rss_2.0Gender Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Gender Studies Studies 's Cover Masculinities the Early Republic of Charles Brockden Brown’s<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This essay examines Charles Brockden Brown’s first novel, Wieland (1798), particularly as it engages and critiques gender and nationalism in the fictive treatment of familicidal murders that took place in the eighteenth century. More broadly, Brown’s novel highlights the competing realities facing men and women in the early republic, as they navigated the shifting landscape of political and religious ideology in the turbulence of post-Revolutionary America. A close examination of Wieland offers a revealing glimpse into the tensions between patriarchy and femininity, republicanism and religion, and competing masculinities in the newly born republic that was limitlessly optimistic even as it was beset by national and familial violence.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Imperial Identity Seen Through Art. The Case of Maria Theresa – Considerations<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>During the reign of Maria Theresa (1740-1780) a reassessment of the role women played in a closed society occurred. The main question this article aims to answer is how one can identify these changes by analysing images with high symbolic value, which celebrated and presented Maria Theresa in instances of official relevance, images produced in a period when nations were designing themselves. The present article seeks to underline some of the most representative ideas on how the monarchical identity of Maria Theresa was constructed in art to serve political and propagandistic functions, in an age considered the richest in formal expressions, that is the Baroque, or the ‘Late Baroque’. Hereditary successor to a long line of Holy Roman emperors, Maria Theresa changed the perspective on monarchy and constructed a different identity, that of female agency. Metaphorical images and realism define the analysed portraits in order to demonstrate how the political and the natural body of the monarch combined to illustrate power and aristocratic descent. In my study, the theoretical works on the role Maria Theresa played as female heir to the throne of the Habsburg Empire (rex femineus) are to be viewed as main sources of the imagery surrounding her natural and political body. What I propose is an inquiry into the iconographic representations of Maria Theresa’s body of state, which was public and eternal, and thus privileged as a site of discourse for absolutist statehood.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Nan King’s Orientation in Sarah Waters’s : A Journey of Gender and Sexual Self-Discovery Following “The Slantwise Direction of Queer Desire”<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In Tipping the Velvet (1998), Sarah Waters explores the notion of “gender performativity” as studied by Judith Butler (1990, 1993). Its protagonist, Nancy Astley, becomes aware of her sexuality and comes up with doubts about her gender as responding to the stable label society has put on her. This naïve girl moves from performing gender on stage to cross-dressing off-stage amid the crowds of London, not following, as Sarah Ahmed (2006) puts it, “the straight line” (p. 70). The aim of this paper is to explain how this straightness – both in terms of direction and heterosexuality – is the term Nancy, later on renamed Nan King, does not feel comfortable with. Throughout the novel, Nan’s discovery of a whole world of sexual and identity possibilities leads her to look for her own orientation, as her position in relation to the rest of “objects” around her is a queer one.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00On Dictionaries and Gender Representations<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Placed at the interface between metalexicography and gender studies, this short article discusses issues concerning gender representations in present-day dictionaries. Evoking recent controversies regarding the representation of gender-related terms such as “cisgender” or “woman” in The Oxford English Dictionary, the essay goes on to discuss the prescriptive/descriptive opposition concerning lexicographical representations, taking its cue from previous approaches, which suggest re-envisaging the prescriptive/descriptive dyad as a continuum (Straaijer, 2009; Wilton 2014), or replacing this traditional binary model with a nonbinary approach (Nossem, 2018; Turton, 2020).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Female Authority Figures in Dorothea Tanning’s<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Little girls and young women are Dorothea Tanning’s recurrent archetypes, defining and structuring her conceptual archive concerning gender and the feminine. A celebrated painter and sculptor who shaped her artistic vision in the proximity of the historical avant-gardes, Tanning was also a writer who revealed the mystery and estrangement of family ties in Chasm: A weekend, a novel she started writing in 1943 and published six decades later, in 2004. This singular book offers a privileged dialogue between literature and art, as several episodes revisit and translate the high tension of some of her most representative paintings. From within a feminist framework, the article will discuss aspects of female authority and control in Tanning’s novel as dominant forms of female empowerment, present throughout her visual Surrealist oeuvre. I argue that examining these allegories reveals their role as connectors between the literary and the visual arts, between Dorothea Tanning’s fiction and her painting.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Performing Patriarchy in<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article aims to restore the pairing of Claudio and Hero to prominence. The positioning of Hero by Claudio and the play’s other powerful men is central to the plotline, especially in terms of the “nothing” of Hero’s supposed sexual incontinence, as well as being dramatically pivotal to the play’s meanings and structure. The fact that the scene is absent from the play underscores the crucial symbolic importance of the role of Hero to the patriarchal system, drawing attention to the ways in which her function needs to be noted and understood. The analysis undertaken here therefore redresses the balance, since the pairing of Beatrice and Benedick seems so much more alive to modern sensibilities. This article argues that the reason for this lies in their seeming attractiveness as characters who are more easily recuperated to a historically later form of patriarchy from Shakespeare’s period, one that resonates powerfully with the rise of individualism to elevate them over Hero and Claudio.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00BOOK REVIEW: Susan Watkins. . London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, 220p. ISBN 978-1-137-48649-3 with the Dead: The Sick Chick and the Psychic Crypt in Gail Honeyman’s<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper explores Gail Honeyman’s 2017 novel Eleanor Oliphant is Completely Fine from the perspective of Abraham and Torok’s concept of the psychic crypt. On one level the protagonist Eleanor, a thirty-year-old urban single woman searching for love, resembles a chick-lit heroine; however, Eleanor is deeply lonely, apparently autistic, suicidal and a survivor of childhood abuse and trauma. The paper argues that Eleanor’s difficulties can be understood as the consequences of encryptment which, in Abraham and Torok’s terms, is a disease of mourning where the dead loved one is incorporated rather than introjected into the psyche.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Reproductive Racism in Danielle Evans’s “Harvest:” Black, Chicana, and White Motherhoods in the Context of Reproductive Rights Discourses<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper explores the short story “Harvest” (2010) by African American writer Danielle Evans and traces the figurations of the racialized aspects of gender in “Harvest” within the theoretical frameworks of Black and Chicana feminisms, motherhood studies, and intersectionality. After situating the Black and Chicana characters’ anxieties around egg donation in the historical context of reproductive rights, economics, and the politicization of Black and Chicana women’s bodies, I discuss how the intersections of gender, race, ethnicity, and class impact the racialized gender identity of especially the Black protagonist and to a smaller extent that of her Chicana and white friends as well. I argue that the current practices of egg donation depicted in the story are imbricated in the wider system of racial capitalism that values women’s childbearing capacities differentially in terms of their race.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00BOOK REVIEW: Agnieszka Stasiewicz-Bieńkowska. . Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021, 277p. ISBN (ebook) 978-3-030-71744-5 Role of Gender in the History of the Professional Development of South African Nursing and Nursing Organisations<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Historically, female nurse leaders endeavoured to make nursing a profession by establishing nursing organisations that could act as agents of change. They were hampered by sociocultural notions of gender: men dominating society, politics, and the economy. Nurses therefore needed positive working relationships with male leaders. In South Africa, such gender dynamics led to the South African Nursing Association (SANA), being influenced by a political system, that is, apartheid, which had dire consequences for the profession. This article illustrates that historically the emerging nursing profession was intimately connected with a changing society: female nurses strove for economic and professional independence but were confined by a male-dominated (medical) society. South African female nurse leaders never openly challenged the political status quo. It is recommended that current South African nursing organisations advocate for gender equality and clarify how they can foster a health-care environment in which gender diversity is the norm.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00“Are You a Bad Boy?”: Variations of the American Adam in David Lynch’s<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper mobilises R. W. B. Lewis’ myth of the American Adam, articulated in 1955, to examine David Lynch’s 1986 film Blue Velvet’s formulaic use of this masculinity archetype. Lewis’ ideal type of innocent masculinity is replicated by Blue Velvet’s protagonist, Jeffrey Beaumont (Kyle MacLachlan), who must navigate the stereotyped conventions of good and evil against the backdrop of the idealised US suburb. Beyond the generalised assessment of David Lynch as the quintessential eccentric, this article brings to the fore the ways in which his work can be analysed as formulaic, paying special attention to the interaction between masculinity, spatiality, and dominant national mythology.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00BOOK REVIEW: Aliraza Javaid. (Palgrave Hate Studies) Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, 302 p. ISBN 978-3-319-52638-6/ ISBN 978-3-319-52639-3 Orthodoxy and Shakespeare’s<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Since The Taming of the Shrew is a particularly ambiguous play, its interpretation is predictably vulnerable to ideological excesses. The author argues that feminist criticism often exploits rather than explains the text, illustrates the techniques that are typically employed in slanting its meaning, and compares various interpretations in order to highlight a pervasive set of premises defined as ‘orthodoxy’.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Sisters of Inspiration. From Shakespearean Heroine to Pre-Raphaelite Muse<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper aims to make a connection between the female models of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the portrayal of Shakespearean heroines, given that the 19th-century school of painting was using the Bard not only as a source of legitimation and authority, but also as a source of displacement, tackling apparently universal and literary subjects that were in fact disturbing for the Victorian sensibilities, such as love and eroticism, neurosis and madness, or suicide. As more recent scholarship has revealed, the women behind the Brotherhood, while posing as passive and contemplative, objects on display for the public gaze, had more agency and mobility than the average Victorian women.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Masculinity, Parody and Propaganda in the “Transylvanians” Trilogy<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article focuses on the successful series of Red Westerns/Easterns produced in Romania in the late 1970s and early 1980s, known as the “Transylvanians” trilogy. The article will look at the films in the specific context of the period, one characterized by the increasingly idiosyncratic evolution of the Romanian communist regime and by growing economic difficulties, and will examine the way in which the films construct models of masculinity at the intersection between three different types of masculine models: those of the American Western (whether adopted or parodied), those of traditional Romania (such as the idealized, wise peasant), and masculine typologies derived from communist propaganda. I will argue that the films skillfully balance the tension between a critique of American models, in the face of which Romanian models emerge as superior, and legitimizing themselves as well as relying heavily in their entertainment value on the very models of the American Western they are supposed to subvert.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Exploring Gender Ideologies in Social Media Jokes During the Coronavirus Pandemic<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper investigates contemporary gender ideologies as manifested in social media during the 2020 coronavirus pandemic. Using a Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis approach, the author analyses jokes in memes and news items posted through social media in the form of videos, pictures, and texts. Specifically, it focuses on how gender stereotypes and ideologies are constructed and sustained through humour, in several themes built upon gendered representations. The author analyses the complex configuration of factors such as beliefs, stereotypes, and ideologies, which, closely interwoven, form the tapestry of the gender order. Additionally, in order to establish the constancy of gender ideologies over time and across cultures, a correlation is made between the gender ideologies reflected in proverbs and those manifested in the internet memes. The study contends that the complex role of humour enhances the subtle propelling of gender stereotypes and ideologies and ultimately, the existing gender status quo.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00 By Sarah Waters. A Way into Genderlessness Powered by Ocular Centrism And Spirits<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Affinity by Sarah Waters tells the story of sexless and genderless spirits (and of their human bodily forms, the spiritualists) slowly taking possession of one woman, Margaret Prior, who actually, unknowingly, shelters inner predispositions to spiritualism prior to the spirits’ intervention, giving thus credit to what her surname had proleptically heralded from the very start. It all occurs via ocular centrism, embodied by a powerful Gaze, slithering throughout the plot. It first mesmerises the spiritualists-to-be before catapulting them into a maelstrom of reversals and distortions. This twisting manoeuvre can be read as an attempt to outroot and erase previously assimilated societal constructs. The spirits’ genderlessness can then deploy unencumbered. A liberating emancipation is finally completed. This article first dwells on ocular centrism before dealing with all the reversals and tiltings progressively coming up to the surface, as well as with genderless metonymic substitutes acting on behalf of the spirits.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Social Acceptance and Section 377: A Case Study of Transgender People in Jammu City<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The Supreme Court of India recently decriminalized section 377 of the Indian Penal Code to outlaw the unfair violence and discrimination against transgender people. The paper argues that despite the legal acceptance of Section 377, the discrimination and social exclusion of transgender people continue in the Indian public sphere. The method of Interpretative Phenomenological Approach has been used to analyze the interviews of five transgender people from Jammu city. The findings suggest patterns and relationships within the data which are useful for understanding various ways in which transgender people negotiate and contemplate their lives outside the known social network they resort to. By analyzing the interpretations of selected transgender people, the study reveals that they bear the brunt of social and economic exclusion due to their gender identity on day-to-day basis.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00BOOK REVIEW: Sara Hosey. . Jefferson, North Caroline: McFarland & Co., 2019, 232p. ISBN (ebook) 978-1-4766-3736-5.