rss_2.0Central European Forestry Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Central European Forestry Journal European Forestry Journal Feed of spatial dispersion of epigeic fauna between alluvial forests in an agrarian and Dunajské luhy protected landscape area, southern Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The spatial distribution of the epigeic fauna of floodplain ecosystems (willow-poplar floodplain forest, regenerated poplar forest), in the conditions of the natural environment of the Dunajské luhy Protected Landscape Area (PLA, hereinafter) and agrarian landscape was studied. The Dunajské luhy PLA, hereinafter (Slovak Republic) is the part of the system of protected areas of the European Union. During the three years 2020–2022, 24,169 individuals belonging to 19 taxa at 6 locations using the pitfall traps method were recorded. Through spatial modeling, the preference of most taxa for floodplain forests located in the Dunajské luhy PLA was found. We also observed a significant difference in number of individuals of epigeic fauna in floodplain forests betvween Dunajské luhy PLA area and agrarian landscape during all three years 2020 (p = 0.0070), 2021 (p = 0.0077) and 2022 (p = 0.04624). Thus, agroecosystems in the neighborhood of alluvial forests had a negative impact on the taxonomic diversity and abundance of epigeic fauna. In order to maintain a balance between the production of food, wood and the preservation of natural forest stands, it is important to optimally allocate areas and set up their management. For example, by creating forest islands in agricultural crops, to increase the epigeic fauna.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Norway spruce artificial regeneration techniques tested in the area destroyed by spruce bark beetle in Kysuce Region (Slovakia)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ongoing coniferous monocultures decline in Beskydy Mts. Slovakia, emerged into establishment of Demonstration object of reconstruction of spruce forests (DORS) Husárik, focused on various technological processes of regeneration of economically important tree species. For Norway spruce (<italic>Picea abies</italic> [L.] Karst.) assessment of less frequently used artificial regeneration technologies, including planting of containerized transplants (CRT) or direct seeding procedures (direct seeding DS, seeding into vegetation cell VCS) and commonly used planting of bareroot transplants (BRT) was carried out. Seven years after experimental plot establishment, the lowest survival rate was recorded for DS treatment with 42% survived seedlings, the highest for CRT treatment with 79% survived transplants. For germinated seedlings, average seeding spot occupation rate recorded for DS (72%) was significantly lower than for VCS (98%) one year after seeding and remained significantly lower also over further consecutive years. Average survival recorded for planted transplants over monitored period did not differ markedly and gradually decreased to 76% for BRT and 79% for CRT. Reflecting different ontogenetic stage of individuals assigned to selected treatment average height 134.6 cm for DS, 134.1 cm for VCS and 182.0 cm for CRT, 215.0 cm for BRT was recorded seven years after establishment. The results suggest that for spruce, less frequently used artificial regeneration technologies (VCS, CRT), that markedly curtail time period required for target tree species installation on planting sites, with survival and growth rate of plants recorded in this study, could provide reasonable alternative to commonly used planting of BRT.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the invasive ambrosia beetle Blandford, 1894 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in the Czech Republic (Central Europe)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Europe, <italic>Xyleborinus attenuatus</italic> Blandford is considered an invasive bark beetle native to East Asia. We used the results of many local surveys and data from private and museum collections to get information on the distribution and abundance of <italic>X. attenuatus</italic> Blandford in the Czech Republic. The ambrosia beetle <italic>X. attenuatus</italic> Blandford is probably widespread throughout the territory of the Czech Republic, from the lowlands to the mountains, and has one generation per year in Central Europe. The flight activity lasts from mid-March to May, F1 adults emerge in August and September and overwinter in wood or in the ground under an infested tree. <italic>X. attenuatus</italic> Blandford predominantly occupies soft deciduous trees and so far there economic damage have not been reported yet. However, <italic>X. attenuatus</italic> Blandford is a vector of ambrosia fungi <italic>Ambrosiella</italic> spp. and <italic>Raffaelea</italic> spp., and therefore this ambrosia beetle should be monitored.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue sustainability in forestry machinery: Electro-Hybrid drives for greenhouse gas reduction and enhanced energy efficiency<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article deals with the possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption in machines using cut-to-length (CTL) technology with the help of electro-hybrid systems. The text discusses the individual components of these systems. Furthermore, the article contains technical solutions for current electro-hybrid drive systems of harvesters, forwarders and forwarding trailers, including their description and available parameters. The current technical and technological development of electro-hybrid drive systems and their components leads to a significant improvement in the performance of drives of the new generation of CTL machines and to higher energy efficiency. Thanks to this, the use of electro-hybrid drive systems in these machines could significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as operating costs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue development: Evaluation and forecasting of Norway spruce production and growing stock in Slovakia in the context of bioeconomy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper deals with the identification of the long-term potential of forest stands with the prevailing Norway spruce representation and the elaboration of a forecast of the development of spruce growing stock and felling possibilities until 2050. The analysis of historical data has confirmed a decrease in the area of spruce by 13.2% since 2010 and its growing stock by 16.4% over the same period. These developments indicate a reduction in felling possibilities in the coming decades. The evaluation of spruce felling since 2012 showed that the planned felling volume was exceeded by 11.3 mil. m<sup>3</sup>, i.e. annually at average by 1.25 mil. m<sup>3</sup>. This exceeding was caused by incidental felling, which accounted for an average of 84% of total felling. The forecast of spruce growing stock and felling until 2050 was derived differently for two scenarios based on the development of growing stock and actual cutting percentages in the decade 2012–2020 (scenario A) and cutting percentages according to planned felling (scenario B). In the case of scenario A, there would be a significant reduction in spruce growing stock from the current volume of 114.8 mil. m<sup>3</sup> by 36% in 2040. In the case of scenario B, a decrease in spruce growing stock would be more modest. Ten-year felling volume of spruce under the scenario A forecast will result in the amount of 42.6 mil. m<sup>3</sup> (first decennium), 32.0 mil. m<sup>3</sup> (second decennium) and 25.7 mil. m<sup>3</sup> (third decennium).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of horse chestnut tree (variety ‘Mertelík’) to Deschka & Dimić, 1986 (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Resistance of horse chestnut <italic>Aesculus hippocastanum</italic> ‘Mertelík’ to <italic>Cameraria ohridella</italic> was proven in the trial under semi-field conditions. Seedlings of vulnerable and resistant trees were grown together in rearing cages and were exposed to the strong attack from <italic>C. ohridella</italic> larvae. Significant differences in leaflet injuries were observed between susceptible and insect-resistant trees. Variety ‘Mertelík’ showed almost none or very small damages compared to high defoliation level in case of standard trees. The results confirmed that this resistant clone could be suitable for use under field conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue stock in living biomass of Russian forests: new quantification based on data from the first cycle of the State Forest Inventory<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The carbon stock in living forest biomass was quantified based on first-cycle State Forest Inventory (SFI) measurements in permanent sample plots. The total carbon stock in above- and below-ground living biomass was assessed to be 46.9 ±0.4 × 10<sup>9</sup> tons C and average carbon stock at 52.1 ±0.5 t C ha–1 as of 2020. The State Forest Register (SFR), the primary source of consolidated information on Russia’s forests, estimates the forest growing stock to be 83.1 × 10<sup>9 </sup>m<sup>3</sup>. The total growing stock volume in the forests, according to the SFI amounted to 113.1 × 10<sup>9</sup> m3. Owing to the updated and significantly higher growing stock volume, the estimate of carbon stock in living bio-mass is approximately 35% higher than previously reported. The uncertainty of the total and average carbon stocks based on SFI data was substantially lower (approximately ±1%) than that reported in previous studies (±15–30%). Methods of accounting for the carbon stock in living biomass, the results of calculations for forest lands throughout the country, units of the administrative division, and forest zoning were considered. Assessment of living biomass based on representative sampling can substantially improve the relevance and reliability of national forest reporting.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue or complementarity between biomass production and biodiversity in European forests: a review<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Forestry faces the challenge of balancing the increasing demand for timber, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity protection. Biodiversity plays a crucial role in the stability and adaptability of forest ecosystems, enabling them to withstand disturbances and recover from them. Preserving biodiversity is essential for long-term survival and well-being. Enhancing biodiversity in managed forests is important because they occupy a significant area of forests in Europe. Understanding the relationships between forest production and biodiversity from various perspectives is crucial for developing effective multi-taxa management concepts. Biodiversity loss due to management practices can result in habitat destruction, fragmentation, and species displacement. Biodiversity enhances ecosystem services linked to biomass production, such as pollination, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. This study reviews the relationships between biodiversity and production in Europen forests, emphasising the impacts of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning and production, as well as the effects of production indicators on biodiversity. The effects of biodiversity on productivity are often studied in the same population, most often in the tree layer. However, a lack of knowledge on how biomass production affects the diversity of other ecosystem components limits our understanding of the multifacet relationships. Forest management significantly impacts biodiversity and production, and different management systems have varying effects on forest ecosystems. Diverse ecosystems exhibit niche complementarity, resulting in increased biomass production. Sustainable practices, including land-use planning, habitat protection, agroforestry, and non-invasive species use, can mitigate the adverse effects of biomass production on biodiversity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue influence of anthropogenic trampling of gray forest soils on their physical properties<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of the study was to determine quantitative and relative indicators that significantly affect the physical properties of gray forest soils within the park ecological trail, to show changes in the compacted soil during natural recovery. Physical properties were determined in 3-fold repetition with the help of three-dimensional cylinders, followed by the calculation of their density and porosity. Population of physiologically active roots of the upper 0.5-meter layer of gray forest soils was determined by the monolith method in 5-fold repetition. It was found out that under the influence of anthropogenic trampling, the greatest degradation changes of the studied physical indicators are manifested in the upper 10-centimeter layer of gray forest soils. An increase in the density by 32.1–38.0% and solids content of the soil by 14.1–22.8%, as well as a decrease in the volume of pores by 32.0–44.3% was recorded and mass of physiologically active roots of woody plants by 84.6–91.2%. The natural restoration of soil occurs most intensively in the upper 5-cm layer. At the same time, over a 15-year period, the following changes were observed – a decrease in density by 19.5%, the content of solid particles by 9.9%, an increase in the content of pores by 39.1% and physiologically active roots woody plants by 330.0%. Quantitative and relative indicators of their physical properties obtained for anthropogenically compacted gray forest soils explain the changes in the mass of physiologically active roots of deciduous woody plants that grow in the centers with anthropogenically compacted soils.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue optimised target state of uneven-aged forest management for main forest types in Slovakia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study presented a bioeconomic modelling approach for an uneven-aged mixed forest management planning. Regression models for transition (increment), and ingrowth (regeneration) used the National Forest Inventory (NFI) of Slovakia and regional inventory data. Mortality was based on salvage logging records. Models were specific for five tree species within three forest types (FT) (oak with hornbeam and beech, beech, mixed fir-beech-spruce). Net timber prices were calculated with regard to stem quality. Tree growth depended on crown characteristics. The regression models were adjusted to three main geobiotope (GBT) sites per FT. Forest growth was simulated with the density-dependent stand-level matrix transition model. Financial optimisation of harvest was sensitive to an interest rate. Long-time optimisation stabilised in a steady state equilibrium characterised by a stable diameter distribution. Target diameters were specific for site and tree species, and were highest for fir, a dense crown, a good stem quality, and a lower interest rate. Standing timber volume varied from 150 m<sup>3</sup> ha–1 (oak forests, 2% interest rate) to 400 m<sup>3 </sup>ha<sup>–1</sup> (beech and fir-beech-spruce forests, 0.5% interest rate). Harvested volume varied from 38 to 93 m<sup>3</sup> ha–1 per 10 years, stand basal area (ba) varied from 19 to 36 m<sup>2</sup> ha–1 depending on the site, timber price, and interest rate. The discussion pointed out that the relative low volume of the oak FT resulted from the light-demanding characteristics of oak. The mean of oak mosaic structures was lower compared to the high level of more storeys present in the single tree selection structures in beech and mixed fir-beech-spruce forests.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue phenotypic differentiation at physiological traits in Norway spruce (Karst.) provenances under contrasting water regimes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Norway spruce is expected to suffer from drought stress and other manifestations of climate change. This study relies on a manipulative experiment with drought-stressed and well-watered (control) seedlings, comprising five provenances of Norway spruce distributed along a steep elevational transect from 550 to 1,280 m a.s.l. within the natural range. Seedlings were subjected to measurement of physiological traits (content of phytohormones and monoterpenes, slow and fast chlorophyll <italic>a</italic> fluorescence kinetics, gas exchange, hyperspectral indices), and genotyping at 8 nuclear microsatellite loci. Comparison of the coefficient of differentiation at neutral loci (<italic>F<sub>ST</sub></italic>) vs. differentiation at phenotypic traits (<italic>P<sub>ST</sub></italic>) was used to identify traits underlying divergent selection. In total, 18 traits exhibited a significant <italic>P<sub>ST</sub> – FST</italic> difference. However, the consistency in differentiation patterns between drought-stressed and control plants was limited, only three traits exhibited signals of selection under both treatments. This outcome indicates that the identified differentiation patterns can only be interpreted in the context of environmental setup of the experiment, and highlights the importance of common gardens in adaptation research, as they allow both elimination of environment-induced phenotypic variation and studying genotype-by-environment interaction in physiological responses to environmental stresses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and risks of Serbian spruce ([pančić] purk.) in the time of climate change – a literature review<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Serbian spruce (<italic>Picea omorika</italic> [Pančić] Purk.) is a Balkan endemic coniferous species, the expansion of which is restricted by limited knowledge. This literature review paper compiles findings from 176 scientific papers and presents a summary of research results that pertain to the Serbian spruce potential in general, with a specific focus on European forests from 1951 to 2022. It summarizes the importance of its taxonomy, biological and ecological characteristics, site demands, production and silviculture, risks and pests, as well as the potential of this tree species in relation to global climate change. Serbian spruce is very resistant to the negative effect of air pollution and extreme heat waves compared to other spruce species, especially the most economically important spruce species in Europe– Norway spruce (<italic>Picea abies</italic> [L.] Karst.). Moreover, its radial growth shows highly balanced annual increments, and the density and technical parameters of the wood are comparable with Norway spruce. On the other hand, the highest weakness may be the limited genetic variability. Despite its rather limited natural range, Serbian spruce can be considered one of the most adaptable spruces to anthropogenic factors and climate change, and a valuable tree species for urban landscapes. Its production potential of wood on acidic, dry and extreme sites makes it attractive for forestry, through its introduction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue tree species growth characteristics inventoried three decades after planting in the Danube Lowland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents non-native (NN) coniferous and deciduous tree species growth and vitality assessment on experimental research plots established in 1980, 1982 and 1985 in the Danube Lowland over an extended time period. For NN coniferous tree species, Douglas fir, grand fir and eastern white pine reached significantly higher values of diameter at breast height (dbh) and height (H) than Austrian pine. For NN deciduous tree species markedly higher values of H and dbh for black walnut compared to sweet chestnut and red oak were recorded. Damage observed in larger extent on examined NN tree species stands included illegal removal of top of stem for grand fir and presence of necrosis on trunks of sweet chestnut. Comparison of NN coniferous and deciduous tree species growth with native reference tree species showed that NN Douglas fir, grand fir, eastern white pine, red oak and black walnut were capable to achieve similar or even higher values of assessed parameters than native reference tree species. The results suggest, that cultivation of NN coniferous, including Douglas fir, eastern white pine, as well as NN deciduous tree species, including red oak and black walnut in Danube Lowland could contribute to diversification and stabilisation of wood production potential of local forest formations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue strategy on the sustainable management and responsible use of non-native trees in the Alpine Space<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Non-native tree species – defined as those species intentionally or unintentionally introduced by humans – have long been a part of the Alpine Space, providing numerous benefits, but also posing a potential threat to native biodiversity and related ecosystem services. Compared to the urban space where non-native trees comprise most tree species, the number of non-native trees in forests and plantations is relatively low. To evaluate potential risks and benefits of non-native trees in the Alpine Space, a transnational strategy for the responsible use and management of non-native trees is needed. The goals of the strategy are to tailor management practices for a sustainable and responsible use or admixture of non-native trees, to reduce the risks connected with the invasive potential of some non-native tree species, to help forests and urban areas to adapt to climate change, and to improve coordination and cooperation regarding best practices between different regions of the Alpine Space. A proposal was developed in a four-step process including expert-based assessment, stakeholder mapping, an extensive data review, and a public consultation. For implementing the strategy fully, strong collaboration among diverse stakeholders is anticipated and robust governance and an adequate long-term and fair funding scheme is needed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue responses of [Bong.] Carr. versus [L.] Karst. in the British Isles and Central europe<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Introduced tree species have become increasingly important in the context of the ongoing climate change. This paper focuses on the dendrochronology of the most widespread introduced tree species in the British Isles – Sitka spruce (<italic>Picea sitchensis</italic> [Bong.] Carr.) – in comparable soil conditions in England, Czechia, and Slovakia. The research aims to evaluate the growth dynamics and the influence of climatic factors on this tree species while comparing it with economically main tree species in Europe – Norway spruce (<italic>Picea abies</italic> [L.] Karst.). Based on the analysis of 150 increment cores, the radial growth of Sitka spruce was on average 24.2% higher than that of Norway spruce. The highest increments in 52 to 62-year-old stands were achieved in England by both Sitka spruce (8.7 mm) and Norway spruce (7.0 mm). In terms of negative pointer years (NPYs), there was no difference in the number of years with a significantly low increment between the two species at any site. The lowest effect of climatic factors on growth was found in Czechia, while the highest was in England. Higher resistance to climate was found for Sitka compared to Norway spruce. In general, the main limiting factor for the growth was the lack of precipitation in the previous year’s vegetation season, or heavy frost in England. In Central Europe, due to low precipitation, Sitka spruce will not be a substantial introduced tree species in the future, but on suitable sites, it can achieve high production potential and play a significant role for increasing stand diversity in the face of climate change.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of growth of northern red oak ( L.) and durmast oak ( [Mattusch.] Liebl.) under similar growth conditions<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The impacts of climate change on forest stands are manifested in different ways and intensity. Changes in the species composition of forest stands due to the different tolerance of forest species to the effects of climate change are one of the consequences too. In this context, introduced tree species are often mentioned as a possible replacement for dying autochthonous species. Of the deciduous species, it is mainly northern red oak. The aim of this paper is to compare selected quantitative (number of trees, basal area, merchantable volume, basal area increment and volume increment) and qualitative (crop trees) characteristics in one stand of the northern red oak at the age of 54 years and in two stands of durmast oak (age 57 and 58 years) in comparable site conditions. Achieved results showed higher values in all investigated quantitative parameters in the northern red oak stand compared to durmast oak stands. The merchantable volume in the northern red oak stand was 473 m<sup>3</sup> per hectare in the tended subplots and 742 m3 ha<sup>–1</sup> in the control ones. On the subplots with durmast oak, it was only from 228 to 289 m<sup>3</sup> ha–1 in the subplots with thinning and 226 to 357 m<sup>3</sup> ha–1 in the control areas. The same results were obtained for the category of crop trees. It means 230 m<sup>3</sup> ha–1 for the northern red oak and 28 to 121 m3 ha–1 for durmast oak. The well-known fact about the higher quantitative production of the northern red oak compared to durmast oak was confirmed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue potential of the main introduced tree species in the Czech Republic – review<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Only 1.82% of the Czech forests are covered by the introduced (exotic, non-native) tree species, they represent only a very minor part of the forest area in the Czech Republic. Despite this fact under certain circumstances and locally, they can play an important role in the forest restoration of declined forests. The main non-native tree species used in the Czech Republic are: black locust (<italic>Robinia pseudoacacia</italic> L.), Douglas-fir (<italic>Pseudotsuga menziesii</italic> [Mirbel] Franco), grand fir (<italic>Abies grandis</italic> [Douglas ex D. Don] Lindl.), black walnut (<italic>Juglans nigra</italic> L.), northern red oak (<italic>Quercus rubra</italic> L.), and blue spruce (<italic>Picea pungens</italic> Engelm.). Other tree species are cultivated on very small areas, despite their much larger potential. The aim of the presented review paper is to summarize information on the introduced tree species, available especially from national sources, and give comprehensive information concerning the potential and risk of their use in the conditions of the Czech Republic. The authors mention also other tree species eligible for silviculture under current as well as future climatic circumstances. The current area and silvicultural potential in the climate changing conditions are analysed and summarized.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue calculation of wooden bariatric beds<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the field of interior and furniture, the pursuit of comfort has always been based on the anthropometric dimensions of the user. When optimizing the dimensions of the bed for the needs of today’s population, we start from the forecasted values of the relevant body dimensions, i.e. height and weight. Based on previous research, we can conclude that the anthropometric dimensions of the adult Slovak population after reaching the age of adulthood have increased statistically significantly by approx. 4.5–5% since the last measurements in 1987, from the point of view of the body growth process. In connection with the aforementioned findings, it is necessary for furniture companies producing bed furniture to adjust their calculation procedures for price formation depending on the needs of users, in order to forecast their financial situation. The goal of the work is to determine the cost increase for bariatric respondents, based on the determined dimensions of the wooden bed compared to a standard manufactured bed, and to determine the calculation formula for single-piece production. The results show that increasing the dimensions of the bed will increase the total costs by approximately 70%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue tree mortality and felling rates in the Czech Republic and Slovakia over three decades<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Although tree mortality is an essential process in forests, tree death still remains one of the least understood phenomena of forest development and dynamics. Therefore, we focused on annual mortality rates together with annual felling rates in the Slovak and Czech forests. We used data from the long-term national monitoring (periods of 1988–2017 in Slovakia and 1992–2017 in the Czech Republic). More than 24.6 thousand trees were assessed together in both countries. We calculated mortality and felling rates derived from two variables: basal area and number of trees. For these purposes, we selected five tree species/genera, specifically: Norway spruce, pines, European beech, oaks and common hornbeam. We recorded large inter-annual fluctuations of mortality rates in all tree species/genera. In both countries, spruce and pines had the highest mortality rates, while beech had the lowest mortality rates. Confrontation of long-term climatic data (especially annual precipitation totals) with mortality data indicated that drought was probably the most relevant factor causing tree death. On the other hand, no significant temporal trend, either increasing or decreasing, in tree mortality was found for any tree species/genera. As for all five selected tree species/genera together, significantly higher mean annual mortality rate derived from the number of trees was found in the Czech Republic (1.09%) than in Slovakia (0.56%). This finding indicates that tree mortality is often caused by combined effects of external unfavourable factors and competition pressure in forest stands.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to the thematic issue: “Current and previous forestry research in Czechia and Slovakia”