rss_2.0Folia Scandinavica Posnaniensia FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Folia Scandinavica Posnaniensia Scandinavica Posnaniensia 's Cover present participle and gender assignment in Swedish<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper considers gender assignment of deverbal nouns, originally present participles, in Swedish. The perspective is diachronic. The corpus consists of a choice of Swedish texts from 1225-1732. The results show that nouns denoting entities ranking higher in the Animacy hierarchy show tendencies to be placed in the utrum gender (originally masculine and feminine genders) and nouns denoting mass, collective or abstract referents to be assigned neuter gender. This tendency is visible throughout the history of the Swedish language.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Online revisions in Swedish as a foreign language – a longitudinal study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Writing is a complex process in which different sub-components both follow each other and interact with each other. Tracking and revising the text is a natural behaviour that helps the writer to shape the text in a desirable way - both in terms of its form and content. Previous studies of self-corrections by second language learners, for example, have shown that they most often correct spelling or formal, linguistic errors or that conceptual changes increase as language skills in the foreign language develop. This paper presents an analysis of online revisions with respect to the orientation of the corrections, i.e. typographical, linguistic and conceptual revisions. The texts were collected at the end of each semester during the first three years of language learning. The analysis has shown that, regardless of language level, foreign language learners in the study group focused most on the surface of the text, which was reflected in corrections of typographical errors. In addition, two revision patterns were observed: one characterised by a simultaneous focus on different dimensions when revising the text, while the other was characterised by a greater focus on one aspect of the text (usually typography), while the others received less attention.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Subordinate questions in Swedish by 12- and 15- year-old Finnish immersion students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study explores how 12- and 15-year-old immersion students (n=75 and n=73) produce subordinate questions in Swedish on a written test. Previous studies are sparse, but they report difficulties with both subject-verb word order and use of the subjunctor om and the subject marker som occurring in these clauses; informants with varying ages and competence levels struggle with similar problems. However, the acquisition order between these two types of constructions, a central theme in this study, has gained less attention. Analyses of the actual data show significant differences with varying effect sizes in accuracy between the different subcategories of subordinate questions and both informant groups. Insertion of grammatical words was mastered by significantly fewer informants than word order. Also, effect sizes were large in these contexts. Older informants do better than the younger ones, but the differences are not always statistically significant, as certain constructions are already mastered at a high level by the younger informants, whereas other constructions are still difficult for the older ones.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00«Den verkliga festen, som är dödstyst»<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Tranströmer’s prose poem <italic>Blåsipporna</italic> (“The Liverleafs”) is rather cryptic. By reading the text in the light of Kant’s theory of the sublime and by focusing on its mysterious and paradoxical aspects, this essay seeks to unveil the poem’s hidden eschatology. The poem’s transcendence is the result of the rhetorical and literary devices the poet is using to depict an ecstatic experience. Such an experience is beyond rationality, hence the wording’s irrationality. In addition, the poem addresses silence, as the experience of ecstasy can never be expressed by words. Thus, <italic>Blåsipporna</italic> is a piece of art and a sacred text at the same time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-26T00:00:00.000+00:00The concept of KÆRLIGHED (love) as represented in data from Old Danish<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article aims to reconstruct the conceptualization of KÆRLIGHED (LOVE) in Old Danish (1100–1515). In the first part of the study, the structure of the concept in Old Danish is analyzed, and parallels are drawn to the modern-day concept of KÆRLIGHED, the most significant differences being registered in the subcategories of PATRIOTISM and ROMANTIC LOVE, as well as in connection with the sense ‘love to do’. In the following parts of the study, the most important aspects and conceptual metaphors of Old Danish KÆRLIGHED are revealed, demonstrating a great influence of Christian values. Lastly, the nouns <italic>ælskhugh</italic> and <italic>kærlikhet</italic> are analyzed, and the difference between them is described as a different profiling of the various aspects of KÆRLIGHED, such as JOY and PLEASURE.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00With dark humor about a dark future<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article analyses the relationship between black humor and dystopian literature. In dystopia, humor can appear on the surface as language or situational comics, but there is also a deeper link between these two literary phenomena: they confront the reader with an unexpected notion in order to bring him to a critical reflection. There are many dystopias in the Nordic literature that use comic elements. Three of them are discussed in this article: Axel Jensens <italic>Epp</italic> (1965), Lena Anderssons <italic>Duck City</italic> (2006) and Kaspar Colling Nielsens <italic>Den danske borgerkrig 2018–24</italic> (2013). The analysis shows that classic black humor is enriched with other tragicomic, satirical or surrealistic elements and significantly contributes to the critical tone of the text. In all cases humor is used for the same purpose, and this is a critique of superior power (the so-called superiority theory). Therefore, humor can be considered not only as a stylistic means, but also as a principle of construction of the dystopian works.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Ten years with Norwegian picturebooks in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper aims to explore how Norwegian picturebooks published in Poland in the years 2008-2018 are presented in publishers’ blurbs and adult readers’ online reviews. The study is grounded in Scandinavian theory of literature mediation and it makes particular use of the concept of public epitexts. Drawing on research on contemporary Scandinavian picturebooks, the paper identifies the most frequently highlighted aspects of the works discussed in the analysed text corpus. Based on this, the author distinguishes between two strategies of book selection represented among the Polish publishers and attempts to map out an image of the Norwegian picturebooks in the Polish adult audience.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Conceptual metaphors for visual/auditory perception in Swedish<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to illustrate how visual and auditory perception are conceptualized in Swedish and what differences there are between them. Previous studies often discuss perception in relation to the oppositely directed motions between the perceiver and the object perceived. In the Perceiver-as-Source type, perception occurs when our eyes/gaze reach the object perceived. In the Perceived-as-Source type, perception takes place when sense stimuli reach the perceiver.</p> <p>The data show two differences between visual and auditory perception. First, we find more metaphorical expressions for visual perception than for auditory perception. Second, we also find that, while visual perception has a stronger connection to the Perceiver-as-Source type, auditory perception is more strongly connected to the Perceived-as-Source type. These two differences are explained by the function of the perceptual organs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Being reborn into the new family<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Every child brought up outside the biological family suffered a loss, some of them were lucky to be “born again’’ for another family who accepted them with love. The experiences of children in this situation often remain secretive and emotions suppressed. In this case, literature can become a way of therapy, both for the author and the reader who perceive through the novel their emotions that were not previously named. After many years, two Finnish writers Anu Mylläri and Riitta Jalonen decided to reveal their stories. Anu Mylläri, born in Bangladesh, was adopted by a family of Finnish farmers, while Riitta Jalonen included in her novel autobiographical plots related to the admission of a new child to her family. I will present the image of the “second birth” and the associated emotions from the perspective of the child on the basis of the autobiography of Anu Mylläri <italic>Adoptoitu</italic> (Adopted, 2006) and the autobiographical novel <italic>Kuka sinut omistaa</italic> (Who Owns You, 2013) by Riitta Jalonen. The aim of the article is thus to present these perspectives with relation to the bibliotherapeutic values of the mentioned literary works.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Between entertainment and education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper addresses a phenomenon of the international success of Swedish female writers in the 19<sup>th</sup> century. I have focused on the Polish translations of Marie Sophie Schwartz’s works, which became extremely popular in the 1860’s and 1870’s, judging from the number of books translated in comparison to other Swedish bestselling writers. One of the most important issues for Schwartz was emancipation, specifically women’s right to education, employment and economic autonomy. Her novel <italic>Emancipation Frenzy</italic> was translated into Polish in 1865 and 1876. Both translations differ as to the accuracy in rendering the emancipation message. The earlier translation tends to omit or soften the author’s radical opinions on emancipation, which flattens the novel’s progressive message. The later one is closer to the original and articulates emancipation claims more faithfully. This probably has to do with the fact that the Polish emancipation debate was already more developed in the 1870s. That seems to confirm a fundamental thesis of <italic>Translations Studies</italic> that translation not only communicates the message of the source text but also comprises an inscription of the host culture’s current standards and needs. Thus, the novels by Schwartz were initially read as popular literature, and over time they were perceived as socially engaged literature (<italic>Tendenzroman</italic>), which corresponded to the Polish nationalistic program.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Drømmen om Å Bli en Annen.<abstract><title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title><p> The paper gives an analysis of three functions of the protagonist’s wandering in the essayistic novel <italic>Gå. Eller kunsten å leve</italic><italic>et vilt og poetisk liv </italic>(2006, Walk. Or the art of living a wild and poetic life) by the Norwegian author Tomas Espedal. The analysis is inspired by the interpretation of the novel by Finn Tveito (2010) and focuses primarily on wandering in urban space, in and around the cities of Bergen and Paris. The functions identified in the paper are: (city) wandering defined as a search of a metaphorical home, as acting realised on two different levels, and as a way to accept the protagonist's role as a writer. Apart from this, the paper is an attempt to portray the wanderer's identity as a postmodern man and an artist.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2012-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Styvbarnen i Folkhemmet?<abstract><title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title><p> The subject of the article is the experience of social exclusion present in five contemporary novels on childhood and adolescence spent in the Swedish folkhem, by Jonas Gardell, Lena Andersson, Mikael Niemi, Torbjörn Flygt and Susanna Alakoski. In the first part of the article I am discussing social exclusion as a term used in the debate about the Swedish welfare-state in crisis. The second part is an analysis of the literary texts, using a sociological perspective. I am focusing there on portraits of the children that are main characters in the novels, the children whose personal identity is being shaped in the shadow of the collective dream of a perfect society. Asking a question about the specifically Swedish character of those children’s sense of exclusion, I am referring to the words of the social democratic leader Per Albin Hansson, who in his speech of 1928, presented a vision of Sweden as a happy and fair common home (folkhem), in which there is no place for either favored citizens (“darlings”), or for second-class citizens (“stepchildren”).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2012-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00På Vej Mod Short Storyen<abstract><title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title><p> The article derives from the intertextual approach to the notion of literary identity, introduced to the modern literary theory in the 1960’s by Julia Kristeva (born 1941). The main idea behind this approach is that no literary text should be perceived as an isolated unity, but always in relation to other texts, which it refers to. The author applies the intertextual perspective to examine the signs of external literary influences in Lise Andersens minimalist prose collection ”En særlig sommer og andre billeder”, published in 2008. The analysis aims to highlight influences from the American short story genre, which appears as an important source of inspiration not only for Andersen herself, but in fact for most of the Danish writers of minimalist fiction. The analysis provides examples of, how inspiration from the American short story manifests itself in form, narration and structure of the selected stories in the collection. Last but not least, the author draws attention to the general importance of American influences in Danish contemporary short fiction and their role for the critical perception of this literary genre both in Denmark and abroad.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2012-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Det Identitetsløse Menneske Etter Modernismen Og Postmodernismen: Noen Eksempler Fra Nordisk Litteratur<abstract><title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title><p> The author of this article attempts to show how the theme of lack of identity figures in Scandinavian literature of the recent decades, especially in postmodernism, and partially also later. The absence of identity was a considerably frequent theme in modernism. According to many modernists the lack of identity was characteristic of the people of the twentieth century, and modernists usually regarded this phenomenon as tragic. This changed in the 1960s. Some modernist writers of the 1960s began to view the absence of identity in a more conciliatory way: their works featured a greater acceptance for the idea of an individual with no core. This movement away from the tragic conception toward a greater acceptance forms an important line of development in later Scandinavian literature. The article discusses a few selected texts which illustrate this development. The examples include texts by Hans-Jørgen Nielsen, Dag Solstad, Peter Høeg and Erlend Loe.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2012-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00”Hvid Udenpå. Indeni er Jeg Helt... Grå”.1<abstract><title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title><p> The aim of the article is to discuss the problem of hybrid identity, as it is presented in Jakob Ejersbo’s “Africa-trilogy” (2009). As the methodological framework for the analysis serve some of the main notions borrowed from postcolonial studies (as hybridity and contact zone), as well as Zygmunt Bauman’s diagnoses on “the liquid modernity” (among others his understanding of identity and his tourist and vagabond metaphors). The latter ones indicate the universal dimension of Ejersbo’s prose, which until now has been read mainly from the postcolonial critique’s position and as a polemical comment on the Scandinavian self-understanding as a region, which has never been included in the colonial project and which sets an example on providing humanitarian aid.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2012-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Nasjonal Identitet, Det Overnaturlige, Og Oversettelsesstrategier<abstract><title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title><p> The article discusses translation strategies used by the author when dealing with culture-specific references/concepts in the rendition in Polish of the Norwegian fantasy trilogy <italic>The Sign of the</italic><italic>Elves </italic>by Sigbjørn Mostue. The challenge here lay in that the novels feature a number of characters inspired by Norwegian folklore. Of the following translation strategies that in the author’s opinion are possible, but not as yet fully listed anywhere, i.e. 1) direct borrowing 2) literal translation 3) direct borrowing + footnote 4) literal translation + footnote 5) direct borrowing + descriptive explanation 6) literal translation + descriptive explanation 7) substitution with another reference from source culture 8) substitution with another reference from target culture 9) substitution with another reference from universal/global culture 10) substitution with translator’s own coinage 11) evasion by simplification 12) evasion by omission, strategies 1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 10 and 11 were used in the translation in question. In his choice of the (mostly functional) equivalents in the target language, the translator drew upon two main sources: Slavic demonology and role-playing games (RPGs).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2012-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Den Postmoderne Biografi<abstract><title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title><p> This article concerns the return of the literary biography in the humanistic fields, especially in Danish literary research, since 1980. During the New Criticism in the 1960s biography was regarded as a superfluous genre, and during the neoMarxism of the 1970s as a naive genre. But around 1980 it returned in the form of a number of new scholarly works especially in the fields of literature and history. This article points to two elements in the postmodern Zeitgeist which might have played a role in promoting the return of biography: first, the collapse of the grand systems of interpretation, and second a change in the ideal of scholarship in the direction of constructivism. Then the article investigates how ‘the new biography’ is distinguished from the old and outlines three points in particular: 1) a greater understanding of the significance of social structures; 2) an increased focus on contingency, incoherence and indeterminacy in a human life; and 3) a rising interest in the ‘ordinary’ human being. On a fourth point, postmodern biography has not come as far as one might expect. Although it could be more experimental and theoretically self-conscious, in fact it employs surprisingly traditional patterns of narrative, most of which are stamped by the Bildungsroman of the 19th century.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2012-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Den nya Kvinnan Behöver den nye Mannen.<abstract><title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title><p> The purpose of this paper is to problematize and compare the construction of masculine identity in two Swedish novels, <italic>Fru</italic><italic>Marianne </italic>(1887) by Victoria Benedictsson and <italic>Dotter till en dotter</italic> (1977) by Inger Alfvén. The analysis is focused on how the male characters in these novels are constructed in the light of masculinity studies. In order to do that two types of masculine identity are considered: the New Man and hegemonic man. In both novels a change of the masculine identity pattern from the hegemonic masculinity towards the identity of the New Man can be observed, even though this process is performed differently. In the construction of male protagonists both authors refer to the same materialistic and symbolic attributes, however, these attributes are valued differently and play a different role in construction of masculine identity. In construction of the masculine identity Benedictsson combines the attributes of the New Man with the positive features of the hegemonic man, whereas Alfvén rejects the hegemonic masculinity as oppressive and constructs the male protagonist as the New Man.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2012-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Den Danske Litterære Biografis Identitet – Med Udgangspunkt i Peer Hultbergs Biografiske Roman Præludier<abstract><title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title><p>The paper discusses the issue of the contemporary Danish biographical novel, its identity and condition on the example of Peer Hultberg’s work on Chopin’s childhood, <italic>Preludes. </italic>The author of the article argues that the novel diverts to a large extent from the traditionally formulated principles which govern the genre of a biographical novel. In order to demonstrate it, the author analyses the text using the following criteria as a sort of a litmus test of the work’s “biographical provenance”: chronologically structured plot, objectivity and the protagonist’s development. As expected, the <italic>Preludes </italic>does not meet any of the above expectations towards a biographical novel, which proves that the work can be recognized as a postmodernist literary biography. The structure consisting of fragments, narration in the form of stream-of-consciousness and lack of milestones in the protagonist’s life are the primary features of the new genre which is seen as inherent in postmodernist tendencies, in particular those formulated by Jean-Francois Lyotard and Zygmunt Bauman.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2012-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00En Litterær Biografi og Narrative Identitetsbilleder<abstract><title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title><p> The article focuses on the narrative construction of identity in the biographical novel about the life of Madame Tussaud written by the Danish author Dorrit Willumsen. A specific biographical narration technique of Willumsen is the starting point for discussing two interweaving layers of biographical discourse: the historical literary biography and the internal biography (lifeline as a story). Willumsen`s open dialogue of images and words shapes the narration to cross the frame of the principal character`s historical time and places Willumsen`s novel in the European context of narrative literature on artistic images of identity.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2012-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1