rss_2.0GeoScape FeedSciendo RSS Feed for GeoScape 's Cover wrongs, indigeneity and the enactment of farmer-herder conflicts violence in South-Eastern Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Existing studies of the farmer-herder conflicts (FHCs) in Nigeria have not explored the political ecology of the conflict in South-Eastern Nigeria (SEN). Using the political ecology framework (PEF), the paper examines the nature of the FHCs in Nimbo and Awgu areas in SEN. Data were collected through field observations and in-depth interviews. The paper shows that resource scarcity or reduced farming and grazing spaces did not engender violent FHCs in the study area. Instead, actions of the actors that are perceived to be morally wrong are critical. Allegations of moral transgression such as rape, kidnapping by herders and claims that a herder was used as a sacrifice by villagers triggered the violent episode. The pastoralists are discriminated against on the ground of indigenous belonging only after being alleged to have morally transgressed by kidnapping and raping women. However, on the ground that a herder was allegedly used as a sacrifice, they felt also wronged. While the herders are discriminated against based on their non-belonging in the community because they are not indigenous, they have mount resistance by emphasising their citizenship rights and using force to maintain access to grazing spaces, thereby amplifying the farmer-herder tensions. Thus, while identity has contributed to the FHCs violence, moral wrongs enacted and amplified it. The paper contributes to the literature by arguing that while what triggers FHCs may be moral wrongs, moral transgressions can heighten identity constructions that get implicated in practices of exclusion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Landslides in Central Asia: a review of papers published in 2000–2020 with a particular focus on the importance of GIS and remote sensing techniques<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Landslides are among the major environmental hazards with large-scale socio-economic and environmental impacts that jeopardize socio-economic wellbeing in mountainous regions. Landslides are due to the interaction of several complex factors such as local or regional geology, geomorphology, topography, and seismic motions. The goal of this study is to review published articles on causes and effects of landslides in Central Asia throughout 2000–2020. In line with this goal, we have collected (using Scopus database), reviewed, and analyzed 79 papers published during 2000–2020. Our results revealed an increasing number of landslide studies in Central Asia during the period under investigation, with authors from Belgium dominating in the published outcomes (28% of total), followed by authors from Central-Asian countries. After then, the paper analyses the mostly applied models and frequently identified driving conditions and triggers of landsliding, such as aspect, altitude, soil types, precipitation, earthquakes and human interventions. Geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had not commonly been used in the papers between 2000 and 2010, and they have progressively been applied in landslide studies in Central Asia in the last decade. According to our analysis, geotechnical, geophysical and statistical methods were preferably used for the landslide studies in Central Asia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Earning like a Prof: Academic rank wage premia in Ústí nad Labem, Czechia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article attempts to estimate the size of the wage premia fetched by ranked academics on the academic market in Ústí nad Labem, Czechia. We employed a large (anonymized) data set of contracts and wages of employees of a medium-sized regional public university in Ústí nad Labem. We used OLS regression in various specifications to determine the wage premia of all educational levels (mainly full professors over associate professors/ docents and associate professors/docents over assistant professors/PhDs) while controlling for many attributes (of employees or contracts) possibly affecting wage levels. The local context regarding the topic of this article is discussed as well. The results generally confirm the intuition and show a clear pattern of increasing wages with levels and ranks. Focusing predominantly on the academic ranks, the monthly premium of associate professors (docents) over PhDs seems to be somewhere between 5 and 6 thousand CZK (185 and 220 EUR), and the premium of full professors over associate professors to an average of around 4 thousand CZK (150 EUR). The latter premium, however, exhibits systematic variation across different schools within the university: in some it is insignificant (around 0), while in others it is rather large and averages around 8 thousand CZK (300 EUR).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The landfill from nickel production in Danubian Lowland and its environmental implications<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main objective of the paper is to point out to the origin of the waste from the production of nickel at the landfill in Sereď and its physical and chemical properties that affect the environmental conditions of the site. The landfill of metallurgical technological waste in Sereď is the second largest landfill for non-ferrous metallurgy in Slovakia (Central Europe). It is located in the northern part of the Danubian Lowland, southwest of the industrial zone of town Sereď. We divided the research into two phases. The preparatory phase consisted in obtaining all available archival materials for the years 1956−1993, so from of the construction of the plant to the end of production. The production was lasting from 1963 to 1993. The second phase concerned field research and was associated with sludge sampling for laboratory analysis. The results of the analysis identified the physical and chemical properties of the sludge as well as the possibilities of its use in some sectors of the economy. The production process in the nickel smelter was stopped in 1993 due to economic (annual state production subsidy was CZK 250 million) and ecological reasons. The landfill at the city’s industrial zone has remained to this day, but it was sold to a private company in 1994, thus relieving of the state’s liability for environmental damage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Land-use change and quality of life in residential neighbourhoods: Evidence from Tehran, Iran<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Land-use planning generally aims to manage the development of urban areas to address the needs of the communities. In this regard, the multiple and often competing environmental, economic and social conflicts complicate the process of land-use planning. Commercial development in residential neighbourhoods is a common type of land-use conflict that can dramatically exacerbate these potential conflicts. Over the recent decades, many affluent neighbourhoods of Tehran Metropolis (the capital of Iran) have been confronted with an unbridled development of commercial activities within the residential areas. This paper seeks to understand the process of land-use change and its impacts on the residents’ quality of life in an affluent neighbourhood of Tehran Metropolis (Gisha Neighbourhood) by adopting a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods of impact assessment including semi-structured interview, purposeful field survey, and traffic survey. The results yield that incompatible land-use policies of the Tehran Comprehensive Plan and structural defects in the land-use change regulations led to an unbridled process of commercialisation which intensified non-local activities with city/regional service coverage along the main streets of Gisha Neighbourhood. The analysis demonstrates that despite improving the accessibility of residents to urban facilities and reducing their travel time/cost, the process of land-use changes in Gisha Neighbourhood declined the residents’ quality of life by its considerable negative effects on socio-cultural structures, landuse patterns, traffic flow, and human health in the residential areas of the neighbourhood.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Predicting the impact of future climate change on streamflow in the Ugam River watershed<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Climate change affects the environment and human life across the planet and it is expected that the negative consequences will be large, especially in developing countries, such as Uzbekistan. The objective of this study was to predict the impact of future climate change on the streamflow of Ugam watershed (Chirchik River Basin (CRB)) using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The outputs of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), in combination with Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5, were used as future climate records for the period 2019−2048. The SWAT model was calibrated and validated for the streamflow from Ugam watershed through using the observed daily flow data from 2007 to 2011. The calibrated SWAT model was used to simulate the impact of future climate change on streamflow in the Ugam River for 2019−2048. The results show that the stream discharge is expected to decrease by approximately 42% within thirty years, with a 1.4 °C increase in temperature and 286 mm decrease in precipitation. The peak point for the future period is 40.32 m<sup>3</sup> /s in 2037 whereas the lowest discharge, predicted for 2048, accounts for 22.54 m<sup>3</sup> /s. Our study enables to understand the impact of climate change on water resources in the Ugam river and to increase the adaptive capacity of water users and managers in the region.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Corporate social responsibility of small- to medium-size enterprises as a solution to out-migration: an example from the hospitality sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Local and regional authorities are often held responsible for implementing social and economic “population drain reduction” policies but at the same time are constrained with little fiscal power and inability to access resources. Being considered the “backbone” of local economies, it is on small- to medium-size enterprises (SMSEs) to come up with an “out-migration” solution which would be effective; yet at the same time sustainable, and adding social value to the local or regional development. Therefore, using a sample of 24 SMSEs from the hospitality industry environment, this paper empirically examines corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a prerequisite for employees’ affirmative work attitudes, such as job satisfaction (JS), effective organizational commitment (OC), and employees’ voluntary retention (R). Inspired by Carroll’s (2015, 2016) four-dimensional concept of CSR (economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic dimension), the findings suggest a significant causal relationship between CSR and the examined employees’ desirable behavior outcomes. However, it is mainly the ethical and legal dimension of CSR that influence all three employees’ affirmative work attitudes - JS, effective OC, and voluntary R. The contribution of this paper also lies in amounting to the body of scholarly literature on CSR in respect to employees. Most works focus on other stakeholders but employees, or are set in different cultural settings or geographical regions, mainly in Asia, and thus their findings might be difficult to implement in the Central European context.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><p>• CSR as a prerequisite for sustainable management of employees’ retention in small-to medium- size enterprises.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• CSR may act as an approach to reduce “out-migration” faced in local and regional development.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• SMSEs adding a social value to local and regional development.</p></list-item> </list> </p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Landscape valuation of historical tourism site in Northern Iran: A case study from Sheikh-Zahed Tomb<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Iran, the importance of landscapes and the need to preserve these unique assets is not particularly recognized especially at tourism and environmental sites. This study investigated the landscape valuation of Sheikh-Zahed Tomb in Northern Iran. The contingent valuation method (CVM), which is based on a survey model, was used to assess visitors’ willingness to pay (WTP) in order to preserve the landscape. The data used in this study were collected though face-to-face interviews with 157 visitors to a historic tomb in the first half of 2019. The results indicate that the average of respondents’ WTP to preserve the landscape was 0.47 $ per year. The annual total economic value (TEV) of the landscape is estimated to be 11 960 782 $. Respondents’ age, monthly income of the respondent’s household, the tomb accessibility, the tomb architectural attraction, and proposed price for the landscape preservation had significant effects on WTP. Proposed empirical model (CVM) provides a comprehensive framework for illustrating landscape valuation of natural heritages and historical tourism sites globally as well as in Iran.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><p>• The evaluation of landscape values of historical site of Sheikh-Zahed tomb (Iran) for visitors is presented.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• Both types of qualitative and quantitative variables affect WTP of visitors for the landscape preservation.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• Among the key factors, the accessibility to the landscape affects its value for visitors, and the pristine and original landscape of the tomb is important for visitors.</p></list-item> </list></p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of land-use land cover dynamics on runoff in Panchnoi River basin, North East India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Alteration of land-use land cover pattern causes severe consequences on the hydrological system by modifying the rainfall-runoff pattern in a region. The study aimed to investigate the impact of land-use land-cover dynamics on runoff generation in different geomorphic divisions of Panchnoi River basin. The study used the Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number method to estimate runoff generation in the Panchnoi River basin in a GIS platform. This study observed that the conversion of the land-use pattern in the geomorphic zones significantly enhances runoff. The Piedmont experience highest land-use change, where 64.17 km<sup>2</sup> forest cover lost to cropland and built-up lands, leads to a notable increase in runoff generation, i.e. from 1 076 mm (52.82% of rainfall) in 1990 to 1 467 mm (70.46% of rainfall) in 2015. The Flood plain and New alluvial plain generates high runoff in the basin as it mostly occupied by human-induced land-uses, i.e. 1 444 mm (72.72% of rainfall) and 1 360 mm (71.70% of rainfall) respectively in 1990, which increase to 1588 mm (79.20%) and 1507 mm (78.69%) runoff respectively in 2015, due to alteration of cropland to built-up lands. In the Old alluvial plain, a marginal land-use change observed resulted in moderate growth in runoff from 1 272 mm (62.35%) to 1 404 mm (66.79%). The study indicates land-use land-cover change invokes to increase runoff generation can give rise severe environmental and economic problems in the river basin, through the occurrence of flashflood and soil erosion.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><p>• Evaluation of the impact of land-use land cover dynamics on runoff is essential for containing flash flood and water resource management on a basin scale.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• Alteration of natural land covers has severe implications in the form of flood, soil erosion, and loss of biodiversity.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• Enhanced runoff due to land-use dynamics reduces groundwater recharge rate that may cause drinking water scarcity in the dry season shortly.</p></list-item> </list></p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Modelling urban mixed land-use prediction using influence parameters<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Mixed land-use is a popular concept in urban planning due to its expected role in improving environmental sustainability as well as citizen’s quality of life. Land use planning and regulations are not stringent in many cities like those in India, and policies are liberal towards mixed land uses. In these cities, mixed land-uses are a natural phenomenon manifesting under various influencing parameters. However, for studies on mixed land-uses, these cities pose data insufficiency challenges, as vital comprehensive spatial information related to land-uses is not available. Moreover, there is no standardised methodology established to assess the spatial distribution of mixed land-uses at the city level. This research has developed a GIS-based model using Weighted Overlay Analysis to predict and visualise the probability of mixed land-use at the macro or city level for the case of Pune, India. The model uses the easily available spatial data of influencing parameters of mixed land-use as input for prediction instead of comprehensive real land-use data. The model is validated by comparing the predicted mixed land-use intensities with established indicators of mixed land-use for four neighbourhoods. It is found that parameters that influence mixed land-use such as connectivity, grain pattern, population density and access to amenities can be used to predict the probability of mixed land-use. Around 35 per cent of the city area of Pune has more than 0.67 probability of mixed land-use. The model can produce the probable mixed land-use distribution across the city and can be used to compute mixed land-use intensities for neighbourhoods.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><p>• Mixed land-use probability distribution for Pune City, India is generated using Weighted Overlay Analysis in GIS.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• As vital spatial data of land-use was unavailable, the prediction model uses data of influencing parameters of mixed land-uses such as population density, connectivity, grain pattern and access to amenities.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• The mixed land-use probabilities predicted can be used to compute mixed land-use intensities of neighbourhoods. It is validated by comparing with traditional mixed land-use indicators.</p></list-item> </list></p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Moving Across Borders: Brain or brain gain? A comparative in Czechia and Germany<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The continuous drain of young university graduates leaving the country poses the threat of considerable loss, both economic and social. On the other hand, temporary labour migration can bring positive effects (experience, foreign know how). The objective of the article was to identify the attitude of German and Czech university undergraduates to labour migration and to explore the motivation factors that play a role in their decision-making. The research sample consisted of students of economics who study at regional universities in North Bohemia and neighbouring German Saxony. It was established that German students declare a greater interest in working abroad, but they tend to prefer temporary labour migration, while Czech students think more about permanently moving abroad, provided they are considering leaving for another country. Logistic forward stepwise regression was selected to establish significant explaining variables. Surprisingly, “higher salary” did not figure in the created models as an explaining variable in a single case. The amount of salary is an important motivation factor (both for Czech and German students), however, it is not the main factor which influences their decision to go abroad. The explaining variables “I want to live in a different country” and “the opportunity to gain international work experience” were shown in both cases. Governments as well as regional authorities should pay attention to the reasons why qualified workers decide on labour migration and they should pay due care to establishing why qualified workers want to live in a different country. Temporary labour migration should be encouraged and, at the same time, such conditions should be created to motivate highly qualified workers to return home.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><p>• The departure of young people with a university degree abroad represents considerable not only economic but also social losses.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• Temporary labour migration, however, can bring positive effects (experience, foreign know-how). German students declare interest in temporary labour migration, while Czech students prefer permanent migration.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• The salary is an important motivational factor (for both Czech and German students), but it is not the main factor that influences the decision to move abroad.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• Governments, as well as regional authorities, should pay attention to the reasons that lead qualified workers to decide for labour migration and to look closely at answers to why young people want to live in another country.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• Temporary labour migration should be supported by both government and regional authorities. In contrast, conditions should be created to eliminate permanent labour migration.</p></list-item> </list></p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Demographic and socio-economic factors influencing health inequalities in the Czech Republic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Health inequalities, which could be prevented by appropriate means in various areas, are generally perceived as a consequence of injustice in the society and are mostly the result of inequalities in social determinants. The main goal of this article is to determine health inequalities defined by demographic and socio-economic factors at the level of districts of the Czech Republic in the period 2007–2018(due to the specific differences in data, the Capital City of Prague region was not included). The following statistical methods were used to process the data: correlation analysis, principal component analysis, composite indicator, cluster analysis and multidimensional factor analysis. The value of the composite indicator shows a very favorable situation in the districts of Praha-východ and Praha-západ (especially high proportion of university students, low unemployment, age index, infant mortality, abortion rate and housing subsidies), and the unfavourable situation in the districts of Chomutov, Teplice and Most (especially high housing and unemployment subsidies, low rate of university students, negative migration balance, high rates of infant mortality and abortion). The results specify regional disparities of demographic and socio-economic indicators that can cause health inequalities: negative regional disparities (Most, Teplice, Děčín, Bruntál, Karviná, Ostrava-město and Jeseník districts) and positive regional disparities (Praha-západ, Praha-východ, Mladá Boleslav, Jihlava and Brno-venkov). The study presents the results of analyses based on the example of smaller territorial units (districts) and confirms the existence of regional disparities in accordance with research at the national and international level.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><p>• Demographic factors are connected to socio-economic environmental factors (poverty, education, social exclusion, unemployment, social security, family situation etc.) that lead to regional health inequalities.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• The regional disparities of selected demographic and socio-economic indicators of the districts of the Czech Republic that cause health inequalities were specified.</p></list-item> </list></p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Mapping the morphology of sprawl and blight: A note on entropy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The urban expansion from the city center to the suburb and beyond is indicated by Shannon entropy, a robust and versatile measure of sprawl. However, the metropolitan regionwide entropy masks the morphology of land cover and land use consequential to urban expansion within the city-region. To surmount the limitation, we focus on the block-group, which is a US census defined socio-spatial unit that identifies the metropolitan region’s development pattern structurally, forming tracts that comprise neighborhoods. The concentration and dispersion of land use and land cover by block-group reveals a North American metropolitan region’s commonly known but rarely measured spatial structure of its urban and suburban sprawl. We use parcel data from county assessor of property (GIS) and land cover pixel data from the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) to compute block-group land-use and land-cover entropy. The change in block group entropy over a decade indicates whether the city- region’s land use and land cover transition to a concentrated or dispersed pattern. Furthermore, we test a hypothesis that blight correlates with sprawl. Blight and sprawl are among the key factors that plague the metropolitan region. We determine the correlations with household income as well as (block group) distance from the city center. It turns out, blight is among the universally held distance-decay phenomena. The share of the block group’s blighted properties decays (nonlinearly) with distance from the city center.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><p>• The metropolitan region’s outward growth is highlighted by mapping the changing morphology of the block group within the city-region.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• The block group entropy is computed with land use (parcel) and land cover (pixel) data.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• The block group entropy change indicates the pattern of the land use and land cover transition with concentration or dispersion.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• We test the hypothesis that blight correlates with sprawl with statistical models.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• The block group’s blighted properties decrease (nonlinearly) with distance from the city center.</p></list-item> </list></p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00What is the current state of geoparticipation in Czech municipalities?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The active involvement of citizens in decision-making processes via geoparticipatory spatial tools is becoming a popular research field among geographers, GIScientists, environmental psychologists, political scientists and many others. This paper presents the idea of the Index of geoparticipation – an indicator-based index divided into three dimensions (communication, participation, transparency) that helps to evaluate the state of geoparticipation among Czech municipalities. It describes the current state of geoparticipation at the municipality level in Czechia. It aims to fill the research gap in finding which components of geoparticipation at the municipality level are being used, and how their use is affected by the size of municipalities and their membership of Local Agenda 21 networks. The paper builds upon an extensive dataset collected by the authors from all Czech municipalities (n=6 258) and presents various “shades” of geoparticipation in Czechia.</p> <p><bold>Highlights for public administration, management and planning:</bold> <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><p>• The highest average values of the Index of geoparticipation were obtained from the regions’ capital cities, followed by statutory cities, municipalities with extended powers, municipalities which are members of the Healthy Cities of the Czech Republic (HCCZ) network and cities.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• HCCZ member municipalities use geoparticipatory tools significantly more than the rest of the Czech municipalities</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• The communication dimension is the most widely implemented pillar of the Index of geoparticipation</p></list-item> <list-item><p>• There is no significant relationship between social exclusion and geoparticipation at the nationwide level</p></list-item> </list></p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Viticulture in the Context of Historical Landscape Structure in the Small Carpathian Region – Model Area of Rača<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The development of viticulture and wine producing has brought forward some unique elements of cultural land and introduced culture itself into the landscape. This culture has affected lives of many generations and determined the development of the society and the living environment. The form, the shape and the type of use of the respective elements of landscape structure has changed according to the change in technology, cultivation processes, orientation of production and the value system of the society. However, the recent viticultural rural land (together with residual areas of historical structure elements) in the vicinity of the capital city of Slovakia -- Bratislava has been under growing pressure caused by suburbanisation. This pressure directly threatens the existence of this kind of landscape and causes irreversible changes to landscape character. Landscape ecologists and architects have to face the issue of how to identify the valuable characteristics of the land and how to protects and keep them for the future generations. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the role of viticulture in the formation, existence and change of the elements of historical structures of agricultural landscape (HSAL). In addition, this paper presents the layout of various types of these elements, the methodical approach to their mapping and their present status. The results show that out of 141 localities where the HSALs were present in 1951, they could have been located only in 25 localities in 2011. These localities are mainly situated in private properties. However, many of the mapped HSALs are no longer used and in the state of deterioration. The lack of their management gradually causes their demise.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-06-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Patterns and Factors of Natural Hazard Induced Out-migration from Meghna Estuarine Islands of Bangladesh<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Migration behaviour of the Inhabitants of Meghna Estuarine region has been affected by several social, economic and natural causes. This migration has been thought as a part of social behaviour in this region. It has been predicted in several international researches that, human migration is going to be the worst possible effect triggered by the changing climatic scenario (IPCC, 2007). Natural hazards are also very much responsible for human migration. Purpose of this research is to find out the pattern and factors of natural hazards induced outmigration in Meghna Estuarine Islands of Bangladesh. In this empirical research, primary data has been collected through threestage socioeconomic survey. From this research it has been seen that, natural hazards like river bank erosion, saline tide, flood, cyclone, storms cause extreme havoc to the life and livelihood of the inhabitants of Meghna Estuary islands. Many of these situations force inhabitants to migrate temporarily or permanently. Indirectly these hazards also affects migration behaviours by affecting natural resources and income sources of inhabitants of this region. Natural hazards have two types of effect on migration behaviour; one is forcing rapid migration by riverbank erosion, cyclone etc. and the other is making situations for slow migration decision by disturbing the regular economic, social and environmental system. Two types of outmigrations are prominent in these islands; permanent household migration and partial migration – and these migration behaviours have been influenced by natural hazards of these study areas.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-06-26T00:00:00.000+00:00The Determination of Main Obstacles for the Developing of Highquality Documentation during EIA Process on Natura 2000 Sites<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The issues of protection and management of biodiversity has become one of main environmental policy tasks in Europe and elsewhere. As an application of precautionary principles the EU member states are required to assess projects and plans which alone or in combination with other plans or projects are likely to have significant negative effects on Natura 2000 sites. Several EU provisions set out the obligations for such assessment (the Birds and Habitat Directives, EIA and SEA Directives). One of the key steps in the assessment process is to carry out the EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) the final outcome of the assessment. If there is possibility of significant negative effects on Natura 2000 sites, the result of the process also has to be a part of EIS. The main goal of this study was to find out, what are the practitioners´ opinions and attitudes on the quality of EIS in Slovakia, especially in the case when the assessment process is related to Natura 2000 sites. Because it often involves practitioners from a very wide range of disciplinary and professional backgrounds, the contribution tries to show to what extent does the professional background or practitioners working positions influence their perception of EIS quality.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-06-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Spatial Diversification of Selected Demographic Phenomena in Polish Communes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Demographic potential constitutes one of the most important aspects of socioeconomic development by exerting impact on the growth potential and directions of the policy carried out at local and regional level. The areas concentrating young people, characterized by high birth rate and a positive migration balance gain growth potential not only for their current but also longterm development. The objective of the article is to present spatial diversification of the selected demographic phenomena in the crosssection of Polish communes in 2011 as well as to indicate areas presenting high and low growth potential.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-06-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Nieuw-Roeselare – landscape archaeological and historical geographical research on deserted medieval settlements in the borderlands of Flanders and Zealand<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper offers an introduction to the renewed landscape archaeological and historical geographical research on the lost village of Nieuw-Roeselare. Despite being the first site to be studied as a Deserted Medieval Settlement in modern-day Flanders, little is known about the village and its relation to the surrounding landscape. Nieuw-Roeselare is presented as a case study on lost and deserted medieval settlements in the context of the research history on the topic in both Flanders and Zealand. Past historical geographical and archaeological research at the site is described and the ongoing and future research is presented along with its potential for landscape studies and planning.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Is neighborhood level Jobs-Housing Balance associated with travel behavior of commuters?: a case study on Dhaka City, Bangladesh<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Being one of the densely populated cities of the world, city dwellers of Dhaka have to face severe traffic congestion daily while commuting for different purposes. According to the World Bank report, Dhaka is losing around 3.2 billion working hours daily as the current average driving speed is about seven kilometers per hour. To ease traffic congestion, urban policymakers around the world are concentrating on the geographical balance between the locations of jobs and housing. Despite the apparent acceptance of jobs-housing balance as a policy tool to guide urban development, little empirical research has been carried out on jobs-housing balance and its relation to the travel behavior of the residents. This study aims to close this research gap by: (a) quantifying neighborhoodlevel jobs-housing balance; (b) investigating whether there are any significant differences in commuting time and distance of the resident workers in correspondence with different Job-Housing Ratio (JHR) values of neighbourhoods. This paper uses Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZs) demarcated on the Revised Strategic Transport Plan as a unit of measuring the Job-Housing Ratio, and then, TAZs have been categorized into three groups, named as Housing-rich, Balanced, and Employment-rich, in terms of the recommended range of Job-Housing Ratio. Residents’ home-based commuting data have been calculated from 16,000 households who participated in Household Interview Survey of Revised Strategic Transport Plan 2015. Results demonstrate that Housing-rich neighbourhoods have a significantly longer commuting distance and time than both Balanced and Employment-rich neighbourhoods. Above all, both commuting time and distance show exponentially declining relation, but with a decreasing rate, in correspondence with JHR. The study output suggests that the achievement of a balance between jobs and housing in a neighborhood would be beneficial for the people to economize the commuting time and distance.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1