damage observed was recorded. The inventoried tree damage was divided into four categories: 0%, no damage; I, 1–20% damaged trees; II, 21–50% damaged trees and III, more than 50% damaged trees.</p> <p>The results of the Mann–Whitney <italic>U</italic> test (p = 0.0109), at the assumed level of significance (α = 0.05), showed that slightly higher seedlings were browsed.</p> <p>These studies indicate the potential of using attractants as preparations influencing the palatability of the black cherry for deer. All recorded bites were classified as degree I damage. The trees were gnawed by fallow deer, 35.33% of trees were not damaged by game at all, and 64.66% of trees were damaged in degree I. In the case of sycamore maple, Norway maple and linden, the bait mixture did not increase the number of nibbled buds and leaves, while NaCl increased the attractiveness of beech and black cherry as a feeding base.</p> <p>Conducting further research studies on the improvement of preparations may give a chance to reduce the use of chemicals in forest protection and give the possibility of using attractants where it is impossible to use herbicides.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue influence of changing some climatic conditions on the phenological phases of the development of native bush of Forest-Steppe zone plants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>It was studied that the dynamics of phenophases, the dates of the beginning and duration of phenological cycles in plants are under the constant influence of seasonal changes in climatic conditions (regular alternation of seasons with different durations of day and night, warm or cold and rainy or dry seasons). Together with the study of the shoot growth duration, it is worth conducting a study of the dynamics of their growth. This is also important for determining the tolerance for winter conditions, since it is known, that not only those shoots that finish growing early but also those that grow for a long time, but rather slowly, can be winter resistant.</p> <p>The intensive growth of shoots of all studied species occurs in May to mid-June. Almost all of them have two peaks of shoot growth: June and mid-July. The growth of shoots has a certain dependence on air temperature.</p> <p>The conducted long-term phenological observations made it possible to establish the periods of phenophases in five species of shrubs and show that in the conditions of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe, all of them manage to complete their vegetation in time, before the beginning of frost.</p> <p>Among the studied species, <italic>Lonicera tatarica</italic> L. and <italic>Viburnum lantana</italic> L. were the first to start their shoot growth in the first decade of May. Then, in the third decade of May, shoots of <italic>E. europaeus</italic> began to grow. <italic>P. spinosa</italic> and <italic>R. canina</italic> were the last to start their shoot growth.</p> <p>The conducted research has a certain significance for forest reclamation work as these types of shrubs are used to create protective plantings. Establishing a certain dependence on air temperature will allow to adjust the species composition and their number when creating this type of plantation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue