rss_2.0Folia Horticulturae FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Folia Horticulturae Horticulturae 's Cover induces changes in activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and emissions of floral volatiles in<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, there has been increasing interest in floral volatiles due to their important function in reproduction, self-protection and so on. Although some progress was made on deciphering emissions of floral volatiles and on related mechanisms under a variety of environmental factors, the effects of Zn<sup>2+</sup> concentrations on mitochondrial function and floral volatile emissions are yet to be revealed. <italic>Dendrobium huoshanense</italic> petals were used as materials and were treated with a 0–8 mM ZnSO<sub>4</sub> solution. Intracellular Zn<sup>2+</sup> concentrations were evaluated by the fluorescent dye method and atomic absorption method. Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities and the precursor and ATP contents were determined by the biochemical method. Floral volatile components were analyzed by the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results indicated that ZnSO<sub>4</sub> application significantly increased intracellular Zn<sup>2+</sup> concentrations. Elevated intracellular Zn<sup>2+</sup> concentrations differently affected mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities, precursor and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) productions and floral volatile emissions. Moreover, positive correlations exist among the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, productions of precursors and ATP and emissions of floral volatiles. It is concluded that Zn<sup>2+</sup> concentrations induce the activity changes of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, especially complex II and V, which promote or inhibit the emissions of floral volatiles by affecting the precursor and ATP levels that are closely related to the production of terpenoids, benzoids and fatty acid derivatives. The research will contribute to understanding the relationship between Zn<sup>2+</sup> concentrations and floral volatile emissions from the perspective of mitochondrial function.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Perceived functions of allotment gardens and their importance during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article describes the changes taking place in the functions of allotment gardens, their perceived value, reasons for purchasing allotments and subjective (self-reported) assessments of their importance during the pandemic. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 203 owners of allotment gardens located in three highly urbanised cities in the Silesian Voivodeship (Southern Poland). Semi-structured questionnaires and non-standardised questionnaires were used to collect the data. The results demonstrate that the respondents aged above 61 years (38.5%) have observed a generational change in the function of allotments, from cultivating fruits and vegetables to recreational purposes. Regardless of age, the owners of allotment gardens did not notice any technological progress or new crops. The young respondents (21–30 years) treated allotment gardens as an investment (36.7%), while the respondents aged below 20 years and over 61 years declared that the greatest benefits of allotment gardening are improved health and growing one’s own fruits and vegetables. The respondents aged over 41 years (25.9%) also pointed out the importance of growing their own produce. Allotments were especially important during the pandemic as a private space free from COVID-related restrictions. Extended interviews with the respondents revealed that allotment gardening was perceived as a coping strategy for the stress generated during the lockdown. This study showed that allotment gardens are important sites not only for food production but also for maintaining mental health, social capital and environmental engagement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Therapeutic horticulture as a potential tool of preventive geriatric medicine improving health, well-being and life quality – A systematic review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The global population of older people grows systematically and with age, the physical and cognitive abilities of people decline. The amount of evidence that gardening may provide substantial health benefits and enhance the quality of ageing is increasing. This paper presents a systematic review of the therapeutic effects of horticulture and gardening on clients aged ≥60 years. It encompasses articles published in English between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2021. The literature survey shows that the interest in the topic has grown significantly in recent years as over half of the published studies are from 2019 to 2021. Most of this work was done in Asia (60%), America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. The most commonly used interventions were active horticultural therapy programs or gardening, but 20% of the studies explored the passive connection of being outside. The fitness of the elderly was measured using 33 psychological tests, 32 physiological and functional parameters and different kinds of self-developed questionnaires and interviews. The most commonly used psychological tests were the Geriatric Depression Scale, Self-rated Health and Quality of Life, Mini-Mental State Examination, Friendship Scale, Lubben Social Network Scale, and the Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire. The physiological and functional parameters included heart rate variability, blood pressure, electroencephalography, brain nerve growth factors, and different types of biomarkers. The study outcomes demonstrated positive results of horticultural therapy on human health and well-being, particularly in a psychological dimension and to a smaller but still significant extent physiological aspect.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative RNA-Seq analysis to understand anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulations in<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Anthocyanins play a critical role in flower colour pattern formation, and their biosynthesis is typically regulated by transcription factors (TFs). <italic>Curcuma alismatifolia</italic> is a well-known ornamental plant with colourful flowers. However, little is known about the genes that regulate anthocyanin accumulation in <italic>C. alismatifolia</italic>. In the present study, high-quality RNA was extracted from three flowering stages of ‘Dutch Red’ and the blossoming stage of ‘Chocolate’. In all, 576.45 Mb clean data and 159,687 de-redundant sequences were captured. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis showed that the pathways of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis were the most enriched. Thirty unique isoforms were annotated as encoding enzymes or TFs involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Further analysis showed that the up-regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes was associated with the red colour formation of ‘Dutch Red’, and their expression was induced at the initial flowering stage. The gene <italic>flavonoid 3′, 5′-hydroxylase</italic>, a key enzyme in the formation of delphinidin-based anthocyanins, reduced expression in ‘Chocolate’. In addition, we identified totally 14 TFs including 11 MYB proteins and 3 WD proteins, which might play important roles in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) results were generally consistent with the high-throughput sequencing results. Together, the results of our study provide a valuable resource for the regulatory mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in <italic>C. alismatifolia</italic> and for the breeding of <italic>Curcuma</italic> cultivars with novel and charming flower colours.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Screening of composite substrates suitable for tissue-cultured plantlets growth of (Lour.) Merr<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Asparagus cochinchinensis</italic> (Lour.) Merr is a medicinal, edible and horticulture plant. Seedling breeding relies on tissue-cultured technology, but the transplant from tissue-cultured seedlings to field cultivation poses a problem in the large-scale production of <italic>A. cochinchinensis</italic>. Tissue-cultured seedlings of <italic>A. cochinchinensis</italic> were used as materials, and they were transplanted into the substrates that were mixed with coconut bran, peat, vermiculite, perlite or garden soil. The analysis of the physical and chemical properties of the substrate, combined with the survival rate of seedlings, the aboveground parameters (plant height, stem diameter, fresh weight and dry weight), underground parameters (root fresh weight, root dry weight, root length, root diameter, root surface area and root volume) and physiological indexes (malondialdehyde, soluble protein, soluble sugar, proline, chlorophyll and root vigour), allow us to understand the effects of different combination substrates on the growth and physiology of <italic>A. cochinchinensis</italic> tissue-cultured seedlings. We concluded that the survival rate of seedlings was negatively correlated with the bulk density and conductivity and was positively correlated with the porosity in the substrate. The membership function was used to comprehensively evaluate the indexes of each combination substrate, and it was concluded that coconut bran:perlite:vermiculite = 33.33%:33.33%:33.33% (bulk density = 0.23 g · cm<sup>−3</sup>, total porosity = 65.07%, pH = 6.30, conductivity = 0.51 mS · cm<sup>−1</sup>) scored the highest, the survival rate of seedlings reached 87.10%, the aboveground and underground growth were vigorous and the quality was better than other substrates. This research provides technical support for the efficient cultivation of tissue-cultured seedlings of <italic>A. cochinchinensis</italic> and reduces the cost of raising seedlings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Differences in health-promoting properties in civilisation diseases of fruiting bodies harvested from three flushes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A controlled environment and composition of the compost used for the commercial production of <italic>Agaricus bisporus</italic> can allow fruiting bodies with increased nutritional value to be obtained. The present study aimed first to investigate the content of bioelements in fruiting bodies of <italic>A. bisporus</italic> harvested from three flushes of cultivation and to estimate which elements are accumulated most effectively by determination of bioconcentration factor (BCF). The second aim of the study is to determine the amount of selected organic compounds in the <italic>A. bisporus</italic> fruiting bodies harvested from three flushes of cultivation and to evaluate their antioxidant activity. Among the three examined <italic>A. bisporus</italic> flushes, the first is considered the most valuable, since it was rich in dietary and nutritional substances, and has shown promise of antioxidant and antidepressant activities. The present study is the first to describe a complex evaluation of the content of bioactive substances and antioxidant activity in three different cultivation flushes of <italic>A. bisporus</italic> fruiting bodies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Agronomic traits, secondary metabolites and element concentrations of leaves as a response to single or reiterated drought stress: How effective is the previously experienced stress?