rss_2.0Financial Internet Quarterly FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Financial Internet Quarterly Internet Quarterly Feed role of impartial administration in financial sector performance: A comparative study of Latin America and Sub-Saharan African countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Emerging nations are often distressed if their current administration and governance do not align with social and national needs. Among these worries, there is the fear of public funds misconduct and corruption in the nation’s major institutions. Indeed, inadequate administration results in embezzlement of funds, tax evasion, and low bureaucratic quality in all sectors. This study was undertaken to address the role of impartial administration specifically in the financial sector. The research considered a sample size composed of 12 countries from Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa in the period of 2000 to 2021. The net interest margin was considered a proxy for financial performance measurement. Additionally, an ordinary least squares and quantile regression was performed to record the effect of the variables on financial sector performance. Within this context, the findings exhibited different outcomes for these regions. For instance, in the Latin America region, the results revealed that public sector theft, bureaucratic quality, corruption level, local government index, and inflation have a negative impact on the performance of the financial sector while impartial public administration demonstrated a positive impact on financial performance. On the other hand, the Sub-Saharan African region demonstrated that bureaucratic quality, local government index, and inflation have a significant and positive impact on financial performance, whereas executive embezzlement and theft, corruption level, and government final expenditures were shown to negatively influence financial performance. Finally, the study’s findings provides insights into the policies and strategies to implement in order to support the financial framework.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue management team diversity impact on financial performance: Evidence from VW Group affiliated firms<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Diversity within top management teams (TMTs) has significant implications for firm financial performance, particularly in dynamic industries like the automotive sector. This paper analyzes the relationship between TMT diversity and financial outcomes in companies associated with the Volkswagen Group, operating in an intensely competitive market marked by technological advancements. This comprehensive paper synthesizes studies investigating the correlation between TMT diversity and financial performance within the automotive domain. Employing quantitative approaches, these studies assess demographic factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, and educational background. The analysis unveils distinct patterns of impact. Gender diversity within TMTs exhibits a positive influence on financial performance, with heightened profitability and increased market value being notable outcomes. Age diversity shows a nuanced trend, with moderate levels enhancing strategic decision-making capabilities and fostering innovation. Increased ethnic diversity within TMTs is associated with elevated innovation and overall firm performance. Furthermore, educational diversity within TMTs is found to bolster firm performance, underscoring its pivotal role in strategic decision-making and innovation. By offering a comprehensive synthesis of TMT diversity’s connection to financial performance within the Volkswagen Group’s context, this paper contributes novel perspectives. The study emphasizes the methodologies utilized, outlines key findings, and underscores the original contributions made by existing research. This study illuminates the profound influence of TMT diversity on shaping strategic decisions and fostering innovation in the automotive sector. Importantly, it highlights the crucial role of TMT diversity in driving positive financial outcomes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue assessment of the risk mitigating factors in Ghana’s Bank Industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>To maintain financial stability, banks need to recognize, assess, and mitigate potential losses, thus making risk control critical for long-term profitability as well as avoiding unexpected losses. This research examines the risk mitigating factors and performance of Ghanaian domestic banks in terms of capital adequacy, bank size, bank efficiency, and profitability, along with their association with systemic risk in the bank sector, as measured by the Z-score: Insolvency Risk - (µROA) plus capital asset ratio (equity capital divided by sum of all assets further divided by the standard deviation-(ƠROA) with a higher score for banks as a measure of bank stability. The study further explores the relationship between this ratio and the explanatory variables for a sample of 11 banks operating in Ghana between 2010 and 2021. Analysis of the data using the fixed effects model shows that profitability and bank efficiency are significant and affect the stability of banks positively. Bank size, on the other hand, is significant but negatively affects the stability of banks. Bank profitability is critical to stabilizing and protecting the banking sector from external shocks; as a result, this study suggests that bank management apply prudent practices to profitability-driven indicators and that the banking sector regulations be congruent with macro-prudential policies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue assesment as a stage of risk management in enterprise in tourism sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Risk management is a complex process that requires company managers to have very good knowledge of its organizational structure on the one hand and on the other hand, in order to achieve a good management, it is necessary for the respective manager to have sufficient long-term experience during which the manager has monitored the processes of company management and its susceptibility and change under the influence of various factors. The overall risk management process goes through three main stages: identification of risks, analysis and assessment of risks and risk monitoring. Each stage is a compilation of complex procedures through which the problems and risks for the respective enterprise are determined and overcome. For this reason, the strictness, importance and significance of each stage cannot be accurately determined. Due to the limited scope of the article, the research is focused only on one of the main problems in risk management, namely the study of the standard deviation of the risk in the process of assessing and analyzing the risks in tourism sector enterprises. The article has the following structure: Introduction, References review, Methodology, Results and Discussion. Two hypotheses are presented for testing and research. Proving these two hypotheses through the application of the mathematical toolkit for risk assessment gives the innovativeness of the article and its authorial identity, which distinguishes it from other publications in the field of tourism sector. The obtained results of this article can serve the managers of tourism companies to improve their work in the management of hotels. The process of identifying, testing, evaluating and analyzing risks is complex, requiring managers to have sound knowledge of finance, accounting, economics and management. This article can provide them with guidance for solving specific problems and making managerial decisions about risk management.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in a foreign exchange market and solutions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Exchange rate and its related risk management are too important for main participants in foreign exchange markets. There are many approaches developed in the literature for studying risk management say arbitrage detection, say finding replication portfolio. However, in the current paper, arbitrage opportunities are studied using the game theory perspective. This paper proposes different types of games played in a specified foreign exchange market in the presence of three exchange rates. Proposed games are exchange rate games in two cases of no arbitrage and existence of arbitrage, optimal stopping game, the arbitrage game, threshold strategies used in global game and Non-cooperative exchange rate game. Most of cases, the bang-bang rule of optimal control is used for finding the Nash equilibriums (NE). However, simulated and stochastic approximation (SA) solutions are also given. Most highlights of the current paper are: (I) considering two types of arbitrage opportunities, simultaneously, (II) translating arbitrage detection as game theory concepts, (III) solving the problem using techniques of optimal control theory. Finally concluding remarks are proposed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue household default risk and physical risk of climate change<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper aims to assess the level of credit risk (from the perspective of default risk) among Polish households associated with the physical risks of climate change. In order to determine the potential impact of the physical risk of climate change on household credit risk, we conducted CAWI interviews with 1,006 borrowers residing in different Polish voivodeships (to account for heterogeneity of credit exposures to extreme weather events). According to these respondents, wildfires and storms in Poland are the greatest source of physical risk of climate change. In the event of a wildfire or storm, approximately 13% of borrowers would not be able to repay their loans while not being insured, which potentially increases banks’ credit risk and exposes banks to losses. However, we find that households underestimate the credit risk that could arise from a drought.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Waspas approach for financial performance in the COVID-19 era: Evidence from Islamic countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this study is to compare financial performance of the Islamic banks in the COVID-19 Era. The performance evaluation was conducted on seven Islamic countries between 2017 and 2021. Entropy Method was utilized to choose the best performance evaluation criteria affecting the Islamic banks’ performance and Waspas Method was used to determine the best performing Islamic country. The results indicate that ‘liquid assets to short-term liabilities’ is the best performance criteria for Islamic banks during the ‘whole period’, ‘no pandemic period’ and ‘pandemic period’. Additionally, while the Islamic country with the best performance was Bangladesh during ‘no pandemic period’, Turkey was the leading Islamic country for both ‘whole period’ and ‘pandemic period’.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue 10-Year Analysis of Housing Prices and The Influence of Economic Factors in Turkey<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Turkey, the housing market is affected by various factors, and housing prices are shaped according to current conditions. In this study, the relationship between the housing price index (HPI) and economic variables (inflation and exchange rate) in Turkey was investigated. We used a 10-year time period for this study, from January-2010 to December-2019, with monthly data frequency. For our research, we employ the Wavelet Coherence Transformation (WCT) method. The results show that there is a positive relationship between inflation and housing prices in the short and long run. In addition, a continuous rise in inflation led to an increase in housing prices all over the period from 2010 to 2019. The findings of this study can aid in achieving the goal of the research by offering evidence-based perceptions of how housing prices and different economic variables are related. Housing costs in Turkey increased as a result of the substantial likelihood that the Turkish lira would weaken. The expansion of global inflation is a further anticipated factor contributing to the rise in housing costs in Turkey. This study can also be used by investors to help them decide whether to engage in the Turkish real estate industry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of uncertainty and their impact on stock prices evidence from emerging economies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigates the short- and long-term effects of various sources of uncertainty on the share prices of key exchanges in emerging nations. The sample comprises monthly time series data from January 2017 to December 2021 for China, India, Russia, and Brazil. The study contains a version of Autoregressive-Distributive-Lag (ARDL) with error correction as well as other relevant approaches to time series. Economic policy, climate policy, pandemics, and Twitter-based uncertainty may cause a long-term decline in SSE (Shanghai Stock Exchange) composite index and BSE (Bombay Stock Exchange) Sensex index. In China, geopolitical, climatic, and pandemic uncertainty are short-term sources of uncertainty, and in India, economic policy, geopolitical, and pandemic uncertainty. Moreover, no sources of uncertainty have a long-term impact on Russia’s Moscow Exchange (MOEX) index. All sources except climate uncertainty are short-term MOEX index contributors. Pandemics and Twitter-based uncertainty are long-term sources, whereas economic policy and Twitter-based uncertainty are short-term sources for Brazilian Stock Exchange (BOVESPA) Index. This research adds to the literature by examining the relationship between distinct sources of uncertainty and an emerging market share prices index. It provides the behavior of leading share price indexes in the presence of uncertainty. The study’s conclusions only apply to emerging economies. Future research may take into account a panel dataset consisting of a large number of emerging nations to examine the same set of variables.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the impact of rural finance development on farmers’ incomes in business context. Evidence from “The Belt and Road” from key provinces<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The gradual increase in the world population has a significant impact on businesses, productivity, and financial development in the context of rural life. As the population continues to grow, there is increasing pressure on farming systems to produce more food to meet the growing demand. In addition, the growing population can lead to an increased demand for natural resources such as water, land, and forests. This can create challenges for rural communities that depend on these resources for their livelihoods. In this study, it was determined as a problem that the financial system deepened in regions where the savings base was not large enough and the level of savings was not at the desired level. In this context, since improving the management of the rural labor structure and increasing investments in science and technology can also increase farmers’ incomes, the study aims to deepen rural financial reform and increase the efficiency of the financial system in business management. In the study, the key provinces of “The Belt and Road” (except Chongqing and Tibet) were considered as research objects and 2000-2015 annual panel data were used to analyze the threshold regression model. According to the research findings, when the threshold of financial development efficiency is variable, the growth of farmers’ incomes in general is prevented, when the scale of financial development is variable, the effect on farmers’ incomes gradually changes from negative to positive. In line with these findings, it is recommended to strengthen the quality of education of rural workers and promote the integration of urban and rural areas, increase investments in agricultural science and technology, and improve the service system of agricultural science and technology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, social, and governance scores and earnings management in telecommunication companies: An international perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigates the relationship between environmental, social, and governance (ESG) scores and potential tendencies to manipulate the earnings of telecommunication companies. We assumed a negative relationship between ESG scores and earnings management since the companies with higher ESG are more responsible and expected to prevent manipulation. We used ESG scores from Refinitiv as sustainability measures and discretionary accruals as the indicator of earnings management. We constructed models assuming a bilateral relationship between ESG and earnings. The results reveal that companies with higher environmental scores have higher dispersion from normal accruals; this may result for two reasons in our anticipation: they may record more accruals depending on environmental regulations and may use environmental scores to make up their earnings. Social and governance scores have a negative impact on discretionary accruals, which are insignificant. Hence companies with higher social responsiveness and strong governance produce reliable financial information.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the unconditional basic income on the professional situation of women<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Unconditional basic income (UBI) is one of the instruments directly impacting its beneficiaries and their situation in the labor market. The most critical aspects of UBI’s impact on the labor market include labor supply and demand, the bargaining power of employees and the situation of employers, and the recognition of socially beneficial work as equivalent to gainful employment. The study aims to analyze the declared impact of the unconditional basic income on the professional situation of one of the groups of its beneficiaries - women whose bargaining power as employees is weakened and who perform socially beneficial housework. The study included in -depth interviews with four women who were on maternity leave. The results showed that UBI influences the position of the employee in the labor market, weakens employers and positively affects employees. The key issue for the respondents is the UBI amount, because a relatively small amount would be treated as additional income. UBI could strengthen the position of mothers with young children, provide greater psychological comfort and enable more effective forms of work, such as remote or part-time work.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue analysis of the factors influencing the development of the alternative finance market in Moldova<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The emergence of a decentralized peer-to-peer platforms that matches lending and borrowing without collateral requirements and bank lending channels allowed to develop the new market of alternative financial instruments. In this paper, we aim to analyze the origins and nature of alternative finance, consolidate, and categorize the theoretical foundation of the alternative finance market, determine the taxonomy of its instruments, and identify and critically analyze the strategies and legislative framework for the development and functioning of the alternative finance market in the Republic of Moldova. The theoretical and practical significance of this research lies in the development of an econometric model that examines the influence of various groups of factors (regulatory, social, economic development, information technology) on the per capita volume of the alternative finance market. The obtained data enabled the identification of priority areas and specific proposals for the development of conditions and the potential of alternative finance in the Republic of Moldova.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue impact of IFRS adoption on economic growth in transition countries: Evidence from CIS<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>International financial reporting standards (IFRS) have become a worldwide common accounting language which most countries have adopted. However, there are no studies obtained based on transition economies in a particular geographic zone. Thus, this study is carried out to observe the influence of IFRS adoptation on the economic growth of 11 CIS countries from 2005 to 2018. To examine the actual effect of the variables, the regression model was divided into two sub-models based on the category of variables. There is a difference between the economic growth in adopted and non-adopted states. The adoption of IFRS showed negative and insignificant relation to GDP per capita. The number of observations after fully adopting IFRS was low, the data on IFRS adoption was challenging, and an advanced econometric model should be selected. The study compared CIS results with Eastern European countries to see a clear pattern and generate an efficient suggestion for policy implementation. The policy implementations related to Uzbeki-stan were also provided.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue failure risk: A study on Silicon Valley Bank, Signature Bank, and Silvergate Capital Corporations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigates whether the ratio of long-term investment to total assets, the ratio of cash on hand to total assets, and the ratio of price-to-earnings are risk indicators for bank failures. Silicon Valley Bank (SVB), Signature Bank, and Silvergate Capital Corp., which experienced bank failure, and banks that are among the 20 largest banks in the USA are analyzed with the panel data method. Analyses were made using quarterly data between 2003Q4 and 2022Q4. It is revealed that the long-term investment to total assets ratio increases the bank failure risk. The risk of bank failure varies negatively with the cash on hand to total assets ratio. Bank failure risk rises as the price-to-earnings ratio rises. In terms of revealing the factors influencing the risk of bank failure and possible consequences, it is expected that the findings obtained could contribute to the literature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue market as the best possible way of investing money during an economic boom and recession<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Since the beginning of the 1980s, a continuous process of integration of national and regional markets into one global market for goods, services and capital can be noticed. Both economic theory and market practice indicate that the level of the exchange rate primarily depends on macroeconomic variables (such as interest rates or the number of new jobs in the non-agricultural sector). The results of the research presented in the article regard the importance of US macroeconomic data publications for the short-term volatility of EUR/USD exchange rate. The main purpose of the study was to show whether macroeconomic data from the United States affects the short-term development of the EUR/USD exchange rate and whether the Forex market is a good way to multiply capital. The following research questions have been posed: does the EUR/USD exchange rate react to the published macroeconomic data from the American economy? Second, is whether investing in the Forex market could be a way to multiply capital in times of economic boom and recession. This paper presents the effects of my own research and observations in terms of the impact of US macroeconomic data, on shaping exchange rates of the Forex market. Based on my own investment experience my goal is to prove, that Forex market is a perfect way to multiply capital. My investment decisions regarding future exchange rate fluctuations, were based on the presented macroeconomic data from the US economy, as well as on the basis of important leading economic indicators. The position was opened and closed on the same day. The trading contracts have been made throughout 7 working days. The underlying financial instruments were EUR/USD and OIL. The conclusions of this study are as follows. The USD/PLN exchange rate reacted to the published macroeconomic data from USA. The strongest exchange rate reaction was noticed after publications of data regarding US Non-farm Payrolls (NFP), Initial Jobless Claims and ISM Services PMI. Strong exchange rate reaction was recorded after ADP US Private Sector Jobs and Factory orders report. When taking described investment examples into account, it can be clearly stated that investing in the Forex market is an excellent alternative to stock investments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue as a method of payment in the tourism sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this study is to look into the capability of cryptocurrencies as a viable alternative to traditional payment methods in the travel and tourism industry. Given the increasing popularity of digital currencies, the tourism industry must consider alternative payment methods. The study's goal is to determine whether cryptocurrencies can be a safe and practical payment option for the travel and tourism industry. The benefits and drawbacks of cryptocurrency adoption in the travel and tourism industry were examined using a case study method. The study focused on customer preferences, security, and regulatory compliance. In-depth research was conducted on a select group of companies that have already implemented cryptocurrency as a payment option, as well as on interviews of business leaders. According to the study's findings, there is a high demand for the adoption of cryptocurrencies in the travel and tourism sector. Customers seeking secure and convenient payment methods may benefit from the use of cryptocurrencies. The study emphasizes the importance of addressing security concerns and regulatory compliance, as these are significant barriers to cryptocurrency adoption in the travel industry. The study provides a road map for cryptocurrency adoption in the travel industry, recommending that the industry focus on developing secure and user-friendly cryptocurrency payment methods, as well as actively collaborate with regulatory bodies to ensure compliance. This case study offers valuable insights to industry participants on how to effectively embrace and use cryptocurrencies in day-to-day business operations. Finally, this study offers a thorough examination of the potential of cryptocurrencies as a new form of payment in the travel and tourism industry. The findings of the study provide a clear understanding of the benefits and drawbacks of using cryptocurrencies, as well as valuable insights for industry participants on how to effectively adopt and use cryptocurrencies in their operations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of loyalty programs offered to customers and investors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The subject of this study is loyalty programs. The aim of the article is to draw attention to loyalty in the current economy. The purpose of the article is to examine the evolution of loyalty programs offered to consumers and investors. The study will cover the issue of building a loyal base of clients and investors. To achieve the aim of the study in the article, analysis of the literature, description, comparison, desk research and case study methods were applied. The study presents the author's definition and classification of loyalty programs. The research has demonstrated that there is social acceptance for activities undertaken in the field of loyalty programs. Such loyalty programs tighten financial and non-financial links with stakeholders. At the same time, programs offered to consumers are evolving towards creating an emotional loyalty that resonates with consumers. In turn, programs offered to investors are evolving towards generating financial benefits only on the capital market. However, that means resigning from creating an investor as a consumer through the loyalty program. At the same time, the loyalty program is open to every investor, regardless of the country of origin and type of investor. It can be expected that in the next stage of evolution these will be aware of their rights and environmentally sensitive stakeholders’ attitudes and preferences will have to be taken into account to an increasing extent by the company</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and asymmetric volatility: Forecasting the Borsa Istanbul 100 index return volatility<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The development of technology and the globalization of financial markets have increased the volatility in financial markets and caused the emergence of risks and uncertainties that have not been previously encountered. Since traditional econometric models cannot fully explain this volatility, nonlinear conditional variance models such as ARCH, GARCH, EGARCH and TARCH are used today. From this point of view, this study aims to determine the most explanatory model that fund managers who are considering investing in the Borsa Istanbul 100 (BIST 100) Index, and academicians doing research on this subject, can use in estimating the BIST 100 Index return volatility. For this purpose, ARCH and GARCH models, as symmetric models, and EGARCH and TARCH models, as asymmetric nonlinear conditional models, are included in the econometric analysis by using the end-of-day values of 2657 observations belonging to the 04.01.2010-28.07.2020 period. According to the empirical results of the study, the TARCH model, which has the highest level of explanatory power, gives the most successful results among related models in revealing BIST 100 Index return volatility.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the USD/PLN currency pair exchange rate to the published macroeconomic data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The results of the research presented in the article regard the importance of publication of macroeconomic data from the United States for the short-term USD/PLN currency pair exchange rate volatility. The main purpose of the research was to indicate what macroeconomic data is important for the short-term USD/PLN exchange rate volatility. The following research questions have been posed does the USD/PLN exchange rate react to the published macroeconomic data from the American economy and second could greater USD/PLN exchange rate volatility be observed during the COVID pandemic and has the war in Ukraine impacted the USD/PLN exchange rate volatility. International Foreign Exchange Market is the largest and most dynamically developing financial market in the world. In the globalized world the exchange rates are mainly influenced by economic factors. The most significant economic factors that impact short-term exchange rate volatility are primarily macroeconomic data from the American economy. Therefore in this article the author attempts to analyze macroeconomic data and their impact on short-term USD/PLN exchange rate volatility. Data based on which the research was made is as follows: Consumer Price Index, Non-Farm Payrolls (NFP), Services PMI, Manufacturing PMI, Empire State Manufacturing Index or Retail Sales. The analysis of connections between the publication of macroeconomic data and the reaction of exchange rates was carried out using the linear regression model with GARCH process for the random parameter. Conclusions of this research is exchange rate volatility USD/PLN was higher after publications of the macroeconomic data from Americans economy. The strongest exchange rate reaction was after publication of data regarding inflation, Manufacturing PMI and Retail Sales. In the COVID (1.03.20—14.02.22) period we observed increased USD/PLN exchange rate volatility. Exchange rate volatility was expressly larger in the period of war in Ukraine (15.02.22 – end of experiment).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue