rss_2.0Folia Veterinaria FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Folia Veterinariahttps://sciendo.com/journal/FVhttps://www.sciendo.comFolia Veterinaria Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6471dc33215d2f6c89db3466/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/FV140216Complementarity-Determining Region 3 (CDR3) of the Heavy Chain Only Antibodies: Therapeutic Perspectiveshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Neuroinfections are difficult and time-consuming to treat. The main bottleneck in therapy is drugs’ inability to enter the central nervous system (CNS) via the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Because the diffusion of conventional antibodies in tissues is limited by their large size (150 kDa), it is necessary to find an antibody fragment that can cross the BBB and treat CNS infections. Camelid heavy chain only antibodies, also known as nanobodies, possess a unique Variable domain of a Heavy chain (VHH). The VHH could be used as an alternative to conventional antibodies and have enormous potential in a wide range of medical and bio-technology fields. The VHH with an average molecular weight of 15 kDa can diffuse nearly four times better in tissues and tumours than common antibodies. A VHH is made up of four framework regions (FR1‒4) and three hypervariable complementarity-determining regions (CDR1‒3), with CDR3 being particularly important in interaction with pathogen epitopes. Experimental results have shown that the CDR3 domain alone can bind to epitopes and may contribute to reduce the size of the antigen-recognizing molecule, allowing it to be used more effectively to diffuse much better in tissues, and as well as to cross the BBB and biodistributed in CNS.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00192024-06-27T00:00:00.000+00:00First Report of Microfilariae Infection in an Adult Argentine Polo Pony Mare in Nigeria: A Case Reporthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Setaria equina</italic> is a common parasitic infection in horses that is transmitted by mosquitoes. The absence of previous reports regarding the presence of <italic>Setaria equina</italic> microfilariae in Nigerian horses highlights the need to confirm its existence in the region. Verifying the existence of this parasite would enhance our overall understanding of its global distribution, which could then inform the development of more effective control measures. This paper reports a case of <italic>Setaria equina</italic> microfilariae infection in an adult Argentine polo pony mare in Nigeria. The recently acquired adult Argentine polo pony mare was exhibiting depression and weight loss. Despite normal vital parameters, the horse had a poor body condition and no history of deworming. Laboratory analyses, including wet blood film examination, complete blood count, and serum biochemistry, revealed the presence of <italic>Setaria equina</italic> microfilariae and macrocytic hypochromic anaemia. Treatment involved a five-day course of intramuscular multivitamin injections and three weeks of subcutaneous ivermectin injections. Follow-up examinations demonstrated the absence of microfilaria and a return to an active and lively state. The case report details the clinical presentation, diagnostic process, and successful treatment of a recently acquired adult Argentine polo pony mare. A consistent deworming regimen is essential for horses, including those recently acquired, to prevent parasitic infections and enhance their overall well-being.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00122024-06-27T00:00:00.000+00:00The Occurrence of Hypothyroidism in Dogs in Elverum, Norwayhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hypothyroidism is the most common endocrinopathy in the dogs resulting from triiodothyronine (T<sub>3</sub>) and thyroxine (T<sub>4</sub>) deficiency. Deficiency of thyroid hormones is associated with metabolic and dermatological effects. Hypothyroidism can therefore significantly impact on the life quality of dogs. Several risk factors have been reported for hypothyroidism in dogs. The work focuses on the prevalence of hypothyroidism in predisposed breeds of dogs, and risk factors for the development of the disease. In a retrospective study, 24 patient records of 15 breeds of dogs diagnosed with hypothyroidism from Anicura Elverum Dyrehospital in Elverum, Norway, during 2021 were selected and categorized according to the breed. Dog´s breeds with the highest prevalence of hypothyroidism were concluded to be: English Setter, English Cocker Spaniel, and the Gordon Setter. Out of 24 dogs, five patient records from the most prevalent breeds were selected, and compared according to age, gender, and whether they were neutered, and body condition scoring. Our results showed, that increased age, and overweight (body condition score of 6‒9), are risk factors for dogs living with hypothyroidism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00182024-06-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Canine Babesiosis and Therapy Options – A Reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Babesiosis is a disease caused by intraerythrocytic protozoal parasites, which occurs in animals and humans. In dogs, babesiosis can be caused by eight species of <italic>Babesia</italic> gene: i.e., <italic>B. canis</italic>, <italic>B. rossi</italic>, <italic>B. vogeli</italic>, <italic>B. coco</italic>, <italic>B. gibsoni</italic>, <italic>B. conradae</italic>, <italic>B.</italic>, and <italic>B. negevi</italic>, which are bound to certain geographical areas. The disease has a focal nature and its transmission depends mainly on vectors, which are ticks of various species. Due to transstadial, and transovarial transmission, babesiosis is able to persist in natural foci in several generations of ticks, even without the presence of a susceptible host. Typical clinical signs associated with canine babesiosis are: fever, apathy, weakness, pale mucous membranes, icterus and hemoglobinuria. The disease can have an acute or peracute course, and subclinical and subacute infections have also been described. The clinical manifestations of babesiosis may vary depending on the particular species and strains, and their specific virulence, but also depending on factors that determine the host’s response to infection, such as age, individual immune status, and the presence of concurrent infections or other diseases. Medicines, from the group of antiprotozoans, a selected group of antibiotics, or their combinations are used for therapy. There are differences in the therapy of babesiosis depending on the <italic>Babesia</italic> species, the animal is often cured of the acute phase, but the parasite remains in the organism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00172024-06-27T00:00:00.000+00:00The Influence of the Combinative Continuous and Pulse Application of Lacto-Immuno-Vital Synbioticum on the Mucus Production Dynamics in Poultry Small Intestinehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A great interest is placed on the influence of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic preparations on animals in accordance with the principle of One health. The small intestine mucosa represents a complex ecosystem ensuring the homeostasis of the animal organism. The effect of Lacto-Immuno-Vital synbiotic preparation on the quantity of mucin produced in the broiler chicken small intestine was studied. The chickens (7 days old Hybrid ROSS 308) were divided into 3 equal size (n = 16) groups, housed in separate halls: control group (CG), and two experimental groups that received syn-biotic preparation Lacto-Immuno-Vital, – one with continuous synbiotic administration (EGC), and another with pulsed synbiotic administration (EGP). The preparation was administered to EGC group from the experimental day 1 to day 7 continuously every day (500 g per 1000 l of drinking water.day<sup>−1</sup>), and to EGP group from experimental day 8 to day 22 in a pulsed manner (every third day) at a dose of 300 g per 1000 l of drinking water. The experiment lasted 22 days. A significant effect on mucus production quantity was found in the duodenum (P &lt; 0.001), in EG after both types of synbiotic supplementation compared to CG. The comparison of continuous and pulsed supplementation was as follows: a significant effect (P &lt; 0.001) was observed after continuous supplementation of the synbiotic preparation, compared to pulsed supplementation in EG.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00202024-06-27T00:00:00.000+00:00The Use of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Veterinary Stomatology: A Reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Stem cells represent a very important part of regenerative medicine. They have unprecedented potential for the treatment of various diseases and injuries in both humans and other animals. Furthermore, stem cells are characterized by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate into specialized cell types and these exact abilities can be used in the development, maintenance, and repair of damaged tissues and organs. Stem cells can be classified based on their source and developmental stage, with further categorization according to their differentiation potential. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), particularly those derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue, have attracted significant attention in veterinary medicine due to their versatility and accessibility. This review highlights char-acterisation, sources and therapeutic applications of mesenchymal stem cell therapy in some diseases in the field of veterinary stomatology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00162024-06-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Gastric Ulcers in Pigs – A Reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Stomach ulcers are relatively common in pigs raised in modern large-scale farms. They can result in reduced daily weight gain, reduced feed intake, and sudden death, resulting in significant economic losses. They also belong to the most common findings in the stomach of pigs at slaughterhouses and are among the most important causes of peracute mortality, associated with bleeding into the digestive system of pigs. The aim of this article was to provide an overview of the most important etiological factors, and pathogenesis of gastric ulcers in pigs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00152024-06-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Pregnancy-Related Changes of the Blood Biochemical Profile in Ouled Djellal Ewe’s Breed Under Semi-Arid Conditions (Algeria)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In mammals, the pregnant female carries many physiological and anatomical changes. Biochemical profiles are very important tools for monitoring gestation progress. This study was designed to investigate pregnancy-related changes of blood metabolites in Ouled Djellal ewes under semi-arid conditions. Blood samples were collected from ten non pregnant multiparous ewes 4 weeks before conception and 4, 12 and 18 weeks of pregnancy age. The pattern of changes of some biochemical parameters were studied. Cholesterol level showed no significant changes during pregnancy, while triglyceride, AST and Ca decreased up to the 12th week of pregnancy, whereas the total protein, albumin, and creatinine increased toward the 12th week of pregnancy. Urea reached maximum levels at the end of the pregnancy, contrary to ALT that was significantly decreased. Glucose concentration showed a continual decrease varying from 2.08 ± 0.78 g.l<sup>−1</sup> at the first month of pregnancy to 0.35 ± 0.36 g.l<sup>−1</sup> at the 18th week of pregnancy. On the other hand, pregnancy establishment increased significantly the glucose, triglyceride, albumin, and urea, but it decreased significantly the cholesterol and creatinine levels. No differences were observed between pregnant and non-pregnant ewe for the rest of the parameters. These results demonstrated a clear evidence of pregnancy-related distribution of blood biochemical indices of Ouled Djellal ewe under semi-arid conditions. Some substrates and enzymes were mainly higher during the first half of pregnancy (triglyceride, AST and Ca), and some others increased from the mild pregnancy period (total protein, albumin and creatinine), while urea and ALT changes were observed at late pregnancy. The energetic demand increased with advancing pregnancy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00112024-06-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Detection of Resistant During Meat Processing in Food Establishmentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Meat is an important food source, the nutritional composition of which, in conjunction with its desirable taste, positively affects human development and health. From a veterinary point of view, meat obtained from food-producing animals is also a potential reservoir for foodborne pathogens, including <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>. The prevalence and spread of antibiotic-resistant <italic>E. coli</italic> represent a threat to public health. For these reasons, the aim of this work was to identify the isolates obtained from food processing plants and to confirm the presence of <italic>E. coli</italic> species based on phenotypic and genotypic expression. The susceptibility of the investigated strains to antibiotics and their combinations was determined using the modified microdilution method. Dominant resistance was detected against ampilicin, tetracycline, cotrimoxazole, ampilicin + sulbactam, ciprofloxacin, and cefuroxime. Resistance to ertapenem, cefotaxime, tigecycline, and ceftazidime was also detected sporadically. Frequent mechanism responsible for resistance was generated an incomplete fluoroquinolone resistance induced by mutation and penicillinase with low enzyme expression. The occurrence of multidrug-resistant strains was also detected. Selected <italic>E. coli</italic> isolates were subjected to detection of genes encoding resistance to tetracyclines (<italic>tet</italic>A and <italic>tet</italic>B) and quinolones (<italic>qnr</italic>A, <italic>qnr</italic>B, and <italic>qnr</italic>S) by PCR. The <italic>tet</italic>A gene was confirmed in 68 % of the isolates, and the <italic>tet</italic>B gene in one isolate. The prevalence of the <italic>qnr</italic>A gene was found to be 29 % in the examined isolates. Two isolates showed the presence of the <italic>qnr</italic>S gene. The <italic>qnr</italic>B gene, as well as a combination of the <italic>qnr</italic>A and <italic>qnr</italic>B genes, was detected in one isolate.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00142024-06-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Foot and Mouth Disease in North Africa: Epidemiology and Control Strategieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting livestock, caused by the Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV). The North African region is vulnerable to transboundary diseases, and the livestock population at risk is substantial. The genetic diversity of FMDV in the region poses challenges for control measures, as vaccination or recovery from one serotype does not guarantee protection against others. The risk of disease introduction through illegal animal movement is leading North African countries to follow strict WOAH sanitary measures and animal movement controls. Algeria has faced multiple outbreaks, some linked to the illegal movement of animals across borders. Tunisia experienced outbreaks in 2014 and 2017, with genomic analysis indicating connections to West African countries. Libya encountered historical FMDV incursions, and despite control efforts, illegal animal movement and inadequate facilities posed challenges. Morocco reported outbreaks in 1991 and later in 2015, introducing vaccination strategies. Egypt’s FMD history showed multiple serotypes causing outbreaks. Control strategies include vaccination, compensation for affected farmers, and control measures such as disease notification, surveillance, and movement restrictions. The compensation rates for farmers vary depending on factors such as animal type and the approved compensation approach. In conclusion, the complexity of FMD control in North Africa, highlights the need for regional collaboration, effective control measures, and ongoing vigilance to mitigate the economic and health impacts of the disease.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00132024-06-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Motor Recovery after Spinal Cord Trauma and Effect of Local Hypothermia in a Porcine Experimental Modelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0007<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study was aimed to assess the therapeutic potential (expressed by improvement of pelvic extremities motor functions) of a 5-hour local application of hypothermia with cold saline (4 °C), or saline at room temperature (≈ 24 °C) conveyed via perfusion chamber placed epidurally over the epicenter of spinal cord lesion in minipigs paraplegic due to acute spinal cord injuries (SCIs) inflicted through L3 laminectomy with the force of 8N, 15N, or 18N by a computer operated contusion apparatus. Eighteen 5–8-month-old minipigs (Göttingen-Minnesota-Liběchov crossbreed strains weighing 28–35 kg) were randomly divided into 6 subgroups (each containing three animals) another 3 minipigs were added as sham controls. To evaluate the pelvic extremities motor recovery was used the porcine 20-point neurological scale. Regular evaluations of motor scores showed gradual spontaneous recovery of this parameter in all experimental animals, however, the best results achieved minipigs after SCI inflicted by 8N impacts. The data achieved in the study suggest that local application of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is well tolerated and may improve functional outcomes after SCI. Further experimental and preclinical studies in different SCI animal models are required before the introduction of the method in healthcare practice. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00072024-03-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Fosfomycin Resistance in Poultry Meat Associated with the Excessive use of Biocides During COVID-19https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0003<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The emergence of antimicrobial resistance has become one of the major public health problems. Although antimicrobial resistance naturally develops over time, its prevalence has increased due to the use of antimicrobial agents in the health sector and other contexts. This paper focuses on the rise in fosfomycin resistance of <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> isolated from poultry meat, coinciding with the excessive use of biocides during the COVID-19 outbreak in Algeria. A total of 134 <italic>E. coli</italic> isolates were identified from poultry meat samples purchased from the same butcher’s shops before and after the emergence of the COVID-19 outbreak. Univariate analyses were conducted using the ANOVA test for continuous variables and the chi-squared test for categorical variables. Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were utilized for statistically significant risk factors. Multivariable analysis was performed with binary logistic regression to detect an independent predictor. A P-value of 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Poultry meat purchased after the COVID-19 appearance was found to be associated with fosfomycin-resistant <italic>E. coli</italic>; fosfomycin-resistant <italic>E. coli</italic> isolates were more prevalent after COVID-19 (15.56 %) than before the COVID-19 outbreak (1.69 %). A significant difference in fosfomycin <italic>E. coli</italic> resistance was observed before and after the COVID-19 emergence (P = 0.009; OR = 10.68; 95 % CI 1.26–90.34). <italic>E. coli</italic> strains isolated from poultry meat are 10 times more likely to be fosfomycin resistant after COVID-19 than before the COVID-19 outbreak. It could be that the excessive use of biocides during the COVID-19 outbreak increased the risk of fosfomycin <italic>E. coli</italic> resistance in poultry meat.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00032024-03-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Three (3) Techniques in the Diagnosis of Subclinical Mastitis with Antibiotic Resistance of in Nigeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0006<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study was aimed at evaluation of two diagnostic techniques and the cultural isolation of <italic>Staphylococcus aureus </italic>for the testing of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows. A total of 144 milk samples from 36 cows were examined. Ten (10) ml milk samples were aseptically collected from each quarter into labelled sterile universal bottles. The California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the Methylene Blue Reduction Test (MBRT) were carried out on each sample, before cultural isolation (gold standard test) was conducted. Forty eight milk samples were CMT-positive and 60 samples were MBRT-positive, while the gold standard (<italic>S. aureus </italic>isolation) had 31 positives. The 89.5 % samples of CMT-positive were correctly identified by the test culture. The proportions of samples that tested negative for Subclinical Mastitis (SCM) that did not have the disease, which is a negative predictive value, are 97.9 % and 92.9 % for CMT and MBRT, respectively. The highest total resistance of <italic>S. aureus</italic> to antibiotics was detected for gentamycin and chloramphenicol (100 %), followed by streptomycin and amoxicillin at 80.6 % and 74.1 %, respectively. The control and monitoring of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows are of great importance to human health. A good management system constitutes the priority in controlling subclinical mastitis in lactating cows.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00062024-03-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Histomorphological Investigation of the Eye of the Tree Squirrel: A Preliminary Studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Squirrels are diurnal rodents with high visual acuity including unique properties well-suited for their natural environment. This study was conducted to explore some ocular microscopic features of tree-harbouring squirrels in the University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Two male squirrels were cage-trapped within the University premises. Light microscopic analysis was carried on paraffin-embedded eye samples harvested from the animals. The densely compacted stromal fibres, 351 ± 52.5 µm thick, formed the thickest part of the cornea, and the basement membrane of the corneal epithelium, 63.8 ± 13.0 µm thick, was notably positive with Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain. Strong pigmentation was present at the choroid as well as the iridal and ciliary epithelia. The multiple layering of the retinal structure exhibited densely packed ganglion cells at the ganglion cell layer which together with the nerve fibre layer was observed to be thinnest at the more peripheral portion but becomes thicker towards the optic disc. Strongly positive glia fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP+) cells with their abundant fibrous processes were demonstrated immunohistochemically at the retinal nerve fibre layer and the optic nerve. Histological features of the retinal cellular components of the tree squirrels investigated has thus highlighted the structural adaptation of these animal species to their environmental arboreal habitat and diurnal lifestyle. Findings from this study, while further noted to be similar to that in human, showed that African tree squirrels represent promising rodent model for human retinal/ocular research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00012024-03-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Detection and Sequence Analysis of B1 Gene in Tissues of Some Bird Species in Plateau State, Nigeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0009<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Toxoplasma gondii</italic> is a single-cell parasite capable of infecting almost all homeotherms posing a grave public health risk globally. There is limited available literature on the <italic>T. gondii </italic>strains circulating in bird species in the Plateau State, of Nigeria. Consequently, this study was carried out to identify and confirm <italic>T. gondii</italic> infection and also determine the relationship of the DNA sequences with those of bird species in other parts of the world. To achieve this, brain and heart tissues of 25 bird species were sampled and a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and sequence analyses of the B1 gene were carried out. The DNA of <italic>T. gondii </italic>was identified in the heart and brain tissues of 7/7 (100.0 %) of wild bird species, and 15/18 (83.3 %) of domestic local chickens (<italic>Gallus gallus domesticus</italic>) sampled. The evolutionary relationship among the <italic>T</italic>. <italic>gondii</italic> sequences in this study using phylogenetic tree constructed by maximum likelihood method showed the sequences shared a common ancestor with the Type I RH strain (GenBank: AF179871). The <italic>T</italic>. <italic>gondii </italic>sequences were in a cluster distinct from other sequences in the GenBank. Calculations of genetic differentiation and genetic diversity indices undertaken and collated revealed three haplotypes with higher haplotype diversity within the <italic>T. gondii </italic>sequences obtained from wild birds (0.667) compared with the sequences from local chickens (0.333). A 97–100 % homology among the aligned sequences of <italic>T</italic>. <italic>gondii</italic> in the study shows that only one strain type exists in all of the samples. This study has established the occurrence of <italic>T. gondii </italic>infection in asymptomatic bird species in the study area and portrays them as carriers, and potential sources of human infection.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00092024-03-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Structure of Soft Tissues in Congenital Unilateral Cleft Lip, Light and Electron Microscopic Observationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0008<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cleft lip (CL), palate (CP), or both (CLP) are one of the most common congenital abnormalities in humans, causing a heavy burden to the affected and their next of kin. We examined biopsy material from CL of seven children: Six 2 to 6 month-old babies and one 4-year-old boy. The samples were taken at the first surgical cleft lip repair. Light microscopy (LM) haematoxylin and eosin stained paraffin sections and toluidine blue stained 0.5–1 μm Durcupan sections from material processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), revealed abnormal “ragged” wavy muscle fibres in all seven children. The routine TEM confirmed our results LM; we found no other changes in the soft tissues in TEM; blood vessels of loose connective tissue and nerve fibres were normal. Therefore, we believe that myopathic changes in the cleft lip muscle fibres cannot be of neuronal origin. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00082024-03-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Mphages and the Blood-Brain Barrier: A Reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a protective barrier that prevents most substances from entering the brain from the bloodstream, including bacteria and viruses. Unfortunately, this restriction also applies to 99.9 % of therapeutics, posing significant challenges in the treatment of brain diseases. Overcoming this barrier is critical for effective treatment of neurological disorders. Several drug delivery systems are being developed to improve transport of therapeutic agent across the BBB. For example, nanoparticles (liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers), nanocarriers (micelles, nanogels), protein-based delivery (penetrating peptides, exosomes), focused ultrasound, and most recently, a filamentous phage based nanocarriers. Filamentous bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and are not designed to infect eukaryotic cells. Recent evidence suggests that filamentous bacteriophages, such as M13, can cross BBB and enter the central nervous system (CNS). Researchers have been investigating the potential use of M13 as drug carriers, including the delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain. This entails modifying the bacteriophages to carry payloads such as drugs and using them as a delivery system. The BBB’s complexity and the potential risks associated with changing it necessitate careful consideration in the development of such strategies. M13 nanocarrier development is ongoing, and advancements may lead to new therapeutic options for treating infections in the CNS. However, it is important to note that this field is still in its infancy, and more research is needed to assess the feasibility and safety of using modified bacteriophages to cross the BBB. This brief review attempts to compile current research on the potential use of bacteriophages for drug transport across the BBB.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00022024-03-22T00:00:00.000+00:00DNA Damage Detection After Pesticide Exposurehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Thiacloprid is an insecticide of the neonicotinoid family that acts on the insect’s nAChR receptor and causes its paralysis and subsequent death. The genotoxicity of the insecticide Calypso<sup>®</sup> 480 SC (with the active substance thiacloprid) to human peripheral lymphocytes was examined <italic>in vitro</italic> by comet analysis and phosphorylated H2AX, where we detected DNA breaks. To detect DNA damage in comet analysis, we used thiacloprid-based insecticide in three different concentrations (60, 240, and 480 μg.ml<sup>−1</sup>) during 2 h of exposure. We recorded a statistically significant percentage of damage at a concentration of 240 and 480 μg.ml<sup>−1</sup>. We monitored the toxicity of thiacloprid using yH2AX foci, and we did not observe a statistically significant number of foci compared to the negative control.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00042024-03-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Ovine Lungworms Infection in Tiaret (Algeria): Prevalence, Species Involved, and Pathological Findingshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0010<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lungworm infections are known to be frequent and responsible for substantial economic losses in ruminants. They are caused by <italic>Dictyocaulus filaria</italic> and various species belonging to the Protostrongylidae family of nematodes. This present study was conducted at the Tiaret municipal slaughterhouse and the parasitology laboratory of the veterinary institute for six months, from November 2016 to April 2017. The study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of lungworm infections and the determination of the circulating species affecting sheep in the region with a pathological study of infected pulmonary tissue sections. The overall incidence of the pathology in sheep was 26 % (240/921). The identified species were <italic>Muellerius capillaris </italic>43 %, <italic>Neostrongylus linearis </italic>8 %, <italic>Cystocaulus ocreatus </italic>4 %, <italic>Dictyocaulus filaria </italic>3 %, <italic>Protostrongylus rufescens </italic>1 %, and mixed infestations 42 %. The histological examination of corresponding lesions has revealed pneumonia-type, and bronchopneumonia, inflammatory lesions, with a predominance of mononuclear cells, necrosis of bronchial epithelium, and pulmonary parenchyma as well as hyperplasia of the bronchiolar epithelium. Prevention and control of these parasites is therefore essential for releasing the potential of sheep production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00102024-03-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Energy Inputs and Needs: Impact on Milk Production and Body Reserves in Dairy Cowshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Algeria is a major importer of milk and dairy cows, with the Holstein and Monbéliarde breeds being the most common. Adapting these cows to their new environment poses a significant challenge in maintaining their original performance. This research aims to determine how feed input and milk production relate to body condition score (BCS) and energy reserves. Over three lactation periods, two flocks of dairy cows, 20 Prim’Holstein (PH) and 20 Montbéliarde (MB), pregnant at 5.6 ± 0.4 (PH) and 5.5 ± 0.4 (MB) months, were monitored under the same rearing conditions. The staple diet consisted of barley silage, green clover, grain barley, and wheat bran, with concentrate consumed twice daily during the milking period. Throughout three lactation periods, the state of body reserves deteriorated gradually, reaching BCS values below 2. In the first lactation, milk production was 4,211 ± 340 kg for MB and 3,965 ± 328 kg for PH, 5,024 ± 360 kg (MB) and 4,660 ± 420 kg (PH) in the second lactation and 5,700 ± 530 kg (MB) and 5,180 ± 400 kg (PH) in the third lactation. During the first week of lactation, the energy needs coverage rates for PH and MB were only 70 % and 77 %, respectively, while on the 30th day they were 66 % and 74 %, respectively. The balance between needs and inputs is restored at 120 %, starting on the 90th day of lactation. This energy deficit was recurring in both breeds and occurred during subsequent lactation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fv-2024-00052024-03-22T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1