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In nature, plants are constantly challenged by an array of drought episodes, which critically affect the distribution of the plants. The drought episodes might occur recurrently, so the plants endure drought by adjusting and shifting their metabolisms. The impacts of subjecting plants to drought stress have been widely investigated, but reports on how reiterated drought stress affects the plants are limited. The present study was designed to investigate the response of lavender, a reputed medicinal and aromatic plant, against single drought, recovery and reiterated drought stress at greenhouse conditions. In this regard, the experimental design was based on three cycles of 11 days of drought by withholding water, followed by subsequent periods of 6 days of recovery, and then double-stressed and single-stressed periods. As expected, the present findings revealed that single stress decreased the fresh and dry weights of the leaf, stem and root. Reiterated drought stress caused critical reductions in the fresh weight of the leaf, stem and root, while the dry weight of stem and root were not significantly affected. Of the estimated traits, only the dry weight of leaf increased with reiterated drought stress. The mineral status of the leaves was adversely affected with single stress, but the effects of recovery and reiterated stress were not in accordance with the improvement in water contents of the leaf and soil. Regarding essential oil compounds, eucalyptol, camphor and endo-borneol were predominant. Single and reiterated drought stress increased camphor percentage, while recovery and full irrigation decreased the percentage. Endo-borneol was decreased under single stress, but reiterated stress increased the percentage of the compound. Considering the phenolic acids, stressed and non-stressed groups were well discriminated and hence, phenolic acids might be useful as good indicators of the stress response in lavender.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Outcomes of foliar iodine application on growth, minerals and antioxidants in tomato plants under salt stress<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Plant biostimulants have been used to reduce the damage caused by different types of biotic and abiotic stresses. Iodine (I) is a non-essential element in plants. Still, it is considered beneficial and a biostimulant, since exogenous application can enhance the redox metabolism, which improves antioxidants, synergies with essential minerals and increases tolerance to adverse factors. However, little is known about the mechanism of action of iodine; so, it is advantageous to undertake research that elucidates the impact of this element on plant physiology, which is expected to encourage the productive agricultural sector to use this element with additional biofortification benefit. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of foliar KIO<sub>3</sub> applications every 15 days at 100 μM, on growth, mineral content and antioxidants in tomato plants grown under greenhouse conditions subjected to salinity stress (100 mM NaCl). The results showed that iodine did not mitigate the adverse impact of salinity on fresh or dry biomass but increased fruit production by 23%. A greater amount of N and Fe was also found in the leaves but not in the fruits; the same happened with the iodine concentration, which was high in the leaves of the treated plants but not in tomato fruits. The content of Ca and Mg in fruits was decreased in plants treated with iodine, as well as the activity of the GPX, lycopene and the antioxidant potential. None of the fruit quality variables were affected by salinity with or without application of iodine.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of physico-chemical characteristics of myrtle at different ripening stages<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The fruits of myrtle at different stages of development, namely green (G), colour break (C) and mature (M), were used to investigate the changes of fruit quality and anthocyanin composition during its development. Five anthocyanin components, such as delphinidin (Dp), cyanidin (Cy), pelargonidin (Pg), peonidin (Pn) and malvidin (Mv), were detected. Among them, the content of Dp glucoside was the highest (2.12 μg · g<sup>−1</sup>) and the content of Pn glucoside was the lowest (0.17 μg · g<sup>−1</sup>) at the green stage. The content of Cy glucoside was the highest (120.94 and 1,200.03 μg · g<sup>−1</sup>), and the content of Mv glucoside was the lowest (19.50 and 62.72 μg · g<sup>−1</sup>) at the colour break and mature stages. The single fruit weight, vertical diameter and transverse diameter at the mature stage were significantly higher than those at the colour break and the green stages by 0.87 g, 1.27 mm, 1.53 mm and 1.54 g, 3.4 mm, 3.55 mm, respectively. Fruit quality, the contents of soluble sugar and carotenoids, gradually increased with the development of fruit; and the contents were the highest at the mature stage (17.68% and 16.90 μg · L<sup>−1</sup>). The contents of titratable acidity, total phenol, flavonoids, chlorophyll <italic>a</italic> and total chlorophyll gradually decreased with the development of fruit, the content was the lowest at the mature stage (2.71 mmol · 100 g<sup>−1</sup>, 9.29 μg · g<sup>−1</sup>, 0.1%, 0.37 μg · L<sup>−1</sup>, 0.9 μg · L<sup>−1</sup>) and the content was the highest at the green stage (5.25 mmol · 100 g<sup>−1</sup>, 21.07 μg · g<sup>−1</sup>, 0.17%, 8.86 μg · L<sup>−1</sup>, 15.47 μg · L<sup>−1</sup>). The difference between the green period and the colour break period was significant.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of constantly high soil water content on vegetative growth and grape quality in Japan with high rainfall during grapevine growing season<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Excess water in vineyard soils during grapevine growing season is expected to become a critical issue in Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of constantly high soil water content which was controlled at constantly more than 20% water content in soil on vegetative growth and berry quality of Cabernet Sauvignon over a 3-year growing season. A wireless sensor networking system for real-time monitoring of soil moisture was used to check that the experimental plot had constantly more than 20% water content in soil. Véraison in the experimental plot controlled at constantly high soil water content started 10 days, 4 days and 1 day later than that in the non-irrigated experimental plot in the 2017, 2018 and 2019 growing seasons, respectively. The constantly high soil water content had no notable effects on berry quality, such as berry characteristics and berry composition, at harvest compared with the non-irrigated experimental plot, although there was a certain tendency that constantly high soil water content decreased anthocyanin contents in berry skins compared with those of non-irrigated grapevines during the three growing seasons. We postulated that waterlogging damage due to the increase in soil water content by frequent rainfall would be minimised by the selection of rootstock that confers tolerance to waterlogging stress for scion cultivars and/or viticultural practices to prevent decrease in soil temperature. Also, the introduction of Internet of Things technology for monitoring water status in vineyard soil is expected to contribute to improving practical approaches to vineyard soil water management.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-08-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Nitrogen supply and shading affect morphology and composition of the essential oil in marigold ( L.)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Terrestrial plants are constantly exposed to multiple environmental signals that influence their metabolism. Among these signals, nitrogen (N) nutrition and light affect importantly diverse metabolic and physiological processes. Herewith the effects of N nutrition (8.47, 12.71 and 16.94 mg · L<sup>−1</sup> N) and shading percentages (0 and 70%) on plant morphology and chemical composition of the essential oil of marigold (<italic>Tagetes erecta</italic> L.) ‘Inca’ were assessed. Increasing N levels enhanced the number of secondary branches and the flower diameter, while shading reduced height of side branches, number of primary branches and opened flower buds. In leaves, flowers and stems, 15 different compounds were identified. In leaves, low and medium N levels and high light level increased the synthesis of ocimene, limonene and piperitone. As well, medium and high N doses, independently of the light level, stimulated the synthesis of caryophyllene and β-phellandrene in leaves. Nevertheless, increasing N doses and shading level decreased the synthesis of β-myrcene and α-pinene in leaves. In flowers, medium N level and high light intensity increased the synthesis of <italic>trans</italic>-pinene. Piperitone and verbenone were identified only in flowers of plants with high N doses and lower light intensity. In the stems, caryophyllene, piperitone and β-farnesene were more abundant with medium and high N levels. The interaction of study factors differentially affected both morphological variables and the composition of essential oil among organs studied. Therefore, N nutrition and light intensity are key factors that modify the morphology and composition of the essential oil in <italic>T. erecta</italic>.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Functional traits of okra cultivars (Chinese green and Chinese red) under salt stress<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Two okra cultivars (Chinese green and Chinese red) were subjected to salt stress for 12 weeks. Salt stress treatments T1 (20.8 mM), T2 (103.3 mM), T3 (180.0 mM) and T4 (257.0 mM) were applied with equal proportions of NaCl and CaCl<sub>2</sub> in Hoagland nutrient solution. Salt stress significantly affects photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, water potential, plant height, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of both okra cultivars in every salt stress treatment. At T2, T3 and T4, Chinese red plants maintained their physiological and growth traits up to Weeks 9, 6 and 3, respectively; beyond these salt-stress durations, growth reductions were found. Similarly, Chinese green plants maintained their growth up to Weeks 9, 5 and 3, respectively, at T2, T3 and T4 treatments. In comparison, Chinese red showed more tolerance than Chinese green. According to the results, the third and ninth weeks are the tolerance threshold limits for both cultivars to sustain their physiological traits and growth under T4 and T2 salinity treatments. Similarly, Chinese red has the threshold limit to bear T3 treatment up to the eighth week and Chinese green, up to the fifth week. Thus, this study provides a new method to determine the threshold value of crops with respect to duration under salt stress. This finding would be useful in the field of water saving and utilisation of saline water resources.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of yield and nitrogen utilisation with urease and nitrification inhibitors in sweet potato crop ( L.)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Sweet potato (<italic>Ipomoea batatas</italic> L.) is a new tuber crop grown in Greece. It constitutes an innovative dietary component for both humans and animals, due to its nutritional properties. The cultivation of sweet potato focuses on the growth of both tubers and plants. Nitrogen is considered an essential element for almost all crops. This study set out to compare the effect of nitrogen inhibitors on yield components of sweet potato. In the literature, it is stated that in sweet potato cultivation nitrogen mainly affects the plants’ growth such as the tuber's yield and some quality characteristics such as dry matter and protein content. To furthermore explore this particular area, field experiments took place in West Greece, during the years 2018 and 2019. Several urea combination treatments were used in the experimental process. The treatments were urea (46-0-0), urea with urease inhibitor (UI), urea with nitrification inhibitor (NI), urea with double inhibitors (UI + NI) and control (without fertilizer) in a randomised complete block design. Leaf area index (LAI) was significantly affected by the fertilizer marking the highest value of 5.35 under urea + UI + NI treatment. Marketable yield was profoundly affected by the fertilizer in the experimental years and ranged from 18,180 to 23,230 Kg · ha<sup>−1</sup> whereas non-marketable yield was not affected by the fertilizer. A considerable impact of fertilizers was noticed on yield where the highest value was 30,923 Kg · ha<sup>−1</sup> under urea + NI + UI treatment. The percentage of nitrogen on tubers and upper parts was significantly affected by the fertilizers. Nitrogen markers, such as nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), nitrogen harvest index and nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE), were used to evaluate nitrogen release. A significant positive correlation was noticed between marketable yield and NUE (0.774). Also, the significant increase in yield showed a positive correlation with NAE (0.727). For yield components of sweet potato, the highest values were observed in urea with double inhibitors treatment in both experimental years.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Yield parameters, antioxidant activity, polyphenol and total soluble solids content of beetroot cultivars with different flesh colours<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study aimed to evaluate yield parameters, antioxidant activity (AOA), total polyphenol content (TPC) and total soluble solids (TSS) in beetroot cultivars with different flesh colours. Field experiments were established at the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in 2016 and 2017. Within the study, 16 beetroot cultivars were tested, including 11 red-fleshed (‘Boltardy’, ‘Boro’ F<sub>1</sub>, ‘Crosby Egyptian’, ‘Cylindra’, ‘Detroit Globe’, ‘Detroit 2’, ‘Egyptian Turnip Rooted’, ‘Opolski’, ‘Pablo’ F<sub>1</sub>, ‘Renova’ and ‘Taunus’ F<sub>1</sub>), 2 yellow-fleshed (‘Boldor’ F<sub>1</sub> and ‘Golden’), 2 white-flesh cultivars (‘Albino’ and ‘White Detroit’) and 1 red-white fleshed cultivar (‘Chioggia’). All beetroot cultivars with red flesh colour showed higher AOA and TPC than different-coloured beetroot cultivars. The highest root yield was found in the white-fleshed beetroot cultivar ‘Albino’ (37.80–41.91 t · ha<sup>−1</sup>). The highest root weight was found in the white-fleshed beetroot cultivar ‘White Detroit’ (362.4–412.1 g). The highest AOA (819.19–972.50 mg TEAC · kg<sup>−1</sup> d.w.) and TPC (2,387.70–2,731.00 mg · kg<sup>−1</sup> d.w.) were found in the red-fleshed beetroot cultivar ‘Pablo’ F<sub>1</sub>. Different-coloured cultivars of beetroot were characterised by a lower content of TSS (6.4–8.8 ºBRIX) than cultivars with typical, red flesh colour (7.8–10.8 ºBRIX). Results clearly indicate that cultivar, or flesh colour, is showed as a significant factor influencing the quality of beetroot. Knowing of yield potential and quality of beetroot cultivars is important for growers as well as consumers. Results of this study indicate that white-fleshed cultivars of beetroot are characterised by high yield potential but lower quality, including lower AOA, TPC and TSS.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Bioactive compounds and physical attributes of genotypes through multivariate approaches<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Cornelian cherry fruits are quite rich in bioactive compounds. Natural colour, rich flavonoids and anthocyanins and high antioxidant activity have made the fruits a natural drug. In the present study, antioxidant activity, total flavonoids and total phenolics of naturally growing 18 cornelian cherry genotypes with different phenotypic characteristics were determined. Size and shape parameters of the genotypes were also determined with the image-processing method; sphericity, elongation and shape index were calculated and shapes of two-dimensional fruit images were compared with elliptic Fourier analysis. Antioxidant activity, total flavonoid contents and total phenolic amounts of the genotypes were varied between 55.062 and 152.420 mmol TE · kg<sup>−1</sup>, 286.40 and 2,882.80 mg QE · kg<sup>−1</sup>, and 2,644.80 and 12,959.00 mg GAE · kg<sup>−1</sup>, respectively. Multivariate variance analysis conducted based on physical characteristics revealed that six genotypes were different from the others. Shape analysis with Elliptic Fourier method revealed that the majority of present cornelian cherry genotypes had an oval appearance and a small portion of them had a drop-like appearance. According to discriminant analysis and Hotelling's pair-wise comparison tests, there were five different shape groups for present genotypes. A single genotype was placed into one of these groups, thus it was determined that this genotype was totally different in shape from the others.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Screening tea hybrid with abundant anthocyanins and investigating the effect of tea processing on foliar anthocyanins in tea<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Anthocyanins are important bioactive supplements that are consumed from multiple foods and beverage products. Screening tea cultivars producing a high level of anthocyanins can help to enrich the edible bioactive supplements. ‘Zijuan’ (ZJ) is a tea cultivar growing purple shoots rich in anthocyanins, but it is susceptible to freezing winter and sprouts late in spring. Hybridisation using ‘ZJ’ as the female parent and an early sprouting cultivar ‘Wuniuzao’ as the male parent was carried out, and four hybrids with purple leaves were obtained. The quality of anthocyanins, catechins, caffeine and amino acids in shoots with three leaves and a bud of the purple leaf hybrids obtained were determined based on the field investigation on sprouting time in spring, winter resistance and leaf yield. It showed that hybrid ‘B-2’ sprouted earlier in the spring, contained a higher level of anthocyanins and also showed good performance in winter resistance than its female parent ‘ZJ’. It also showed that black tea processing induced a marked decrease in foliar anthocyanins, but green tea processing had little effect on the foliar anthocyanins. Purple tea leaves should be prepared into unfermented green tea instead of fermented black tea to preserve the high level of anthocyanins in the final tea products.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of shoot age on biological and chemical properties of red currant ( L.) cultivars<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this study was to examine the influence of shoot age on biological and chemical properties of 11 red currant cultivars (‘Jonkheer van Tets’, ‘Junifer’, ‘London Market’, ‘Makosta’, ‘Mirana’, ‘Redpoll’, ‘Rolan’, ‘Rondom’, ‘Rovada’, ‘Slovakia’ and ‘Stanza’) with different origins and ripening times. Phenological observations and pomological characteristics were studied and chemical analysis was conducted from 2013 to 2018 at experimental fields near Belgrade, Serbia. The total contents of phenols and anthocyanin were estimated spectrophotometrically, while quantitative analysis of anthocyanin aglycones was done using high-performance liquid chromatography. Three-year-old shoots had an earlier start of all examined phenological stages, better generative potential, higher yields, as well as higher total phenol and vitamin C contents in the fruits, compared with 2-year-old shoots, for all cultivars. The contents of total anthocyanins were higher in berries on younger shoots of early-ripening cultivars, while late-ripening cultivars had higher contents of total soluble solids and cyanidin in the berries on 3-year-old shoots. Principal component analysis demonstrated that the most important variables that distinguished 2-year-old shoots from 3-year-old shoots were those related to phenological data, cluster traits, total acids and yields. According to the obtained results, ‘Junifer’ (with the highest number of clusters), ‘Mirana’ (with the highest sugar content and sugar/acid ratio), ‘Redpoll’ (with the highest physical traits of cluster and berry), ‘Slovakia’ (with the highest yield and yield efficiency) and ‘Rovada’ (with the highest level of secondary metabolites) are recommended as the most promising cultivars for growing in the temperate region of Serbia.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of the bacteria formulation different inoculum densities on growth and development of<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This research was carried out to examine the effects of different doses of bacterial formulation comprised of a mixture of <italic>Bacillus megaterium</italic> TV-91C, <italic>Pantoea agglomerans</italic> RK-92 and <italic>Kluyvera cryocrescens</italic> TV-113C strains on the plant development and bract quality of poinsettias (<italic>Euphorbia pulcherrima</italic> Willd. ex Klotzsch), which are one of the most important potted plants grown for their fleshy bracts of the horticultural sector. The study was carried out in a climate-controlled research greenhouse from 8 August 2018 to 15 January 2019 in Erzurum (Turkey). Rooted cuttings of poinsettia [<italic>E. pulcherrima</italic> Willd. ex Klotzsch cv. Christmas Feelings (CvF)] were used as plant materials in the study. Each of the solutions containing bacterial suspensions 52.5 (T<sub>1</sub>), 105 (T<sub>2</sub>), 210 (T<sub>3</sub>), 420 (T<sub>4</sub>) and 840 (T<sub>5</sub>) mL · L<sup>−1</sup> of water was diluted 5 times with water and 200 mL · pot<sup>−1</sup> was applied to the plant rhizosphere. This study revealed that positive changes incurred in plant height, main flower stem length, plant crown width, bract diameter, green leaf and bract leaf area, leaf total nitrogen content and nitrate reductase enzyme activity parameters in poinsettia plants with increasing doses of the bacterial formulation. This effect has reached the maximum level in the number of bracts, main flower stem length, bract diameter, nitrate reductase enzyme activity, plant fresh weight and maximal root length parameters with the T<sub>5</sub> application which has the highest bacterial formulation concentration. The most efficient application of glutamine synthetase enzyme activity was determined as T<sub>4</sub>.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Antioxidant potential and iodine accumulation in tomato ( L.) seedlings as the effect of the application of three different iodobenzoates<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Iodine (I) has a beneficial effect on plant growth, development and antioxidant activity. The study aimed to compare iodine uptake after the application of iodobenzoates (2-iodobenzoic acid (2-IBeA), 4-iodobenzoic acid (4-IBeA) and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (2,3,5-triIBeA)) as well as potassium iodide (KI) to tomato seedlings. One of the main tasks was to evaluate how the tested compounds applied in different concentrations (5, 10, 25 and 50 μM) affect the growth and antioxidative potential of tomato seedlings. Negative effect on growth and development of tomato seedlings was noted for 4-IBeA applied in 10–50 μM I concentrations. The 2,3,5-triIBeA application affected shoot deformation. All tested iodine compounds increased iodine level in leaves and roots of tomato seedlings. Iodine after KI application was accumulated mainly in leaves, while after iodobenzoates treatment in roots of tomato seedlings, which is probably related to their weaker transport to the upper parts of the plant. Tested compounds variously modified the content of ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids in tomato leaves depending on applied concentration. KI treatment improved ascorbate peroxidase activity, but all iodobenzoates decreased APX and catalase activity in leaves. 4-IBeA (5 μM I) and 2,3,5-triIBeA (25 and 50 μM I) increased guaiacol peroxidase activity in leaves. It can be concluded that mechanisms responsible for plant oxidative metabolism were variously affected by the iodine compounds and its concentration in the nutrient solution.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of the fruiting period and growing seasons on market quality in goji berry ( L.)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Progression of the vegetation period and change of year are associated with variations in general climatic parameters, such as temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, radiation, precipitation, wind speed and others. Only limited knowledge is available about the effects of these parameters on the characteristics of quality of fruits especially those with successive ripening such as goji berry. In our study, fruits of goji berry were characterised based on physico-chemical properties within four different harvest periods, in two consecutive years. Based on the obtained results, it was found that the pomological characteristics were superior at the beginning of the production season, while the phytochemical properties were better at the end. Fruit length, width and weight characteristics were noted to decrease from the first harvest to the last by 21%, 18% and 33%, respectively, while the total anthocyanin, phenol and antioxidant activity properties increased by 264%, 48% and 105%, respectively. There was a decrease in fruit weight, fruit length and fruit width up to 15.9%, 18.3% and 6%, respectively and were directly associated with yield due to sink competition among fruits. Providing high ripening index that ensures more acceptable fruits, with high soluble solid content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA) seems to be a very important breeding objective to meet consumer demands thanks to superior organoleptic quality. According to correlations, the synthesis of phenolic compounds increased in parallel with SSC rise and TA, which improved pomological properties too. It is thought that the obtained results may indicate the cultural processes and evaluation methods to be used for the harvested fruits.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-03T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1