rss_2.0Central European Forestry Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Central European Forestry Journalhttps://sciendo.com/journal/FORJhttps://www.sciendo.comCentral European Forestry Journal Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6673d9a4dd1c3d1f8713ce31/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/FORJ140216Elevated CO concentration alleviates the negative effect of vapour pressure deficit and soil drought on juvenile poplar growthhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2024-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The growth performance of short-rotation woody coppice (SRWC) is strongly influenced by successful establishment in the initial months after planting. Future climates, expected to be warmer due to elevated atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> (eCO<sub>2</sub>), may bring about more frequent soil droughts alongside increased vapour pressure deficit (eVPD). Hence, this growth chamber experiment aimed to explore the interactive effects of eVPD, eCO<sub>2</sub>, and soil drought on growth and physiology traits of juvenile hybrid poplars under warmer climates. Our findings with juvenile hybrid poplar J-105 revealed that eVPD resulted in reductions in leaf area (–21%), root (–20%) and stem biomass (–9%), as well as in net assimilation (–15%), stomatal conductance (–26%), and transpiration (–13%). However, these decreases were relatively minor compared to the compensating effect of eCO<sub>2</sub>, which generally exerted a stronger influence than eVPD. While soil drought emerged as the primary growth-limiting factor in our study, elevated VPD is not expected to pose a significant additional threat to central European SRWC plantations of juvenile hybrid poplars under future conditions of ongoing climate change.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2024-00172024-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Significant phenological response of forest tree species to climate change in the Western Carpathianshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2024-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to analyse the phenological dynamics of tree species in response to changes in climatic conditions over the last two climate-normal periods (CLINO 1961−1990 and 1991−2020). We focused on the main climax tree species (<italic>Quercus</italic> species, <italic>Fagus sylvatica</italic> L., <italic>Abies alba</italic> Mill., <italic>Picea abies</italic> [L.] Karst., and <italic>Pinus mugo</italic> Turra) dominating eight altitudinal forest vegetation zones (FVZ) and alluvial forests of Western Carpathians and adjacent lowlands in Central Europe. The phenological phases analysed in this study were first leaf (BBCH11) and general leaf colouring (BBCH94) for deciduous species, and the onset of new shoots (BBCH10) for evergreen conifers. The results of partial correlations confirmed that temperature is the main driving factor explaining the shifted onset of phenological phases for the species considered. Furthermore, deciduous species growing in the lower (and warmer) FVZ showed a certain level of drought sensitivity related to the earlier BBCH94. The identified trends in phenology were species-specific and differed between the individual FVZs. The most pronounced shifts toward the earlier BBCH10 and BBCH11 were found in the upper FVZ of the vertical distribution range of species. The presented results will support our understanding of the mechanisms underlying environmental control of tree phenology. This is crucial for predicting how the growing season of trees will be constrained by climate change-induced conditions in individual FVZ.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2024-00092024-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00European beech ( L.): A promising candidate for future forest ecosystems in Central Europe amid climate changehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>On the one hand, the European beech (<italic>Fagus sylvatic</italic>a L.) is the tree of the future due to ongoing climate changes, on the other hand, there are questions about its expansion and economic use as a replacement for the declining Norway spruce (<italic>Picea abies</italic> [L.] Karst.). This literature review examines 140 studies summarizing basic research on beech in the context of climate change. As a climax tree species, beech is becoming dominant again in parts of its original range at the middle and higher altitudes of Central Europe, following spruce. It is a shade-loving species that can thrive in various types of mixed forest stands. To cultivate beech, close-to-nature methods, shelterwood, or selection management are optimal. The occurrence of the beech seed year is influenced by factors such as precipitation, temperature, drought, and air pollution. Although beech is generally considered resistant to abiotic and biotic factors, it often needs protection against hoofed game browsing in the earliest stages of development. As climate change progresses, it is essential to cultivate beech in areas rich in precipitation and nutrients where it can thrive even under more extreme conditions. In optimal conditions, beech has shown intensive regeneration in recent years, aggressively displacing other tree species. However, with insufficient precipitation and prolonged periods of drought, beech loses its vigor, production, and ability to compete. For adaptation to climate change, it is recommended to select appropriate beech provenance, promote natural regeneration, and cultivate structurally differentiated stands through positive-selection thinning from above.