rss_2.0Central European Forestry Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Central European Forestry Journalhttps://sciendo.com/journal/FORJhttps://www.sciendo.comCentral European Forestry Journal 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005c3d6e797941b18f26732/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220811T013748Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20220811%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=172d4809983f3b055ee297b83a7a8285353b6f8eb5025a5f6d3e31d32b06dafc200300Indicators of caesium 137 concentration in forest litter and health status of pines ( L.) in the Chernobyl zonehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2021-0023<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>We analyse the concentration of caesium-137 (<sup>137</sup>Cs) in forest litter in relation to forest site conditions. The research was carried out in 2004–2019 in the Krasnogorsk district of the Bryansk region (the Russian Federation). It covered three areas corresponding to the exclusion zone, compulsory resettlement zone, and the zone of residence of the population with the right to resettlement. In all these areas, the concentration of <sup>137</sup>Cs in forest litter and the condition of pine stands was studied. We revealed that the forest litter contains more than 90% of <sup>137</sup>Cs in all combustible materials. The content of <sup>137</sup>Cs in fallen branches, bark, cones, and needles varies from 10 to 15%. More than 50% of the specific activity, which is an indicator of <sup>137</sup>Cs content, accounts for needles of pine phytocenoses. In 2019, the best state of pines was recorded for older trees. At the age of 60–80 years, 13% of the studied forest stands were classified as weakened, 87% – as very weakened, and 0% as dying. In the 40–56 age group, dying out and very weakened stands accounted for 50% each, whereas weakened ones were not revealed at all. The interaction between <sup>137</sup>Cs and tree age was not identified.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Bioeconomy perception by students of different study programs – study from Slovakiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2021-0025<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper builds on previous international research done by Masiero et al. (2020). It applies on Slovak national level and expands the previous study with different study programs. The societal transformation towards bioeconomy provides an opportunity for changing current economy and societies into more sustainable ones with mitigation of the environmental pressures at hearts. Such societal transition requires involvement of all stakeholders in bio-economy discussion and decision-making process and studying their perceptions of bioeconomy. Amongst all the stakeholders, future generation is particularly important, as it is important to understand bioeconomy perception by the generation of stakeholders that will manage this area in the near future. For that reason, we focus our attention on students of three bioeconomy related areas at the Technical University in Zvolen (forestry studies, wood processing studies and natural resources management studies). We were able to identify significant differences in bioeconomy perception between analyzed categories. The familiarity with the concept is quite high, as more then two thirds have heard about bioeconomy before the survey was conducted. As the main information sources were selected news, university courses and social media. The study program had a greater impact on perceived importance of forests within bioeconomy than the type of study. Overall, students perceive development of forest-based bioeconomy as favouring sustainable forest management.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Population genetic diversity in and in Southern Urals (Russia): a comparatively study of adults and progeny in localities with contrast forest coverhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2021-0027<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Extensive forest areas decreased and fragmented during anthropogenic development of the zone of broad-leaved forest tree species in Russia. The pedunculate oak (<italic>Quercus robur</italic> L.) and the European white elm (<italic>Ulmus laevis</italic> Pall.), important key components of these ecosystems, suffered last few centuries of extreme climate events, attacks of insects and diseases. Using ISSR genetic markers, we compared expected heterozygosity and allelic diversity of these two species in natural and artificial stands, planted and naturally regenerated progeny. Weak differences in the genetic diversity in <italic>Q. robur</italic> and <italic>U. laevis</italic> were revealed in areas with different forest cover and participation of the species in a stand composition. Overall, we found that the genetic diversity of parent natural and artificial stands is well reproducing in natural offspring and planted saplings. But the tree species studied express both higher and lower heterozygosity in planted trees in comparison to natural stands.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Growth of Scots pine ( L.) stands on soils with close bedding of crystalline parent rocks in Central Polissya, Ukrainehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2021-0026<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The wide ecological range of Scots pine (<italic>Pinus sylvestris</italic> L.) demonstrates its ability to adapt to different environments. This study aimed to assess the dynamics of growth and productivity of Scots pine stands growing on soils with crystalline parent rock outcrops. The study area is located in the north of Ukraine in the Central Polissya within 50°15’ and 50°06’ north latitudes and 29°22’ and 29°86’ east longitudes. The base of the geological structure is granite. The depth of the parent rock bedding ranges from 15 to 86 cm. In total, 18 research plots were laid out on soils with crystalline rock outcrops and 18 research plots on sites with deep bedding of crystalline rocks (&gt; 60 cm). To test the difference in stands growth within and outside sites with the crystalline outcrops, we used the Welch t-test. Pine forests on areas with deep bedding of parent rocks are systematically higher than those growing on sites with crystalline outcrops. With an increase of stand age, the difference between specified groups tends to be more significant. Stands growing on sites with and without crystalline rocks outcrops have similar dynamics, however, the latter ones accumulate more growing stock volume due to higher relative stocking, site index, mean diameter, and the number of trees. Our findings indicate the feasibility of establishing Scots pine stands in sites with different depths of the crystalline parent rocks bedding in Central Polissya, Ukraine.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Radial increment and defoliation of (L.) on sandy soils relate to summer temperatures and ground water levelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2022-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The study deals with the analysis of the impact of climate and ground water table level on radial increment and defoliation of Scots pine (<italic>Pinus sylvestris</italic> L.) growing on sandy soils. The research was performed in the area of the Borska nížina (i.e. Borská Lowland, situated in southwest of Slovakia), where a substantial die-back of pine trees has been observed in the last decade. Increment measurements and defoliation assessment were performed at 150 adult trees of Scots pine growing at three permanent monitoring plots within the international network of ICP Forests during the years 1989–2018. We examined the impact of climatic and hydrological factors on selected features of pine using the methods of correlation analysis and linear mixed models. Statistical analyses confirmed that the annual radial increment of Scots pine significantly depended on the mean air temperature from June to August, and mean ground water level in the mentioned months. These two factors also significantly correlated with crown defoliation. The factors explained 26% and 32% of increment and defoliation variability, respectively. From the long-term perspective, our analyses indicated that the decrease of ground water level by 0.5 m in summer resulted in the increase of defoliation by 10%. The obtained results indicate a further increase of Scots pine die-back on easy-to-dry sandy soils in regions with low precipitation totals, particularly considering the ongoing climate change and its inherent factors.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Woodland planting on UK pasture land is not economically feasible, yet is more profitable than some traditional farming practiceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2022-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Increasing ecosystem service provision is a key strategy of the UK’s ongoing agricultural and environmental policy reforms. Enhancing forest cover by 4%, particularly on the least productive agricultural land, aims to maximise carbon sequestration and achieve net zero by 2050. Multiple factors affect the sequestration potential of afforestation schemes and landowner participation in them, highlighting the need for spatially explicit research. We used the InVEST Carbon Model to investigate the Loddon Catchment, southeast England as a study area. We assessed the carbon sequestration potential and economic feasibility of three broadleaved woodland planting scenarios; arable, pasture, and stakeholder-approved (SA) scenario. We found that over a 50-year time horizon, woodland planting on arable land has the greatest sequestration potential (4.02 tC ha<sup>−1</sup> yr−1), compared to planting on pasture land (3.75 tC ha<sup>−1</sup> yr−1). When monetising carbon sequestration at current market rates, woodland planting on agricultural land incurs a loss across all farm types. However, when including the value of unpaid labour, lowland pasture farms presently incur a greater loss (−€285.14 ha<sup>−1</sup> yr−1) than forestry (−€273.16 ha<sup>−1</sup> yr−1), making forestry a more economical land use. Subsidising up to the social value of carbon (€342.23 tC<sup>−1</sup>) significantly reduces this loss and may make afforestation of pasture land more appealing to farmers. Woodland planting on lowland pasture land would increase forest cover by up to 3.62%. However, due to the influence of farmer attitudes on participation, it is more realistic for afforestation to occur on lowland pasture land in the SA scenario, equating to a 0.74% increase.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of interest rates on forest management planning based on multi-criteria decision analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2021-0019<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The fulfilment of forest functions is significantly affected by forest management, especially the applied harvest regeneration systems. The interest rate can significantly influence forest regeneration planning but was rarely tested. We examined how different interest rates (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 3%) affect the fulfilment of multiple forest functions and hence, the decision on the optimal forest regeneration system for multiple criteria. The analysis was performed based on the simulation of 450 different harvest-regeneration systems applied to a secondary spruce dominated forest stand and the multi-criteria a posteriori decision analysis. The outputs from the growth simulator were used to quantify the fulfilment of timber production and non-production functions. Three selected indicators (Soil expectation value, Shannon index of species diversity, and height to diameter ratio) were analysed on the base of single-criteria optimisation based on maximising a single indicator and the methods of multi-criteria optimisation of the weighted sum method and Pareto front with the goal to harmonise the fulfilment of three different functions. The results indicated that lower interest rates favoured single tree cutting systems with relatively long rotation cycles (140–160 years), while higher interest rates favoured strip cutting with shorter rotation cycles (90–100 years).