rss_2.0Folia Oecologica FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Folia Oecologicahttps://sciendo.com/journal/FOECOLhttps://www.sciendo.comFolia Oecologica 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/62ecdf05fff13c2453f6f37b/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220927T205214Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604799&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20220927%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=d8cc227e4224eebb3eee758f4d1df9cf88e22f0c3b7d272176866874452eba5e200300Ground beetles in Romanian oilseed rape fields and adjacent grasslands (Coleoptera: Carabidae)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed at clarifying species composition and ecological structure of the ground beetles associated with oilseed rape fields during flowering, ripening and post-harvest, as well as pastures adjacent to them. Field work was carried out in 2017. Pitfall traps (5 in each site) were set in 20 sampling sites in the Transylvania region, Cluj County. A total of 8,151 individuals were collected (7,576 in rapeseed fields and 575 in pastures) belonging to 82 species from 29 genera. The richest tribes were Harpalini (25 species), Zabrini (12 species), Pterostichini (10 species), and Carabini (9 species). The most species-rich were the genera <italic>Harpalu</italic>s (13 species), <italic>Amara</italic> (11 species), <italic>Carabus</italic> and <italic>Ophonus</italic> (8 species each). The most abundant species in the rape fields were <italic>Poecilus cupreus</italic> (1,760 ind.), <italic>Brachinus explodens</italic> (1,500 ind.), <italic>Brachinus elegans</italic> (1206 ind.), and <italic>Anchomenus dorsalis</italic> (875 ind.). The most abundant in the grasslands were <italic>Pterostichus hungaricus</italic> (101 ind.), <italic>Calathus fuscipes</italic> (74 ind.), <italic>Harpalus caspius</italic> (67 ind.), and <italic>Cylindera germanica</italic> (64 ind.). The species found only in rape fields were 36 while 13 species were exclusive to pastures; 34 species were discovered in both types of habitats. The investigation acquired some new data on carabid diversity in Romania, including two new country records.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Landscape use and food habits of the chilla fox ( Gray) and domestic dog () in a peri-urban environment of south-central Chilehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cities intensely modify natural environments and impose pressures on biodiversity. In this sense, carnivorous mammals are one of the groups most affected due to their food and space requirements. The feeding and spatial behavior of the chilla fox (<italic>Lycalopex griseus</italic>, G., 1837) and dogs were studied in the vicinity of a peri-urban protected area in south-central Chile. The diet of both canids was compared seasonally, for which feces were collected along trails in three habitats: native forest, exotic plantations and scrublands. Dog feces were collected at the same site to establish whether they were avoided by foxes. Chilla fox has been highlighted for consuming a high proportion of hares followed by rodents of the Muridae family, both being exotic mammals in Chile, whereas dogs showed a predominant consumption of anthropogenic food. Significant differences were observed for chilla fox in dietary diversity, mainly in summer and fall. No spatial segregation was observed with the domestic dog, which was evidenced in a high overlap in the use of all habitats. This scenario, together with continuous human presence, are elements that must be considered in the medium-term to evaluate the effects of anthropogenic pressures on native carnivores in the study area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Distribution, productivity and natural regeneration of black alder ( (L.) Gaertn.) in Ukrainian Polissyahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to assess the current state and productivity of black alder (<italic>Alnus glutinosa</italic> (L.) Gaertn.) stands and determine the optimal conditions for the emergence and further growth of its natural regeneration in Ukrainian Polissya. The area of black alder stands in Ukrainian Polissya (Ukrainian forest zone) is 162,348 ha, reaching 8.4% of the total forest area. Volyn Region has the largest area of alder stands within Ukrainian Polissya (61,271 ha covering 37.7% of the total area). In the forests of this region, a more detailed study of the current condition, productivity, growth and regeneration of alder stands was performed. The natural regeneration under the alder canopy was characterized as poor. The largest numbers of alder seedlings (1,600–1,800 stems per ha) were recorded under the canopy of 76–78-year-old stands with a relative density of stocking of 0.63–0.70 and 80–100% of alder in their composition. Naturally regenerating alder seedlings had mainly group distribution on the area (occurrence is up to 40%). These specificities should be taken into account to promote natural seed regeneration of alder stands.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Diversity of leaf morphometric parameters in natural Greek populations of https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper investigates leaf morphology variation of the strawberry tree <italic>(Arbutus unedo)</italic> within and between two natural contrasting populations of significant latitudinal difference (Kassandreia, Chalkidiki and Ancient Olympia, Peloponnese). This study employed 11 leaf size and shape parameters, recorded by image processing and analyzing software. The results showed that in the measurements of central tendency (parameter means) the northern population of Kassandreia presented the highest values, while in contrast the highest values in the measurements of spread were found in the southern population of Ancient Olympia. Moreover, statistically significant differences between populations were detected in leaf size, but not in leaf shape parameters. Results are discussed in the context of their value in studying quantitative population differentiation and laying the basis of more advanced studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Distribution of invasive plants and their association with wild ungulates in Barandabhar Corridor Forest, Nepalhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Invasive and alien plant species (IAPS) are considered as major threats to native biodiversity because IAPS alter ecosystem structure and their functions. We assessed the association of four major IAPS (<italic>Mikania micrantha, Chromolaena odorata, Lantana camara</italic>, and <italic>Parthenium hysterophorus</italic>) and the abundance of wild ungulates in Barandabhar Corridor Forest (BCF), Chitwan, Nepal. We collected data on the presence of wild ungulates in IAPS invaded habitats through direct observation and sign surveys. Our study showed that the cover of <italic>M. micrantha</italic> was significantly high in Sal forest (Prominence value PV = 73.23) followed by riverine forest (PV = 40.5) and grassland (PV = 37.7) whereas <italic>P. hysterophorus</italic> was high in grasslands (PV = 22.9). Similarly, <italic>C. odorata</italic> was significantly high in Sal forest (PV =141.6%), and <italic>L. camara</italic> was high in mixed forest (PV = 22.6). It was found that there was a significant negative association of IAPS (p = 0.002) with wild ungulates. The abundances of deer and wild pigs were more in the buffer zone than in the non-buffer zone. The abundance of deer decreased with increasing cover of <italic>C. odorata</italic>, <italic>M. micrantha</italic>, and <italic>P. hysterophorus</italic> (p = 0.002). Similarly, the abundance of wild pigs decreased with increasing cover of <italic>M. micrantha</italic> and <italic>L. camara</italic>. IAPS were not uniformly distributed in different habitats and abundances of wild ungulates were less in IAPS invaded habitats. Hence, it is important to initiate management plans to control IAPS spread to avoid their negative impacts on wild ungulate population such as deer and wild pigs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Geometric Morphometrics use in the examination of subgenus leaf shape variation in Algeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The latest findings on the taxonomic review of <italic>Quercus faginea</italic> Lam. complex using ‘traditional morphometrics’, demonstrating that the species is represented in Algeria by both <italic>Q. faginea</italic> and <italic>Q. canariensis</italic> Willd. Significant variations of the leaf form were also discernible among both species. In this study, the landmark-based geometric morphometrics analysis was used to assess the shape variation of the leaves found on oak stands. 2,600 leaves per 13 stands were collected and scanned, and then using Tps range and MorphoJ software, 11 landmarks—that represent the leaf morphological features—were recorded on leaf images. Shape components and non-forms variations were obtained through a full Procrustes fit followed by creating a leaf-superimposed configuration. Principal component analysis, canonical variate analysis, and discriminate analysis were used to statistically evaluate the leaf shape variability. The results revealed no clear distinction between the two species based on leaf shape. Climate change and environmental factors also appear to have possibly caused a divergent morphological evolution; a reduced leaf size with enduring indumentum—among other <italic>Q. faginea</italic> traits—could be an efficient mean of adapting to Mediterranean xeric conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Determining structure and volume of the European beech ( L.) deadwood in managed stands in the Rodopi Mountain Range National Park, Greecehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The multifaceted role of deadwood in forest ecosystems has been widely recognized while it is regarded as an indicator of sustainable forest management. Nevertheless, there are hardly any data on deadwood volume and structure in managed forests in Greece. The study took place in beech forests of the Western and Central part of the Rodopi Mountain Range. The objective was to determine the amount, variability and quality of deadwood and to compare it with data from managed as well as natural forests. Data were collected on 30 randomly distributed circular plots of 0.1 ha. The results showed that the average deadwood amount (13.46 m<sup>3</sup> ha<sup>−1</sup>) was much lower compared to that recorded in other European forests and they highlighted the absence of large dead standing trees due to the management regime. The deadwood quality showed great variation in stages of decay.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Acoustic ecology of tawny owl in the Greek Rhodope Mountains using passive acoustic monitoring methodshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Passive acoustic monitoring is a wildlife monitoring method used especially for the study of vocally active species which are difficult to observe directly. The tawny owl (<italic>Strix aluco</italic>, Linnaeus 1758) is such a species, and has not been previously studied in Greece. The aim of the study was to provide a first insight into the species’ acoustic ecology in the Rhodope Mountains by describing its calling activity at four sites over a period of 3–6 months, and to examine possible correlation with natural and climatic parameters. Based on 24,937 calls, we report a significant increase in the number of calls per night (18:00 pm to 9:00 am) as the length of the night increased, as well as a negative relation with wind speed. We did not observe a relationship between calling frequency and the phase of the moon.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Simulation of over-bark tree bole diameters, through the RFr (Random Forest Regression) algorithmhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The difficulty of locating and measuring the over-bark tree bole diameters at heights that are far from the ground, is a serious problem in ground-truth data measurements in the field. This problem could be addressed through the application of intelligent systems methods. The paper explores the possibility of applying the Random Forest regression method (RFr) in order to assess, as accurately as possible, the size of the tree bole diameters at any height above the ground, considering data that can be easily measured in the field. For this purpose, diameter measurements of pine trees (<italic>Pinus brutia</italic> Ten.) from the Seich–Sou urban forest of Thessaloniki, Greece, were used. The effectiveness of the Random Forest regression technique is compared with the results of non-linear regression models that fitted to the available data and evaluated. This research has shown that the RFr method can be a reliable alternative methodology in order to receive accurate information provided by the model, saving time and effort in field.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Preliminary results of European budworm (Hubner) impact on Greek fir radial growth at Mts Parnassus and Gionahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During the spring of 2020, <italic>Choristoneura murinana</italic> (Hubner) otherwise European Fir Budworm (EFB) was recorded on <italic>Abies cephalonica</italic> near the villages of Kaloskopi and Agoriani in Central Greece at the mountains Giona and Parnassus respectively. To our knowledge, the occurrence of the particular pest on the specific mountains has not been described yet. We found that EFB mostly prefers <italic>Abies cephalonica</italic> and less <italic>Juniperus oxycedrous</italic> in sunny areas and/or near the country roads. Across the study area, local severe infestations of scale 2, 3 and 5, were observed. In many cases the infestation was observed in adult fir individuals. Defoliations and severe outbreaks, which are presumably incurred by EFB were also observed by local people (beekeepers, foresters, herb collectors) in the past. Our laboratories field measurements and the analysis of the Singular Spectrum analysis trendlines revealed growth decline, not connected with climatic parameters but probably associated with observed defoliations by the EFB.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Species variability in the relative strength of intraspecific and interspecific interactionshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Understanding cases in restoration and in agriculture in which species diversity improves productivity and ecosystem functioning is crucial due the need to restore degraded habitat and improve crop productivity for a growing human population. Reaching these diversity benefits is likely influenced by the dynamic of less negative interspecific than intraspecific interactions that promote diversity. But further testing is needed to understand the relationship of intraspecific-relative to interspecific interactions. Here I used seedlings from three native and one introduced species used in restoration in the western United States in pairwise interaction combinations and found that the study species varied in shoot biomass in response to interaction treatments of the control, intraspecific, and interspecific interactions (<italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup> = 0.7, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001), and that intraspecific interactions were more negative than interspecific interactions for four of five of the pairings. Overall, as shoot mass size differences increased between interspecific neighbors, interactions became more positive (<italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup> = 0.6, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001). These findings point to variability in species responses in whether the focal species compete more intensely with conspecific or heterospecific neighbors and indicates the need for more careful selection of interacting species for meeting both agricultural and restoration goals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Response of date palm offshoots ( L.) to the foliar spray of salicylic acid and citric acid under salinity conditionshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Antioxidants enhance the salt tolerance of date palms. A field experiment was carried out on date palm offshoots to improve the salt tolerance of the Sayer cultivar. Salicylic acid and citric acid (500 and 1,000 ppm) were used. The results showed that all growth parameters of plant height, leaf area, and leaf numbers decreased under the salinity conditions. The antioxidant applications increased the plant height, leaf area, carbohydrates, and relative water content compared with the control. Citric acid at 1,000 ppm decreased electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde. Indoleacetic acid decreased, whereas abscisic acid increased under salinity. The antioxidant application increased indoleacetic, whereas abscisic acid decreased. Proline, protein content, and peroxidase activity increased under antioxidants. Also, the potassium and K/Na ratio increased under antioxidant applications. Citric acid improved the characteristics more than salicylic acid, encouraging farmers to use it for its low cost as an antioxidant to reduce environmental stress damage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Can the invasive ambrosia beetle withstand an unusually cold winter in the West Carpathian forest in Central Europe?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The capability of a non-native species to withstand adverse weather is indicative of its establishment in a novel area. An unusually cold winter of 2016/2017 that occurred in the West Carpathians of Slovakia and other regions within Europe provided an opportunity to indirectly assess survival of the invasive ambrosia beetle <italic>Xylosandrus germanus</italic> (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae). We compared trap captures of this species in the year preceding and succeeding the respective cold winter. Ethanol-baited traps were deployed in 24 oak dominated forest stands within the southern and central area from April to August 2016, and again from April to August 2017 to encompass the seasonal flight activity of <italic>X. germanus</italic> and to get acquainted with temporal changes in the abundance of this species in these two distant areas. Dispersing <italic>X. germanus</italic> were recorded in all surveyed stands before and after the aforementioned cold winter. Their total seasonal trap captures were lower in the southern area following low winter temperatures, but remained similar in the central area. Our results suggest that <italic>X. germanus</italic> can withstand adverse winter weather in oak dominated forests of the West Carpathians within altitudes of 171 and 450 m asl. It is likely that minimum winter temperatures will not reduce the establishment or further spread of this successful invader in forests in Central Europe.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Endemic and invasive Coccinellidae associated with maize ( L.) fields, in Manabi province, Ecuadorhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Maize (<italic>Zea mays</italic> L.), which is considered an important cereal everywhere, is widely cultivated in different agroecological conditions. Throughout their phenological stages, maize crops are attacked by pests and diseases, and in Ecuador these phytosanitary problems are usually counteracted with applications of pesticides. However, knowledge of beneficial entomofauna is fundamental to guide pest management programs. As part of this objective, the Coccinellidae species present in maize fields in localities (Santa Ana, Colon, and Danzarin) in Manabí province were identified. In each zone, maize plants were sampled from 2018–2019. A total of 2,654 specimens belonging to 14 taxa were collected in this study, of which <italic>Cheilomenes sexmaculata</italic>, <italic>Cycloneda sanguinea</italic>, <italic>Hippodamia convergens</italic>, <italic>Hyperaspis arida</italic>, and <italic>Psyllobora confluens</italic> were found in all the studied areas. <italic>Hyperaspis arida</italic> and <italic>Diomus apollonia</italic> are reported for the first time in Ecuador.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The assessment of the current status of L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians: Ecological and genetic approacheshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Based on the analysis of the genetic polymorphisms (RGAP- and CDDP-PCR) among populations and comparison of these results with ecological characteristics (density, area, spatial and vitality structure, age, ability of renewal and self-maintenance), the status of five natural (Lemska, Gutyn Tomnatyk, Sheshul-Pavlyk, Krachuneska, Troyaska-Tataruka) and one man-made (Pozhyzhevska) populations of <italic>Gentiana lutea</italic> from the Ukrainian Carpathians was assessed. The results of the complex ecological and genetic analysis have revealed that three populations are unstable (Krachuneska, Troyaska-Tataruka, Gutyn Tomnatyk), two are relatively stable (Lemska, Pozhyzhevska) and only one is stable (Sheshul-Pavlyk). The research results can be used for stabilizing the number of violations and restoring the endangered natural populations. Based on these data, the recommendations for the conservation and protection of <italic>G. lutea</italic> populations have been developed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Temporal and spatial changes in small mammal communities in a disturbed mountain foresthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In 2005–2016, we investigated a secondary succession of small mammal communities in forest ecosystems in High Tatras (Slovakia) disturbed by windstorm and fire. This long-term ecological study confirmed the occurrence of significant temporal and spatial changes in species composition and number of dominant small mammal species. A comparison between disturbed and undisturbed plots indicated notable differences in species richness and abundance. The gradations of dominant small mammal species in disturbed habitats were asynchronous and showed a wider range of amplitude than in the undisturbed plots. An analysis of the temporal and spatial changes in the structure of small mammal communities in relation to selected environmental gradients confirmed the statistically significant effect of secondary succession on species composition, abundance, and exchange in forest ecosystems in the High Tatra Mountains following a disturbance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Ecogenesis and primary soil formation on the East European Plain. A reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Numerous published studies have shown that soil formation, including primary pedogenesis, is closely connected functionally, energetically and operationally with ecogenesis as a key biogenic exploration mechanism of the Earth’s surface by living organisms. The ontogenetic stage of soil evolution, especially in the initial phases, is determined by geogenic conditions and the intensity and trends of biogenic-accumulative processes in the developing ecosystem. Primary soils are considered critical in the rapid development of the initial ancient biosphere, supporting multiple environmental possibilities for ecosystems in that stage of their formation. Currently, similar models of correlated soil formation and ecogenesis are actualised when new substrates appear suitable for biogenic-abiogenic interactions, which occur in both natural and anthropogenic landscapes. Biotic factors during primary pedogenesis have accumulative and transformative effects on the edaphic component complex. At this stage, the initial pedon is a key functional stage in the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems (biogeocenosis). When restoration of natural ecosystems occurs during the independent growth of exposed substrates, the natural regeneration mechanisms normally occur. These processes are based on the biogenic development of the substrate through the accumulation and transformation of organic matter.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The cytogenetic parameters of L. under conditions of the Far North of Russia (Karelia)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The cytogenetic analysis of the <italic>Pinus sylvestris</italic> L. seed progeny in the forests of the northern taiga in the Far North of Russia conditions was carried out. Two <italic>Pinus sylvestris</italic> populations growing in Ambarnskoy and Pyaozerskoy forest divisions of Loukhsky district of Karelia Republic were studied. The number of chromosomes, the frequency and types of mitosis disturbances at the metaphase, anaphase and telophase (as a percentage of the total number of dividing cells at the same stages), and the frequency of micronuclei occurrence, as well as the laboratory seed germination, were studied. As a result of the study, it was found that 50–56% of the studied sprouts were mixoploid. Analysis of mitosis showed that the root meristem of the studied samples contained cells with various pathologies; simultaneously, the frequency of mitosis pathologies in the Ambarnskoy population was significantly higher than in the Pyaozerskoy one. It amounted to 6.8 ± 0.4 and 4.9 ± 0.4%, respectively. Nine types of abnormalities were identified; chromosome overrun and bridges prevailed. Micronuclei were registered in 35–38% of the studied <italic>Pinus sylvestris</italic> sprouts. At the same time, the proportion of cells with micronuclei in the Ambarnskoy population was 2-fold higher than in the Pyaozerskoy one and averaged 0.12 ± 0.03% and 0.07 ± 0.02%, respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of , , and plants following selection for drought tolerance at seedling stageshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The genetic potentials of eight species of Achillea (A. millefolium, A. fillipendulla, A. biebersteinii, A. nobilis, <italic>A. eriophora</italic>), <italic>Matricaria</italic> (<italic>M. ricotita</italic>), and <italic>Anthemis</italic> (<italic>An. haussknechtii</italic> and <italic>An. tinctoria</italic>) under drought conditions during the seedling stage were measured. Non-ionic water-soluble polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight 6000) was used to simulate water stress at five osmotic potential levels (0, –0.3, –0.6, –0.9, and –1.2 MPa). An acceptable threshold value for germination was osmotic potential –0.6 MPa, and the modest osmotic potential was –1.2 MPa for studied taxa. Seedlings of germinated at two control and osmotic potential –0.6 MPa (as an acceptable threshold value for germination) treatments were sowed in a field under rainfed conditions. Genetic differentiation of control plants (CP) versus early selected plants (ESP, germinated at osmotic potential –0.6 MPa) was studied using morphological, physiological, and molecular (ISSR) markers. No significant differences were observed between morphological traits of CP and ESP in all species, however, days to full flowering shortened in ESP. The physiological results demonstrate that under rainfed conditions, the ESP, in a quick response, collect osmolytes and amplify the activity of antioxidative enzymes to survive drought. The genetic relationship in the group of genotypes, that ISSR marker set it out, is affiliated to taxon even though AMOVA showed a partial differentiation between CP and ESP groups (21%). It was concluded that the selection of tolerating individuals at the seedling stage represents a likely positive strategy to have higher drought tolerance feature in plants under rainfed conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00A comparative assessment between artificial neural network, neuro-fuzzy, and support vector machine models in splash erosion modelling under simulation circumstanceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/foecol-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Splash erosion, as the first step of soil erosion, causes the movement of the soil particles and lumps and is considered an important process in soil erosion. Given the complexity of this process in nature, one way of identifying and modeling the process is to use a rainfall simulator and to study it under laboratory circumstances. For this purpose, transported material was measured with various rainfall intensities and different amounts of poly-acryl-amide. In the next step, artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and support vector machine (SVM) were used to model the transported materials. The results showed that among the three methods, the best values of evaluation criteria were related to SVM, and ANFIS respectively. Among the three studied durations, the experiment with a duration of 30 minutes received the best results. The results based on available data showed by increasing the number of membership functions, over-fitting happens in the ANFIS method. To reduce the complexity of the model and the likelihood of over-fitting, some rules were eliminated. The results showed that the performance of the model improved by eliminating some rules.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1