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-00202024-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Sessile oak ( [Matt.] Liebl.) and its adaptation strategies in the context of global climate change: a reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2024-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper provides characteristic and a comprehensive overview of the adaptation strategies of sessile oak (<italic>Quercus petraea</italic> [Matt.] Liebl.) in the context of global climate change (GCC). The GCC is primarily manifested by increasing air temperatures and changing precipitation distribution. It poses a significant challenge to tree species including sessile oak, affecting its capacity for adaptation and survival. Despite the challenge, sessile oak shows significant drought tolerance due to its deep-reaching root system, which allows the tree to use available water more efficiently. Other adaptive strategies include the establishment of mixed stands that increase the resilience and biodiversity of the ecosystem. Adjustments of stand density through tending interventions play a significant role, helping to improve the stress resistance of stands. Additionally, coppice forest cultivation is applied on extremely dry sites. The sessile oak is also significant for its ecological plasticity – its ability to thrive on versatile soil and climatic conditions makes it a promising tree species for future forest management. Mixed stands with sessile oak and other tree species can enhance the ecosystem services of forests and also increase their endurance to GCC events. However, sessile oak faces several challenges, including the increasing risk of damage from pests and pathogens that require targeted measures for its protection and sustainable cultivation. The literature review suggests that a comprehensive understanding of sessile oak’s ecological requirements and interactions with the environment is crucial for its successful adaptation to GCC and the formulation of effective strategies for its protection and use in forest management.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2024-00122024-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Drought effects on growth, biochemical changes and leaf gas exchange in laurel ( L.)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2024-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Drought is one of the abiotic factors that negatively affect the productivity of laurel (<italic>Laurus nobilis</italic> L.). Increasing water scarcity in arid and semi-arid regions is pushing the physiological limits of woody species, necessitating strong resistance to drought. Studies should be conducted on the effects of drought stress not only on forest trees but also some medicinal and ornamental species, and ways to increase their resistance should be explored. This study was carried out to determine the effect of drought stress on seedling growth and some physiological and biochemical properties in laurel. The seedlings were subjected to drought stress for about 4 months with three different irrigation regimes: watering once every 2–3 days (control), every 15 days, and every 30 days. Morphological properties (root collar diameter, height, dry weight, stem: root ratio, and number of leaves), physiological properties (midday xylem water potential and photosynthesis properties), and biochemical properties (photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrate, and proline contents) were determined. Results have shown that drought stress has a negative effect on root collar diameter, seedling height, and dry weight. Likewise, leaf number and midday xylem water potential decreased due to increased drought stress. Furthermore, the net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of the least irrigated (30<sup>th</sup> day) seedlings were quite low compared to those of control seedlings. The differences in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents were also found to be statistically significant. Total carbohydrate and proline contents showed the highest values for the least irrigated seedlings and the lowest values for controlled irrigation seedlings. Our results reflect the improved tolerance capacity of laurel to increased drought stress.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2024-00042024-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Soil drought stress and high-temperature effects on photosystem II in different juvenile spruce provenanceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2024-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With prolonged periods of drought and temperature extremes becoming more frequent, the stress on Norway spruce has increased, as its ecological optimum is in colder and more humid environments. However, it is a tree species with a good adaptability, due to its great geographic and intraspecific variability. In this study, we tested the sensitivity of chlorophyll <italic>a</italic> fluorescence tools for the early detection of drought and heat stress, as well as their combined effect, in four Slovak Carpathian provenances, under controlled laboratory conditions. Responses in photosynthetic parameters of fast and slow (light response curves) kinetics of chlorophyll <italic>a</italic> fluorescence were analysed in spruce seedlings under four treatments: control, drought, heat, and combined drought + heat. Heat and drought + heat stresses led to the decrease of photosynthetic efficiency to a greater extent than in the case of only individual drought stress. The less sensitive parameter impacted by the stresses was the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), while the more sensitive parameters were: the performance index based on absorption of light energy (PI<sub>ABS</sub>), the effective quantum yield of the PSII (Φ<sub>PSII</sub>), and the coefficients of non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (NPQ, q<sub>N</sub>). The significant variability in responses of individual provenances was also observed. Seedlings from two studied provenances responded better to these abiotic stresses (Pa-680 and Pa-1500); however, Pa-1500 provenance from the highest altitude showed the best ability of resistance to soil drought stress, as well as to high temperature effect. This rapid screening of photosystems II efficiency showed the importance of the selection of more resistant populations to concurrent stresses as one of the measures to mitigate climate change impacts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2024-00032024-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of spatial dispersion of epigeic fauna between alluvial forests in an agrarian and Dunajské luhy protected landscape area, southern Slovakiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The spatial distribution of the epigeic fauna of floodplain ecosystems (willow-poplar floodplain forest, regenerated poplar forest), in the conditions of the natural environment of the Dunajské luhy Protected Landscape Area (PLA, hereinafter) and agrarian landscape was studied. The Dunajské luhy PLA, hereinafter (Slovak Republic) is the part of the system of protected areas of the European Union. During the three years 2020–2022, 24,169 individuals belonging to 19 taxa at 6 locations using the pitfall traps method were recorded. Through spatial modeling, the preference of most taxa for floodplain forests located in the Dunajské luhy PLA was found. We also observed a significant difference in number of individuals of epigeic fauna in floodplain forests betvween Dunajské luhy PLA area and agrarian landscape during all three years 2020 (p = 0.0070), 2021 (p = 0.0077) and 2022 (p = 0.04624). Thus, agroecosystems in the neighborhood of alluvial forests had a negative impact on the taxonomic diversity and abundance of epigeic fauna. In order to maintain a balance between the production of food, wood and the preservation of natural forest stands, it is important to optimally allocate areas and set up their management. For example, by creating forest islands in agricultural crops, to increase the epigeic fauna.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-00182024-03-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of Norway spruce artificial regeneration techniques tested in the area destroyed by spruce bark beetle in Kysuce Region (Slovakia)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ongoing coniferous monocultures decline in Beskydy Mts. Slovakia, emerged into establishment of Demonstration object of reconstruction of spruce forests (DORS) Husárik, focused on various technological processes of regeneration of economically important tree species. For Norway spruce (<italic>Picea abies</italic> [L.] Karst.) assessment of less frequently used artificial regeneration technologies, including planting of containerized transplants (CRT) or direct seeding procedures (direct seeding DS, seeding into vegetation cell VCS) and commonly used planting of bareroot transplants (BRT) was carried out. Seven years after experimental plot establishment, the lowest survival rate was recorded for DS treatment with 42% survived seedlings, the highest for CRT treatment with 79% survived transplants. For germinated seedlings, average seeding spot occupation rate recorded for DS (72%) was significantly lower than for VCS (98%) one year after seeding and remained significantly lower also over further consecutive years. Average survival recorded for planted transplants over monitored period did not differ markedly and gradually decreased to 76% for BRT and 79% for CRT. Reflecting different ontogenetic stage of individuals assigned to selected treatment average height 134.6 cm for DS, 134.1 cm for VCS and 182.0 cm for CRT, 215.0 cm for BRT was recorded seven years after establishment. The results suggest that for spruce, less frequently used artificial regeneration technologies (VCS, CRT), that markedly curtail time period required for target tree species installation on planting sites, with survival and growth rate of plants recorded in this study, could provide reasonable alternative to commonly used planting of BRT.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-00112024-03-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Distribution of the invasive ambrosia beetle Blandford, 1894 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in the Czech Republic (Central Europe)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Europe, <italic>Xyleborinus attenuatus</italic> Blandford is considered an invasive bark beetle native to East Asia. We used the results of many local surveys and data from private and museum collections to get information on the distribution and abundance of <italic>X. attenuatus</italic> Blandford in the Czech Republic. The ambrosia beetle <italic>X. attenuatus</italic> Blandford is probably widespread throughout the territory of the Czech Republic, from the lowlands to the mountains, and has one generation per year in Central Europe. The flight activity lasts from mid-March to May, F1 adults emerge in August and September and overwinter in wood or in the ground under an infested tree. <italic>X. attenuatus</italic> Blandford predominantly occupies soft deciduous trees and so far there economic damage have not been reported yet. However, <italic>X. attenuatus</italic> Blandford is a vector of ambrosia fungi <italic>Ambrosiella</italic> spp. and <italic>Raffaelea</italic> spp., and therefore this ambrosia beetle should be monitored.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-00222024-03-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Advancing sustainability in forestry machinery: Electro-Hybrid drives for greenhouse gas reduction and enhanced energy efficiencyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-0024<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article deals with the possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption in machines using cut-to-length (CTL) technology with the help of electro-hybrid systems. The text discusses the individual components of these systems. Furthermore, the article contains technical solutions for current electro-hybrid drive systems of harvesters, forwarders and forwarding trailers, including their description and available parameters. The current technical and technological development of electro-hybrid drive systems and their components leads to a significant improvement in the performance of drives of the new generation of CTL machines and to higher energy efficiency. Thanks to this, the use of electro-hybrid drive systems in these machines could significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as operating costs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-00242024-03-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Sustainable development: Evaluation and forecasting of Norway spruce production and growing stock in Slovakia in the context of bioeconomyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-0023<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper deals with the identification of the long-term potential of forest stands with the prevailing Norway spruce representation and the elaboration of a forecast of the development of spruce growing stock and felling possibilities until 2050. The analysis of historical data has confirmed a decrease in the area of spruce by 13.2% since 2010 and its growing stock by 16.4% over the same period. These developments indicate a reduction in felling possibilities in the coming decades. The evaluation of spruce felling since 2012 showed that the planned felling volume was exceeded by 11.3 mil. m<sup>3</sup>, i.e. annually at average by 1.25 mil. m<sup>3</sup>. This exceeding was caused by incidental felling, which accounted for an average of 84% of total felling. The forecast of spruce growing stock and felling until 2050 was derived differently for two scenarios based on the development of growing stock and actual cutting percentages in the decade 2012–2020 (scenario A) and cutting percentages according to planned felling (scenario B). In the case of scenario A, there would be a significant reduction in spruce growing stock from the current volume of 114.8 mil. m<sup>3</sup> by 36% in 2040. In the case of scenario B, a decrease in spruce growing stock would be more modest. Ten-year felling volume of spruce under the scenario A forecast will result in the amount of 42.6 mil. m<sup>3</sup> (first decennium), 32.0 mil. m<sup>3</sup> (second decennium) and 25.7 mil. m<sup>3</sup> (third decennium).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-00232024-03-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Resistance of horse chestnut tree (variety ‘Mertelík’) to Deschka & Dimić, 1986 (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Resistance of horse chestnut <italic>Aesculus hippocastanum</italic> ‘Mertelík’ to <italic>Cameraria ohridella</italic> was proven in the trial under semi-field conditions. Seedlings of vulnerable and resistant trees were grown together in rearing cages and were exposed to the strong attack from <italic>C. ohridella</italic> larvae. Significant differences in leaflet injuries were observed between susceptible and insect-resistant trees. Variety ‘Mertelík’ showed almost none or very small damages compared to high defoliation level in case of standard trees. The results confirmed that this resistant clone could be suitable for use under field conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-00162024-03-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Carbon stock in living biomass of Russian forests: new quantification based on data from the first cycle of the State Forest Inventoryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-0021<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The carbon stock in living forest biomass was quantified based on first-cycle State Forest Inventory (SFI) measurements in permanent sample plots. The total carbon stock in above- and below-ground living biomass was assessed to be 46.9 ±0.4 × 10<sup>9</sup> tons C and average carbon stock at 52.1 ±0.5 t C ha–1 as of 2020. The State Forest Register (SFR), the primary source of consolidated information on Russia’s forests, estimates the forest growing stock to be 83.1 × 10<sup>9 </sup>m<sup>3</sup>. The total growing stock volume in the forests, according to the SFI amounted to 113.1 × 10<sup>9</sup> m3. Owing to the updated and significantly higher growing stock volume, the estimate of carbon stock in living bio-mass is approximately 35% higher than previously reported. The uncertainty of the total and average carbon stocks based on SFI data was substantially lower (approximately ±1%) than that reported in previous studies (±15–30%). Methods of accounting for the carbon stock in living biomass, the results of calculations for forest lands throughout the country, units of the administrative division, and forest zoning were considered. Assessment of living biomass based on representative sampling can substantially improve the relevance and reliability of national forest reporting.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-00212023-10-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Trade-offs or complementarity between biomass production and biodiversity in European forests: a reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-0019<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Forestry faces the challenge of balancing the increasing demand for timber, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity protection. Biodiversity plays a crucial role in the stability and adaptability of forest ecosystems, enabling them to withstand disturbances and recover from them. Preserving biodiversity is essential for long-term survival and well-being. Enhancing biodiversity in managed forests is important because they occupy a significant area of forests in Europe. Understanding the relationships between forest production and biodiversity from various perspectives is crucial for developing effective multi-taxa management concepts. Biodiversity loss due to management practices can result in habitat destruction, fragmentation, and species displacement. Biodiversity enhances ecosystem services linked to biomass production, such as pollination, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. This study reviews the relationships between biodiversity and production in Europen forests, emphasising the impacts of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning and production, as well as the effects of production indicators on biodiversity. The effects of biodiversity on productivity are often studied in the same population, most often in the tree layer. However, a lack of knowledge on how biomass production affects the diversity of other ecosystem components limits our understanding of the multifacet relationships. Forest management significantly impacts biodiversity and production, and different management systems have varying effects on forest ecosystems. Diverse ecosystems exhibit niche complementarity, resulting in increased biomass production. Sustainable practices, including land-use planning, habitat protection, agroforestry, and non-invasive species use, can mitigate the adverse effects of biomass production on biodiversity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-00192023-10-19T00:00:00.000+00:00The influence of anthropogenic trampling of gray forest soils on their physical propertieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-0017<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of the study was to determine quantitative and relative indicators that significantly affect the physical properties of gray forest soils within the park ecological trail, to show changes in the compacted soil during natural recovery. Physical properties were determined in 3-fold repetition with the help of three-dimensional cylinders, followed by the calculation of their density and porosity. Population of physiologically active roots of the upper 0.5-meter layer of gray forest soils was determined by the monolith method in 5-fold repetition. It was found out that under the influence of anthropogenic trampling, the greatest degradation changes of the studied physical indicators are manifested in the upper 10-centimeter layer of gray forest soils. An increase in the density by 32.1–38.0% and solids content of the soil by 14.1–22.8%, as well as a decrease in the volume of pores by 32.0–44.3% was recorded and mass of physiologically active roots of woody plants by 84.6–91.2%. The natural restoration of soil occurs most intensively in the upper 5-cm layer. At the same time, over a 15-year period, the following changes were observed – a decrease in density by 19.5%, the content of solid particles by 9.9%, an increase in the content of pores by 39.1% and physiologically active roots woody plants by 330.0%. Quantitative and relative indicators of their physical properties obtained for anthropogenically compacted gray forest soils explain the changes in the mass of physiologically active roots of deciduous woody plants that grow in the centers with anthropogenically compacted soils.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-00172023-10-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Economically optimised target state of uneven-aged forest management for main forest types in Slovakiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-0013<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study presented a bioeconomic modelling approach for an uneven-aged mixed forest management planning. Regression models for transition (increment), and ingrowth (regeneration) used the National Forest Inventory (NFI) of Slovakia and regional inventory data. Mortality was based on salvage logging records. Models were specific for five tree species within three forest types (FT) (oak with hornbeam and beech, beech, mixed fir-beech-spruce). Net timber prices were calculated with regard to stem quality. Tree growth depended on crown characteristics. The regression models were adjusted to three main geobiotope (GBT) sites per FT. Forest growth was simulated with the density-dependent stand-level matrix transition model. Financial optimisation of harvest was sensitive to an interest rate. Long-time optimisation stabilised in a steady state equilibrium characterised by a stable diameter distribution. Target diameters were specific for site and tree species, and were highest for fir, a dense crown, a good stem quality, and a lower interest rate. Standing timber volume varied from 150 m<sup>3</sup> ha–1 (oak forests, 2% interest rate) to 400 m<sup>3 </sup>ha<sup>–1</sup> (beech and fir-beech-spruce forests, 0.5% interest rate). Harvested volume varied from 38 to 93 m<sup>3</sup> ha–1 per 10 years, stand basal area (ba) varied from 19 to 36 m<sup>2</sup> ha–1 depending on the site, timber price, and interest rate. The discussion pointed out that the relative low volume of the oak FT resulted from the light-demanding characteristics of oak. The mean of oak mosaic structures was lower compared to the high level of more storeys present in the single tree selection structures in beech and mixed fir-beech-spruce forests.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-00132023-10-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Inconsistent phenotypic differentiation at physiological traits in Norway spruce (Karst.) provenances under contrasting water regimeshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-0010<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Norway spruce is expected to suffer from drought stress and other manifestations of climate change. This study relies on a manipulative experiment with drought-stressed and well-watered (control) seedlings, comprising five provenances of Norway spruce distributed along a steep elevational transect from 550 to 1,280 m a.s.l. within the natural range. Seedlings were subjected to measurement of physiological traits (content of phytohormones and monoterpenes, slow and fast chlorophyll <italic>a</italic> fluorescence kinetics, gas exchange, hyperspectral indices), and genotyping at 8 nuclear microsatellite loci. Comparison of the coefficient of differentiation at neutral loci (<italic>F<sub>ST</sub></italic>) vs. differentiation at phenotypic traits (<italic>P<sub>ST</sub></italic>) was used to identify traits underlying divergent selection. In total, 18 traits exhibited a significant <italic>P<sub>ST</sub> – FST</italic> difference. However, the consistency in differentiation patterns between drought-stressed and control plants was limited, only three traits exhibited signals of selection under both treatments. This outcome indicates that the identified differentiation patterns can only be interpreted in the context of environmental setup of the experiment, and highlights the importance of common gardens in adaptation research, as they allow both elimination of environment-induced phenotypic variation and studying genotype-by-environment interaction in physiological responses to environmental stresses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-00102023-10-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Challenges and risks of Serbian spruce ([pančić] purk.) in the time of climate change – a literature reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2022-0016<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Serbian spruce (<italic>Picea omorika</italic> [Pančić] Purk.) is a Balkan endemic coniferous species, the expansion of which is restricted by limited knowledge. This literature review paper compiles findings from 176 scientific papers and presents a summary of research results that pertain to the Serbian spruce potential in general, with a specific focus on European forests from 1951 to 2022. It summarizes the importance of its taxonomy, biological and ecological characteristics, site demands, production and silviculture, risks and pests, as well as the potential of this tree species in relation to global climate change. Serbian spruce is very resistant to the negative effect of air pollution and extreme heat waves compared to other spruce species, especially the most economically important spruce species in Europe– Norway spruce (<italic>Picea abies</italic> [L.] Karst.). Moreover, its radial growth shows highly balanced annual increments, and the density and technical parameters of the wood are comparable with Norway spruce. On the other hand, the highest weakness may be the limited genetic variability. Despite its rather limited natural range, Serbian spruce can be considered one of the most adaptable spruces to anthropogenic factors and climate change, and a valuable tree species for urban landscapes. Its production potential of wood on acidic, dry and extreme sites makes it attractive for forestry, through its introduction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2022-00162023-09-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Non-native tree species growth characteristics inventoried three decades after planting in the Danube Lowlandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-0015<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents non-native (NN) coniferous and deciduous tree species growth and vitality assessment on experimental research plots established in 1980, 1982 and 1985 in the Danube Lowland over an extended time period. For NN coniferous tree species, Douglas fir, grand fir and eastern white pine reached significantly higher values of diameter at breast height (dbh) and height (H) than Austrian pine. For NN deciduous tree species markedly higher values of H and dbh for black walnut compared to sweet chestnut and red oak were recorded. Damage observed in larger extent on examined NN tree species stands included illegal removal of top of stem for grand fir and presence of necrosis on trunks of sweet chestnut. Comparison of NN coniferous and deciduous tree species growth with native reference tree species showed that NN Douglas fir, grand fir, eastern white pine, red oak and black walnut were capable to achieve similar or even higher values of assessed parameters than native reference tree species. The results suggest, that cultivation of NN coniferous, including Douglas fir, eastern white pine, as well as NN deciduous tree species, including red oak and black walnut in Danube Lowland could contribute to diversification and stabilisation of wood production potential of local forest formations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-00152023-09-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Transnational strategy on the sustainable management and responsible use of non-native trees in the Alpine Space https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Non-native tree species – defined as those species intentionally or unintentionally introduced by humans – have long been a part of the Alpine Space, providing numerous benefits, but also posing a potential threat to native biodiversity and related ecosystem services. Compared to the urban space where non-native trees comprise most tree species, the number of non-native trees in forests and plantations is relatively low. To evaluate potential risks and benefits of non-native trees in the Alpine Space, a transnational strategy for the responsible use and management of non-native trees is needed. The goals of the strategy are to tailor management practices for a sustainable and responsible use or admixture of non-native trees, to reduce the risks connected with the invasive potential of some non-native tree species, to help forests and urban areas to adapt to climate change, and to improve coordination and cooperation regarding best practices between different regions of the Alpine Space. A proposal was developed in a four-step process including expert-based assessment, stakeholder mapping, an extensive data review, and a public consultation. For implementing the strategy fully, strong collaboration among diverse stakeholders is anticipated and robust governance and an adequate long-term and fair funding scheme is needed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/forj-2023-00012023-09-07T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1