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Potential for carbon sequestration and the actual forest structure: the case of Krasnodar Krai in Russiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2021-0022<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This work aims to analyze the age structure of forests in Krasnodar Krai in order to estimate their carbon sequestration potential. The research was conducted during 2015–2020 in 14 forested districts of Krasnodar Krai in the Russian Federation. A database of 96,000 sample plots was used. Aspen occupied the maximum area (20% of trees), while much smaller areas were occupied by linden, birch, pine, and oak (p≥0.05 with aspen). Spruce occupied three times smaller areas compared to aspen (p≤0.05), while maple, elm, ash, and alder had ten times smaller areas (p≤0.01). Among deciduous species by age, mature and overmature stands predominate, while in conifers a young growth prevails (44% – for pines). All pine forests belong to the 1st quality class (91%), for birch and aspen, it is 75–80% of trees (p≤0.05 with the frequency for pine), for spruce – 52% (p≤0.05), and for oak – 10% (p≤0.01). Different tree species make different contributions to carbon sequestration – from 0.3 tons per 1 ha (<italic>Alnus glutinosa</italic>) to 1.7 tons per ha (<italic>Fraxinus excelsior</italic>). Taking into account the areas occupied in the forest by different tree species, their contribution will also be different – from 0.5 thousand tons/1 year (<italic>F. excelsior</italic>) to 290 thousand tons per 1 year (<italic>Populus tremula</italic>). The total increase in wood stocks and carbon sequestration is mainly due to six forest tree species. The results obtained can be used to assess the potential for carbon sequestration in temperate forests, taking into account their different age structure and tree species composition.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of water supply on cork increment and quality in L.https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2021-0024<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Cork oak (<italic>Quercus suber</italic> L.) grows in the Mediterranean basis including Portugal and is the main species producing cork which is used prevailingly in stopper industry. In our paper, cork from <italic>Quercus suber</italic> L. over three consecutive harvests from a traditional rainfed plot, between 1999 and 2017, and cork from an irrigated plot, harvested in 2017, were studied. We applied two X–ray image analysis technologies – X–ray micro-computed tomography and X–ray microdensitometry. Cork development, related with intern porosity, growth and density was studied with the objective of understanding the cork characteristics evolution over the years and with a different water regime. The outcomes of this study suggested an increase in density and porosity over harvests and a slight decrease of the cork growth. Cork samples from the irrigated plot, compared with cork from the same year of extraction in the rainfed plot, showed higher growth rate and higher porosity. The results demonstrated the contribution of climatic factor of precipitation as well as the silviculture model in cork characteristics, showing the relevance of the present work for the definition of the management practices. These may be determinant for enhancing cork quality and quantity production through silviculture measures. Our findings can be particularly useful for stakeholders especially under the conditions of Portugal in terms of increasing the value of the industrial chain of cork.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-08T00:00:00.000+00:00 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae): a potential pest of young coniferous standshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2021-0014<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><italic>Polydrusus aeratus</italic> Gravenhorst, 1807 is a pest of both coniferous and deciduous trees in forests. It is widespread throughout the Czech Republic from the lowlands to the mountains. Adult beetles occur from April to September. In the western Czech Republic, a number of 1- to 2-m tall <italic>Abies alba</italic> were recently damaged by <italic>P. aeratus</italic> adults at an altitude of 750 m. <italic>P. aeratus</italic> can damage older saplings that were damaged as young saplings by the pine weevil. The damage caused by <italic>P. aeratus</italic> is so for rather small but should not be neglected by foresters. As the ongoing climate change modifies the relationship between trees and pests, also currently indifferent species may become dangerous for forests in near feature. Therefore, scientists would focus also on relatively less dangerous species of pests, especially insects. Possible methods for controlling of <italic>P. aeratus</italic> are suggested as main output of the study.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of modern wood processing techniques in timber terminalshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2021-0017<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The transportation of forestry products is performed over long distances and is quite expensive, which limits the development of biofuel plants in Russia and around the world. The use of timber terminals contributes to transportation cost reduction and mitigates negative environmental impacts. This work aims to analyze various technological solutions for optimization of forestry products processing at temporary terminals and cost reduction of transportation, shipping, and wood treatment. The work presents a discussion on the technological and economic possibilities of the mobile pellet plant, the mobile essential oil production plant, and an enhanced autonomous electric generator system. It is shown that the use of mobile plants for obtaining pellets and essential oils allows processing wood residues at the terminal, which reduces the cost of transportation and shipment of raw materials and improves the quality of the finished products. The current study also examines some of the modern scanning technologies used to detect log defects and obtain complete biometric information in real time while assessing the productivity of wood processing operations. The results of the study can be used to develop efficient movable timber terminals.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Provision of periurban zones of small towns of Kyiv region by forests as a factor of eco-stabilityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2021-0021<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Humanity has come to the conclusion about the need for eco-balanced planning of territorial land use at both regional and local levels. The object of research is the periurban areas around 20 small towns of the Kyiv region – the most common category of cities in Ukraine. The provision of periurban areas of small towns with forests is analyzed taking into account three indicators: population in cities, distance to the nearest forests and their size. It was found that forests are absent in the vicinity of most small towns in the region which are mostly surrounded by arable land. Small towns are grouped into four clusters according to the similarity of forest provision of periurban zones with indicators: average (55% of towns); improved (Vyshhorod, Bucha); with the best situation (Irpin); worse (Vyshneve, Myronivka, Uzyn, Skvyra, Tetiiv, Yahotyn). Each such cluster requires the development of certain strategies for the formation of periurban green infrastructure, which will include both protective green stands and recreational areas. Therefore, around the small towns of Kyiv region it is recommended to immediately form periurban recreational and protective zones with a predominance of forests. This will dramatically improve the environmental situation and contribute to the environmental and social sustainability of urban areas.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Forest land tax reductions – an effective payment for forest ecosystem services in Slovakia?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2021-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Preferential land tax programs are used over 50 years and are mainly connected with nature protection and environmental goals. Nowadays, they are also considered as a way how to promote and support forest ecosystem services that arise from exempted forest land. In Slovak Republic national forest land tax reduction scheme exists for special purpose and protection forests, as well for other forests with special importance. The goal of the paper was to develop a multidimensional evaluation of this economic instrument for ecosystem service support in Slovakia. We evaluated how the forest land tax reduction fits into the payments for ecosystem services theory, which services are supported and what is the potential and implementation effectiveness according to theory of policy analysis. Even though, the forest owners and enterprises benefit from tax reductions, evidence regarding its visibility as payment for ecosystem service is low. Forest land tax reductions are considered as other economic incentive for ecosystem services support with moderate potential effectiveness. Despite the instrument have low visibility of FES supported from both sides – sellers and beneficiaries, its potential effectiveness is high, due its automatic and stable implementation without relevant implementation gaps.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Anchor of cultural forest services in the national forest policies of Central European countrieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2021-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Forests and human connection with nature have a major impact on human health. Through exercise and recreation in the forest, people receive many benefits from forest ecosystem services (FES) which have a positive impact on their physical and mental health. The paper tackles two main goals i) the first one is an overview of existing literature related to human health and well-being derived from forests in the countries of Central Europe published in the Scopus database. ii) The second goal was to create an overview of policy instruments related to forest cultural services (FCS) in the forest policy documents of selected Central European countries (CEC). A partial goal of the research is to identify gaps and to find a focus of future research in the field of human forest well-being and FES. The results showed that on the national level there is a lack of guidelines for culture services and their anchor in legislative documents. A challenge for the anchor of cultural services is to improve communication between different resort organizations and forest stakeholders. For future research is recommended to survey the forest impact on human health that would provide a base for creating a platform for policy tools related to FCS and help to set up recreation planning in European forests.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative analysis of regulatory framework related to private forest management in Slovenia and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovinahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2021-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Forest policy and forest ownership patterns in Slovenia and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) have changed considerably in recent decades due to unprecedented scale of social, political and economic change. The distribution of ownership types varies between the countries – in Slovenia private forest ownership predominates (77%), while in FBiH only about 20% of forest is private-owned. In both countries, private forest properties are small-scale and fragmented, which affects management opportunities and the scale at which policy interventions need to be made. This paper analyses the Slovenian and Central Bosnia Cantonal Law on Forests to assess how the regulatory framework affects private forest owners’ (PFOs) rights, forest management and accelerates cooperation of PFOs. Both laws impose exclusive rights and responsibilities of PFOs, as well as limitation on how they can use their forests. In both countries, legislation contains detailed regulations for forest management activities and stipulate that mandatory forest management plans (FMPs) are an important tool that supports the implementation of sustainable forest management. In Slovenia, FMPs are prepared as common plans for all forests regardless the ownership, while in FBiH the Cantonal Law prescribes a separate forest management planning system for private forests. To improve the efficiency of private forest management, both laws support voluntary cooperation of PFOs. From the analysis, it can be concluded that there is a need for better harmonisation of public and private interests in relation to forest resources, especially in the case of FBiH, and that the deregulation of property right is needed as well as that the level of involvement of PFOs in the forest policy making process is unsatisfactory, in most cases only formal.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Theoretical and methodological framework for the analysis of international forest political processes by stakeholders´ perceptions at national levelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2021-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Forests cover about 30% of the world´s land area and provide people and nature with essential ecosystem services and goods. Despite their importance, forests continue to be degraded. A variety of international forest governance and policy arrangements have developed to foster protection and sustainability of forests. However, number of studies point to nonexistence of a global forest policy regime per se, and growing institutional fragmentation of forest governance arrangements. In line with continuing priority of national sovereignty in the international regulation of forest policy, the role of domestic policies, mainly domestic forest policy actors, is considered central to international forest governance analysis by many researchers. The paper aimed to set the framework for the international forest policy analysis by domestic forestry stakeholders´ perceptions. The dimensions of Policy Arrangements Approach modified for purpose of meeting the nature of research, serve as theoretical foundations. In the first part, the paper aim to define dimensions theoretically. In the second part, specific international forest-focused political processes are described through adapted dimensions. The two steps serve as the basis for research to be subsequently applied in selected European countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Stakeholders and their view on forest-based bioeconomy in Slovakiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2021-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Within the concept of bioeconomy at Slovak level, forestry is often seen as a key sector. For that reason, the concept of forest-based bioeconomy gained a specific importance. To this concept is on the European level already paid increasing attention not only in research, but also in politics. Whether or not the forest-based bioeconomy will have a success in Slovakia is greatly dependent on stakeholders´ perception and attitude towards the concept. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to identify stakeholders´ perception of forest-based bioeconomy. To achieve this, we identified 13 stakeholders from various, bioeconomy-related, sectors that were suitable for qualitative interviewing. The respondents are representants of public and private organizations and are active in relevant areas. The study was conducted using structured interview consisting of 12 questions. Respondents in general tend to lean towards forest-based bioeconomy, as they feel that it brings more opportunities (for the forest and wood-processing sector, economy, industry, nature protection) than risks. However, a threat has presented itself during the study, being the fact that forest stakeholders do not feel to be sufficiently involved in bioeconomy discussion. For the bioeconomy to fulfil its role as an all-purpose weapon, there is an urgent need for more precise policy guidance and for involving of all relevant stakeholders into discussion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of precision of tree position measurements and different plot designs on the estimates of tree level production and diversity parametershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/forj-2017-0015<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Sample plots are basic units of statistical forest inventories. The choice of their shape and size, and sampling methods have changed over time due to economic constraints, efficiency and changes in human demands on data about forests. In the presented study we analysed the impact of three different sampling units: fixed-area plots, fixed-different-area plots, and nested concentric plots, on the estimates of tree level production and diversity parameters. These sampling units were measured during the regional inventory at the University Forest Enterprise of Technical University Zvolen, Slovakia, which was repeated four times (1986, 1992, 1998, 2012). Within each inventory plot, all positions of trees were repeatedly and independently measured three times (1986, 1998, 2012) by different operators using different tools. From these data we quantified the error of tree position resulting from human and technological factors and analysed its impact on the estimates of tree level diversity and production parameters. The selected parameters were: number of trees, stand basal area, standing volume per hectare, number of tree species and number of vertical tree layers. The results indicate that the plot design primarily affects ecological characteristics of forests. Fixed-area plots seem to be the most suitable sampling unit from the point of multi-criteria evaluation of forest status and forest change.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-10-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Long-term transformation of submontane spruce-beech forests in the Jizerské hory Mts.: dynamics of natural regenerationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/forj-2017-0023<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The paper deals with development of the natural regeneration of even-aged spruce-beech forests during their transformation to uneven-aged stands with diversified structure at the Jedlový důl area in the Protected Landscape Area Jizerské hory Mts., Czech Republic. Shelterwood management system and free felling policy based on selection principles has been applied there since 1979 with the support of admixed tree species of the natural species composition, especially silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). The research was focuses on structure and development of natural regeneration with the emphasis on ungulate damage and interaction with tree layer from 1979 to 2015. In the course of 36 years, the regeneration structure was diversified towards the close-to-nature tree species composition, spatial and age structure. The number of regeneration recruits increased in average from 941 to 41,669 ind ha-1. During this period share of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) significantly (p &lt; 0.01) increased (by 53.6%), while the share of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) decreased (by 51.5%), such as damage caused by ungulate (by 61.4%) with the highest loses on sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) and silver fir. Moreover, the parent trees had a significant negative influence on natural regeneration at smaller spacing (within a 1 - 5 m radius from the stem). Both, regeneration potential and effective role of the tree layer during the forest transformation has been confirmed as important prerequisites for ongoing forest transformation.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-10-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Succession of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) communities after windthrow disturbance in a montane Norway spruce forest in the Hrubý Jeseník Mts. (Czech Republic)https://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/forj-2017-0016<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Wind disturbances are a key factor that is significantly involved in the life cycle of natural boreomontane coniferous forests. As most of these forests are currently intensively managed, we have limited knowledge on succession following natural disturbance. Succession in a Norway spruce stand after a windthrow event was studied using ground beetles as model bioindication taxa in the Hrubý Jeseník Mts. (Czech Republic). The study documented that the composition of ground beetle communities was significantly associated with stand age and its microclimatic parameters (particularly the minimal temperature and average and minimal humidity). Forest species including prey specialists, hygrophilous species, as well as habitat generalists were the most abundant in the mature stand, where the forest had the highest humidity and the least profound minimal temperatures. In contrast, open-habitat species, including euryoecious species and relict species of higher elevations, reached their highest abundances in clearing shortly after the windthrow. In clearing the humidity was lower and the temperature fluctuated significantly (the lowest minimal temperatures). Ground beetles, including forest species, were the least abundant in young stands (10 and 20 years after windthrow). We conclude that old stands are of particular importance because they harbour the highest abundance and diversity of ground beetles with various ecological requirements. Natural wind disturbances are important as well since they increase diversity by enabling the occurrence of many non-forest species. Hence, a mosaic of stands of different ages with a sufficient proportion of old stands should be maintained when managing montane coniferous forests.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-10-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1