rss_2.0Folia Veterinaria FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Folia Veterinaria Veterinaria Feed Pelvimetry in Relation to Dystocia in Bulldogs<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Dystocia is a common complication of parturition in the breed of English Bulldogs, where most females are not able to have a natural parturition and many litters are delivered by caesarean section. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diameter of the pelvis of 11 females of English Bulldogs through radiographic pelvimetry and do proper measurements to observe if there are any correlations between a narrow pelvic canal and dystocia detected in the breed. The external parameters were also assessed to look for any differences between weight, height, and length in relation to the dystocia in the breed. The mean weight of the dogs with natural parturition was 21.25 ± 0.91 kg, whereas the females which had undergone caesarean section was 25.16 ± 1.44 kg (P = 0.0004). A P-value shows strong evidence for the hypothesis of this study as a possible factor of dystocia of the breed. The values of height and length in the category of dams which had undergone natural parturition were in cm 44.8 ± 2.48 (length) and 36.1 ± 0.98 (height). In the category of dogs which had undergone caesarean section, the parameters were in cm 45.4 ± 2.60 and 36.0 ± 1.58, respectively. The P-value for length were 0.72 for length and P-value for height were 0.83. Difference between the diameter of the pelvis in the two groups of English Bulldog females was P = 0.12, so there is no significant evidence. However, it could be significant for a possible future study with a higher number of animals for measuring pelvic diameter.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Glia Cells in the Pineal Gland of the African Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat ()<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The mammalian pineal gland is a structure that in recent years has been extensively studied, due to its functions and the hormones it produces. Bats are the only known flying mammals, with the order having a large number of species. This study was carried out to investigate the gross and histological features of the pineal gland of the <italic>Eidolon helvum</italic>, the African fruit bat, using male and female subjects. Eight free flying <italic>E. helvum</italic> (4 males, 4 females) were captured using mist nets. The pineal gland was grossly observed to be very small in size, oval in shape, and covered by the pia mater. Histological examination revealed two populations of pinealocytes – Types I and II – oval structures possessing acidophilic cytoplasm and large, round nuclei. Pinealocytes were seen to appear singly or in clusters, having no particular arrangement. Sexual dimorphism was observed, with the females having less density in population of pinealocytes at the peripheral region of the gland. This was consistent in all subjects examined. Astrocytic appearance was typical with long and slender processes, and perivascular and capsular microglia were observed. The glia cells were observed to be abundant in the parenchyma and around the capsule. There was no sensitivity to NeuN antibody. Results obtained may find application in behavioural and comparative neuroscience.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Markers of Liver Damage in Cattle Naturally Infected with Fasciola Hepatica<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fascioliasis is a worldwide spread parasitic disease with a high impact on the economy and public health in many countries. Therefore, it is important to apply prevention, effective treatment, and education campaigns, to prevent the disease. This work aimed to determine the biochemical markers of liver damage caused by <italic>Fasciola hepatica</italic> during 21 days (D0 – D21) post albendazole (ABZ) therapy in the blood sera. This study included 24 cows naturally infected with <italic>Fasciola hepatica,</italic> randomly divided into a control group (n = 12) and a group treated <italic>per os</italic> with ABZ (7.5 mg per kg body weight) (n = 12). The activity of hepatic enzymes – aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and cholestatic enzymes – gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were measured in both groups. The activity of AST has significantly increased in the course of the experiment (D0 – D21) in both groups (P &lt; 0.001). ALT activity during D0 – D21 was significantly decreased in both groups (P &lt; 0.001). Activity of GGT was not significantly changed in the control group in the course of the experiment (P &gt; 0.05). Contrarily, the activity of GGT in the treated group was significantly decreased (P &lt; 0.01) during D0 – D21. The activity of GGT in the blood sera of the treated group was significantly lower in comparison with the control group in D7 and D21 (P &lt; 0.01). This decreased GGT activity in the blood sera of the treated group may be caused by the effect of albendazole resulting in fasciola elimination and bile flow improvement. The results of ALP determination show no significant changes in ALP activity between groups. This can lead to the conclusion that the most useful marker of cholestasis caused by <italic>F. hepatica</italic> is the GGT activity and may help to evaluate the ABZ therapy effect in cattle.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Nutrition According to Milk Metabolites and Components in Seasonal Dependence in Dairy Cows<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrition according to the milk metabolites and components during the seasonal dependence of the dairy cows. In the summer time, it was confirmed that significantly lower content of milk protein and fat (P &lt; 0.001) and lower milk, protein, and fat yields (P &lt; 0.001) occurred, compared to the autumn period. The content of milk lactose was not statistically significant (P &gt; 0.5). The evaluation of nutrition according to protein in milk and milk urea in the summer period was confirmed in the 2nd group of milk samples which represented 53 % of the group’s higher content of milk urea, higher content of urinary nitrogen excretion, and a lower nitrogen utilization efficiency compared to the 1st group of milk samples. The autumn period was confirmed in the 2nd group of milk samples which represented 53 % of the group with higher milk yield and lower content of milk proteins and milk fat compared to the 1st group of milk samples. The evaluation of nutrition using the analysed content of milk urea and proteins in milk represents a suitable tool for evaluating the impact of malnutrition or overfeeding of energy and protein on milk production and other components.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’ Logistics and Protection with a Focus on Slaughter Animals During Transport in Accordance with the Rules<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper is devoted to the transport of slaughter animals. There are obstacles that needs to be pointed out, removed, and resolved. General requirements for the movement of slaughter animals within the Union have proven to be an unjustified administrative burden and costly. It also presents how important is to keep and follow all the rules provided by European Union to prevent any issues and keep the animals in good conditions and welfare during the transport. Bad conditions and not keeping the rules during animal transport can cause the stress of the animals and have a huge effect on their health. The stress can cause injuries and even a death of the animals that were healthy and had no signs of any sickness before the transfer. The main goal of the paper is to present the circumstances under which safe transport depends on choosing the correct logistical management, starting with the proper vehicles. Specific rules apply depending on the type and quantity of animals transported. The paper explains and summarizes the special establishment for road transport, including all mandatory actions, documents, and data centralisation (COMEX, TRACES, IMSOC).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of in Dogs<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article provides a comprehensive analysis of <italic>dysplasia trochlea</italic> in dogs, summarizing the most recent findings in the field and highlighting important new findings, as well as, areas that require further research. The anatomy of the knee and the <italic>trochlea femoris</italic>, as well as its function in maintaining knee joint stability, are covered in the first section. The accurate diagnosis of orthopaedic disorders, and injuries are necessary for efficient treatment, and this is made possible by understanding the anatomy of the knee. The factors that can affect the onset, development, and course of the disease are included in the section that follows, which discusses the etiology, and pathophysiology. Veterinary surgeons must measure trochlear femur dysplasia in dogs in order to determine the severity of the condition and the best course of treatment. It is typically assessed by looking at X-ray images and assigning a score, however, this can differ from one individual to another. New measurement techniques that give a better level of objectivity and precision, like CT scans or MRIs, are now being tested.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, Activity and Control Options Against Biting Midges (Diptera: ) in Horses<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Biting midges are insects which annoy horses as they cause discomfort and by the sucking of blood, they cause painful lesions that, in certain cases, can trigger acute allergic reactions. They also act as potential vectors of many pathogens of bacterial, viral and parasitic origin. The aim of this study was to investigate seasonal dynamics, abundance and species composition of biting midges, and implementing protection options at the Equestrian centre of the University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy (UVMP) in Košice in the years 2021 and 2022. During this time period (of 2021 and 2022), we captured 4797 biting midges. Our results showed that in 2021 the most frequently captured species were <italic>C. obsoletus/C. scoticus</italic> (prevalence 86.6 %), followed by <italic>C. punctatus</italic> and <italic>C. pulicaris</italic> (prevalence 5.37 % and 3.86 %, resp.). In addition, <italic>C. lupicaris</italic>, <italic>C. newsteadi</italic>, <italic>C. furcillatus</italic>, <italic>C. festivipennis</italic>, <italic>C. slovacus</italic>, <italic>C. tauricus</italic>, <italic>C. clastrieri</italic>, <italic>C. dewulfi</italic>, <italic>C. fagineus</italic> and <italic>C. circumscriptus</italic> were identified as the minority species. In this year, the highest abundance of these insects (1758 biting midges) was observed at the end of June. In 2022, we detected a clear dominance of <italic>C. obsoletus/C. scoticus</italic> (prevalence 97.0 %) and the highest number of biting midges (655) was captured in mid-May). In this year, the minority species included, <italic>C. pulicaris</italic>, <italic>C. punctatus</italic> and <italic>C. lupicaris</italic>. The identification of the host blood showed that man <italic>(Homo sapiens)</italic> was the dominant host, namely of 80 % of the examined biting midges of species <italic>C. obsoletus/C. scoticus</italic>, <italic>C. dewulfi</italic>, <italic>C. punctatus</italic> and <italic>C. festivipennis</italic>. In one female of species <italic>C. fagineus</italic> we identified the host blood from horses <italic>(Equus caballusi)</italic>. In 2022, we detected the blood of a domestic rabbit <italic>(Oryctolagus cuniculus)</italic> in the species of <italic>C. obsoletus/C. scoticus</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Efficiency of Diagnostic Tests Used to Prove Giardiasis in Terms of their Practicality and Use in the Veterinary Clinical Practice<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Giardiasis is a protozoan disease that affects the health of animals, as well as other humans all over the world. Based on its host spectrum and genetic variability, <italic>Giardia duodenalis</italic> is classified into 8 assemblages (A–H). The present study was aimed at comparing the efficiency of the three most frequently used methods (the flotation method, the SNAP test and the ELISA assay) for the detection of giardiasis in carnivores in terms of the applicability thereof for the scientific purposes and the practicality of their application in the veterinary clinical practice. In the period from March 2020 to February 2022, a total of 173 faecal samples (141 samples collected from shelter dogs; 28 samples from pet dogs; and 6 samples from working dogs) were examined by applying the flotation method. The prevalence of <italic>Giardia duodenalis</italic> identified by the flotation method was 25 %. The SNAP test conducted with the fresh faecal samples revealed the high-level efficiency of 96 %, whereas the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) achieved the efficiency of 65 %. By applying the nested PCR method, five samples were positively tested for assemblages C and D (<italic>G. canis</italic>) by the amplification of the <italic>bg</italic> and <italic>tpi</italic> loci. The dogs from shelters which were positive for <italic>G. duodenalis</italic> were also presented with a coinfection caused by other intestinal parasites, such as <italic>Trichuris vulpis</italic> (28.0 %) and parasites from the <italic>Ancylostomatidae family</italic> (8.0 %).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Application of Hypothermia in a Porcine Spinal Cord Injury Model<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are catastrophic events in humans and animals. They often result in permanent loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions caudally from the site of the spinal cord (SC) lesion. The natural history of spontaneous recovery from SC trauma is disappointing and currently available therapeutic interventions fail to operate. Hence further research using bigger experimental animals or primates is necessary. The results of this study performed by the authors in 21 Göttingen-Minnesota-Liběchov female minipigs (3 sham controls, and 18 members of an experimental subgroup) showed that these animals are suitable for SCI research. All mini-pigs survived rather complex experiments carried out in general anaesthesia induced by 5 % thiopental solution administered i.v., maintained by endotracheal inhalation of 1.5 % sevoflurane with O<sub>2</sub> as well as a subsequent 9-week monitoring period. The experimental procedures comprised of L3 laminectomy, SCI inflicted by computer-controlled metallic piston crushing the SC with 8N, 15N, or 18N force. After the SCIs there were 9 minipigs left over during the next 5.5 hours in general anaesthesia, without application of hypothermia, then the surgical wounds were sutured, and the animals were allowed to awaken under supervision. Just 30 min following SCIs was in 6 mini-pigs started with the 5-hour application of 4 °C saline via perfusion chambers placed at the epicenter of the SCI, the chambers were removed, surgical wounds sutured, and animals were allowed to awaken. Just 30 minutes following the SCIs, there was in 3 minipigs started with a 5-hour administration of ≈24 °C saline at the epicentre of the SCIs, and then the perfusion chamber was removed, surgical wounds sutured, and the animals were allowed to awaken. The 5.5-hour local hypothermia and protracted general anaesthesia required monitoring of rectal temperature, and external warming of the minipig, if the temperature dropped below 36 °C. The currently available information on the therapeutic capacity of the method, and all technical aspects of its routine employment, needs validation in further experiments and preclinical trials.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Tet Gene-Bearing Antimicrobial-Resistant From Dairy Farms in Nigeria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study focused on antibiotic resistance genes as emerging contaminants with potential global human health implications. Intensive livestock farming has been identified as a major contributor to the spread of resistant bacteria and genes. The study examined antimicrobial-resistant <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> and tetracycline-resistant genes in raw milk from commercial dairy farms in Kano State. Out of 300 registered farms, 54 (18 %) were purposively sampled for the study. A total of 313 milk samples were collected and processed through enrichment and inoculation on selective media for <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> isolation. The antibiogram pattern of the isolated <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> strains was assessed using the disk diffusion method. The results revealed resistance to various antimicrobial agents, with no resistance to quinolones but high resistance to ampicillin (100 %), erythromycin (73.3 %), and tetracycline (46.7 %), among others. The multiplex polymer-ase chain reaction was conducted on all <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> isolates to detect tet genes (tet A, B, C, D, and M), and one isolate carried the tet M resistance gene, while six (40 %) others carried the tet A resistance gene. The study concludes that a significant proportion of the cultured <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> strains were resistant to one or more tested antibiotics, indicating a potential public health threat associated with <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> contamination in raw milk. We recommend implementing robust regulatory policies governing the use and sales of antimicrobials in animal production. Furthermore, we suggest further investigation into other resistant genes that these isolates might carry to better understand the extent of antibiotic resistance in the region.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Their Antibacterial Activity Against Major Fish Pathogens. A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This review focuses on the characteristic of major fish bacteria, antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic substitution in aquaculture. Nowadays aquaculture represents the fastest growing industry leading to the use of intensive and semi-intensive methods resulting in outbreaks of bacterial diseases. Antibiotics are used to treat and prevent these bacterial diseases, which can cause an increase in resistance. Many antibiotics applied in aquaculture were originally used in human medicine and many countries do not have strict limits for their application. Annually, more than 700 000 people worldwide die from bacterial infections caused by bacteria resistant to antibiotics and even though European countries have strict rules for the use of antibiotics, the death rate resulting from resistance represents more than 33 000 people per year. One of the options how to resolve this problem is the replacement of antibiotics with bioactive compounds of plant origin that exhibit strong inhibitory activity against pathogenic bacteria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Risk Factors for Lameness, Leg Injuries, Thin Body Condition and Mastitis on Algerian Dairy Farms<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This present study aims to investigate the relationship of herd characteristics and management practices with the prevalence of clinical and severe lameness, hock and knee injuries, thin cows, and mastitis at the herd level on Algerian dairy farms. Altogether 1210 dairy cows from 107 farms were examined and the clinical aspects related to studied affections were recorded. Multivariable regression models were built to analyse the relationship between the risk factors and the occurrence of health indicators. Overlay, the health outcomes were multifactorial, with pasture access (P &lt; 0.001), scraping frequency (P &lt; 0.01), and floor regularity (P = 0.05) as the main factors causing lameness. Factors associated with both hock and knee injuries (score ≥ 2) were lower cow number (P &lt; 0.01), more days spent on pasture (P &lt; 0.001), and poorer straw amount for bedding (P &lt; 0.001). Some farming practice, in particular, providing proper amount of concentrate feeds (P &lt; 0.001), higher scraping frequency (P &lt; 0.01), thicker bedding (P &lt; 0.001), and having younger dairy cows (P = 0.058), were associated with a lower within-herd prevalence of thin cows. While, more days on pasture increased the percentage of under-conditioned cows (P &lt; 0.01). The inadequate hygienic conditions of the floor (P &lt; 0.001), improper milking procedures (P &lt; 0.05), and shorter dry period (P &lt; 0.05) increased the clinical mastitis occurrence. Our results highlighted the specific management practices responsible for increasing health risks and provided useful information for the farmers and veterinarians to make preventive and controlling strategies for lameness, leg injuries, low body condition and mastitis on dairy farms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue as Antimicrobial Agents in the Central Nervous System Infections. A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bacterial meningitis is a serious infection of the central nervous system that affects people all over the world. <italic>Streptococcus pneumoniae</italic> and <italic>Neisseria meningitidis</italic> are the most common pathogens causing meningeal inflammation in Europe. Treatment with standard antibiotics is becoming ineffective, not only due to their inability to cross the blood-brain barrier, but also due to rising antibiotic resistance. As a result, novel therapeutics to combat the infection are required. A promising solution could be therapeutic nanomolecules, such as dendrimers, some of which have antimicrobial properties due to their chemical structure. Additionally, they may be decorated with a suitable therapeutic and central nervous system homing peptides to construct nano-drug delivery systems, which can effectively cross the blood-brain barrier. To synthesize safe dendrimeric nano-drug delivery system it is necessary to select the best dendrimer candidates with antimicrobial activity and to understand pharmacosafety, pharmacokinetics and dynamics. This review provides a brief overview of dendrimers and their antimicrobial properties as they have been studied in relation to the blood-brain barrier and existing antibiotics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Antifungal Activity of Selected Essential Oils Against<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The <italic>in vitro</italic> activity of <italic>Cinnamomum cassia</italic>, <italic>Melaleuca alternifolia</italic>, and <italic>Cymbopogon citratus</italic> essential oils and antimycotics clotrimazole, fluconazole, and ketokonazole against <italic>T. mentagrophytes</italic> was evaluated by the disc-diffusion method. The essential oils were tested at 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 % concentration. It was found that <italic>Cymbopogon</italic>, commonly called lemongrass, and cinnamon show stable results independent of the concentration used, whereas the efficacy of tea tree oil, significantly decreases with the decreasing concentration. When comparing the efficacy of antimycotics the largest zone of inhibition was obtained with clotrimazole, while fluconazole proved to be ineffective. We found that cinnamon and lemongrass are more effective than the antimycotics that we have used. Our study confirmed that some essential oils can be used for the treatment of dermatophytoses caused by <italic>Trichophyton mentagrophytes</italic> and some of them are more effective than the commercial drugs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, Assessment, Health Consequences and Management of Equine Obesity: A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Obesity is a state of abnormal or excessive fat accumulation. Obesity in horses increases the risk of developing a variety of health issues such as: insulin dysregulation (ID), reduced athleticism, colic, abnormal reproductive performance, laminitis, endotoxaemia, <italic>diabetes mellitus</italic>, hyperlipaemia, impaired thermoregulation, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, and osteochondrosis. Obesity is a significant health and welfare issue in horses that may go unreported or unnoticed due to a caregiver’s (owner) neglect. Weight gain occurs when a horse’s energy consumption exceeds his or her physical energy needs. Obesity is best assessed via necropsy or upon <italic>in vivo</italic> assessment with deuterium oxide administration, although this is not feasible in a clinical environment. In practice, obesity is assessed by: body condition scoring, cresty neck scoring, ultrasono graphic assessment, morphometric measurements, or biochemical indicators in the blood. Dietary and exercise programs are the primary means of controlling equine obesity. Pharmacologic assistance (levothyroxine sodium and metformin hydrochloride), being a secondary approach, may be effective in some cases. Management involves a long-term plan that requires the horse’s caregiver’s effort and discipline, as well as the support and supervision of their veterinarian. This paper outlines the assessment, health consequences, and management of equine obesity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, Attitude and Practices among Pastoralists and Animal Health Workers on Tick-Borne Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiosis in Plateau State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Tick-borne Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses (SFGR) is a serious disease reported in low income communities of many developed countries. The dearth of information on the existence of SFGR in most developing countries particularly in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) including Nigeria, has been attributed to many factors chiefly amongst which are; poor knowledge of the disease, limitation of diagnostic capacity, leading to misdiagnosis and under reporting of some infectious zoonotic diseases such as SFGR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pastoralists (livestock farmers) and animal health workers’ knowledge, attitudes and perceptions/practices towards ticks and tick-borne SFGR affecting livestock in 3 Local Government Areas (LGA): i.e., in Plateau State, Nigeria and including Jos the Capital City of the State. A total of 141 semi-structured questionnaires were administered to respondents including 90 pastoralists and 51 health workers from different veterinary clinics. Interestingly, the pastoralists expressed no knowledge about SFGR, although 61.36 % reported a history of tick infestation. Among the animal health workers, about 76.47 % expressed some knowledge about the disease, but lacked knowledge of the diagnosis of the disease. The findings indicate that there was the need for an increase awareness on SFGR and its predisposing factors among relevant stakeholders in the Plateau State, Nigeria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Genetic Analysis of Potential New HEV-3 Subtype Identified on Pig Farm in Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) represents the causative agent of acute viral hepatitis in the world. The virus belongs to the genus <italic>Paslahepevirus</italic>, species <italic>Paslahepevirus balayani</italic>, which contains 8 different genotypes and at least 14 reference HEV-3 subtypes. Recently we have identified three isolates in a Slovakian pig farm as a new unclassified HEV-3 subtype. The aim of this study was to sequence and analyze additional regions of HEV genome for PER5 isolate, a representative isolate of potential new HEV-3 subtype. The phylogenetic analyses of 749 bp and 828 bp DNA fragments amplified from ORF1 revealed that both sequences fall outside two major clades (3abchij and 3efg) of the HEV-3 genotype as well as the other HEV-3 subtypes. The nucleotide identity with other HEV-3 subtypes indicated low values within the range 79.2–84.1 % as well. The results provide further support for the circulation of a new HEV-3 subtype in the pig farm in Slovakia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Gross Anatomy and Cerebellar Histology of the Cattle Egret ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The structural parts of brain are similar in all vertebrates, but they differ in their complexity and organization. The avian brain for instance, is organised differently compared to mammals, with variations existing in the relative size and location of their structures. The cattle egret (<italic>Bubulcus ibis</italic>) is a cosmopolitan avian species native to Africa. Despite their economic importance as excellent sentinels in assessing environmental pollutants, there is a dearth of information on their neuroanatomy. Hence, we here investigated their gross morphological features and morphometric parameters, and the cerebellar histology. Twelve transcardi-ally perfused juvenile cattle egrets were studied, with the body and brain weights and brain linear measurements considered. The brain weight constituted 0.46 % of the total body mass, with a strong positive correlation recorded between the body and brain weights (r = 0.9204). Morphologically, the brain was lissencephalic, with the corpus callosum absent and the olfactory bulbs rudimentary with no discernible division into the olfactory bulb, olfactory tract and olfactory lobe. We observed prominent sagittal eminence and vallecula telencephali, as well as an obvious fovea limbica on the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres, respectively. The diencephalic structures were completely covered by telencephalon, with the pineal gland occupying the polygonal space between cerebrum, optic lobe and cerebellum. The mesencephalic tectum appeared as a large oval bilaterally bulging structure with prominent optic tracts and constituted the bulk of the midbrain. There was a dorsal extension of the fourth ventricle into the cerebellum known as the ventriculus cerebelli and the cerebellar histology presented a persistent external granular layering suggestive of a potential for adult neurogenesis. Our data has added relevant literature on the cattle egret brain and could prove useful in comparative, developmental and evolutionary avian neuroanatomy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Trichothecenes Deoxynivalenol and T-2 Toxin in Poultry Feed Mixtures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Trichothecenes are among the most important fusariotoxins. According to their chemical structure, they are divided into 4 groups (A – D). In terms of agriculture, trichothecenes of groups A and B are of greatest importance. In this study, the incidence of trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin) in mixed feed for broilers and turkeys were determined. Deoxynivalenol was detected in all analysed samples of feed mixture for broilers and turkeys (100 %) at an average concentration of 1.776 ppm; 0.675 ppm, respectively. T-2 toxin was present in 93.8 % of mixed feed for broilers at an average concentration of 36.625 ppb and in all of the tested samples (100 %) of turkey mixed feed (average level 25.899 ppb). The trichothecenes deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin in feed samples for poultry did not exceed concentrations recommended by legislation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Assessment of Pack Donkeys in Amaru, Zaria Ancient City, Kaduna State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Donkey welfare is becoming a subject of much interest; for decades, people around the world have voiced rising worry about it. There are no studies on donkey welfare in Nigeria. This study aimed to assess the welfare state of donkeys in Amaru, Zaria Ancient City, Kaduna State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was done to purposefully select 38 pack donkeys for welfare assessment based on the first level of the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) for donkeys, which covered behaviour, health, feeding, and environment and housing. Information regarding age and sex was collected. The analysed data were reported in terms of frequencies and percentages. The prevalence of donkeys with no social contact, avoidance behaviour, and walking downside was 2.6 %, 5.36 %, and 40.56 %, respectively. The most common health problems are integumentary alterations, which include an unhealthy hair coat (86.8 %), skin lesions (86.6 %), alopecia (60.5 %), and deep wounds (47.4 %). Only 5.3 % of the donkeys were lame. Around 42 % had a body condition score of 2 (moderate), while the remaining 57.9 % had a body condition score of 3 (ideal). The donkeys were poorly kept and housed, as evidenced by the high prevalence of unsatisfactory shelter dimensions (100 %), dirty bedding (89.5 %), and insufficient bedding (89.5 %). The current study found that welfare issues are serious challenges for donkeys in Amaru, Zaria Ancient City, Kaduna State, Nigeria. As a consequence of the current findings, it is recommended that donkey welfare, policies and legislative frameworks that support animal welfare and inspect animal facilities in Nigeria should to be reviewed and enforced.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue