rss_2.0GeoScape FeedSciendo RSS Feed for GeoScape 's Cover of neighborhood sustainability in terms of urban mobility: A case study in Dhaka City, Bangladesh<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For achieving sustainable cities, sustainable mobility is one of the key elements. Policymakers around the world are taking different strategies to ensure sustainable urban mobility at the local level. However, sustainable urban mobility assessment at neighborhoods of a developing country received a significant research gap. This study attempts to close this research gap by deriving and comparing neighborhood sustainability based on three indicators: modal share, travel time, and travel cost, in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Using a two-step cluster model, neighborhoods were grouped into three clusters. Study results classified 41 (44.6%) neighborhoods as sustainable, 30 (32.6%) as potentially sustainable, and 21 (22.8%) as unsustainable neighborhoods due to less positive outcomes of sustainable mobility policies. Later, median income and jobs-housing ratio value for different neighborhood types validated the classification result. Findings from this study reveal insights for transport planners, development agencies, policymakers to identify areas where mobility of the residents needs to be improved on a priority basis; advocate further research on comprehensive sustainability assessment at the neighborhood level.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><label>•</label><p> There is a significant difference in modal share, travel time, and travel cost in neighborhoods.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>•</label><p>A traditional neighborhood of the city is comparatively more sustainable than newly developed ones.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>•</label><p> Neighborhoods with similar sustainability status tend to be clustered on the city scale.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>•</label><p>Median income and jobs-housing ratio can effectively capture the difference in sustainability level in terms of urban mobility.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>•</label><p>Sustainable urban mobility assessment can contribute city planning and development process.</p></list-item> </list> </p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Moving towards repolarisation? The population trajectories of medium-sized towns in Lower Lombardy, Italy (2010‒2020)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Although medium-sized towns are key components in the polycentric structuring of regional spaces, their evolutionary pathways are less clear than those of cities. This paper considers a set of four medium-sized towns with provincial capital status located in the southern zone of Lombardy, on the fringes of a densely urbanised area dominated by Milan. The population trajectories of these towns and their agglomerations (firstand second-belt municipalities) are investigated in the decade from 2010 to 2020, with a descriptive analysis. The research resulted in three main findings: 1) even in a challenging economic climate, the population trends of the towns considered were affected by proximity to the vibrant Milan metropolitan area; 2) all the towns have gone down the route of reurbanisation, but the suburbanisation process is still ongoing and very intense, especially for the Italian population; 3) there are gaps between cores and belts in terms of population distribution by age group and land take intensity, resulting in differing drives for population concentration or deconcentration.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><label>•</label><p> Medium-sized towns that are more able to “work together as part of a network” enjoy greater population vitality.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>•</label><p> Medium-sized towns are not a unitary group: even in an area featuring similar structural characteristics, their evolutionary dynamics differ, calling for place-based policies.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>•</label><p> A drive for population deconcentration is under way in agglomerations linked to medium-sized towns, powered by certain population groups, which could adversely affect the quest for a sustainable development model.</p></list-item> </list> </p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Socio-economic drivers of increasing number of slums in Chile<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Between 2017 and 2020 the number of households living in slums in Chile has increased by 73.52%, which has led the state to urgently develop housing solutions to reorient public policy in this area. This article contributes to this discussion through an exploratory statistical analysis to identify the socio-economic drivers that best help to explain the formation of slums in Chilean cities. The resulting predictive model is tested in Greater Santiago, the nation’s capital, with good results, validating its usefulness for the design of housing policies. Among the results, low household income and the presence of international immigrants explain an increase in the probability of housing precariousness, while the presence of renters and heads of household with postgraduate degrees decreases this possibility. In addition to the specific scope for the Chilean case, the article shares a methodological strategy that can be replicated in other countries and cities to develop similar diagnoses.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><label>•</label><p> A predictive model is developed using census data to identify the areas of the city where vulnerability of housing measured by socioeconomic factors may reflect precariousness of housing.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>•</label><p> Areas of the city with high rate of international immigrants and/or low-income households tend to predict precariousness of housing.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>•</label><p> Areas of the city where households’ heads have postgraduate degrees and/or are tenants tend to have less probability of developing precarious housing.</p></list-item> </list> </p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessing transformations in peri-urban areas using GIS: A case of Pune city, India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The unplanned expansion of cities has become a serious concern in India these days. They exert pressure on the city’s resources, resulting in uncontrolled expansion and unliveable circumstances. As a result, there is a need to design certain techniques to reduce this issue in order to have planned growth both within and outside the city. In this research, the demographic, physical and environmental transformations of the peri-urban areas of Pune City have been analysed using GIS and parameters have been suggested to develop a selection index to help identify the areas having urban traits and suggest separate urban local bodies for their governance and planning.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><label>•</label><p> Peri-urban regions experience a lot of changes as they transition from rural to urban features, and assessing these changes using GIS is critical for better planning of such areas’ development.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>•</label><p> This study provides parameters and creates a selection index to determine if periurban regions have high or low urban traits, and then determines whether those areas should be combined with current municipal boundaries or formed into new urban local bodies using the ArcGIS software.</p></list-item> </list> </p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Correlation between user activity at different rooftop typologies in residential buildings in a compact urban context<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The scarcity of public open space has compelled urbanites to use residential rooftops as an interaction space. In Dhaka, rooftops are used for various social and recreational purposes which has extensively increased due to COVID-19 restrictions. During this period, few rooftops are used frequently while few are less occupied. Hence, the study identifies different variables that impact rooftop activities and finds correlations between them using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The study further shows the direction for accelerating the use of rooftops as an interaction space in residential buildings.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><label>•</label><p> Rooftops represent important places of public life in Dhaka.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>•</label><p> The variables that affect the social and recreational activities of residential rooftop space are analysed.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>•</label><p>Statistically significant correlations were found between rooftop occupied by various services and number of activities, floor dampness and number of activities, the rooftop occupied by various services and a comfort zone with a pleasant view, parapet height and number of activities, and parapet height and safety.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>•</label><p>The paper sets recommendations for designing and managing rooftop spaces.</p></list-item></list> </p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00What places bait investments? Urban management stance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There are only little doubts that territorial competition related to attracting new investments is getting increasingly severe. This competition is closely connected with the wide spectrum of location factors that bear economic as well as social and environmental dimensions. While some of these factors are barely manageable, majority of them can be actively shaped via policies of different kinds and scales. Not surprisingly, intense differentiation applying to both time and spatial perspectives is concomitant to afore mentioned factors. The main objective of this article consists in the analysis and assessment of location factors and mechanisms offered by the managements of Czech towns to potential investors. At the same time, we will examine which location factors and mechanisms these towns regard as important for individual investors. As it turned out, the investment environment in Czechia cannot be considered entirely standard from international perspective, which subsequently rises transaction costs involved in investment location.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><label>•</label><p> In nearly one half of investigated Czech towns, there are no systemic standardized procedures how to deal with a new investor.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>•</label><p> There are distinct differences between average evaluations of location factors towns consider as important for investment preferences and average evaluations of location factors provided by towns to investors.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>•</label><p> When attracting new investors, towns rely primarily on their own endogenous activities. Individual towns should modify their communication with investors during covid/post-covid times.</p></list-item> </list> </p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Behavioural mapping and online data as tools for socio-spatial analysis of public spaces – Bratislava, Slovakia waterfront case study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Renewal, revitalisation, or reconstruction of public spaces is an inevitable part of the urban dynamics process. However, before any decision of future development is made, it is necessary to be acquainted with the given place. Mapping urban spaces is essential for recognizing the specifics of a certain area, while a relevant analysis should be performed on the basis of multiple data sources. Nonetheless, identification of relevant data sources as well as their limits, which need to be considered, represent challenges in the process. The study aims to highlight the importance of socio-spatial analyses as tools which help to familiarize place makers with public space as well as with the small nuances of its everyday functioning. Relevant online data sources for urban space analysis (Instasights, Strava) and their limits were explored, described, and applied to the area of interest - two banks of the Danube riverfront in Bratislava, Slovakia. The method was supplemented by mapping of human movement and behaviour. The combination of the methods is a relatively fast and simple way to get to know the spatial, social, environmental, aesthetic, and other dimensions of the given space. The interpretation of data illustrates possible outcomes that can be gained through mapping of public spaces before changes or development plans are proposed. Hence, the paper contributes to the repertory of the possible sources of online data that can be used for recognizing the specific characteristics of individual public spaces. This contributes to responsible decision-making about the future of the urban environment, built on data-based arguments.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><label>•</label><p> Online data represents a valuable source of city-related information as well as a relevant addition to other mapping methods.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>•</label><p> Mapping an area of interest is a necessary step of the data-based planning process and should always precede any development of urban spaces.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>•</label><p> A combination of data from various data sources which reflect life in public space can support user-oriented planning and contribute to responsible decision making.</p></list-item> </list> </p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Moral wrongs, indigeneity and the enactment of farmer-herder conflicts violence in South-Eastern Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Existing studies of the farmer-herder conflicts (FHCs) in Nigeria have not explored the political ecology of the conflict in South-Eastern Nigeria (SEN). Using the political ecology framework (PEF), the paper examines the nature of the FHCs in Nimbo and Awgu areas in SEN. Data were collected through field observations and in-depth interviews. The paper shows that resource scarcity or reduced farming and grazing spaces did not engender violent FHCs in the study area. Instead, actions of the actors that are perceived to be morally wrong are critical. Allegations of moral transgression such as rape, kidnapping by herders and claims that a herder was used as a sacrifice by villagers triggered the violent episode. The pastoralists are discriminated against on the ground of indigenous belonging only after being alleged to have morally transgressed by kidnapping and raping women. However, on the ground that a herder was allegedly used as a sacrifice, they felt also wronged. While the herders are discriminated against based on their non-belonging in the community because they are not indigenous, they have mount resistance by emphasising their citizenship rights and using force to maintain access to grazing spaces, thereby amplifying the farmer-herder tensions. Thus, while identity has contributed to the FHCs violence, moral wrongs enacted and amplified it. The paper contributes to the literature by arguing that while what triggers FHCs may be moral wrongs, moral transgressions can heighten identity constructions that get implicated in practices of exclusion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Landslides in Central Asia: a review of papers published in 2000–2020 with a particular focus on the importance of GIS and remote sensing techniques<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Landslides are among the major environmental hazards with large-scale socio-economic and environmental impacts that jeopardize socio-economic wellbeing in mountainous regions. Landslides are due to the interaction of several complex factors such as local or regional geology, geomorphology, topography, and seismic motions. The goal of this study is to review published articles on causes and effects of landslides in Central Asia throughout 2000–2020. In line with this goal, we have collected (using Scopus database), reviewed, and analyzed 79 papers published during 2000–2020. Our results revealed an increasing number of landslide studies in Central Asia during the period under investigation, with authors from Belgium dominating in the published outcomes (28% of total), followed by authors from Central-Asian countries. After then, the paper analyses the mostly applied models and frequently identified driving conditions and triggers of landsliding, such as aspect, altitude, soil types, precipitation, earthquakes and human interventions. Geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had not commonly been used in the papers between 2000 and 2010, and they have progressively been applied in landslide studies in Central Asia in the last decade. According to our analysis, geotechnical, geophysical and statistical methods were preferably used for the landslide studies in Central Asia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Earning like a Prof: Academic rank wage premia in Ústí nad Labem, Czechia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article attempts to estimate the size of the wage premia fetched by ranked academics on the academic market in Ústí nad Labem, Czechia. We employed a large (anonymized) data set of contracts and wages of employees of a medium-sized regional public university in Ústí nad Labem. We used OLS regression in various specifications to determine the wage premia of all educational levels (mainly full professors over associate professors/ docents and associate professors/docents over assistant professors/PhDs) while controlling for many attributes (of employees or contracts) possibly affecting wage levels. The local context regarding the topic of this article is discussed as well. The results generally confirm the intuition and show a clear pattern of increasing wages with levels and ranks. Focusing predominantly on the academic ranks, the monthly premium of associate professors (docents) over PhDs seems to be somewhere between 5 and 6 thousand CZK (185 and 220 EUR), and the premium of full professors over associate professors to an average of around 4 thousand CZK (150 EUR). The latter premium, however, exhibits systematic variation across different schools within the university: in some it is insignificant (around 0), while in others it is rather large and averages around 8 thousand CZK (300 EUR).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The landfill from nickel production in Danubian Lowland and its environmental implications<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main objective of the paper is to point out to the origin of the waste from the production of nickel at the landfill in Sereď and its physical and chemical properties that affect the environmental conditions of the site. The landfill of metallurgical technological waste in Sereď is the second largest landfill for non-ferrous metallurgy in Slovakia (Central Europe). It is located in the northern part of the Danubian Lowland, southwest of the industrial zone of town Sereď. We divided the research into two phases. The preparatory phase consisted in obtaining all available archival materials for the years 1956−1993, so from of the construction of the plant to the end of production. The production was lasting from 1963 to 1993. The second phase concerned field research and was associated with sludge sampling for laboratory analysis. The results of the analysis identified the physical and chemical properties of the sludge as well as the possibilities of its use in some sectors of the economy. The production process in the nickel smelter was stopped in 1993 due to economic (annual state production subsidy was CZK 250 million) and ecological reasons. The landfill at the city’s industrial zone has remained to this day, but it was sold to a private company in 1994, thus relieving of the state’s liability for environmental damage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Land-use change and quality of life in residential neighbourhoods: Evidence from Tehran, Iran<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Land-use planning generally aims to manage the development of urban areas to address the needs of the communities. In this regard, the multiple and often competing environmental, economic and social conflicts complicate the process of land-use planning. Commercial development in residential neighbourhoods is a common type of land-use conflict that can dramatically exacerbate these potential conflicts. Over the recent decades, many affluent neighbourhoods of Tehran Metropolis (the capital of Iran) have been confronted with an unbridled development of commercial activities within the residential areas. This paper seeks to understand the process of land-use change and its impacts on the residents’ quality of life in an affluent neighbourhood of Tehran Metropolis (Gisha Neighbourhood) by adopting a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods of impact assessment including semi-structured interview, purposeful field survey, and traffic survey. The results yield that incompatible land-use policies of the Tehran Comprehensive Plan and structural defects in the land-use change regulations led to an unbridled process of commercialisation which intensified non-local activities with city/regional service coverage along the main streets of Gisha Neighbourhood. The analysis demonstrates that despite improving the accessibility of residents to urban facilities and reducing their travel time/cost, the process of land-use changes in Gisha Neighbourhood declined the residents’ quality of life by its considerable negative effects on socio-cultural structures, landuse patterns, traffic flow, and human health in the residential areas of the neighbourhood.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Predicting the impact of future climate change on streamflow in the Ugam River watershed<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Climate change affects the environment and human life across the planet and it is expected that the negative consequences will be large, especially in developing countries, such as Uzbekistan. The objective of this study was to predict the impact of future climate change on the streamflow of Ugam watershed (Chirchik River Basin (CRB)) using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The outputs of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), in combination with Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5, were used as future climate records for the period 2019−2048. The SWAT model was calibrated and validated for the streamflow from Ugam watershed through using the observed daily flow data from 2007 to 2011. The calibrated SWAT model was used to simulate the impact of future climate change on streamflow in the Ugam River for 2019−2048. The results show that the stream discharge is expected to decrease by approximately 42% within thirty years, with a 1.4 °C increase in temperature and 286 mm decrease in precipitation. The peak point for the future period is 40.32 m<sup>3</sup> /s in 2037 whereas the lowest discharge, predicted for 2048, accounts for 22.54 m<sup>3</sup> /s. Our study enables to understand the impact of climate change on water resources in the Ugam river and to increase the adaptive capacity of water users and managers in the region.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Corporate social responsibility of small- to medium-size enterprises as a solution to out-migration: an example from the hospitality sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Local and regional authorities are often held responsible for implementing social and economic “population drain reduction” policies but at the same time are constrained with little fiscal power and inability to access resources. Being considered the “backbone” of local economies, it is on small- to medium-size enterprises (SMSEs) to come up with an “out-migration” solution which would be effective; yet at the same time sustainable, and adding social value to the local or regional development. Therefore, using a sample of 24 SMSEs from the hospitality industry environment, this paper empirically examines corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a prerequisite for employees’ affirmative work attitudes, such as job satisfaction (JS), effective organizational commitment (OC), and employees’ voluntary retention (R). Inspired by Carroll’s (2015, 2016) four-dimensional concept of CSR (economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic dimension), the findings suggest a significant causal relationship between CSR and the examined employees’ desirable behavior outcomes. However, it is mainly the ethical and legal dimension of CSR that influence all three employees’ affirmative work attitudes - JS, effective OC, and voluntary R. The contribution of this paper also lies in amounting to the body of scholarly literature on CSR in respect to employees. Most works focus on other stakeholders but employees, or are set in different cultural settings or geographical regions, mainly in Asia, and thus their findings might be difficult to implement in the Central European context.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><p>• CSR as a prerequisite for sustainable management of employees’ retention in small-to medium- size enterprises.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• CSR may act as an approach to reduce “out-migration” faced in local and regional development.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• SMSEs adding a social value to local and regional development.</p></list-item> </list> </p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Landscape valuation of historical tourism site in Northern Iran: A case study from Sheikh-Zahed Tomb<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Iran, the importance of landscapes and the need to preserve these unique assets is not particularly recognized especially at tourism and environmental sites. This study investigated the landscape valuation of Sheikh-Zahed Tomb in Northern Iran. The contingent valuation method (CVM), which is based on a survey model, was used to assess visitors’ willingness to pay (WTP) in order to preserve the landscape. The data used in this study were collected though face-to-face interviews with 157 visitors to a historic tomb in the first half of 2019. The results indicate that the average of respondents’ WTP to preserve the landscape was 0.47 $ per year. The annual total economic value (TEV) of the landscape is estimated to be 11 960 782 $. Respondents’ age, monthly income of the respondent’s household, the tomb accessibility, the tomb architectural attraction, and proposed price for the landscape preservation had significant effects on WTP. Proposed empirical model (CVM) provides a comprehensive framework for illustrating landscape valuation of natural heritages and historical tourism sites globally as well as in Iran.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><p>• The evaluation of landscape values of historical site of Sheikh-Zahed tomb (Iran) for visitors is presented.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• Both types of qualitative and quantitative variables affect WTP of visitors for the landscape preservation.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• Among the key factors, the accessibility to the landscape affects its value for visitors, and the pristine and original landscape of the tomb is important for visitors.</p></list-item> </list></p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of land-use land cover dynamics on runoff in Panchnoi River basin, North East India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Alteration of land-use land cover pattern causes severe consequences on the hydrological system by modifying the rainfall-runoff pattern in a region. The study aimed to investigate the impact of land-use land-cover dynamics on runoff generation in different geomorphic divisions of Panchnoi River basin. The study used the Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number method to estimate runoff generation in the Panchnoi River basin in a GIS platform. This study observed that the conversion of the land-use pattern in the geomorphic zones significantly enhances runoff. The Piedmont experience highest land-use change, where 64.17 km<sup>2</sup> forest cover lost to cropland and built-up lands, leads to a notable increase in runoff generation, i.e. from 1 076 mm (52.82% of rainfall) in 1990 to 1 467 mm (70.46% of rainfall) in 2015. The Flood plain and New alluvial plain generates high runoff in the basin as it mostly occupied by human-induced land-uses, i.e. 1 444 mm (72.72% of rainfall) and 1 360 mm (71.70% of rainfall) respectively in 1990, which increase to 1588 mm (79.20%) and 1507 mm (78.69%) runoff respectively in 2015, due to alteration of cropland to built-up lands. In the Old alluvial plain, a marginal land-use change observed resulted in moderate growth in runoff from 1 272 mm (62.35%) to 1 404 mm (66.79%). The study indicates land-use land-cover change invokes to increase runoff generation can give rise severe environmental and economic problems in the river basin, through the occurrence of flashflood and soil erosion.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><p>• Evaluation of the impact of land-use land cover dynamics on runoff is essential for containing flash flood and water resource management on a basin scale.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• Alteration of natural land covers has severe implications in the form of flood, soil erosion, and loss of biodiversity.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• Enhanced runoff due to land-use dynamics reduces groundwater recharge rate that may cause drinking water scarcity in the dry season shortly.</p></list-item> </list></p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Modelling urban mixed land-use prediction using influence parameters<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Mixed land-use is a popular concept in urban planning due to its expected role in improving environmental sustainability as well as citizen’s quality of life. Land use planning and regulations are not stringent in many cities like those in India, and policies are liberal towards mixed land uses. In these cities, mixed land-uses are a natural phenomenon manifesting under various influencing parameters. However, for studies on mixed land-uses, these cities pose data insufficiency challenges, as vital comprehensive spatial information related to land-uses is not available. Moreover, there is no standardised methodology established to assess the spatial distribution of mixed land-uses at the city level. This research has developed a GIS-based model using Weighted Overlay Analysis to predict and visualise the probability of mixed land-use at the macro or city level for the case of Pune, India. The model uses the easily available spatial data of influencing parameters of mixed land-use as input for prediction instead of comprehensive real land-use data. The model is validated by comparing the predicted mixed land-use intensities with established indicators of mixed land-use for four neighbourhoods. It is found that parameters that influence mixed land-use such as connectivity, grain pattern, population density and access to amenities can be used to predict the probability of mixed land-use. Around 35 per cent of the city area of Pune has more than 0.67 probability of mixed land-use. The model can produce the probable mixed land-use distribution across the city and can be used to compute mixed land-use intensities for neighbourhoods.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><p>• Mixed land-use probability distribution for Pune City, India is generated using Weighted Overlay Analysis in GIS.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• As vital spatial data of land-use was unavailable, the prediction model uses data of influencing parameters of mixed land-uses such as population density, connectivity, grain pattern and access to amenities.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• The mixed land-use probabilities predicted can be used to compute mixed land-use intensities of neighbourhoods. It is validated by comparing with traditional mixed land-use indicators.</p></list-item> </list></p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Moving Across Borders: Brain or brain gain? A comparative in Czechia and Germany<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The continuous drain of young university graduates leaving the country poses the threat of considerable loss, both economic and social. On the other hand, temporary labour migration can bring positive effects (experience, foreign know how). The objective of the article was to identify the attitude of German and Czech university undergraduates to labour migration and to explore the motivation factors that play a role in their decision-making. The research sample consisted of students of economics who study at regional universities in North Bohemia and neighbouring German Saxony. It was established that German students declare a greater interest in working abroad, but they tend to prefer temporary labour migration, while Czech students think more about permanently moving abroad, provided they are considering leaving for another country. Logistic forward stepwise regression was selected to establish significant explaining variables. Surprisingly, “higher salary” did not figure in the created models as an explaining variable in a single case. The amount of salary is an important motivation factor (both for Czech and German students), however, it is not the main factor which influences their decision to go abroad. The explaining variables “I want to live in a different country” and “the opportunity to gain international work experience” were shown in both cases. Governments as well as regional authorities should pay attention to the reasons why qualified workers decide on labour migration and they should pay due care to establishing why qualified workers want to live in a different country. Temporary labour migration should be encouraged and, at the same time, such conditions should be created to motivate highly qualified workers to return home.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><p>• The departure of young people with a university degree abroad represents considerable not only economic but also social losses.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• Temporary labour migration, however, can bring positive effects (experience, foreign know-how). German students declare interest in temporary labour migration, while Czech students prefer permanent migration.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• The salary is an important motivational factor (for both Czech and German students), but it is not the main factor that influences the decision to move abroad.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• Governments, as well as regional authorities, should pay attention to the reasons that lead qualified workers to decide for labour migration and to look closely at answers to why young people want to live in another country.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• Temporary labour migration should be supported by both government and regional authorities. In contrast, conditions should be created to eliminate permanent labour migration.</p></list-item> </list></p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Demographic and socio-economic factors influencing health inequalities in the Czech Republic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Health inequalities, which could be prevented by appropriate means in various areas, are generally perceived as a consequence of injustice in the society and are mostly the result of inequalities in social determinants. The main goal of this article is to determine health inequalities defined by demographic and socio-economic factors at the level of districts of the Czech Republic in the period 2007–2018(due to the specific differences in data, the Capital City of Prague region was not included). The following statistical methods were used to process the data: correlation analysis, principal component analysis, composite indicator, cluster analysis and multidimensional factor analysis. The value of the composite indicator shows a very favorable situation in the districts of Praha-východ and Praha-západ (especially high proportion of university students, low unemployment, age index, infant mortality, abortion rate and housing subsidies), and the unfavourable situation in the districts of Chomutov, Teplice and Most (especially high housing and unemployment subsidies, low rate of university students, negative migration balance, high rates of infant mortality and abortion). The results specify regional disparities of demographic and socio-economic indicators that can cause health inequalities: negative regional disparities (Most, Teplice, Děčín, Bruntál, Karviná, Ostrava-město and Jeseník districts) and positive regional disparities (Praha-západ, Praha-východ, Mladá Boleslav, Jihlava and Brno-venkov). The study presents the results of analyses based on the example of smaller territorial units (districts) and confirms the existence of regional disparities in accordance with research at the national and international level.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><p>• Demographic factors are connected to socio-economic environmental factors (poverty, education, social exclusion, unemployment, social security, family situation etc.) that lead to regional health inequalities.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• The regional disparities of selected demographic and socio-economic indicators of the districts of the Czech Republic that cause health inequalities were specified.</p></list-item> </list></p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Mapping the morphology of sprawl and blight: A note on entropy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The urban expansion from the city center to the suburb and beyond is indicated by Shannon entropy, a robust and versatile measure of sprawl. However, the metropolitan regionwide entropy masks the morphology of land cover and land use consequential to urban expansion within the city-region. To surmount the limitation, we focus on the block-group, which is a US census defined socio-spatial unit that identifies the metropolitan region’s development pattern structurally, forming tracts that comprise neighborhoods. The concentration and dispersion of land use and land cover by block-group reveals a North American metropolitan region’s commonly known but rarely measured spatial structure of its urban and suburban sprawl. We use parcel data from county assessor of property (GIS) and land cover pixel data from the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) to compute block-group land-use and land-cover entropy. The change in block group entropy over a decade indicates whether the city- region’s land use and land cover transition to a concentrated or dispersed pattern. Furthermore, we test a hypothesis that blight correlates with sprawl. Blight and sprawl are among the key factors that plague the metropolitan region. We determine the correlations with household income as well as (block group) distance from the city center. It turns out, blight is among the universally held distance-decay phenomena. The share of the block group’s blighted properties decays (nonlinearly) with distance from the city center.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><p>• The metropolitan region’s outward growth is highlighted by mapping the changing morphology of the block group within the city-region.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• The block group entropy is computed with land use (parcel) and land cover (pixel) data.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• The block group entropy change indicates the pattern of the land use and land cover transition with concentration or dispersion.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• We test the hypothesis that blight correlates with sprawl with statistical models.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• The block group’s blighted properties decrease (nonlinearly) with distance from the city center.</p></list-item> </list></p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1