rss_2.0Folia Veterinaria FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Folia Veterinaria Veterinaria Feed Recovery after Spinal Cord Trauma and Effect of Local Hypothermia in a Porcine Experimental Model<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study was aimed to assess the therapeutic potential (expressed by improvement of pelvic extremities motor functions) of a 5-hour local application of hypothermia with cold saline (4 °C), or saline at room temperature (≈ 24 °C) conveyed via perfusion chamber placed epidurally over the epicenter of spinal cord lesion in minipigs paraplegic due to acute spinal cord injuries (SCIs) inflicted through L3 laminectomy with the force of 8N, 15N, or 18N by a computer operated contusion apparatus. Eighteen 5–8-month-old minipigs (Göttingen-Minnesota-Liběchov crossbreed strains weighing 28–35 kg) were randomly divided into 6 subgroups (each containing three animals) another 3 minipigs were added as sham controls. To evaluate the pelvic extremities motor recovery was used the porcine 20-point neurological scale. Regular evaluations of motor scores showed gradual spontaneous recovery of this parameter in all experimental animals, however, the best results achieved minipigs after SCI inflicted by 8N impacts. The data achieved in the study suggest that local application of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is well tolerated and may improve functional outcomes after SCI. Further experimental and preclinical studies in different SCI animal models are required before the introduction of the method in healthcare practice. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Resistance in Poultry Meat Associated with the Excessive use of Biocides During COVID-19<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The emergence of antimicrobial resistance has become one of the major public health problems. Although antimicrobial resistance naturally develops over time, its prevalence has increased due to the use of antimicrobial agents in the health sector and other contexts. This paper focuses on the rise in fosfomycin resistance of <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> isolated from poultry meat, coinciding with the excessive use of biocides during the COVID-19 outbreak in Algeria. A total of 134 <italic>E. coli</italic> isolates were identified from poultry meat samples purchased from the same butcher’s shops before and after the emergence of the COVID-19 outbreak. Univariate analyses were conducted using the ANOVA test for continuous variables and the chi-squared test for categorical variables. Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were utilized for statistically significant risk factors. Multivariable analysis was performed with binary logistic regression to detect an independent predictor. A P-value of 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Poultry meat purchased after the COVID-19 appearance was found to be associated with fosfomycin-resistant <italic>E. coli</italic>; fosfomycin-resistant <italic>E. coli</italic> isolates were more prevalent after COVID-19 (15.56 %) than before the COVID-19 outbreak (1.69 %). A significant difference in fosfomycin <italic>E. coli</italic> resistance was observed before and after the COVID-19 emergence (P = 0.009; OR = 10.68; 95 % CI 1.26–90.34). <italic>E. coli</italic> strains isolated from poultry meat are 10 times more likely to be fosfomycin resistant after COVID-19 than before the COVID-19 outbreak. It could be that the excessive use of biocides during the COVID-19 outbreak increased the risk of fosfomycin <italic>E. coli</italic> resistance in poultry meat.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Three (3) Techniques in the Diagnosis of Subclinical Mastitis with Antibiotic Resistance of in Nigeria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study was aimed at evaluation of two diagnostic techniques and the cultural isolation of <italic>Staphylococcus aureus </italic>for the testing of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows. A total of 144 milk samples from 36 cows were examined. Ten (10) ml milk samples were aseptically collected from each quarter into labelled sterile universal bottles. The California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the Methylene Blue Reduction Test (MBRT) were carried out on each sample, before cultural isolation (gold standard test) was conducted. Forty eight milk samples were CMT-positive and 60 samples were MBRT-positive, while the gold standard (<italic>S. aureus </italic>isolation) had 31 positives. The 89.5 % samples of CMT-positive were correctly identified by the test culture. The proportions of samples that tested negative for Subclinical Mastitis (SCM) that did not have the disease, which is a negative predictive value, are 97.9 % and 92.9 % for CMT and MBRT, respectively. The highest total resistance of <italic>S. aureus</italic> to antibiotics was detected for gentamycin and chloramphenicol (100 %), followed by streptomycin and amoxicillin at 80.6 % and 74.1 %, respectively. The control and monitoring of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows are of great importance to human health. A good management system constitutes the priority in controlling subclinical mastitis in lactating cows.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Investigation of the Eye of the Tree Squirrel: A Preliminary Study<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Squirrels are diurnal rodents with high visual acuity including unique properties well-suited for their natural environment. This study was conducted to explore some ocular microscopic features of tree-harbouring squirrels in the University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Two male squirrels were cage-trapped within the University premises. Light microscopic analysis was carried on paraffin-embedded eye samples harvested from the animals. The densely compacted stromal fibres, 351 ± 52.5 µm thick, formed the thickest part of the cornea, and the basement membrane of the corneal epithelium, 63.8 ± 13.0 µm thick, was notably positive with Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain. Strong pigmentation was present at the choroid as well as the iridal and ciliary epithelia. The multiple layering of the retinal structure exhibited densely packed ganglion cells at the ganglion cell layer which together with the nerve fibre layer was observed to be thinnest at the more peripheral portion but becomes thicker towards the optic disc. Strongly positive glia fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP+) cells with their abundant fibrous processes were demonstrated immunohistochemically at the retinal nerve fibre layer and the optic nerve. Histological features of the retinal cellular components of the tree squirrels investigated has thus highlighted the structural adaptation of these animal species to their environmental arboreal habitat and diurnal lifestyle. Findings from this study, while further noted to be similar to that in human, showed that African tree squirrels represent promising rodent model for human retinal/ocular research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Sequence Analysis of B1 Gene in Tissues of Some Bird Species in Plateau State, Nigeria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Toxoplasma gondii</italic> is a single-cell parasite capable of infecting almost all homeotherms posing a grave public health risk globally. There is limited available literature on the <italic>T. gondii </italic>strains circulating in bird species in the Plateau State, of Nigeria. Consequently, this study was carried out to identify and confirm <italic>T. gondii</italic> infection and also determine the relationship of the DNA sequences with those of bird species in other parts of the world. To achieve this, brain and heart tissues of 25 bird species were sampled and a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and sequence analyses of the B1 gene were carried out. The DNA of <italic>T. gondii </italic>was identified in the heart and brain tissues of 7/7 (100.0 %) of wild bird species, and 15/18 (83.3 %) of domestic local chickens (<italic>Gallus gallus domesticus</italic>) sampled. The evolutionary relationship among the <italic>T</italic>. <italic>gondii</italic> sequences in this study using phylogenetic tree constructed by maximum likelihood method showed the sequences shared a common ancestor with the Type I RH strain (GenBank: AF179871). The <italic>T</italic>. <italic>gondii </italic>sequences were in a cluster distinct from other sequences in the GenBank. Calculations of genetic differentiation and genetic diversity indices undertaken and collated revealed three haplotypes with higher haplotype diversity within the <italic>T. gondii </italic>sequences obtained from wild birds (0.667) compared with the sequences from local chickens (0.333). A 97–100 % homology among the aligned sequences of <italic>T</italic>. <italic>gondii</italic> in the study shows that only one strain type exists in all of the samples. This study has established the occurrence of <italic>T. gondii </italic>infection in asymptomatic bird species in the study area and portrays them as carriers, and potential sources of human infection.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Soft Tissues in Congenital Unilateral Cleft Lip, Light and Electron Microscopic Observations<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cleft lip (CL), palate (CP), or both (CLP) are one of the most common congenital abnormalities in humans, causing a heavy burden to the affected and their next of kin. We examined biopsy material from CL of seven children: Six 2 to 6 month-old babies and one 4-year-old boy. The samples were taken at the first surgical cleft lip repair. Light microscopy (LM) haematoxylin and eosin stained paraffin sections and toluidine blue stained 0.5–1 μm Durcupan sections from material processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), revealed abnormal “ragged” wavy muscle fibres in all seven children. The routine TEM confirmed our results LM; we found no other changes in the soft tissues in TEM; blood vessels of loose connective tissue and nerve fibres were normal. Therefore, we believe that myopathic changes in the cleft lip muscle fibres cannot be of neuronal origin. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and the Blood-Brain Barrier: A Review<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a protective barrier that prevents most substances from entering the brain from the bloodstream, including bacteria and viruses. Unfortunately, this restriction also applies to 99.9 % of therapeutics, posing significant challenges in the treatment of brain diseases. Overcoming this barrier is critical for effective treatment of neurological disorders. Several drug delivery systems are being developed to improve transport of therapeutic agent across the BBB. For example, nanoparticles (liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers), nanocarriers (micelles, nanogels), protein-based delivery (penetrating peptides, exosomes), focused ultrasound, and most recently, a filamentous phage based nanocarriers. Filamentous bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and are not designed to infect eukaryotic cells. Recent evidence suggests that filamentous bacteriophages, such as M13, can cross BBB and enter the central nervous system (CNS). Researchers have been investigating the potential use of M13 as drug carriers, including the delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain. This entails modifying the bacteriophages to carry payloads such as drugs and using them as a delivery system. The BBB’s complexity and the potential risks associated with changing it necessitate careful consideration in the development of such strategies. M13 nanocarrier development is ongoing, and advancements may lead to new therapeutic options for treating infections in the CNS. However, it is important to note that this field is still in its infancy, and more research is needed to assess the feasibility and safety of using modified bacteriophages to cross the BBB. This brief review attempts to compile current research on the potential use of bacteriophages for drug transport across the BBB.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Damage Detection After Pesticide Exposure<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Thiacloprid is an insecticide of the neonicotinoid family that acts on the insect’s nAChR receptor and causes its paralysis and subsequent death. The genotoxicity of the insecticide Calypso<sup>®</sup> 480 SC (with the active substance thiacloprid) to human peripheral lymphocytes was examined <italic>in vitro</italic> by comet analysis and phosphorylated H2AX, where we detected DNA breaks. To detect DNA damage in comet analysis, we used thiacloprid-based insecticide in three different concentrations (60, 240, and 480 μ<sup>−1</sup>) during 2 h of exposure. We recorded a statistically significant percentage of damage at a concentration of 240 and 480 μ<sup>−1</sup>. We monitored the toxicity of thiacloprid using yH2AX foci, and we did not observe a statistically significant number of foci compared to the negative control.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Lungworms Infection in Tiaret (Algeria): Prevalence, Species Involved, and Pathological Findings<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lungworm infections are known to be frequent and responsible for substantial economic losses in ruminants. They are caused by <italic>Dictyocaulus filaria</italic> and various species belonging to the Protostrongylidae family of nematodes. This present study was conducted at the Tiaret municipal slaughterhouse and the parasitology laboratory of the veterinary institute for six months, from November 2016 to April 2017. The study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of lungworm infections and the determination of the circulating species affecting sheep in the region with a pathological study of infected pulmonary tissue sections. The overall incidence of the pathology in sheep was 26 % (240/921). The identified species were <italic>Muellerius capillaris </italic>43 %, <italic>Neostrongylus linearis </italic>8 %, <italic>Cystocaulus ocreatus </italic>4 %, <italic>Dictyocaulus filaria </italic>3 %, <italic>Protostrongylus rufescens </italic>1 %, and mixed infestations 42 %. The histological examination of corresponding lesions has revealed pneumonia-type, and bronchopneumonia, inflammatory lesions, with a predominance of mononuclear cells, necrosis of bronchial epithelium, and pulmonary parenchyma as well as hyperplasia of the bronchiolar epithelium. Prevention and control of these parasites is therefore essential for releasing the potential of sheep production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Inputs and Needs: Impact on Milk Production and Body Reserves in Dairy Cows<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Algeria is a major importer of milk and dairy cows, with the Holstein and Monbéliarde breeds being the most common. Adapting these cows to their new environment poses a significant challenge in maintaining their original performance. This research aims to determine how feed input and milk production relate to body condition score (BCS) and energy reserves. Over three lactation periods, two flocks of dairy cows, 20 Prim’Holstein (PH) and 20 Montbéliarde (MB), pregnant at 5.6 ± 0.4 (PH) and 5.5 ± 0.4 (MB) months, were monitored under the same rearing conditions. The staple diet consisted of barley silage, green clover, grain barley, and wheat bran, with concentrate consumed twice daily during the milking period. Throughout three lactation periods, the state of body reserves deteriorated gradually, reaching BCS values below 2. In the first lactation, milk production was 4,211 ± 340 kg for MB and 3,965 ± 328 kg for PH, 5,024 ± 360 kg (MB) and 4,660 ± 420 kg (PH) in the second lactation and 5,700 ± 530 kg (MB) and 5,180 ± 400 kg (PH) in the third lactation. During the first week of lactation, the energy needs coverage rates for PH and MB were only 70 % and 77 %, respectively, while on the 30th day they were 66 % and 74 %, respectively. The balance between needs and inputs is restored at 120 %, starting on the 90th day of lactation. This energy deficit was recurring in both breeds and occurred during subsequent lactation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Diseases in Dogs ‒ A Survey in Veterinary Facilities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Skin diseases in dogs are very often the reason for visiting the veterinarian. For the successful management of a dermatological disease, accurate diagnosis, correct setting of the treatment and cooperation of the owner are necessary. This article provides a summary of information related to the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases in dogs obtained from 50 veterinary facilities in Slovakia. In the monitored veterinary facilities, the most common dermatoses are skin diseases due to immune disorders, followed by bacterial and parasitic skin diseases. For the prevention of external parasites (ticks, fleas), tablets containing fluralaner, sarolaner and afoxolaner are increasingly preferred, even though spot-on preparations, especially those containing fipronil, maintain a constant position in prevention. Among the most commonly used ATBs in the treatment of skin bacterial infections are amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and cephalexin. Currently, the veterinary medicine with the active substance oclacitinib and the medicine containing lokivetmab are coming to the fore in the treatment of allergies in dogs, while veterinarians are trying to limit the use of glucocorticoids.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Responses in Broiler Chickens Administered Lycopene During the Hot-Dry Season<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study evaluates the effects of lycopene administration on body weight, mortality, cloacal temperature, and haematological responses, in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. 40 day-old broiler chicks were divided into control and lycopene groups, 20 chickens each. Each bird in the control group received olive oil (1<sup>−1</sup>), and lycopene at 10<sup>−1</sup> mixed with olive oil was given to each bird in the lycopene group by oral gavage once daily for 28 days. The dry- and wet-bulb temperature of the broiler chickens’ pen was recorded three times daily from days 8 to 28. The body weights were measured weekly. The incidence of mortality was recorded. The cloacal temperatures were measured on days 14, 21 and 28. The blood samples were collected for haematological analyses, on day 28. The results indicated a high overall temperature-humidity index (31.24 ± 0.43 <sup>o</sup>C) of the thermal micro-environment of the broiler chickens. There was no significant difference (P &gt; 0.05) in body weight. The percentage mortality in the control group was relatively higher compared to the lycopene group. Lycopene reduced the cloacal temperature responses and the daily fluctuations in broiler chickens. The decreased (P &lt; 0.05) heterophil:lymphocyte ratio and percentage erythrocytes haemolysis were recorded in the lycopene group. In conclusion, lycopene administration reduced mortality and improved cloacal temperature and haematological responses without exerting any significant beneficial or negative effects on the body weight in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Hygienic Quality of Meat Produced in a Lgeria: Meta-Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This meta-analysis aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the hygienic quality of meat in the context of Algerian meat production. A systematic literature search was conducted across various databases, yielding a pool of studies assessing the microbial contamination levels in different types of meat, including: poultry, beef, lamb, camel, sausages, and minced meat, within Algerian slaughterhouses and butcheries. A total of 25 studies met the inclusion criteria, with a combined sample size of 550 meat samples. The selected studies employed standardized methods for microbial enumeration: Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB). The collected data were synthesized using random-effects meta-analysis models to estimate the pooled mean bacterial counts, as well as to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The results of this meta-analysis, revealed considerable variation in bacterial counts across different meat types and sources. The overall pooled, mean bacterial count was 5.15 colony-forming units per gram (CFU.g<sup>−1</sup>), with significant heterogeneity observed (I² = 87.52 %, P &lt; 0.001). Subgroup analyses indicated that bacterial counts were notably higher in butcher shops, highlighting the need for targeted interventions to improve hygiene practices in these areas. Furthermore, sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the influence of individual studies on the overall results, and publication bias was evaluated through a funnel plot. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides valuable insights into the hygienic quality of meat in Algerian meat production, emphasizing the significance of TAMB as an informative indicator. The observed variations in bacterial counts underscored the importance of hygiene practices throughout the meat supply chain, from farm to consumer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases and One Health Approach. A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One Health is a collaborative, multisectoral, and transdisciplinary approach with the goal of achieving optimal health outcomes recognizing the interconnection between people, animals, plants, and their shared environments. The main goal of this paper is to highlight the significance of the One Health concept in relation to the large group of diseases that transmits through arthropods and their worldwide distribution, with a closer look at the zoonoses. The importance of knowledge increases as the globalization and climate changes increases the likelihood of transmission, as both cause favourable conditions for transmission of bacteria and viruses. The increase in reservoir abundance, climate change, changing habitat structure, socio-political changes, and import of animals for welfare reasons, trade and traveling are considered to be potential factors for the pathogen and vector introductions to new areas. This article highlights the selected agents of bacterial zoonoses as sources of human and animal diseases and shows the number of cases of Lyme disease, which is the most common bacterial tick-borne disease in humans in Slovakia and Norway, and the trend in incidence over the past twelve years.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Reproduction Activity on Algerian Dairy Cattle Farms<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to evaluate the reproductive monitoring activity in Algerian dairy cattle herds. A participatory survey was conducted with 75 veterinarians and inseminators affiliated with the National Centre for Artificial Insemination and Genetic Improvement (CNIAAG). Reproduction monitoring represents a primary activity for 12 % of the veterinarians. Only 10.8 % of veterinarians earn more than 50 % of the yearly global revenue from reproductive activities. 85.3 % of the veterinarians fix the herd monitoring objectives, 64 % use a paper notebook to manage breeding data, and only 22 % establish a reproduction statute inventory. The most requested information before the visit is the last mating (80 %), oestrus (80 %), and calving (90.7 %) dates. Monthly routine fertility visits were practiced by 32 % of the interviewed veterinarians, and only about half of them (52 %) checked the cows systematically at post-partum. The pregnancy diagnosis is practiced by 72 % of veterinarians at 56.71 ± 22.82 days postpartum and confirmed at 91.85 ± 26.94 days postpartum. Furthermore, 73 % of the respondents systematically examined non-pregnant cows after 3 matings; however, only 48 % simultaneously recorded the cows’ body condition score. Regarding postpartum genital pathology control 38.7 %, 22.7 %, and 26.7 % of veterinarians always perform manual transrectal exploration of the genital tract, vaginoscopy, and ultrasonography, respectively. While, 73 % of them examine the cows’ cyclicity when evaluating uterine involution. A substantial proportion of veterinarians included monitoring feed, milk quality/mammary disease, and livestock diseases, in their regular visits. The dairy farmers must be advised of the economic benefits of routine fertility monitoring to achieve good herd reproductive traits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Characteristic of Drones of Different Origin<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Computer-based methods help beekeepers and scientists in apidology and bee research. Using software Optika Vision Pro in this study, three body morphological characteristics has been applied to honeybees’ drones (<italic>Apis mellifera carnica</italic>) of different origin in identification of difference among them. All three measured body morphological characteristics (body length, forewing length, and head length) were statistically different between drones originated from colonies with mated queens and drones originated from colonies with unfertilised queen and/or with unfertilised worker bee(s), respectively, thus making them potentially more successful in queen fertilization and secondary colony development and productivity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of NDVI-2 Vaccine EID Titre Values After Three Weeks of Freight Under Cold Monitored Storage Condition<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The EID<sub>50</sub> titres per dose values of three batches of NDVI-2 were determined as log<sub>10</sub> EID<sub>50</sub> 7.7, 7.6 and 6.8 after production, against reference EID<sub>50</sub> 5.5 per dose. These values were log<sub>10</sub> EID<sub>50</sub> 2.2, 2.1 and 1.3 above the reference EID<sub>50</sub> for NDVI-2. These vaccines were re-evaluated at PANVAC laboratory Debre-Zeit, prior to release. The initial EID<sub>50</sub> values were compared with EID<sub>50</sub> values obtained by the certifying laboratory, after three weeks of cold monitored freight. The packaged vaccine cold storage temperature of +1.9 <sup>o</sup>C prior to the shipment, was recorded with the aid of a temperature logger. The temperature logger was set to record and retain packaged vaccine cold storage temperature at hourly intervals during the freight. At the end of three-week freight, the temperature logger readings were analysed, and temperature range of -2.48 <sup>o</sup>C to 7.7 <sup>o</sup>C was observed throughout the freight. However, sudden rise in packaged vaccine storage temperature from 7.7 <sup>o</sup>C to 22.28 <sup>o</sup>C was noticed on the last day of freight. The initial EID<sub>50</sub> titre per dose values, when compared with EID<sub>50</sub> log<sub>10</sub> 6.5, 6.8, and 6.6 per dose obtained by the certifying laboratory after the cold monitored freight and re-evaluation, showed EID<sub>50</sub> titre loss of log<sub>10</sub> EID<sub>50</sub> 1.2, 0.8 and 0.6, respectively. The observed EID<sub>50</sub> loss could not invalidate these vaccine batches, considering that these had an initial EID<sub>50</sub> titre per dose values that were well above the reference EID<sub>50</sub> titre for NDVI-2. In Nigeria, and to our knowledge, this is the first recorded monitored cold storage temperature transit for NDVI-2.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Biochemical Profile During Early, Mid, Late Pregnancy, and Calving Periods in Dairy Cows in Algeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to assess the impact of pregnancy on biochemical indices of dairy cows raised in a semi-arid region of western Algeria. A private farm provided forty dairy cows for this study. The cows were divided into four groups based on their pregnancy stages: G1 included pregnant cows at 3 months, G2 included pregnant cows at 6 months, G3 included pregnant cows at 9 months, and G4 included lactating (calving) cows for 1‒2 months. All of the cows were raised under the same environmental and management conditions, following the regional customs. Twelve biochemical parameters were measured, including cholesterol (CHO), triglycerides (TG), total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), globulin (Glob), urea (Urea), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg). The results of the study showed no significant difference (P &gt; 0.05), in the concentrations of various biochemical constituents, among the four groups of dairy cows. The mean value of Glob slightly increased in early pregnancy, compared to late pregnancy, and non-pregnant cows. AST exhibited a significant difference, between non-pregnant, and early-pregnant cows. ALT levels significant decreased in late pregnant cows, compared with early-pregnant cows. Additionally, Ca levels showed a slight increase, during late pregnancy, compared to non-pregnant cows. As this is the first study of its kind on dairy cows in Algeria, the data generated during this research demonstrated the good management of the herd and can serve as valuable reference values for the scientific community.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Intravenous Glucose on Blood Potassium in Cattle<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to confirm whether a rapid intravenous glucose administration can lead to a significant drop in blood potassium levels in cattle. For this study, seven cattle were used according to internationally recognized guidelines for animal welfare. Glucose at a dose of 1<sup>−1</sup> body weight was administrated intravenously and then blood samples were taken before and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after administration of glucose for measurement of potassium and glucose blood concentrations. For statistical analysis of glucose effects on both glucose and potassium levels one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures was used. ANOVA showed a strong significant effect of the glucose administration on plasma glucose levels (P &lt; 0.001). The glucose administration resulted in a mean plasma increase from 4.2 mmol.l<sup>−1</sup> to 21.2 mmol.l<sup>−1</sup> within the first minutes after the administration followed by a steady decrease back to the initial values. In contrast, ANOVA showed no significant effect of the glucose administration on plasma potassium levels. In conclusion, the glucose does not have a potassium-lowering effect when administered in a single large intravenous dose.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Versus , Replacement or Dynamic Prevalence?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nosematosis is currently a frequently discussed disease of bees caused by two species of microsporidia: <italic>Vairimorpha apis,</italic> and <italic>Vairimorpha ceranae. Vairimorpha apis</italic> represents the original species of <italic>Apis mellifera</italic> parasite, and <italic>Vairimorpha ceranae,</italic> is a species introduced from Asia. In the last two decades, epidemiological data on the growth of the prevalence of <italic>V. ceranae</italic> infection have increased, which has led to its dominant position at the expense of its congener <italic>V. apis,</italic> practically all over the world. This process is assumed to be the result of asymmetric competition within the host, where <italic>V. ceranae,</italic> showed a better ability to adapt to higher temperatures, which was first manifested by its spread in warmer climate zones. However, several results of studies from recent years somewhat unexpectedly showed that it is premature to talk about the complete replacement of <italic>V. apis</italic> by <italic>V. ceranae</italic>. They pointed to a greater influence of seasonality and average temperatures in winter and summer in a given year on the result of the current prevalence of infection and co-infection of <italic>Vairimorpha</italic> spp., regardless of the climatic zone in which the colonies were located. Considering the different clinical and subclinical manifestations of infection caused by <italic>V. apis,</italic> and <italic>V. ceranae,</italic> and its impact on the defense, survival and productivity of bee colonies, the aim of our work was to analyze the factors affecting the distribution and prevalence of <italic>Vairimorpha</italic> spp.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue