rss_2.0Folia Horticulturae FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Folia Horticulturae Horticulturae Feed of exogenous essential oil treatments on the storage behaviour of apricot fruit harvested at different altitudes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Due to the short shelf life of fresh apricots, special postharvest preservation techniques and practices are necessary to avoid significant economic losses. The purpose of the current study is to bring to light an approach that can be used to extend the storage life of apricot fruits treated with essential oils (EOs) (peppermint, thyme and carob EO) and examine the effects of two altitudes (1000 m and 1200 m) on the organic acid levels and respiration rate of apricot fruit during long-term storage. The results show that growing apricots at high altitudes increases the level of organic acids in the fruit, improving its quality and extending its postharvest life. Additionally, treating apricots with EOs postharvest slows down the respiration rate, reducing the consumption of organic acids during storage compared to the untreated fruit. The organic acid content was significantly higher in ‘Kabaaşi’ than in ‘Hacihaliloğlu’, and fruit harvested at 1200 m had significantly higher levels of organic acid than the fruit harvested at 1000 m. During storage, the highest organic acid content and the lowest respiration rate were observed in the fruit of both cultivars treated with peppermint, carob, and thyme oil, as compared to control fruit, respectively. To summarize, the use of EOs as postharvest treatment for apricot is recommended for maintaining the quality of the fruit during extended storage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue bud development of almond cultivars based on three different methods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Flower bud development of fruit trees plays a key role in their climatic adaptation. It is closely related to dormancy release that determines winter frost susceptibility. Detailed characterisation of flower bud development of 25 almond (<italic>Prunus amygdalus</italic> L. Batsch) accessions representing wide range of flowering times have been performed by microsporogenesis and pistil growth studies for 3 years. Six developmental stages were distinguished in the process of microsporogenesis, while pistil development could be classified into four phases. The examined cultivars showed significant differences in the length and occurrence of microspore developmental stages and year effect was observed. On the basis of the length of microsporogenesis stages, cultivars were clustered into five main groups. The shortest periods of archesporium and microsporogenesis as a sum were detected in accessions ‘Eriane’, ‘5/15’ and ‘1/7’ (with an average of 20 and 138 days in all three), while the longest ones were determined in ‘Constanti’ and ‘Vairo’ (65 and 160 days in both), respectively. The increment of pistil length was suspended during the dormancy period and after dormancy release, it was accelerated first at a slow rate followed by a few days of rapid growth prior to blooming. In order to determine the date of endodormancy release, these three methods – microsporogenesis, pistil length studies, and forcing of shoots – were analysed. All methods revealed significant differences among accessions. The dormancy release estimated by microsporogenesis studies showed the highest variability among the three methods used.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue germination of seeds native to Brazil: A comparative analysis between free and nanoencapsulated gibberellic acid in sp. (Bromeliaceae)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Brazil is home to a great diversity of species of the genus <italic>Dyckia.</italic> However, many of these species are threatened due to habitat destruction and predatory exploitation. An alternative to conserving these plants is sexual propagation using plant regulators to stimulate germination. Gibberellic acid (GA<sub>3</sub>) is an effective regulator in this process, but its instability and ease of degradation pose challenges. Therefore, nanoencapsulation of GA<sub>3</sub> could be used to protect the molecule and allow controlled release. In this study, the effects of different doses of GA<sub>3</sub> were evaluated on the germination of four species: <italic>D. cabrerae, D. dusenii, D. pottiorum</italic> and <italic>D. walteriana.</italic> The first stage consisted of soaking the seeds in different concentrations of GA<sub>3</sub>, in which the species <italic>D. dusenii</italic> and <italic>D. walteriana</italic> showed significant responses to GA<sub>3</sub>, with an increase from 35% to more than 60% germination. However, the species <italic>D. cabrerae</italic> and <italic>D. pottiorum</italic> responded positively to GA<sub>3</sub> only in vegetative growth parameters. In the second stage, the use of nanoparticles of alginate/chitosan (NP ALG/CS) and chitosan/tripolyphosphate (NP CS/TPP) containing GA<sub>3</sub> was compared with free GA<sub>3</sub> and with NPs without GA<sub>3</sub>. It was verified that the use of nanoencapsulated GA<sub>3</sub> resulted in a more efficient germination response in <italic>D. walteriana</italic> seeds, using smaller doses of the regulator (between 0.75 mg · L<sup>−1</sup> and 1.0 mg · L<sup>−1</sup>), mainly with the ALG/ CS NPs. Therefore, the use of GA<sub>3</sub> is recommended for <italic>D. dusenii</italic> and <italic>D. walteriana</italic>, and for the latter, nanoparticles containing ALG/CS-GA<sub>3</sub> allow a reduction in the required dose.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrueα-Glucosidase inhibitory fatty acids from mushroom<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p><italic>Morchella fluvialis</italic>, a morel mushroom, is one of the most famous edible mushrooms all over the world. Interest in this mushroom is steadily increasing due to its organoleptic properties and nutritional value. The methanolic extract of <italic>M. fluvialis</italic> showed α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities in an assay system. Therefore, the purification and characterisation of bioactive metabolites and evaluation of biological activity were conducted. Fractionation of the <italic>M. fluvialis</italic> extract resulted in the isolation of nine compounds, namely, three fatty acids, (9<italic>Z</italic>,12<italic>Z</italic>)-octadecadienoic acid (linoleic acid, 1), (9<italic>Z</italic>,12<italic>Z</italic>)-3-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (2) and (6<italic>Z</italic>,9<italic>Z</italic>)-13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (3); four sterols, stellasterol (4), ergosterol peroxide (5), ergosterol (6) and brassicasterol (7); one sugar alcohol, arabitol (8); and nicotinamide (9). Among them, compounds 2–3 and 7 were first reported from <italic>Morchella</italic>. In addition, compound 1 exhibited potent α-glucosidase inhibition, with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 14.8 μM. The content of compound 1, the major compound, was 1.2 mg · g<sup>–1</sup> extract, as quantitated by HPLC analysis, which was lower than the IC<sub>50</sub> value of compound 1. Therefore, <italic>M. fluvialis</italic> can benefit from diabetes and related diseases through the synergistic effect of linoleic acid (1) and other ingredients.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue defoliation, salicylic acid and cyanocobalamin to ameliorate the physiological and biochemical characteristics of flood-irrigated ‘Crimson Seedless’ grapevines in a semi-arid Mediterranean climate<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>There is a high retail demand for ‘Crimson Seedless’ grape. Cluster shape, berry size, colour, and sugar contents influence the overall fruit quality and marketability. In many commercial vineyards of flood-irrigated clay soils under warm and humid semi-arid climates, adequate irrigation may lead to an enhanced fruit set that could potentially be associated with restricted berry growth, compact clusters, and poor berry colour and taste. To assess the role of some agronomic practices that may influence the canopy microclimate, and affect primary and secondary metabolites, seven treatments arranged in a randomised complete block design (RCBD) system with three replicates each (three vines per replicate) were applied as follow; the control (T1), 5-leaf basal defoliation at pre-bloom (BDPB) (T2), BDPB + foliar spray (FS) of 200 mg · L<sup>–1</sup> salicylic acid (SA) (T3), BDPB + FS of 20 mg · L<sup>–1</sup> cyanocobalamin (CCA) (T4), 5-leaf basal defoliation at full bloom (BDFB) (T5), BDFP + SA (T6) and BDFB + CCA (T7). Foliar applications were applied at 1) 2 weeks after the beginning of vegetative growth, 2) full bloom and 3) veraison stages. The analysis of variance (ANOVA), the principle component analysis (PCA) and the two-way hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) indicated that BDPB (T2) generally has a better effect than that of BDFB (T5). The most pronounced effect on vegetative growth (shoot length and leaf area), photosynthesis activity (leaf chlorophyll and carbohydrate contents), fruit weight and dimensions, and total yield was observed in the case of T3, followed by T6, whereas concerning berry firmness, colour (anthocyanins) and sensory characteristics (soluble solids: acids ratio, total sugars and phenols), the most pronounced effect was observed in the case of T4, followed by T7.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of polyphenolic compounds in wines and different parts of the grapevine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>This paper describes research conducted on the polyphenolic compounds found in wine and different parts of the grapevine. The research consisted of two experiments. In the first, extracts of polyphenols from the leaves, stems, skins and seeds were measured. In the second, these parts were macerated and left in the must during fermentation. For this experiment, the Souvignier gris wine grape variety was used. In both cases, 33 polyphenolic compounds were measured. These measurements were made using the liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. Based on the results, the individual concentrations of all the polyphenolic compounds in different parts of the plant were measured. Addition of the individual parts of the grapevine to the must during fermentation was shown to increase the concentration of the individual polyphenols in the wine. It is therefore important not to forget the importance of the stems and the maceration of the grapes during the winemaking process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue epidermal and trichome micromorphological diversity among poisonous plants and their taxonomic significance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Scanning microscopic imaging has become a valuable research tool in micromorphology with improved techniques playing an important role in analysing the ultrastructure of leaf specimens. The foliar epidermal anatomy of 25 selected poisonous plants with special emphasis on stomata and trichomes was reported using microscopic techniques, for instance, light micrographs (LMs) and scanning micrographs (SEMs). This study aimed to investigate micromorphologies of studied species that are helpful for the identification of poisonous plants. Plants were collected, pressed, dried, identified and then analysed for microscopic study. For making microscopic slides, 1 or 2 leaves were taken in a test tube and dipped in 30% nitric acid and 70% lactic acid for few minutes, and then placed on petri plates for separating the epidermis. Numerous quantitative and qualitative foliar anatomical features of adaxial and abaxial surfaces, including epidermal cell shapes, stomata size, subsidiary cell size, the pattern of the anticlinal wall, the morphology of the stomatal complex and trichome diversity, were examined. A small number of the considered species had anomocytic and anisocytic stomata; a few species had paracytic stomata, for instance, <italic>Ricinus communis, Euphorbia royleana, Buxus pilosula</italic> and <italic>Sorghum halepense</italic>; and only <italic>Ipomoea carnea</italic> had cyclocytic stomata in the studied taxa. The epidermal cells of the analysed species were irregular, while some exhibited polygonal, wavy, tetragonal and elongated cell morphologies. Overall, this study emphasises the significance of foliar micromorphology analysis as a valuable resource for identifying potentially poisonous plants and demonstrates its contribution to maintaining public welfare, thereby benefitting public health and safety.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the pollen characteristics and the taxonomic significance of from the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p><italic>Impatiens</italic> is rich in germplasm resources, with more than 260 species in China. A study on the pollen micromorphology of <italic>Impatiens</italic> by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the pollen characteristics were richly diverse, and there was some correlation among the characteristics. In addition, the micromorphological index can be used for an effective cluster analysis of <italic>Impatiens</italic>. However, there was high interspecific similarity in some <italic>Impatiens</italic>, and the classification of <italic>Impatiens</italic> cannot be accurate to the species using pollen characteristics. Based on the classification conditions of <italic>Impatiens</italic>, the characteristics of the pollen structure were found to be useful to classify <italic>Impatiens</italic> into subgenera or smaller groups. The macroscopic characteristics and the number of sepals (NS) were used as references, which enabled the conclusion that there were 11 indices in the pollen micromorphological index, and the taxonomic effect was greater than the NS. In summary, the pollen micromorphology of <italic>Impatiens</italic> plays an important role in the classification of <italic>Impatiens</italic>. The purpose of this study was to explore this characteristic of <italic>Impatiens</italic>, which has some reference significance to supplement the pollen characteristics and palynological classification of <italic>Impatiens</italic>. The goal for this research was to aid in the interspecific identification and genetic breeding of <italic>Impatiens</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of phenotypic variability of seedlings obtained from open pollination of three varieties of the genus<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>This article reflects on the conventional open pollination breeding method of the genus <italic>Hylotelephium</italic>. Six-year-old seedlings were evaluated and compared with the mother plants for 3 years. A total of 1 063 seedlings were evaluated (54 in the <italic>H</italic>. ‘Red Cauli’, 90 descendants in the <italic>H</italic>. ‘Xenox’, 919 descendants in the <italic>H</italic>. ‘Purple Emperor’). This study deals with six evaluated characters of vegetative parts of plants (habit, height and width of plants, length and width of leaves and the colour of the upper side of the leaves). The most significant phenotypic variability was confirmed for habit, plant height, leaf colour in summer and leaf length in population <italic>H</italic>. ‘Xenox’ and for spring colouration of lower leaves in population <italic>H</italic>. ‘Red Cauli’. The highest degree of variability was found for plant height, where the monitored populations split into a total of seven different sizes. On the contrary, the lowest degree of variability was demonstrated for the length and width of leaves, where all populations showed shorter and narrower leaves compared to the mother plants, with minimal differences.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue use of stinging nettle tea ( sp.) to control and on<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Natural and environmental-friendly approaches to control pests and diseases in horticultural production systems are showing an increasing trend. Biological alternatives, such as botanical extracts and basic substances, show promise in the reduction of the necessity for conventional plant protectants. In ornamentals, less is known about the usage, behaviour and potential of botanicals and basic substances for plant protection. In two trials, we investigated the effect of a weekly foliar spray of an aqueous extract of nettle (<italic>Urtica</italic> sp.; dried material 15 g · L<sup>–1</sup>) on two aphids, <italic>Macrosiphum euphorbiae</italic> and <italic>Aulacorthum solani</italic>. Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse with <italic>Ranunculus asiaticus</italic> as hostplant. The <italic>Urtica</italic> tea and azadirachtin (NeemAzal-T/S) as a standard used in common horticultural production were compared with the water control. Both previously infested and noninfested plants were built up to examine the effect on aphid population growth and migration. As a result, we showed that both treatments, <italic>Urtica</italic> tea and azadirachtin, reduce the aphid density significantly in comparison with the water control, although the effect of the <italic>Urtica</italic> tea was not as substantial as that of azadirachtin. Contrarily, treatments could not prevent aphid migration on previously noninfested plants. The study demonstrates that the basic substance <italic>Urtica</italic> tea can be suitable for the reduction of aphid pests in ornamental plant production, and thus, reduce the amount of synthetic plant protectants in horticulture.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue on preparing seedling substrates using edible mushroom waste and application<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>To improve the utilisation of mushroom residue waste resources and identify a replaceable matrix material for peat, 10 different formula substrates and three commercially available substrates were examined to determine their physiochemical properties. Furthermore, the correlation and influence of these physicochemical properties on the substrates were explored. Pot experiments were conducted using <italic>Brassica campestris</italic> L. ssp. <italic>chinensis</italic> Makino var. <italic>communis</italic> Tsen et Lee (cabbage), <italic>Brassica chinensis</italic> L. (pakchoi), <italic>Cucumis sativus</italic> L. (cucumber), and <italic>Cucurbita moschata</italic> Duch. ex-Poiret (pumpkin). The results showed that the matrix was most significantly affected by water-holding porosity, aeration porosity, air-water ratio, total porosity, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), available phosphorous (AP), and available potassium (AK). The random forest (RFF) model indicated that pH and total nitrogen (TN) had the strongest influence on the plant height and stem diameter of the cabbage. Moreover, pH, water-holding porosity, and total porosity most significantly influenced the plant height, stem diameter, and seedling vigour index. AP and air-water ratio substantially affected the root length and root-to-crown ratio of the cucumbers, while EC, air-water ratio, and AP influenced the stem diameter, root length, and seedling vigour index of the pumpkin most. The biological characteristics of the four vegetables during the pot experiment indicated that the overall effect of the 10 substrates supplemented with perlite and vermiculite was better than in the basic group. Of these, T2 (mushroom waste: sawdust: catalyst: vermiculite = 8:2:5:5) displayed the best result and could be used as an alternative for peat seedling.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue from L. leaves and fruit extracted with various solvents: Their identification and quantification by LC-MS and antihyperglycemic effects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p><italic>Phillyrea latifolia</italic> L. is a type of shrubland, which is widely known as mock privet, and belongs to the Oleaceae family. The objective of this study was to compare and assess the phytochemical composition, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of the fruit and leaves of <italic>P. latifolia</italic> L. Phenolics were analysed by detecting individual bioactive compounds using an LCMS-2020 quadrupole mass spectrometer and by calculating total phenolic content (TPC). For the first time, the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of both leaves and fruit were determined using DPPH radical scavenging. The aqueous extract was indicated to have higher antioxidant activities than ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. The individual constituents within the different extracts for both fruit and leaves were detected as the luteolin-7-O-glucoside in the ethyl acetate (854 μg · g<sup>–1</sup> and 1,098 μg · g<sup>–1</sup>), methanol (1,241 μg · g<sup>–1</sup> and 2,136.43 μg · g<sup>–1</sup>) and aqueous (509 μg · g<sup>–1</sup> and 898.23 μg · g<sup>–1</sup>) extracts, respectively. Extractions of ethyl acetate and methanol demonstrated stronger inhibitory activity against human salivary α-amylase than the aqueous extract of both parts of the mock privet. Similarly, extraction of ethyl acetate from the leaves and fruit of the mock privet indicated significantly better inhibitory activity than the methanol and aqueous extracts, respectively, for the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity. This study indicates that both fruit and leaves of mock privet may use as a potential source of natural biomolecules to promote healthy activities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effects of organic and conventional fertilization on oregano ( L.) yield and quality factors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Oregano (<italic>Origanum onites</italic> L.) is an important medicinal and aromatic plant. The use of sector and economic value of oregano are determined by quality in world trade. This study was conducted during 2019–2021 to determine the effects of chemical and organic fertilizers on yield and quality of <italic>O. onites</italic> L. The experiment followed a randomized complete block design with six treatments and four replications, i.e., control (C: untreated plants), chemical fertilizer (F) (150:90:100 kg · ha<sup>−1</sup>), farmyard manure (FYM), chicken manure (CM), vermicompost (VC) and spent mushroom compost (SMC) (the objective was to obtain 150 kg N · ha<sup>−1</sup> for organic fertilizer). Fresh yield increased by 3.36%–11.44% and 5.61%–13.59% with organic fertilization as compared with the control in both years while it increased by 22% and 19.0% with chemical fertilization. FYM and SMC were more effective in fresh yield among organic fertilizers. Essential oil (EO) increased by 18.8%–50.1% and 2.94%–19.85% with fertilization as compared with the control in both years. EO yield was significantly increased by fertilization, and CM was in the lead with direct effect, while VC and FYM had residual effects. The applications increased the carvacrol and thymol content of the EO compared with the control. VC was the most effective application for total flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and plant nutritional status, especially for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium concentrations. The results showed that chemical and organic fertilizers positively affected the yield, EO content and nutritional status of <italic>O. onites</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of different planting times on fruit quality and some bioactive contents of different strawberry cultivars<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Strawberry fruit quality traits can be affected by genotype-environment interactions, which determine the consumer acceptance of fruits. This factorial experiment was based on completely randomised blocks (RCBD) with two planting dates (5 and 20 April) and cultivars (‘Albion’, ‘San Andreas’ and ‘Portola’) of strawberry with three replications, and some of pomological and qualitative factors of berry were investigated at harvest. The results showed no significant difference on fruit width, length, weight and firmness, while the plant yield and stem diameter (SD) were affected by different cultivars and planting dates. The minimum SD (19.80) was recorded in cv. ‘Portola’ in the planting date of 20 April. Although the lowest fruit yield was achieved in cv. ‘Portola’ at both planting dates, it had the highest titratable acidity (TA) (0.83%) at the first planting date (5 April). The amount of soluble solid concentration (SSC), electrolyte conductivity (EC), pH, TA and chlorophyll were not affected by cultivar and planting dates. The effect of planting dates and cultivar had no significant effect on berry colour. The highest total phenolic (275.44 mg GAE · 100 mL<sup>-1</sup> FW) was recorded in cv. ‘San Andreas’ on the planting date of 20 April, while the lowest value (251.22 mg GAE · 100 mL<sup>-1</sup> FW) was recorded in cv. ‘Portola’ on the planting date of 5 April. In general, it is suggested that the least fruit yield in strawberry cv. ‘Portola’ can be correlated with the least SD of the cultivar.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue comparative study of morphological characteristics in diploid and tetraploid (auto and allotetraploids) genotypes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>In this study, ploidy levels were determined by stomatal observations and flow cytometry analysis of plants polyploidised by the application of 0.05% colchicine to seedlings at the first true leaf stage. In the study of developing polyploid watermelon rootstocks, the survival rate of the plants was 77%, and the polyploidisation rates were 11% and 3% according to stomatal observations and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. According to the results of flow cytometry, 22 polyploid genotypes were determined. Auto- (12) and allotetraploids (10) of <italic>Citrullus</italic> genotypes were developed, and their plant growth performance was determined in hydroponic culture in comparison with diploids, commercial rootstocks (RS841, ‘Argentario’) and watermelon cultivar (‘Crimson Tide’). Putative tetraploids and their diploid controls were grown in hydroponic culture for 21 days, and their vegetative growth performances were determined. The results showed that the increases in plant biomass depending on polyploidisation were 100% in autotetraploids and 156% in allotetraploids as compared to diploid controls.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue on pollen viability and stigma receptivity throughout the flowering period in the selected taxa of the Gesneriaceae family<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Plants in the Gesneriaceae family are appreciated for their decorative leaves and flowers, ease of cultivation, and shade tolerance. Sexual hybridisation has long been carried out for producing novel hybrids. However, scientific knowledge is lacking on the correct timing of pollination in this family. This study was conducted to elucidate the optimal timing for pollination by screening pollen viability and stigma receptivity throughout the flowering period in eight gesneriad taxa. Pollen viability was evaluated by the <italic>in vitro</italic> germination test and stigma receptivity was based on stigma morphology and pistil length. The flowering duration varied from 10 days in <italic>Alsobia</italic> to 18 days in <italic>Streptocarpus</italic>. While the pollens of <italic>Episcia, Kohleria, Saintpaulia, Sinningia</italic>, and <italic>Smithiantha</italic> had totally lost viability 2–5 days before the flowers withered, a slightly contrasting situation was observed in the cases of <italic>Alsobia, Deinostigma</italic>, and <italic>Streptocarpus</italic>, where a small portion of pollen grains remained viable towards the end of the flowering period. The highest pollen germination rate was recorded from 1 day in <italic>Alsobia</italic>, <italic>Episcia</italic>, and <italic>Kohleria</italic>, to 9 days in <italic>Deinostigma</italic>. The reduction in pollen germination was rapid in <italic>Alsobia</italic>, <italic>Saintpaulia</italic>, and <italic>Smithiantha</italic>, and moderate in the remaining taxa. The greatest pollen tube growth occurred at 1–3 days after flower opening and decreased rapidly in all the taxa tested. The longest pistil of 2.03–3.50 cm was observed at 3–8 days of anthesis depending on the plant tested. The findings in this study suggest that higher pollination success may be achieved using pollen grains of newly opened flowers and stigmas of mature flowers in this family.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of foliar application of zinc on annual productivity, foliar nutrients, bioactive compounds and oxidative metabolism in pecan<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Pecan nut production is quite commonly limited by zinc (Zn) deficiency. Here, we evaluate the response in terms of the concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates, yield components, foliar nutrient levels and oxidative metabolism in young ‘Western Schley’ pecan nut trees in response to foliar applications of 200 mg · L<sup>−1</sup> of Zn as one of the following: ZnSO<sub>4</sub>, Zn-EDTA, ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) or the proprietary product ‘nitrazinc’ (NZN) (the control). Across two consecutive growing seasons, the spraying of Zn in these various forms helped maintain the foliar concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates, foliar nutrients (total-N, Ca<sup>2+</sup> and Mg<sup>2+</sup>) and the kernel percentage of nuts. Likewise, trees sprayed with ZnSO<sub>4</sub> maintained the concentrations of Zn in the leaflets across seasons. On the other hand, Zn-EDTA decreased the concentration of chlorophyll and total carotenoids. In general, leaflets treated with ZnSO<sub>4</sub>, Zn-EDTA and ZnO NPs reduced their oxidative metabolism. Sources of Zn – such as ZnSO<sub>4</sub> – are commercially viable alternatives suitable for increasing the performance of some parameters associated with the yield and quality of nuts in pecan. It would be worthwhile to determine the optimal Zn dose rates for the various pecan cultivars in common use and also to increase our understanding of the physiological and biochemical changes associated with foliar Zn applications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue action of ginkgolic acid against pathogenic fungi and characterisation of its inhibitory activities on<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Ginkgolic acid is a natural plant antifungal substance with important biological activities, present in the testa of <italic>Ginkgo biloba</italic>. This research aims to analyse the antifungal action of ginkgolic acid against pathogenic fungi. Ginkgolic acid was analyzed by HPLC and FTIR, and the <italic>in vitro</italic> inhibitory activities of ginkgolic acid against pathogenic fungi has been investigated. Results showed that ginkgolic acid was a small hydrophobic molecule composed of five ginkgolic acids and their derivatives, with the alkyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups being located on the skeleton of the aromatic ring. Among <italic>Nigrospora oryzae</italic> (<italic>N. oryzae</italic>), <italic>Alternaria alternata</italic> (<italic>A. alternata</italic>) and <italic>Penicillium expansum</italic> (<italic>P. expansum</italic>), ginkgolic acid showed the strongest inhibition against N. oryzae, and the inhibition rate of ginkgolic acid at 5 mg · mL<sup>-1</sup> reached 65.82%. Ginkgolic acid lysed the cell membrane of <italic>N. oryzae</italic>, causing the leaking of the mycelial protein and enhancement of the permeability of the cell membrane, which caused the electrical conductivity of the liquid medium to increase. In addition, it also decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the mycelium of <italic>N. oryzae</italic>, thereby weakening the cell’s protective function by damaging the integrity of the biomembrane. Furthermore, ginkgolic acid can effectively protect the leaves of <italic>Epipremnum aureum</italic> from infection by <italic>N. oryzae</italic>. It was concluded that ginkgolic acid effectively inhibited the activity of <italic>N. oryzae</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue properties revealed huge diversity in 50 date palm ( L.) genotypes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Date palm has excellent economic value all over the world. Date palm genotypes grown in Pakistan are diverse in nature. The current study aimed to explore the diversity in 50 date palm genotypes collected from two different research stations in Punjab, Pakistan. The study findings are as follows: Dhakki had the highest fruit weight, pulp weight, fruit width and fruit volume. Jaman had a longer fruit length. Eedel Shah and Begum Jangi had greater fruit thickness and fruit perimeter, respectively. Makran showed a higher fruit area. Dedhi showed the highest stone weight, thickness and volume. Halmain had a longer stone length, and Sundari had an extended stone width. Makhi exhibited a higher stone perimeter and area. The Danda genotype had low weight and a small length of the stone. Begum Jangi and Peeli Sundar had small stone width. Seib and Shado had a higher moisture content in their fruits. The fruits of Baidhar and Khudraw-2 genotypes had the highest dry matter and reducing sugars. Champa Kali and Shakri had higher TSS levels in fruits. Halmain had higher juice pH. The fruits of Pathri and Makhi genotypes exhibited higher non-reducing sugars and carotenoids. In this study, a dendrogram was constructed to cluster 50 genotypes into five different clusters based on their physico-chemical characteristics. The correlation matrix and variable plot revealed positive and negative correlations between fruits traits and their biochemical properties conducive to the improvement of desired traits. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that Dhakki, Chohara, Baidhar, Karbalaen and Eedel Shah showed a higher genetic diversity; hence, in the scatter plot and biplot, these genotypes deviated from the centre of origin. Physico-chemical characteristics of data palm genotypes indicated a huge diversity among them, which could help select diverse parents, which is important for different breeding purposes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue L. Kunth a bio-resource with potential: Overview and opportunities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p><italic>Byrsonima crassifolia</italic> L. Kunth is a plant native to the Americas that grows in tropical and subtropical areas. Fresh <italic>B. crassifolia</italic> fruits are a good source of ascorbic acid and carotenoids and contain volatile compounds such as butyric and caproic acids. Although <italic>B. crassifolia</italic> is commonly exploited from wild natural ecosystems, it exhibits the potential to become a crop plant. When optimal agronomic management systems support propagation by seed, fruits with more homogeneous characteristics can be produced compared to those obtained from wild or backyard plants. <italic>B. crassifolia</italic> fruits can be found in local markets in Central and South America. The pulp, peel, and other <italic>B. crassifolia</italic> fruit components can be processed to make traditional and innovative food products, namely candies, cookies, cakes, candied fruits, ice creams, sorbets, jellies, juices, liqueurs, jams, nectars, pickles, and fruit drinks as an alternative to avoid the waste of overripe fruits. Additionally, the woody fraction of the <italic>B. crassifolia</italic> tree is used as a source of firewood, as shade, and for constructing living fences. These uses also allow the maximum use of biomass by establishing support for cultivation with the circular economy and strengthening food security. Therefore, this review aims to provide insights into the generation and dissemination of knowledge supporting the development of strategies in the areas of agronomy, postharvest management, and technological processing of <italic>B. crassifolia</italic> to promote its sustainable use and exploitation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue