rss_2.0Folia Oecologica FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Folia Oecologica Oecologica Feed distribution and modeling of potential distribution of (Planch.) H. St. John at the territory of Ukraine and Europe<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Elodea nuttallii</italic> (Planch.) H. St. John – an invasive species that actively expands the boundaries of its secondary range. This work presents the current and predicted future distribution of <italic>E. nuttallii</italic> in Europe. The spread of the species is observed in northern areas with a mild oceanic climate (with mild winters and cool, rainy summers) formed by Atlantic cyclones. <italic>E. nuttallii</italic> occurs in aquatic biotopes throughout the temperate climatic zone and partially occurs in the subtropical. It was established that the most important factors in determining the possibility of a plant’s spread are the amount of precipitation in the driest month, the minimum temperature of the coldest month, and altitude above the sea level. According to the data collected, the species is at its ecological optimum in most of Europe. Most of the changes expected in the next 100 years will take place in the next 30–40 years.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue record of (L.) Scutari growing on PET plastic within a fruit crops plot and its implications<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In a fruit crop located in the Lujan district (Buenos Aires province, Argentina), we exposed plastic bottles to the environment for three years. We explored microplastics’ presence on thalli. Out of the potential five lichen species only one grew: <italic>Hyperphyscia coralloides</italic>. Microplastic particles were observed on the thalli. The present work represents the first record of <italic>H. coralloides</italic> growing on PET plastic. Considering the largest thalli size recorded, the results of the growth rate are similar in an average to those recorded for fruticose species. Finally, our results suggest that the contact of <italic>H. coralloides</italic> with microplastics may be a potential pathway for the incorporation of microplastics into ecosystems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in cities: the impact of biodiversity data across spatial scales on diversity estimates<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The assessment and monitoring of biodiversity in urban areas has been shown to have enormous potential to inform integrative urban planning in cities. In this context, digital biodiversity repositories such as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) has been promoted for its central role in gathering and harmonizing biodiversity data worldwide, thereby facilitating these assessments and monitoring efforts. While GBIF data has been investigated for its potential at a large scale and in natural ecosystems, the question remains as to what extent, and in which context, is GBIF data applicable to urban biodiversity assessment and monitoring? In this study, we assessed the spatial patterns of biodiversity, by exploring species richness patterns in relation to land use types for three taxonomic groups (birds, mammals and arthropods) in three cities in The Netherlands (Rotterdam, Amsterdam and Groningen) at multiple spatial scales. We found significant variation in the effect of land uses on the species richness patterns, in terms of taxonomic group, spatial configuration and land cover type, and across spatial scales. Our study demonstrates the potential of GBIF data while highlighting the importance of the careful selection of one or multiple spatial scales, especially in relation to the taxonomic group characteristics and ecology and the spatial configuration of the cities studied.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue germination behavior of Quézel & Simonneau: a vulnerable and endemic Lamiaceae (Northwest Algeria)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As part of the ex-situ conservation of the rare plant species <italic>Teucrium santae</italic> (Lamiaceae), which is native to Algeria flora, we conducted this study under controlled conditions to determine the optimal circumstances for the germination of its seeds in terms of light, temperature, and water stress. The seeds showed a double dormancy that could be overcome using scarification with sulfuric acid combined with soaking in Gibberellic acid at 1,500 ppm. The seed’s photosensitivity was tested afterward and found to be indifferent. The highest final germination percentage (75%) was obtained at a temperature of 20 °C. The temperature has no significant effect on the velocity coefficient, unlike the initial germination day and the mean germination time which decrease with increasing temperature. On the opposite of the velocity coefficient, water stress results in a tremendous depressive effect on the final germination percentage, initial germination time and mean germination time. The value of –1.2 MPa constitutes the water potential beyond which germination becomes impossible.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue iron and zinc nano-fertilizers enhance growth, mineral uptake, and antioxidant defense in date palm () seedlings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Salty sandy soil usually hinders plant growth, while spraying nano-fertilizers such as iron and zinc enhances plant growth. This experiment investigated the role of iron and zinc nano-fertilizers (1 g l<sup>–1</sup>) in the adaptation of date palm seedlings (cv. Barhee) subjected to salt stress (0, 75, 150 mM NaCl). Nano-fertilizer increased plant height, length of roots, number of leaves, and roots. In contrast, salt stress led to reducing these parameters. Salt stress increased hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, and antioxidants such as soluble proteins, proline, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidase enzyme in the leaves. Abscisic acid also increased. Nano-fertilizers increased the chlorophyll and dry matter of the plant under salt stress. Nano-iron induced better seedling growth than nano-zinc, especially in the length of the roots. Nano-iron under salt stress increased iron and potassium concentration and K/Na ratio in leaves. Nano-fertilizers help the plant adapt to environmental stresses, and seedlings succeed in growing in saline sandy soils.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of heavy metals content and regularities of its migration within a soil profile during pyrogenic soil formation in the context of the Scotch pine forest in Togljatty city<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Forest fires are among the most significant disturbances on a global scale. Affecting biodiversity and biogeochemical cycles, forest fires play an important role in atmospheric chemical processes and the global carbon cycle. Using the example of the pyrogenic landscapes of the Samara region, this article reviews changes in the accumulation regularity of heavy metal content and its migration within a soil profile during pyrogenic soil formation. In the case of surface forest fires, the studied postpyrogenic soils are characterized by increased cadmium, nickel and zinc content in the Opyr pyrogenic horizon. In contrast, the content of all analyzed heavy metals decreases compared to the control for crown forest fires, indicating active element emissions into the atmosphere.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of topography, soil and climate on forest species composition and diversity in the West Usambara Montane Forests of Tanzania<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Understanding the variables that determine the variation in forest species composition and diversity in tropical montane systems remains a topic for discussion in plant ecology. This is especially true in areas where the topography is complex and forests are vulnerable to human activity. In this study, a set of topographic, soil, and climatic variables were used to determine their effects on the composition and diversity patterns of two forests in the West Usambara Mountains (Tanzania). Two-phase systematic sampling was used to collect vegetation data from 159 sample plots distributed across the forests. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering method was used for forest community classification, and indicator species analysis was used to determine the species significantly associated with forest communities. The influence of environmental variables on forest communities was analysed using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Finally, we evaluated diversity patterns by comparing diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener diversity index, evenness, and richness) and beta diversity processes. In total, 7,767 individual trees belonged to 183 species, 132 genera, and 66 families were quantified. We found that (i) the forests of West Usambara can be divided into three different forest communities; (ii) each forest community has a specific set of topographical, soil, and climate variables; (iii) there are significant differences in Shannon diversity and richness indices among communities; and (iv) community composition is mostly influenced by species turnover than by species nestedness. Our study revealed the importance of considering a set of environmental variables related to climate, soil, and topography to understand the variation in the composition and diversity of forest communities in tropical montane forests.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue production, release and dispersion in Himalayan alder ( D. Don.): a major aeroallergens taxa<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Alnus nepalensis</italic> is a medium-sized, deciduous tree that occurs in the Indian sub-continent, South America, Hawaii, and China. It is a prolific pioneer species in freshly exposed soil in landslide areas of the western Himalayas and has the potential of fixing nitrogen. A study was conducted to assess the reproductive phenology, pollen production, pollen release, and pollen-mediated gene flow of <italic>Alnus nepalensis</italic> by considering a patch of trees as a pollen source in the temperate forest of Garhwal Himalaya to develop sustainable management strategies relating to the plantation geometry in seed orchards. Staminate flowers of <italic>A. nepalensis</italic> are composed of “cymules”. The presence of bifid stigma and protandry condition were the unique features of the species. Flowering in the male phase was initiated in the last week of September and continued till November. Peak shedding of pollen generally proceeds peak receptivity by 1–2 weeks. The time between onset and peak flowering was 2 weeks 4 days and the total average duration of the flowering period was about 24.8 days. Temperature and relative humidity played a major role in pollen release and the maximum pollen release occurred at 29.2 °C at 13.00 hrs of the day. Pollen production per catkin varied significantly among trees. The average pollen grains per tree were 2.20 × 10<sup>10</sup>. The pollen-ovule ratio suggests that the breeding system of <italic>A. nepalensis</italic> falls under the class xenogamy. Pollen mediated gene flow revealed that the significant pollen which can cause pollination of <italic>A. nepalensis</italic> can travel up to 40 m uphill and 80 m in downhill directions. Thus, an isolation strip of 80 m is sufficient to manage the seed orchard of <italic>A. nepalensis</italic> in the western Himalayan region.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue test battery approach for ecotoxicological evaluation of disinfectants prepared on the basis of sodium hypochlorite<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research is related to the assessment of the overall sensitivity and applicability of many bioassays representing different trophic levels for the preliminary ecotoxicological testing of commercial disinfectants marked as SA (SAVO, Bochemie a.s., Czech Republic) and DoAm (Dom Amor, BOOS – Biologické substancie, Slovak Republic). Disinfectants were prepared based on sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). SA contains only NaOCl while earthworm enzymes enrich DoAm. In both commercial products, the NaOCl content did not exceed 5%; pure NaOCl was used as a 10% solution as well. For bioassay, water organisms (<italic>Vibrio fischeri, Desmodesmus subspicatus, Daphnia magna</italic> and <italic>Tubifex tubifex</italic>) situated in various trophic levels were used. All the tests were confirmed as suitable for the determination of chlorine’s adverse effects. Because the organisms’ reactions to the tested disinfectants varied, they can be arranged in the following rank order of sensitivity: <italic>V. fischeri</italic> ≥ <italic>D. subspicatus</italic> &gt;&gt; <italic>D. magna</italic> &gt;&gt; <italic>T. tubifex</italic>. The toxicity of the tested substances (NaOCl, SA, DoAm) depends on the length of exposure, the species of the organism and FAC (free available chlorine) content. The effective concentrations of the tested products ranged from 0.13 to 8.18 μL L<sup>–1</sup>, i.e., 0.014 to 0.26 mg L<sup>–1</sup> of FAC. However, in the tests with <italic>T. tubifex</italic> and <italic>V. fischeri</italic> the toxic effect of NaOCl was the weakest; the tests with other two organisms confirmed this compound as the most toxic. Only for <italic>T. tubifex</italic> (96 hrs) did SA have a more adverse effect than DoAm.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of soils in the Dnipro River valley (based on the example of the Dnipro-Orilsky Nature Reserve)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study established the classification position of the soils of the Dnipro River valley (within the Dnipro-Orilsky Nature Reserve) according to the international WRB classification. The pits were laid along three transects that passed through the most significant relief gradients within the study area. The study of the morphological structure of 20 soil profiles showed that the soil cover is closely related to the geo-morphological structure of the river valley. The morphological characteristics of typical profiles of these soils reflect their structure, properties and genesis and determine the classification position of the soils according to the WRB. Multidimensional scaling allowed us to perform soil ordination in the space of two dimensions. Dimension 1 differentiates soils by the gradient of relief height and/or moisture level. Dimension 2 differentiated hydromorphic soils. The properties of Quaternary sediments were found to determine the position of soils at both levels of classification (reference groups, main and additional classifiers). The distribution of each of the reference groups is clearly related to the geomorphology of the valley. Arenosols and Cambisols form the soil cover of the floodplain terrace, while Fluvisols and Gleysols are found mainly in the floodplain.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in selected properties of Calcic Chernozem due to cultivation of and<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The results of a comprehensive study on the particle size distribution, soil organic matter (SOM) content, and plant-available water in Calcic Chernozem are presented, along with the impact of <italic>Robinia pseudoacacia</italic> L. and <italic>Quercus robur</italic> L. plantations on these indicators. The study revealed that Calcic Chernozem under steppe vegetation and <italic>Q. robur</italic> plantation exhibited a silty clay loam texture. However, under the influence of <italic>R. pseudoacacia</italic> plantation, the chernozem’s texture transformed into loam. The planting of <italic>R. pseudoacacia</italic> resulted in a noticeable decrease in SOM content, while the growth of <italic>Q. robur</italic> plantations led to an increase in SOM content. Furthermore, both <italic>R. pseudoacacia</italic> and <italic>Q. robur</italic> plantations contributed to an increased content of plant-available water in the 0–20 cm layer of chernozem. These findings highlight the more pronounced effect of <italic>R. pseudoacacia plantation</italic> on the particle size distribution, SOM content, and plant-available water in Calcic Chernozem compared to <italic>Q. robur</italic> plantation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of donor tree age, cutting collection time and K-IBA application on rooting ability of L. stem cuttings: preliminary results<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study investigates the effect of donor tree age (juvenile, adult), collection time (March, November) and the K-IBA (indole-3-butyric acid potassium salt; 0, 3, 6, 12 g L<sup>−1</sup> K-IBA) application on rooting of <italic>T. baccata</italic> stem cuttings. Terminal hardwood leaf stem cuttings were collected of the year 2013 from individuals growing in their natural habitat in the Cholomontas mountains in the northern part of Greece. In cuttings taken from adult individuals, the application of K-IBA only significantly improved the rooting percentage. However, in cuttings taken from juvenile individuals, the collection time and K-IBA application as well as their interaction were statistically significant. In November collection, the cuttings treated with 12 g L<sup>−1</sup> of K-IBA exhibited the highest rooting percentage (98.3%), while in March collection, the cuttings treated with 3 g L<sup>−1</sup> of K-IBA exhibited higher rooting percentages (61.7%) than those of control (41.7%). In cuttings taken from juvenile individuals, the K-IBA application significantly improved the rooting of cuttings collected in November compared with those collected in March. The cuttings taken from juvenile individuals, exhibited significantly higher rooting percentages than those taken from adult individuals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for heat tolerance enhancement of the Indian almond seedlings using ascorbic acid and potassium chloride<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In light of global warming, pre-treatment plants with antioxidants may reduce the damage caused by climatic changes. Indian almond seedlings were planted in pots subjected to ascorbic acid and potassium chloride alone or combined to reduce the negative impact of high field temperature. Compared with the control, all treatments improved the plant height, branch number, number of leaves, and leaf area. These treatments reduced loss in concentration of photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll <italic>a</italic>, chlorophyll <italic>b</italic>, total chlorophyll, and carotenoid. Heat stress increased abscisic acid content and electrolyte leakage percentage, whereas the application of ascorbic acid alleviated this damage. Indian almond plants can better withstand high temperatures particularly using ascorbic acid treatments at 50 mg l<sup>−1</sup> or treatment of ascorbic acid at 50 mg l<sup>−1</sup> + potassium chloride at 250 mg l<sup>−1</sup> to reduce heat stress damage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue patterning of in eastern Borneo<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Determining the spatial patterning of tree species can provide inferences on underlying ecological processes. <italic>Gonystylus brunnescens</italic> is a South-east Asian subcanopy forest tree. To determine the spatial patterns of this species, we recorded the distribution of all individuals in a 0.4 ha sampling plot in eastern Borneo. We found that the pattern deviated from random and was well-described by the Matérn cluster model; clusters had a radius of approximately 4.2 m and contained an average of six seedlings each. This supports the hypothesis of animal-dispersed seeds and, due to a clear lack of association of juveniles with adults, may be due to scatter-hoarding of seeds by small mammal seed dispersers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and status of cobalt in some forest types<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The concentrations of Co were determined in the hydrological cycle (in maquis and fir forests), litterfall and soils in maquis, oak, beech and fir forests. The concentrations in the hydrological cycle were characterized by high variability. The concentrations in soil solution were much higher than those in the bulk deposition and throughfall. The contribution of the earth’s’ crust in the bulk deposition enrichment with Co was not high but some minor quantities of Co can be considered to be transported in long distances. The concentrations of Co in litterfall were high in the fraction composed of lichens, flowers and mosses, especially in the fir forest. The total content of Co was significantly higher in the soils derived from mica schist than those in the flysch. The residence time of Co in the forest floor was rather long. This is an indication that weathering in the mineral layers plays an important role in providing Co for plant uptake.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of for a better space management in two cities of northeastern Greece<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The ability to estimate the space volume that a tree occupies, in various heights, is a crucial factor in designing the street trees schedule in pavements of new urban infrastructures. The dimensions of <italic>Acer negundo</italic> tree crown in various heights can be the basis for a better space management in the pavements of cities. In this study, the height and the crown width of the <italic>A. negundo</italic> street trees in the Greek cities of Orestiada and Alexandroupoli and the allometric relations that can be found between them, were investigated. Data from 117 street trees growing in semi-permeable pavements of the two cities were used. In each selected tree, the total height (H), and the maximum and minimum crown diameter (CW) were measured. The selected model (CW-H) for Alexandroupoli exhibits a coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) of 0.81. The R<sup>2</sup> of the model selected for Orestiada is lower (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.66). The R<sup>2</sup> of the model selected using the complete dataset is 0.77. <italic>A. negundo</italic> appears to have greater crown width in Alexandroupoli compared to that of Orestiada. In Orestiada the conditions of growth were variable since in many cases the measured trees were under side shade, while this not the case in the corresponding trees in Alexandroupoli. The better fit of the selected model in Alexandroupoli compared to that of Orestiada is probably due to the more variable growth conditions of Orestiada.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and spatial distribution of native bees in Mt. Banahaw de Lucban, Philippines<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Native bees are pollinators and bioindicators of ecosystem health but only little is known about its abundance, species distribution, and habitat range, especially in the Philippines. This study assessed the diversity and spatial distribution of native bees in Mt. Banahaw de Lucban (MBDL). Belt transect coupled with opportunistic sampling were used in the inventory of bees and their nests. Nests occurrence and 7 environmental predictor variables including; 1) annual mean temperature; 2) precipitation of warmest quarter; 3) elevation; 4) slope; 5) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); 6) distance to agricultural areas (m); and 7) distance to forested areas (m) were used for modeling species distribution by MaxEnt. A total of 16 species of native bees including representatives from genus <italic>Apis, Tetragonula, Lasioglossum, Halictus, Hylaeus</italic> and <italic>Megachile</italic> were identified. A total of 96 bee nests from 5 species were also recorded yielding a nests density of 234 nests per km<sup>2</sup>. Results showed medium diversity of solitary native bees with <italic>H’</italic> of 2.488. Most bee nests were found in lower elevations while the distance from agricultural areas and the distance from forest areas had the highest contributions to the nesting of <italic>Apis breviligula</italic>, <italic>A. cerana</italic>, and <italic>Tetragonula biroi</italic>. The mean distance from forest areas of all bee nests was 649.930 m and the mean extent of suitable area for these species was 5.340 km<sup>2</sup>. Hence, a landscape approach may be more appropriate to conserve native bees and sustain the ecosystem services they provide in MBDL.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue electrolyte leakage method for testing the oxidative stability of Turra under ozone-induced stress<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Electrolyte leakage (EL) is the method commonly used to test the cell membrane integrity of plants under stress conditions. The cells of the leaf may be damaged by ozone (O<sub>3</sub>) entering the intercellular space as an oxidative stress agent. The modified EL method was used to test the oxidative stability (OxS) of plant tissue against O<sub>3</sub>-induced oxidative stress. The modification includes simulation of the artificial oxidative stress by additional ozonation of plant samples in the laboratory chamber. This modified EL method was applied to <italic>Pinus mugo</italic> Turra needle samples collected in the subalpine zone of the High Tatra Mts (Western Carpathians), in the years 2019 and 2020. Changes in the chemical composition of samples after artificial ozonation were traced by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. In addition, O<sub>3</sub> uptake through open stomata was estimated by calculation of the modelled ozone dose (MO<sub>3</sub>D). We also conducted an inspection of visible injury (VIN) on the needle surface focused on the occurrence of O<sub>3</sub>-induced symptoms and biotic harmful agents. Regarding OxS results as well as VIN indices, <italic>P. mugo</italic> needles showed relatively low sensitivity to oxidative stress induced by O<sub>3</sub>. Therefore MO<sub>3</sub>D in a range between 14 and 16 mmol m<sup>−2</sup> can be considered as O3 dose with minor phytotoxic effect on <italic>P. mugo</italic> growing in the mountains of central-eastern Europe.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue role of soil and plant cover as drivers of soil macrofauna of the Dnipro River floodplain ecosystems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Floodplain ecosystems are hotspots of biological diversity and perform important ecosystem functions in the landscape. The key to understanding the sustainability of ecosystem function is knowledge of the relationships between ecosystem components. The article reveals the role of morphological and physical properties of soil, as well as phytoindication of environmental factors as drivers of biological diversity of soil macrofauna of protected ecosystems of the Dnipro River floodplain. The studies were conducted in the forest floodplain ecosystems of the “Dnipro-Orilskiy” Nature Reserve. The studies of morphological properties of soils allowed us to identify the representatives of two reference groups: Fluvisol and Gleysol. The soil physical property data were subjected to principal component analysis, which extracted four principal components whose eigenvalues exceeded unity and described 79.9% of the variation in traits. The principal components of variation in soil physical properties and phytoindication assessments of environmental factors were used as predictors of the community structure of soil macrofauna. These predictors were able to explain 29.6% of the community variation. Physical soil properties are most important as a driver of soil macrofauna. The morphological properties of the soil and phytoindicator assessments are able to explain a much smaller part of the community variation. The pure influence of the predictors is small, indicating that they interact significantly in influencing soil animals. The results obtained have implications for the development of optimal strategies for floodplain ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue changing land use and land cover in the Mediterranean Basin: implications on forest ecosystem services<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Mediterranean Basin covers more than 2 million square kilometres and is surrounded by three continents: Africa, Asia, and Europe. It is home to more than 500 million people and is projected to reach 670 million by 2050. The basin is rich in species diversity, with a great wealth of endemism. The supply of ecosystem services is greatly challenged due to the trend of land use and land cover (LULC) change coupled with other global change drivers. The current study thoroughly reviewed the existing body of knowledge on the impacts of LULC change on forest ecosystem services. The LULC change is driven by synergetic factor combinations of urbanization, population increase, agricultural land abandonment and deforestation putting additional strain on forest ecosystem services. The review shows the potential impacts on biodiversity as well as ecosystem services such as wood and non-wood forest products, water resources, and carbon stock. Moreover, there is evidence showing the threats of LULC change to saproxylic beetle species, a key agent in the nutrient cycling process, posing a significant risk to a nutrient-deficient ecosystem. Therefore, there is a need to mitigate the challenges posed by LULC change and adapt forest management practices to impending changes to sustain the provision of ecosystem goods and services.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue