rss_2.0Folia Horticulturae FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Folia Horticulturae Horticulturae Feed of the effects of various light spectra on microgreen species<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Light conditions, such as spectral composition, intensity and photoperiod, can affect the photosynthetic apparatus and content of beneficial bioactive compounds. The experiments realised under randomised experimental design tested seedlings of 21 genotypes, including 12 genotypes of the Brassicaceae family, lettuce, amaranth, onion, spinach, fenugreek and two beet and two basil genotypes, which were cultivated in three light environments under narrow-band red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and broad-band white LEDs. Responsiveness to light spectra was assessed based on fresh and dry weight, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and non-invasive assessment of specific compounds using fluorescence excitation ratios. In white light, we observed a higher fresh weight compared to that in monochromatic environments, especially compared to blue light. In most of the species, blue and white light had a positive effect on the concentration of chlorophyll and carotene in plants compared to red light. Blue light was associated with the highest values of chlorophyll excitation ratios, indicating a significant increase in flavonoids and anthocyanin contents. Individual microgreens responded differently in all assessed traits, especially in fluorescence ratios. We also observed the clustering of microgreens with similar responses to LED light spectra. In conclusion, in most plant species, multispectral white LEDs positively influenced quantitative and qualitative traits compared to the most frequently used red LEDs. Blue light slightly improved quality, but suppressed growth. Nevertheless, some species responded differently, emphasising the need to optimise the light to improve the microgreens’ production and nutritional value.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in various secondary metabolites by crossing modern rose cultivars<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>The aim of the study was to determine the content and composition of phenolic compounds in autochthonous rose hips (<italic>R. pendulina</italic>, <italic>R. spinosissima</italic> and <italic>R. gallica</italic>) and to compare them with the content of phenolic compounds in their cultivars (‘Harstad’, ‘Bourgogne’, ‘Mount Everest’, ‘Poppius’, ‘Frühlingsduft’, ‘Single Cherry’, ‘Frühlingsmorgen’, ‘ Violacea’ and ‘Splendens’) collected in Arboretum Volčji Potok in Slovenia. The total content of phenolic compounds in the flesh with skin was lowest in ‘Mount Everest’ (3603.57 mg · kg<sup>−1</sup> f.w.), which is derived from <italic>R. pendulina</italic>, and highest in ‘Splendens’ (68789.39 mg · g<sup>−1</sup> f.w.), which is derived from <italic>R. gallica</italic>. In seeds, the phenolic compound content was lower, as expected, ranging from 757.02 mg · kg<sup>−1</sup> f.w. (‘Mount Everest’) to 6823.21 mg · kg<sup>−1</sup> f.w. (‘Single Cherry’). It can be concluded that the cultivars differ significantly from each other due to the content of different bioactive compounds. Based on the obtained results, we cannot determine to which basic rose plant the cultivar belongs based only on the content of one analysed compound. The contents were very different because only one parent plant is known for a given cultivar and breeding programmes in roses were very narrowly focussed on specific targets.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue–putrescine nanoparticle coating attenuates postharvest decay and maintains ROS scavenging system activity of strawberry cv. ‘Camarosa’ during cold storage<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>The application of some natural compounds and cold storage can reduce postharvest loss and improve fruit quality and storability, which increase the fruit marketing period and exportation to distant markets. This study investigated the effectiveness of using coatings based on natural polymers to prolong the shelf life of fruits and protect their tissues from damage. Specifically, the researchers examined the impact of putrescine (PUT), chitosan (CTS) and chitosan–putrescine nano-composites (CTS-PUT NPs) on preserving the quality and reducing decay in strawberry. Strawberries were treated with either 1 mM or 2 mM of PUT, 0.1% CTS, 0.1% CTS-PUT NPs or distilled water at a temperature of 20°C for 5 min and then stored at 4°C for 12 days. At the end of the storage period, the lowest decay percentage was related to the treatments of CTS-PUT NPs and CTS, and the highest was observed in the control. The results showed that all coating treatments effectively prevented the excessive loss of ascorbic acid, fruit firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), and acidity (TA) compared to control at the end of the storage period. Additionally, strawberries treated with CTS-PUT NPs and CTS demonstrated the highest levels of total anthocyanin and total flavonoid. Antioxidant enzyme activities containing CAT and SOD were preserved at higher levels in treated strawberries than in the control during cold storage. These results confirm that the application of CTS and CTS-PUT NPs can effectively preserve fruit quality and prolong the longevity of strawberries during cold storage by enhancing their antioxidant capacity and scavenging free radicals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue hardiness of flower buds of 16 apricot cultivars during dormancy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>The effectiveness of apricot cultivation is greatly threatened by frost damage to flower buds during the dormancy period. One of the most important aspects of the evaluation of cultivars is therefore the determination of their frost tolerance. In this paper, the frost hardiness of flower buds of 16 apricot cultivars was investigated in three dormancy periods, applying a standardised artificial freezing test protocol and determining LT<sub>50</sub> values. The results showed that both the genotypes and the yearly climatic conditions had a significant effect on frost tolerance. A genotype generally determines the potential maximum of its frost tolerance (‘Sweet Red’ and ‘Primaya’ were very sensitive to frost every year, while ‘Harlayne’ and ‘Rózskajszi C.1406’ could be considered as frost hardy). Flower buds can reach different levels of frost resistance each year depending on the temperature conditions during the hardening and dehardening periods. From the point of view of yield security, it is essential when planning an orchard, to take into account and harmonise the frost hardiness of the cultivars selected and the growing site conditions. Therefore, it is very important to have adequate information about the frost hardiness of different apricot cultivars, which should be included in cultivar descriptions. This paper is intended to contribute to this goal.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue oxide and silver effects on the growth, pigment content and genetic stability of chrysanthemums propagated by the node culture method<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>This article describes benefits of the application of zinc oxide submicron particles (ZnO SMPs), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and ZnO NPs combined with silver NPs (ZnO + Ag NPs) in chrysanthemum micropropagation. Single node explants of <italic>Chrysanthemum</italic> × <italic>morifolium</italic> (Ramat.) Hemsl. ‘UTP Burgundy Gold (UBG)’ and ‘UTP Pinky Gold (UPG)’ were inoculated on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and treated with 100 mg · L<sup>−1</sup>, 200 mg · L<sup>−1</sup>, or 400 mg · L<sup>−1</sup> ZnO SMPs, ZnO NPs (1.5% H<sub>2</sub>O), ZnO NPs (6% H<sub>2</sub>O), ZnO + 0.1% Ag NPs (1.5% H<sub>2</sub>O), ZnO + 0.1% Ag NPs (6% H<sub>2</sub>O), ZnO + 1% Ag NPs (1.5% H<sub>2</sub>O) and ZnO + 1% Ag NPs (6% H<sub>2</sub>O). Generally, the tested materials stimulated the growth and development of plantlets. In ‘UBG’, the most prominent treatments affecting increases in the number of leaves, micropropagation coefficient, shoot length and shoot FW/DW weight included 400 mg · L<sup>−1</sup> ZnO SMPs and 100 mg · L<sup>−1</sup> ZnO NPs (6% H<sub>2</sub>O). In ‘UPG’, the treatments with 200 mg · L<sup>−1</sup> ZnO + 0.1% Ag NPs (6% H<sub>2</sub>O) and 200 mg · L<sup>−1</sup> ZnO + 1% Ag NPs (6% H<sub>2</sub>O) were the most successful. The latter treatment stimulated an intensive development of root systems in the two studied cultivars. High values of leaf area, perimeter and width were reported in both cultivars for 400 mg · L<sup>−1</sup> ZnO + 1% Ag NPs (6% H<sub>2</sub>O). As compared to the control, the treated plants were characterised by a similar or, most often, lower content of chlorophylls and carotenoids. The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT) marker system analyses of the 400 mg · L<sup>−1</sup> ZnO SMPs/ZnO NPs/ZnO + Ag NPs-treated chrysanthemums confirmed their genetic fidelity with the control plants. The obtained results can be implemented in the commercial large-scale production of chrysanthemums.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of heat acclimation on thermotolerance of strawberry plantlets<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Strawberry production is facing a serious decline with the increase in global temperature as a result of climate change. Improving the heat tolerance is imperative for the strawberry plants to remain productive under high temperature conditions. The present work aimed to study the effect of heat acclimation on the thermotolerance of strawberry plants subjected to severe heat stress. Tissue cultured <italic>Fragaria</italic> ‘Taoyuan No. 1’ plantlets were subjected to four heat-acclimation treatments with gradual increase of temperatures from 30°C to 42°C for 1.25 hr to 10 hr before exposing them to the lethal temperature of 48°C for 4 hr. Survival, new leaf emergence and root growth, electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll and proline contents, as well as antioxidant enzyme activities were compared between the control, acclimated and non-acclimated plantlets. Results indicated that heat acclimation was required for the strawberry plantlets to survive under lethal temperature conditions. The acclimated plantlets registered a lower degree of electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll degradation, and a higher proline content compared to the non-acclimated plantlets. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes increased with the elevation of acclimation temperature and peaked at 42°C except for ascorbate peroxidase (APX) whose activity peaked at 39°C. Higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), APX, glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were observed in the acclimated plantlets compared to the non-acclimated plantlets. This study demonstrates that heat acclimation improved the thermotolerance of <italic>in vitro</italic> strawberry plantlets by reducing electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll degradation, as well as by enhancing proline content and antioxidant enzyme activities under severe heat stress.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of saline water on the vase life of L. flowers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>The vase life of <italic>Narcissus poeticus</italic> flowers collected at the white bud stage was investigated in 13 different concentrations of NaCl (0–5–10–15–20–30–40–…–100 mM). Every 12 hr, the opening stage of the flowers was recorded, divided into 4 main categories (bud, opening flower, full open (FO) flower and wilting flower) and 14 subcategories. The salinity did not affect the flower opening speed, diameter or weight. The duration of the full flowering stage decreased from 92 hr to 44 hr, the sum of the daily ornamental value score (OVS) decreased from 120 by 3 scores per each 10 mM concentration increase. The scape chlorophyll content increased at low salinity (10–15 mM) and then decreased significantly. The carotenoid content in the scapes of wilted flowers increased in 30–100 mM solutions compared to the values in the flowering stage and flowers grown at lower salt concentrations. The Na and Cl contents in the plant parts increased significantly with the increase in salinity (at the end of the experiment, 100 mM NaCl: scapes: 44.1 g · kg<sup>-1</sup> and 67.2 g · kg<sup>-1</sup> Na and Cl; flowers: 16.8 g · kg<sup>-1</sup> and 24.8 g · kg<sup>-1</sup> Na and Cl, respectively). There was an inverse correlation between the Na and K contents in the scapes. The EC value of the vase solutions decreased during the experiment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the contents of Turcz fruits across the ripening stages<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Recently, a growing interest in fruits having a high content of health-promoting compounds has become a trend among consumers around the world. Wild berries have received special attention based on the high levels of healthy compounds present in them. In this work, we elaborate on the qualities of the murta (<italic>Ugni molinae</italic> Turcz) fruit such as the colour, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present, its antioxidant capacity and the phenolic compound content (including those of flavonols and anthocyanins) with respect to the different ripening stages. Four stages were established based on the skin colour parameters, which were consistent with the changes in the weight and size of the murta fruits. In addition, the total phenolic and flavonols content showed a decrease during fruit ripening, in contrast with the total anthocyanins content that increased at the final stages of ripening. Additionally, the antioxidant capacity was evaluated via two approaches: ferric reducing antioxidant power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl discolouration assay; higher levels of antioxidants at the final stages were consistently observed. Furthermore, the VOCs profile showed terpenoids to be the main compounds, with the highest relative abundances in fully ripe fruits. These results allow us to propose a classification of the different ripening stages of the murta fruits. This would enable us to have better knowledge of this interesting fruit, which possesses highly healthy nutraceutical compounds.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue field treatment on horticultural and agricultural crops: its benefits and challenges<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Magnetic field (MF) treatment, as an efficient and pollution-free treatment method, has received extensive attention from researchers and found broad prospects in horticultural and agricultural development. According to relevant studies, mainstream research direction is aimed at utilizing MF treatment to improve the economic traits of horticultural and agricultural crops. MF has positive effects, for example, on seed germination, seedling growth, crop yield and quality and plant tolerance to stress. In recent years, more and more researchers have focused their work on using seed MF or magnetised water (MW) irrigation treatment to improve plant tolerance to salt or heavy metal stresses, to achieve the purpose of soil restoration by plant heavy metal accumulation. In this review, the most commonly utilised MF or MW treatment methods have been described in detail, and the effects of MF treatment on horticultural and agricultural crops have been presented. Furthermore, new prospects for MF treatment and the associated molecular basis have been presented. Since different species or cultivars have different optimal dose requirements for MF treatment, it is still a challenge presently to promote MF treatment use in commercial applications. For successful implementation of MF treatments, it is essential to conduct a large number of screening experiments and more in-depth research on the effects of MF on cultivated plants.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue role of exogenous glutamine on germination, plant development and transcriptional expression of some stress-related genes in onion under salt stress<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>The purpose of this research was to explore the role of glutamine (Gln) on plant germination and growth under salinity [0, 50, 100, 150, 200 mM sodium chloride (NaCl)], and on the activation of some stress-related genes [<italic>CuZn-Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Mn-SOD, L-ascorbate oxidase (AO), DNA Polymerase Delta 1 (POLD)-1, Chaperon (CHAPE) and Heat Shock Protein (HSP)-21</italic>], genetic template stability and photosynthetic pigment activation. Under salt stress, 2 mM Gln application reduced the mean germination time (MGT) (4.51 days), increased the coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG) (75.85), germination index (GI) (1.46) and germination percentage (GP) (82%), indicating that it was the best application for germination under stress. Gln promoted the development of aboveground plant organs. 3 mM Gln increased the number of leaves from 5.3 to 13.7 and 4.3 to 6.6 under unstress and stress conditions, respectively. Under salt stress, Gln increased photosynthetic pigments and genomic template stability (GTS) (80%). At 2 mM Gln, total chlorophyll and carotenoid content increased from 1.59 mg · g<sup>-1</sup> TA to 2.23 mg · g<sup>-1</sup> TA and from 0.28 mg · g<sup>-1</sup> TA to 0.37 mg · g<sup>-1</sup> TA, respectively. The effect on gene expression levels varied with the concentration. The application of 2 mM Gln, which enhanced germination and vegetative parameters under stress, caused a raise in CuZn-SOD gene expression and a 43% decrease in the transcriptional expression of the HSP-21 gene as an indicator of the functionality of the repair mechanism. The improved growth of Gln-treated plants under stress suggests that Gln is involved in bridging the energy deficit of the plant by acting as an alternative fuel for metabolic activities under stress.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of melatonin on lettuce plant growth, antioxidant enzymes and photosynthetic pigments under salinity stress conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses that significantly decreases the productivity of agricultural crops. Melatonin (MT) acts as an antioxidant and plays a vital role in overcoming oxidative damage. However, previous literature has not provided a clear understanding of the impact of MT on lettuce plants under salinity stress. So, we investigated the effect of exogenous MT at 0 μM, 50 μM, 100 μM and 150 μM on lettuce plants grown under salinity stress (0 mM NaCl, 50 mM NaCl and 100 mM NaCl) with respect to vegetative growth, photosynthetic pigments, relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, O<sub>2</sub><sup>•-</sup> and antioxidants enzymes. Results showed that NaCl stress significantly decreased vegetative growth, RWC and photosynthetic pigments and in contrast enhanced dry matter, EL, MDA, H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, O<sub>2</sub><sup>•-</sup>, Na<sup>+</sup>, Cl-, peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) of lettuce plants compared to non-salinized control. The results demonstrated that under salinity conditions, foliar applications of MT significantly alleviated the harmful effects of salinity and increased number of leaves, leaf area, fresh weight, chlorophyll (a), chlorophyll (b), total chlorophyll, carotenoids and RWC in comparison to untreated plants (control). Meanwhile, dry matter, MDA, H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, O<sub>2</sub><sup>•-</sup>, Na<sup>+</sup>, Cl-, POD, SOD and GR were significantly decreased compared to untreated lettuce plants. In this respect, spraying MT at 150 μM ranked the first, then 100 μM, compared to the lower concentration (50 μM). In conclusion, MT application can be used to alleviate harmful effects of salinity stress.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue growth and development stages of common fig ( L.) under arid climate of India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Arid region is characterised by extreme climatic condition, poor soil health and over-exploitation of natural resources. Under prevailing conditions of arid India, <italic>Ficus carica</italic> is an emerging fruit crop with high commercial value and nutritional significance. Phenological study plays an important role in ensuring efficient crop management practices, but such studies in fig have not yet been conducted in India. The present study was conducted with an aim to define and describe phenological stages of common fig cultivar ‘Diana’ in arid regions according to the Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie (BBCH)-scale using two-digit numerical system. The BBCH scale markedly explains various developmental stages of crops. Seven principal growth stages, viz. bud development (0), leaf development (1), shoot development (3), inflorescence development (5), flower development (6), syconium (fig receptacle) development (7) and fruit maturation (8), and 25 secondary growth stages of fig have been described. The sequential progression of principal growth stages of fig indicated temporal variation in growth pattern as well as overlapping of secondary growth stages. Phenological description will act as a pragmatic approach to define growth stages in order to facilitate timely agronomic practices such as canopy management, nutrient management and irrigation scheduling, pest and disease management. Since fig is considered one of the important minor fruits of India, a detailed phenological description will be instrumental in enhancing its potential in arid and semi-arid regions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue intraspecific pollen morphology variation in Apocynaceae: A roadmap for horticultural innovation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>This study aimed to examine the pollen and pollinia morpho-structure of 18 horticultural Apocynaceous species. Advanced light and scanning electron microscopy (LM and SEM) were used to elaborate on and examine the systematic importance of pollen and pollinia micromorphology. Pollen grains were first acetolysed, which was followed by visualisation of their sculpturing features. The quantified data were subjected to statistical tools to elucidate dendrogram clustering and principal component analysis to reveal pollen/pollinia morphotypes. The size of pollen is variable, ranging from 113.45 μm in <italic>Cascabela thevetia</italic> to 23.4 μm in <italic>Alstonia scholaris.</italic> The study revealed tetrad, tetraporate, and tricolporate grains. Sculpturing (exine ornamentation) varies from reticulate perforate to reticulate. Pollinum shape was observed to be narrow oblong, obovate, orbicular, and reniform. Reticulate-psilate sculptural features were prominent among pollinia surfaces. Based on examination, it was ascertained that the minimum exine thickness in <italic>Periploca aphylla</italic> was 4.9 μm, whereas the corresponding number in <italic>Cryptolepis dubia</italic> was 1.35 μm. Taxonomic identification keys were constructed separately based on pollen/pollinia characters to identify the Apocynaceous taxa. In the presented study, seven pollen shapes were observed: from oblate to per prolate. The findings confirm that morphopollinic traits differ amongst genera of Apocynaceous species. However, these features can be used to distinguish the Apocynaceous taxa. The results show that structural characteristics of pollen and pollinia can help accurately identify Apocynaceous species.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of ideal genotypes in peppers with ornamental potential<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Ornamental peppers have a significant economic importance in the national and international markets; however, few cultivars intended for this purpose are grown in Brazil. The objective of this study was to select partially inbred lines (PIL) of peppers with ornamental potential, based on quantitative and qualitative variables with high heritability. The study was conducted over six generations for 4 consecutive years, using the single seed descent method. The last phase (VI) consisted of growing plants of the F<sub>5</sub> generation for selection. Qualitative (LD) and quantitative (QD) descriptors were considered and the ideal genotypes were defined. The statistical analyses consisted of estimating variance components and genetic parameters and predicting genetic values, using REML/BLUP for QD, except for cycle to flowering (CF) and cycle to maturation (CM), which were analysed qualitatively. Therefore, CF and CM were analysed through frequency distribution of continuous variables within class intervals. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate LD. The results showed that residual values exceeded genetic values, resulting in low heritability for QD, and therefore, they were not considered for PIL selection. Regarding LD, genetic variability was found among the population genotypes for all evaluated descriptors. The selection based on ideal genotypes enabled the selection of 82 PIL with LD of high ornamental value, which differ from the materials already available on the market. The selected genotypes will be used for developing future generations until allele fixation, focussed on subsequent selection of candidate lines for new ornamental pepper cultivars.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effect of osmotic stress, lighting spectrum and temperature on growth and gene expression related to anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in wild strawberry ( L.)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>The goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of light, temperature, sucrose and PEG on the growth of <italic>Fragaria vesca in vitro</italic> and the expression of regulatory <italic>Myb10, WD40</italic> and enzyme-coding genes <italic>CHI, CHS, DFR, EGL, F3H</italic> and <italic>UFGT</italic>, which are essential for anthocyanin biosynthesis. We observed plants’ response to osmotic stress, the decrease in growth and microshoot weight. A change in the expression of the investigated genes was evident under the suboptimal concentration of sucrose. The addition of PEG to the medium caused a decrease in microshoot weight and gene expression. Blue + red lights of the LED lighting system significantly affected microshoot growth <italic>in vitro</italic>. Red and blue + red + UV lights slightly reduced microshoot weight and caused a reddish colour of petioles, which indicate increased anthocyanin synthesis. Moreover, most of the studied genes’ expression tended to increase when shoots were exposed to blue, blue + red and blue + red + UV lights. A temperature of 15°C (vs 22°C) significantly reduced the mean fresh weight of microshoots while increasing <italic>CHI</italic> and <italic>CHS</italic> gene expression and decreasing <italic>WD40</italic> gene expression. Exposure to a higher temperature (30°C) induced the vitrification of microshoots, although the fresh weight did not differ from that of the control. Gene expression also depended on the duration of exposure. In the case of <italic>CHS</italic>, gene expression remained the same or increased after exposure for 1 week and then decreased after exposure for 4 weeks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of taxa and harvesting date on the content of L-ascorbic acid and oxalic acid in the climatic conditions of South Moravia (Czech Republic)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Rhubarb (<italic>Rheum</italic> L.) is a well-known medicinal and culinary plant. Apart from its rich nutritional value, rhubarb contains a higher concentration of oxalates. In this study, the content of L-ascorbic acid (AA) and oxalic acid (OA) within three rhubarb species (<italic>Rheum rhabarbarum, R. rhaponticum</italic> and <italic>R. palmatum</italic> × <italic>wittrockii</italic>) differentiated to 16 accessions in a gene bank rhubarb collection (Lednice, Czech Republic) in the condition of conventional production in the South Moravia region during the harvesting period was evaluated. While L-ascorbic acid is essential in human nutrition, oxalic acid is considered toxic, and high doses may cause serious health issues. AA and OA content, the morphology evaluation and ISSR (inter simple sequence repeats)-based genetic analysis were performed. The results of this study confirm the significant influence of taxonomy and harvesting time on the content of AA in Rheum accessions. The content of AA was determined from 6 mg · 100 g<sup>-1</sup> to 10 g · 100 g<sup>-1</sup> fresh weight (FW) at the beginning of the harvesting season (May) up to 25 mg · 100 g<sup>-1</sup> FW at the end of the harvesting period. The content of OA strongly varied from 300 mg · 100 g<sup>-1</sup> to 1800 mg · 100 g<sup>-1</sup> FW. Regarding the antinutrient character of oxalate, the optimal harvest period of this region was estimated to be from May to early June, when the OA content was the lowest. The role of AA as a precursor of oxalate formation in rhubarb was not affirmed by the results of this study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of exogenous essential oil treatments on the storage behaviour of apricot fruit harvested at different altitudes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Due to the short shelf life of fresh apricots, special postharvest preservation techniques and practices are necessary to avoid significant economic losses. The purpose of the current study is to bring to light an approach that can be used to extend the storage life of apricot fruits treated with essential oils (EOs) (peppermint, thyme and carob EO) and examine the effects of two altitudes (1000 m and 1200 m) on the organic acid levels and respiration rate of apricot fruit during long-term storage. The results show that growing apricots at high altitudes increases the level of organic acids in the fruit, improving its quality and extending its postharvest life. Additionally, treating apricots with EOs postharvest slows down the respiration rate, reducing the consumption of organic acids during storage compared to the untreated fruit. The organic acid content was significantly higher in ‘Kabaaşi’ than in ‘Hacihaliloğlu’, and fruit harvested at 1200 m had significantly higher levels of organic acid than the fruit harvested at 1000 m. During storage, the highest organic acid content and the lowest respiration rate were observed in the fruit of both cultivars treated with peppermint, carob, and thyme oil, as compared to control fruit, respectively. To summarize, the use of EOs as postharvest treatment for apricot is recommended for maintaining the quality of the fruit during extended storage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue bud development of almond cultivars based on three different methods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Flower bud development of fruit trees plays a key role in their climatic adaptation. It is closely related to dormancy release that determines winter frost susceptibility. Detailed characterisation of flower bud development of 25 almond (<italic>Prunus amygdalus</italic> L. Batsch) accessions representing wide range of flowering times have been performed by microsporogenesis and pistil growth studies for 3 years. Six developmental stages were distinguished in the process of microsporogenesis, while pistil development could be classified into four phases. The examined cultivars showed significant differences in the length and occurrence of microspore developmental stages and year effect was observed. On the basis of the length of microsporogenesis stages, cultivars were clustered into five main groups. The shortest periods of archesporium and microsporogenesis as a sum were detected in accessions ‘Eriane’, ‘5/15’ and ‘1/7’ (with an average of 20 and 138 days in all three), while the longest ones were determined in ‘Constanti’ and ‘Vairo’ (65 and 160 days in both), respectively. The increment of pistil length was suspended during the dormancy period and after dormancy release, it was accelerated first at a slow rate followed by a few days of rapid growth prior to blooming. In order to determine the date of endodormancy release, these three methods – microsporogenesis, pistil length studies, and forcing of shoots – were analysed. All methods revealed significant differences among accessions. The dormancy release estimated by microsporogenesis studies showed the highest variability among the three methods used.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue germination of seeds native to Brazil: A comparative analysis between free and nanoencapsulated gibberellic acid in sp. (Bromeliaceae)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>Brazil is home to a great diversity of species of the genus <italic>Dyckia.</italic> However, many of these species are threatened due to habitat destruction and predatory exploitation. An alternative to conserving these plants is sexual propagation using plant regulators to stimulate germination. Gibberellic acid (GA<sub>3</sub>) is an effective regulator in this process, but its instability and ease of degradation pose challenges. Therefore, nanoencapsulation of GA<sub>3</sub> could be used to protect the molecule and allow controlled release. In this study, the effects of different doses of GA<sub>3</sub> were evaluated on the germination of four species: <italic>D. cabrerae, D. dusenii, D. pottiorum</italic> and <italic>D. walteriana.</italic> The first stage consisted of soaking the seeds in different concentrations of GA<sub>3</sub>, in which the species <italic>D. dusenii</italic> and <italic>D. walteriana</italic> showed significant responses to GA<sub>3</sub>, with an increase from 35% to more than 60% germination. However, the species <italic>D. cabrerae</italic> and <italic>D. pottiorum</italic> responded positively to GA<sub>3</sub> only in vegetative growth parameters. In the second stage, the use of nanoparticles of alginate/chitosan (NP ALG/CS) and chitosan/tripolyphosphate (NP CS/TPP) containing GA<sub>3</sub> was compared with free GA<sub>3</sub> and with NPs without GA<sub>3</sub>. It was verified that the use of nanoencapsulated GA<sub>3</sub> resulted in a more efficient germination response in <italic>D. walteriana</italic> seeds, using smaller doses of the regulator (between 0.75 mg · L<sup>−1</sup> and 1.0 mg · L<sup>−1</sup>), mainly with the ALG/ CS NPs. Therefore, the use of GA<sub>3</sub> is recommended for <italic>D. dusenii</italic> and <italic>D. walteriana</italic>, and for the latter, nanoparticles containing ALG/CS-GA<sub>3</sub> allow a reduction in the required dose.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrueα-Glucosidase inhibitory fatty acids from mushroom<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p><italic>Morchella fluvialis</italic>, a morel mushroom, is one of the most famous edible mushrooms all over the world. Interest in this mushroom is steadily increasing due to its organoleptic properties and nutritional value. The methanolic extract of <italic>M. fluvialis</italic> showed α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities in an assay system. Therefore, the purification and characterisation of bioactive metabolites and evaluation of biological activity were conducted. Fractionation of the <italic>M. fluvialis</italic> extract resulted in the isolation of nine compounds, namely, three fatty acids, (9<italic>Z</italic>,12<italic>Z</italic>)-octadecadienoic acid (linoleic acid, 1), (9<italic>Z</italic>,12<italic>Z</italic>)-3-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (2) and (6<italic>Z</italic>,9<italic>Z</italic>)-13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (3); four sterols, stellasterol (4), ergosterol peroxide (5), ergosterol (6) and brassicasterol (7); one sugar alcohol, arabitol (8); and nicotinamide (9). Among them, compounds 2–3 and 7 were first reported from <italic>Morchella</italic>. In addition, compound 1 exhibited potent α-glucosidase inhibition, with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 14.8 μM. The content of compound 1, the major compound, was 1.2 mg · g<sup>–1</sup> extract, as quantitated by HPLC analysis, which was lower than the IC<sub>50</sub> value of compound 1. Therefore, <italic>M. fluvialis</italic> can benefit from diabetes and related diseases through the synergistic effect of linoleic acid (1) and other ingredients.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue