rss_2.0Folia Veterinaria FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Folia Veterinaria Veterinaria 's Cover Behaviour Prediction Testing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Dogs exhibit behavioural heterogeneity as a result of their close proximity to people as pets, working animals, or research animals. This variability stems from their natural talents as well as contextual effects. This document examines the several types of dog behavioural tests, including those that are used to evaluate dogs and others that are used to categorize individual animals. This study revealed a lack of agreement on all of these testing procedures. Individual variations in behaviour, or personality differences, may now be quantified and described in the working dog literature. The predictive association between certain dog behavioural features (if any) and crucial working results is less well-known.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Exterior Faults in Selected Slovak Rabbit Breeds<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the exterior faults in selected Slovak breeds of rabbits of different colour varieties according to a current Book of Rabbit Standards. Of 336 rabbits from 9 exhibitions organized in the territory of the Slovak and Czech Republics, 2 national medium-sized breeds of Liptov Bold-Spotted Rabbit (270 pcs) and Nitra Rabbit (66 pcs) were selected. The qualities and exterior faults of typical breed traits were evaluated in seven positions including: weight, shape, type, coat, top colour (eventually markings), under-colour (eventually intermediate colour), condition and health. Our evaluations showed that the most common exterior faults in these categories were in the: positions, shape, type, coat, and top-colour. In the shape position there were found significant exterior faults, such as slightly protruding hips with slanting rump, and worse legs position with loose skin on the body. In the type position, the faults observed in all selected breeds included: narrow chest, body too lean or too long, more delicate head with ears too fine and longer. The coat was usually thick and less elastic with a lighter under-colour at the base of the skin and non-sharply defined intermediate colour. In the top colour position of evaluated breeds there were numerous deficiencies involving uneven, and incomplete colour, and significant faults in the drawing. The data obtained in this study were innovative, as they represented a new approach that may help to characterize the Slovak breeds of rabbits included in this study and to select individuals with the best exterior traits towards improving the quality of these breeds.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Immunohistochemical Study of Smooth Muscle Cells and Elastin in Goose Lungs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There are many differences (morphological, physiological and mechanical) between the lungs of birds and the lungs of mammals. Birds have a more efficient exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide than mammals. In this article, we studied the presence of four antibodies (actin, α-smooth muscle actin, desmin and elastin) in the lungs of geese. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) immunoreactive to actin, α-SMA and desmin were observed in the primary and secondary bronchi and arranged as a continuous layer. In the tertiary bronchus (parabronchus), immunoreactive cells on α-SMA and desmin were observed as aggregations of smooth muscle cells in the septum tips in atrial opening. A small number of α-SMA and desmin-positive cells were observed on the periphery of the parabronchi and between the air and blood capillaries. The elastic fibres were found in the large bronchi in connection with smooth muscle bands. In the parabronchi the elastic fibres form an elastic membrane lining the parabronchial lumen. In the blood vessels, the elastic fibres form the inner and outer elastic membrane. The individual elastic membranes connect neighbouring blood vessels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Occurrence and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Methicillin-Resistant (Mrsa) in Layer Chickens in Kebbi, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health threat, and antimicrobial use in animal production for growth enhancement or prophylaxis contributes to the development of AMR. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> (MRSA) in poultry and farm attendants in Kebbi, North-Western Nigeria. A total of 207 cloacal and nasal swabs were randomly collected from four farms comprising 50 samples from each poultry farm and only 7 samples from farm attendants. The samples were analysed using routine bacteriological culture and identification techniques. Presumptive MRSA isolates were confirmed by PCR assay and AMR profiles of the isolates were evaluated using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Of the 207 samples examined, 37.5 % (75/200) of layer birds tested positive for MRSA and 71.4 % (5/7) of farm attendants were MRSA positive. All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, with an AMR index ˃ 0.3. The findings of this study indicated colonization of layer chickens and humans by multidrug resistant MRSA, thus highlighting the potential role of poultry sources of transmission of multidrug-resistant MRSA strains to humans and vice versa.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Parity and Days in Milk on Milk Urea Concentration and Milk Components in Holstein Dairy Cows<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this study was to assess the effects of parity and of days in milk (DIM) on milk urea (MU) and other milk components in Holstein dairy cows. Milk yield was lower (P &lt; 0.05) in primiparous cows compared with multiparous cows and tended to increase until the third parity and then decrease. The MU concentration was lower (P &lt; 0.05) at the first lactation than at the other lactations. Milk fat and protein contents were higher (P &lt; 0.05) in the primiparous cows than that in multiparous cows and were reduced until the third parity and then increased. Lower (P &lt; 0.05) milk lactose content was found in primiparous cows and tended to increase until the third parity and then decreased. Primiparous cows had lower (P &lt; 0.05) daily protein and fat yields compared with multiparous cows. The lowest value of milk yield was recorded during the first lactation with a peak of lactation between 61—90 DIM and a persistence of lactation of 3 %. The highest milk yield was confirmed at the third and fourth lactations with a peak of lactation between 61—90 DIM and a persistence of lactation of 7 % and 6 %. The effect of DIM on MU confirmed a significant (P &lt; 0.01) positive relationships in primiparous and multiparous cows. The lowest level of MU concentration was found between 0—30 DIM. The content of MU increased and the maximum was achieved between 271—305 DIM. It is suggested that although MU for nutritional management and measures of production or reproduction are used, non-nutritional factors should be considered.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Evidence of Methicillin Resistant (MRSA) in Pet and Stray Dogs Within Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Methicillin Resistant <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> (MRSA) is an important zoonotic pathogen capable of causing life threatening disease conditions in humans. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the presence of MRSA in both pet and stray dogs within the Sokoto metropolis. A total of 100 oral swabs comprising 50 each from pet and stray dogs were collected and analyzed using routine bacteriological cultures and molecular identifications. Out of the 100 samples examined, 15 % (15/100) were positive for MRSA with varying detection rates of 9/50 (18 %) and 6/50 (12 %) for the pet and stray dogs respectively. The statistical analysis showed no significant association between the occurrence of MRSA and the dogs (P = 0.401). The study revealed the presence of MRSA in dogs within the Sokoto metropolis, which presents health risks to pet dog owners, veterinarians, dog catchers and other individuals who may come into close contact with these dogs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Retrospective Overview of COVID-19 in Europe<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A disease of unknown origin connected with severe pneumonia was identified in Wuhan (China) in December 2019. It was named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The disease had rapidly spread all over the world, including Europe. The World Health organization (WHO) declared the disease a pandemic. The aim of this study is to summarize and to compare objectively the epidemiological situation of COVID-19 in European countries from 15 February 2020 to 31 December 2021. Due to the significant difference in the population of individual states, all data were calculated per 1 million people (parameter/1M). Cases/1M, number of death/1 M, and % of death (case fatality rate) were compared. The actual situation on 31 December 2021 was quantified by comparing the active cases/1 M in each European country. The situation in Europe has been compared also with those on the other continents of the world, respectively on 31 December 2021. In order to monitor the development of the disease spread on the national level, the European countries were compared after division into six regions: South, West, North, Middle, Balkan and East. These data were recorded daily from 15 February to 31 December 2021.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Contents of Selected Elements in the Blood Serum of Broiler Chickens After Supplementation of Humic Substances<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study was conducted to determine the concentrations of mineral substances, such as: calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn); in the blood serum of broiler chicks after supplementation of humic substances. Group 1 (G1) was supplemented with 0.7 % Humac Natur Mycosorb (HNMy); G2 with</p> <p>0.7 % Humac Natur Monogastric (HNM); G3 with 0.3 % HNMy; and the control group (GC) received a basal diet without any supplements. In the G2 group, the serum Ca level increased slightly compared to the other experimental groups. A statistically significant decrease (P &lt; 0.001) in the blood serum of Mg was detected in the broilers from group G2 (0.60 mmol.l<sup>−1</sup>) and G1 (P &lt; 0.05; 0.68 mmol.l<sup>−1</sup>) in comparison to the GC. The Zn in the blood serum of broilers from group G2 (22.05 µmol.l<sup>−1</sup>) was significantly increased (P &lt; 0.05) in broilers from group G2 in comparison to the control group (19.47 µmol.l<sup>−1</sup>) and G1 group (19.61 µmol.l<sup>−1</sup>). The serum Cu (12.72 µmol.l<sup>−1</sup>) was significantly increased (P &lt; 0.001) in broilers from group G2 in comparison to the GC (10.28 µmol.l<sup>−1</sup>). In the group G1 there was a significant decrease (P &lt; 0.05) in the level of the Cu in the blood serum (8.69 µmol.l<sup>−1</sup>) in comparison to the serum Cu in broilers from groups G3 (10.45 µmol.l<sup>−1</sup>) and G2 (12.72 µmol.l<sup>−1</sup>). The addition of Humac Natur Mycosorb (0.3 % and 0.7 %) in the feed caused a strong correlation in the blood serum between the Ca and Mg (r = 0.7494; r = 0.7648). The addition of 0.3 % Humac Natur Mycosorb in the feed caused a high negative correlation (r = –0.7078) in the blood serum between the Mg and Zn.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Prevalence of Sole ulcer in Dairy Cows Exposed to Heat Stress<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal thermal effect on the prevalence of the sole ulcer in dairy cows. The observations were performed on a Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy farm in Eastern Slovakia. The clinical signs of heat stress were recognised in several animals during the afternoon milking on July 8, 2015. The claw examination done three months after the heat stress episode was compared with three examinations: twelve and two months prior to the heat stress and ten months afterward. The orthopaedic examinations were focused on the prevalence of the sole ulcer. Statistical analysis was performed by running a chi-squared test. The temperature-humidity index (THI) on July 8, 2015, was 88. We found 15.2 %, 18.6 %, 28.1 %, and 12.9 % cows with sole ulcer in the autumn 2014, spring 2015, autumn 2015, and spring of the following year, respectively (P &lt; 0.05). In conclusion, the results of our observations showed that the heat stress in dairy cows can be associated with an increase in the prevalence of the sole ulcer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Correlations between Sodium Selenite and Vitamin E with Serum Macro-Minerals in Male Lambs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The effects of selenium and vitamin E (Vit. E) were evaluated on the macro-elements and their relationships were also surveyed. Lambs were divided into 4 groups of control, Vit. E, sodium selenite and sodium selenite/Vit. E (Se/E). Sodium selenite (0.1<sup>−1</sup>) and Vit. E (8<sup>−1</sup>) were administered. The mean blood selenium was high in sodium selenite. Selenium only in the Se groups was continuously increased. The lowest and highest blood selenium were in Vit. E and sodium selenite, respectively. The mean serum macro-minerals were within the normal range. The trend of calcium and magnesium in the selenium groups was to increase until day 60, but phosphorus was to decline. The lowest and highest calcium were observed in the control and sodium selenite groups, for magnesium in Vit. E and control groups, and for inorganic phosphorus were in the control group, respectively. The comparison of minerals showed that selenium had a significant increase from day 14 to 90 in sodium selenite. Selenium showed the most positive relationships with calcium and inorganic phosphorus in Vit. E and sodium selenite. Overall, selenium was correlated with macro-minerals on day 90 and overall sampling times were with calcium. In conclusion, administration of selenium with Vit. E increased selenium, which was more observed in the sodium selenite group. Sodium selenite alone or with Vit. E had no effect on the macro-minerals. The least correlation was observed between selenium and macro-minerals in the Se/E administration. The correlation between macro-minerals was positive. It was concluded that the effect of sodium selenite on treatment and prevention of selenium deficiency was more effective than other groups. Vit. E per selenium did not change the selenium concentration. Selenium administration was associated with an increase in calcium level and their co-administration is recommended.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Canine Intracranial Venous System: A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The intracranial venous system (ICVS) represents in mammals a complex three-dimensional structure, which provides not only for adequate brain perfusion, but has also a significant impact on: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) resorption, maintaining of the intracranial pressure (ICP), and brain thermoregulation. An intimate understanding of the anatomy and physiology of ICVS is fundamental for neurological diagnostics, selection of therapeutic options, and success of neurosurgical procedures in human and veterinary medicine. Since the intracranial interventions in dogs are recently performed more frequently than twenty or thirty years ago, the authors decided to review and report on the basic knowledge regarding the complex topic of morphology and function of the canine ICVS. The research strategy involved an NCBI/NLM, PubMed/MED-LINE, and Clarivate Analytics Web of Science search from January 1, 1960, to December 31, 2021, using the terms “canine dural venous sinuses” and “intracranial venous system in dogs” in the English language literature; also references from selected papers were scanned and relevant articles included.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Zearalenone Biodegradation by the Spp. and Spp.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, the biodegradation of zearalenone (ZEN) by cell suspensions of various <italic>Lactobacillus</italic> species (<italic>Lb. fermentum</italic> 2I3 (L1), <italic>Lb. reuteri</italic> L26 (L3), <italic>Lb. plantarum</italic> L81 (L4), <italic>Lb. reuteri</italic> 2/6 (L5), <italic>Lb. plantarum</italic> CCM 1904 (L6)), <italic>Bacillus subtilis</italic> CCM 2794 (Bs), and <italic>Bacillus licheniformis</italic> CCM 2206 (Bl); was investigated <italic>in vitro</italic>. All lactobacilli cell suspensions showed very good degradation efficiency (57.9—100 %) for zearalenone at the concentration 0.01 ppm. At higher concentrations of zearalenone, their biodegradation activity decreased significantly (0—13.9 %). <italic>Bacillus subtilis</italic> CCM 2794 was able to degrade zearalenone at concentrations of: 0.01 ppm (100 %), 0.1 ppm (74.5 %), and at higher concentrations of ZEN (1 ppm; 10 ppm), the degradation was 11.7 % and 0 %, respectively. For <italic>Bacillus licheniformis</italic> CCM 2206, no biodegradation of zearalenone was observed at the concentration of 10 ppm, but slight degradation (4.5—8.8 %) was found at lower zearalenone concentrations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Chronic Stress Indicators in Canines<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With a growing number of dogs abandoned, living in shelters, and being rehomed, it is important to distinguish behavioural responses due to stress in our domestic companions. Cortisol is involved in the stress responses in animals which generally enters the individual’s body into a “state of emergency”. Prolonged stress can lead to exhaustion, disease, and death. Chronic stress can be detected by evaluating cortisol concentration in hair. Most domesticated dogs respond well to hair collection, thus avoiding further stressors. The method is simple, relatively inexpensive, and non-invasive. Our experiment focused on assessing multiple parameters using a modified Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire to evaluate their significance with cortisol in hair samples from a diverse range of dogs. Each stress parameter was tested against cortisol concentration using a t-Test, i. e., the Paired Two Sample for Means. The effect of weight on cortisol levels was statistically significant (P = 0.03). This fact revealed that an increase in body weight correlated with an increase in cortisol levels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Deworming Schemes’ Efficacy for Adult Dogs with Mixed Gastro-Intestinal Helminthoses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Mixed gastrointestinal helminthoses, which combines <italic>Toxocara canis, Trichuris (T.) vulpis, Toxascaris leoninа, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum</italic>, and <italic>Dipylidium caninum</italic> in various combinations, are very common pets’ problems worldwide. It is unlikely necessary to choose between 100 % efficiency and for the patient’s body to heal the infected animals safely. The present work aims to develop an affordable scheme for adult dogs’ deworming, which will create a minimum load on the body due to the low drugs’ toxicity. Mixed breed dogs, 1—5 years old, representing both sexes, spontaneously infected with <italic>T. vulpis</italic> (100 % prevalence) in combination with other gastrointestinal helminths (from 12.7 to 45.1 %) were selected for study. Regimens combining Caniquantel<sup>®</sup> Plus (fenbendazole + praziquantel) and fenbendazole with a 24-hour interval were tested. After a single treatment of experimental animals with Caniquantel<sup>®</sup> Plus, no helminth eggs were detected in their faeces after three days, except for <italic>T. vulpis</italic>. Seven days after the start of the experiment, the intensity of infection of this nematode decreased by only 22.0 % (P &lt; 0.001). Bodies and fragments of dead helminths were found in faeces 1—4 days after de-worming, with <italic>T. vulpis</italic> isolated only in 2 days in small quantities (4.54 ± 0.21 specimens per 100 g of faeces). Two-stage deworming with Caniquantel<sup>®</sup> Plus and fenbendazole after 24 hours resulted in 100 % efficiency against eggs of all parasites after five days. Helminths’ bodies stopped excreting after four days, and <italic>T. vulpis</italic> was detected within three days in substantive quantities (from 10.03 ± 0.45 to 36.8 ± 1.2 specimens per 100 g of faeces).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (FHCM)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one of many cardiac diseases known in domestic animals, and it is especially frequent in cats of all ages. HCM is the most common heart disease in cats, affecting almost 15 % of the feline population. The Maine Coon and the Ragdoll breeds of domestic cats are shown to have a special gene that is responsible for the appearance of HCM in these breeds. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be detected by: echocardiography, electrocardiography (ECG), radiography, genetic testing, and a test including N- terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The most frequently used method used for clinical purposes is echocardiography. Patients with HCM will most of the time not have any clinical signs of the disease, which makes it difficult for the owner to detect that there is something wrong with their cat. Some cats, on the other hand, will get heart arrhythmias which can cause sudden death. There are several prognosis-worsening findings that may occur due to the hypertrophy of the ventricles. These include: Feline Arterial Thromboembolism (FATE), Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), and the Dynamic Obstruction of the Left Ventricular Outflow Tract (DOLVOT). The prognosis for HCM depends on the stage of the disease. In some cats, they are well-tolerated and are associated with normal life expectancy, but in other cats they can result in congestive heart failure, arterial thromboembolism or sudden death.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Vaccines for Lyme Borreliosis: Facts and Challenges<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a multisystem infectious disease abundant in the northern countries of the world and is caused by <italic>Borrelia</italic> species. Vaccination against LB is an effective way to prevent and reduce the number of diseases in endemic areas. Several vaccines have been developed and tested in the past, but no human LB vaccine is currently available on the market. This review aims to uncover and delineate various strategies and diverse technological approaches related to vaccine production. Furthermore, we characterize already tested vaccines, possibilities for their future development, and reasons for their failure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Observations on Some Biological Characteristics of Sensu Lato (Acari: Ixodidae) Under Natural and Laboratory Conditions in Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The brown dog tick, <italic>Rhipicephalus sanguineus</italic> sensu lato (s. l.) is a globally distributed tick of medical and veterinary significance. This study reports some observations on the biological characteristic of the brown dog ticks kept under natural and laboratory conditions in Nigeria. Variation in biological parameters was observed within the Nigerian <italic>R. sanguineus</italic> s. l. population kept under various conditions. A higher number of <italic>R. sanguineus</italic> exhibited the type 1 oviposition pattern than the type 2 pattern. The type 1 pattern was observed in 84.2 % and 80 % of <italic>R. sanguineus</italic> s. l. reared under laboratory and natural conditions, respectively. The pre-oviposition period was significantly shorter in ticks maintained under laboratory conditions than under natural conditions. Similarly, ticks kept under laboratory conditions laid significantly more eggs with higher egg mass weight than ticks kept under natural conditions. Furthermore, the incubation period and the total weight loss by female ticks throughout the oviposition period differed significantly between the two groups (P &lt; 0.05). The engorged <italic>R. sanguineus</italic> s. l. females kept at 4 °C survived for up to 21 days and remained viable producing fertile eggs. Egg of <italic>R. sanguineus</italic> s. l. kept at 4 °C for up to 63 days retain viability and were able to hatch to larvae after variable incubation periods when returned to ambient temperatures depending on the duration of storage at 4 °C. The results showed that the tropical lineage of the brown dog tick can survive and remain fecund at low temperatures, suggesting that it can be translocated and established in temperate regions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Potential Role of L. Extract in Cell Protection Against Toxicity Induced by Bisphenol A<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study is to reveal the potentially protective role of ethanolic extract of agrimony (<italic>Agrimonia eupatoria</italic> L.) against the cytotoxic effect of bisphenol A (BPA) <italic>in vitro</italic>, using an intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-1). The cells were exposed to different concentrations of BPA: 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 µ<sup>–1</sup> alone and in combination with agrimony extract (250 µ<sup>–1</sup>). The proliferative cell response was monitored for 72 h by a xCELLigence system or real-time cell analyser (RTCA), recorded as the cell index (CI) and expressed as a proliferative activity (% PA) compared to the control cells without treatment. The metabolic activity was measured by a MTS colorimetric test, performed after 48 h of treatment with the tested substances. The cytotoxic effect on cells exposed to BPA alone, in comparison to the control cells without treatment, was observed in both assays (P &lt; 0.0001). It was confirmed that BPA reduces both the metabolic activity and the proliferation of cells. After the cell treatment with agrimony, the metabolic activity had increased to reach over the control (101.52 %), while reducing the proliferation of the cells. The protective role of agrimony against cytotoxicity caused by BPA was observed after cell treatment with agrimony in combination with lower concentrations of BPA (12.5; 25 and 50 µ<sup>–1</sup>). The slight improvement in the adherence was observed in cells treated with these combinations, in comparison to the cells treated with BPA alone. On the other hand, the metabolic activity was slightly improved in cells treated with a combination of agrimony and BPA at higher concentrations (50 a 100 µ<sup>–1</sup>). This supported our assumption that agrimony can protect a model organism against cytotoxicity caused by BPA.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Prevalence and Phylodiversity of ESBL-Producing Coliforms Isolated from Ruminant Mastitis in Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The public health threat posed by Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing <italic>E. coli</italic> (ESBL-EC) in food animal production systems has attracted global attention. Data on the prevalence, diversity and genetic characteristics of ESBL-producing coliforms are key to advocacy on promoting responsible antimicrobial stewardship and proper planning of control strategies. The coliforms were isolated from 1052 milk samples of 160 cows, 103 ewes and 103 does with mastitis in Plateau State, Nigeria and analysed for ESBL production by phenotypic, biochemical, antimicrobial sensitivity and genetic characterization. The percentage of occurrence of clinical mastitis in cows, ewes, and does were 0.2 %, 0 %, 1.5 % respectively, while the percentage occur-rence of subclinical mastitis in ruminants were 18.1 %, 28.2 % and 38.3 % respectively. From the 677 isolates, 31.3 % (n = 212) were ESBL producing coliforms, with a prevalence of 48.6 %, 18.4 %, 12.7 %, 8.9 %, 5.7 %, 3.8 % and 1.9 % for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, C. freundii, K. aerogenes, S. marcescens, K. oxytoca and E. cloacae, respectively. The genetic characterization revealed a higher prevalence of <italic>bla</italic><sub>CTX-M</sub> than <italic>bla</italic><sub>TEM</sub> in the samples analysed (24.39 % vs. 12.19 %). High pairwise identity was observed among the <italic>bla</italic><sub>CTX-M</sub> and <italic>bla</italic><sub>TEM</sub> gene sequences obtained in this study, but they displayed high phylodiversity with sequences from ruminants and humans from other climes. The <italic>bla</italic><sub>SHV</sub> gene was not detected. Multidrug resistances especially to the commonly used antimicrobials; ofloxacin, gentamycin and streptomycin in veterinary practice in Nigeria were observed. This has public health implications considering the fact that consumption of raw unpasteurized milk is a common practice in some cultures in Nigeria. Such practise will facilitate the transfer of multidrug resistant coliforms to humans resulting in the complications of treatment outcomes. To the best of our knowledge this is the first genetic characterization of ESBL-producing agents from ruminant mastitis in Nigeria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00A 3-Year Case Report on an Atopic Patient with a Caninised Monoclonal Antibody Treatment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A 6-year-old, male, neutered, English Mastiff dog was presented for a second opinion due to chronic pruritus. The patient had been on methylprednisolone and chlorphenamine for four years. The diagnostic investigations included: swabs for bacterial and mycology culture, hair plugs for dermatophyte culture, acetate tape strips and deep skin scrapes, skin biopsies for dermatohistopathology, biochemistry, haematology, endocrinology, serology for canine scabies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing and serology for allergen specific IgE antibodies. The history and the diagnostics confirmed the diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis. This case report details the treatment with lokivetmab, which is a caninised monoclonal antibody drug. At periods of flare ups, additional treatments were prescribed, such as systemic glucocorticoids and oclacitinib in order to manage the clinical signs. The treatment showed good response to the overall treatment management during the three year period of this atopic patient.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1