rss_2.0Gardens and Landscapes of Portugal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Gardens and Landscapes of Portugal and Landscapes of Portugal Feed Development of Industrial Activity in Tomar: a Study on the Unpublished Document of Bernardo Daniel de Moraes Requirement<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The exploration of the Nabão River in Tomar, Portugal, and its resources was an exclusive right of the Order of Christ, and it was constantly evoked by the religious of this order when there were disputes over the right to build water wheels, mills, and other structures along the river. This singular relation of power over the territory led to also a unique urban occupation in the Portuguese panorama. These interactions of power were documented in the unpublished manuscript of “Bernardo Daniel de Moraes’ Requirement” of the year 1799. The manuscript allows to cross boundaries between the political, economic and social context and the Order of Christ and their impact on the use of the Nabão River. Therefore, with this document as main source for this paper, we seek to demonstrate the relations between industrial activity, the Nabão River and the development of the city of Tomar in the turn to the nineteenth century, having the Order of Christ as a constant and structuring element in this gear.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Reviews: Mohammed El Faïz, Olhão: Universidade do Algarve, 2018 and Enlightened Techniques: The (Waterwheel) of Aranjuez (Spain)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This investigation deals about one of the most unique constructions in the Aranjuez hydraulic engineering program. The <italic>Azuda</italic>, a waterwheel, was built in the middle of the eighteenth century in an area close to the Renaissance canal of the Embocador. First, a spatial and chronological analysis of its construction process and its typology which combines a wheel and an aqueduct, is carried out. Next, it is contextualized in the cultural tradition of the Mediterranean norias and its functions are clarified as it covered both irrigation and recreation. Finally, it is argued how the cultural landscape of Aranjeuz was enriched with a work of great aesthetic value, with classical and Muslim roots, being reinterpreted under the spirit of the Enlightenment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Scope, Goals and Outcomes of AQUA’s Project the Water Supply System of the National Palace of Queluz Gardens<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The gardens of the National Palace of Queluz, built in the eighteenth century, are supplied by a complex branched water supply system. The aim of the current research is to analyse the hydraulic behaviour of the pressurised supply systems, namely the water pathways, the available pressure-head at the fountains and the water consumption at the gardens, by means of computational simulation for different operating scenarios. Results show that the difference of elevation was sufficient to assure the water transport by gravity from the surrounding water sources to the ornamental fountains, cascades and lakes and to provide 8-12 m water jets. Several scenarios are analysed showing that the fountains and cascades water consumption are in the range of 12.4 to 42.2 L/s, available water sources are enough to satisfy these demands for several hours per day and the two existing tanks, Curro and Miradouro, have sufficient capacity to store water to be used in the ornamental fountains and cascades and in the irrigation of the botanical garden and the horticultural area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Strength of the Tide in the Tagus Estuary<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the context of the history of science and technology, the article explores the use of tide force in the Tagus estuary, more precisely in the municipality of Seixal, from the tide mills in the early modern period to the project of the hydraulic motor in the nineteenth century. The historical knowledge of practices and devices for the intelligent use of water in Seixal is an invitation to current reflection on the use of clean and renewable energies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Reviews: Michael J. Harrower, , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016. 224 pp‘Where have all the flowers grown’: the relationship between a plant and its place in sixteenth-century botanical treatises<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article investigates Renaissance naturalists’ views on the links between plants and places where they grow. It looks at the Renaissance culture of botanical excursions and observation of plants in their natural environment and analyses the methods Renaissance naturalists used to describe relations between plants and their habitat, the influence of location on plants’ substantial and accidental characteristics, and in defining species. I worked mostly with printed sixteenth-century botanical sources and paid special attention to the work of Italian naturalist Giambattista Della Porta (1535–1615), whose thoughts on the relationship between plants and places are original, yet little known.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue dwelling thinking. Natural history and philosophy in sixteenth-century European dried gardens<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>European dried gardens from the 16th century have been traditionally associated with the emergence of early modern botany and its relation to the traditional genre of pharmacopeias. This study reviews a sample of the 37 known exemplars of these bound collections and argues that the design and development of these herbaria or dried gardens (<italic>orti sicci</italic>), as they were also known, reveal a broader set of questions on nature and about the relationships of humans with the natural world than the ones with which they have been linked. Based on the evidence of a diverse corpus of dried gardens—some richly bound, others composed over recycled paper, some with copious annotations, others with a seemingly random layout and distribution of plants—, this paper argues for a comparative reading of these books as a corpus that contributed significantly to early modern natural history and philosophy.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Improving Natural Knowledge: The Multiple Uses and Meanings of Plants for European Gardens“The Early Modern Study of Plants, an Essential Part of Natural Philosophy‚Manipulation Flora: Seventeenth-Century Botanical Practices and Natural Philosophy” and Gardening in Early Modern England and Wales patterns and exotic plants in nineteenth-century Bucharest public gardens<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The first two public gardens in Bucharest, as well as some of the oldest in the South and East regions of nowadays country of Romania, were designed, built and planted around the mid-nineteenth century by a German-born landscape gardener named Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Meyer. These two public gardens were designed according to modern nineteenth century landscaping concepts and were planted with exotic species of flowers, shrubs and trees not common at that time either in Bucharest or anywhere in the Romanian provinces south or east of the Carpathians. To better understand the design, development, and meaning of these gardens, this paper aims to analyze the specific palette of ornamental species of plants and the planting patterns that were used for the Kiseleff and Cișmigiu gardens in Bucharest and to outline the importance of their use.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue on the therapeutic values of historic gardens in neoclassical hospitals in Rio de Janeiro (1830-1900)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The immediate surroundings of hospitals assume great relevance in treatment therapies, whether the basis of isolation, fresh air and the use of exposure to the sun. It is thus known that the emergence of a new health program in neoclassical hospitals built in the city of Rio de Janeiro was directly associated with urban and sanitary improvements. The article explores the context of the creation and the role played by gardens in the architectural production of hospitals in the imperial period in Brazil during the nineteenth century, as well as in exposing the health policy of the city.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue White Architecture: Therapeutic gardens for patients with tuberculosis in the sanatoria of the Greater Lisbon area (1870-1970)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article discusses the concept of therapeutic garden— its definition and importance, — in the context of the specific architecture of sanatoria for the treatment of tuberculosis, in particular the case of Lisbon’s sanatoria from 1870 to 1970.</p><p>It contemplates both national and international networks of circulation and transfer of knowledge before and after the medical and architectural revolutions at the turn of the twentieth century. These revolutions were accompanied by significant changes in the city’s structure concerning the control of epidemics and social diseases. Architects and physicians, among other experts, are the main characters to be scrutinized, alongside with their architectural and scientific production and their entanglements. At the same time, I seriously take into consideration their interactions with the spheres of power, specifically in what relates to management and decision making.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Ailing Gardens in India<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Gardens are generally associated with places that are aesthetically pleasing and perceived as promoters of social engagement within the community. Furthermore, gardens are believed to improve both the individuals’ physical and psychological state of mind. However, and contrary to the previous statements, gardens may also sometimes turn into a site of agony. One such example has been explored in this article- the tea gardens of India during the nineteenth century, where their inhabitants faced a cholera pandemic. The gardens infected with cholera led to a high mortality rate in the region. This article discusses the causes that led to the cholera outbreak in India and how it spread throughout the region, causing tea gardens to turn into ailing gardens. Moreover, emphasis has also been laid on the role of tea gardens as laboratories where vaccine administration against cholera was performed.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrueădinile Castelului Pele. Mitologie Dinastică i Peisaj Cultural garden in the modern hospital architecture of the ‘Carioca School’ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The purpose of this article is to explore the role of gardens in the architecture of hospitals of the so-called “carioca school” of architecture, between the years of 1930 and 1960. In other words, to analyze gardens in the works of carioca architects who surrounded the architect Lucio Costa, or whose projects were influenced by the conceptions of this first generation of modern architects, who first graduated architecture school at the National College of Fine Arts and then, after 1945, at the National College of Architecture, in Rio de Janeiro.</p><p>The importance of gardens in the architecture of hospitals was mentioned in Edward Stevens’s book “The American hospital of the twentieth century”, in 1918, a publication which can be found at the UFRJ Architecture School library, as well as in the Brazilian doctors’ book collections at the time. Stevens dedicates a chapter of this book to the landscape theme, where he states that the hospital designer and the landscape architect should work together.</p><p>On the other hand, Pasteur’s discoveries and their implications in the management of hospital space did not occur without the mediation of landscaping. They resulted in changes when it came to choose the site for the hospital building within a city, as well as in its formal typology - from the Tollet model of pavilions, to the existence of green areas surrounding high buildings, and overlapping nurseries.</p><p>It is also relevant to bear in mind that public nationalist buildings played an important role after the revolution of 1930 in Brazil as they represented the state, and this resulted in significant projects.</p><p>We are therefore going to present four hospital buildings which were analyzed in our research on the integration of the Arts in the architecture of hospitals. Although the Lagoa Hospital, by Oscar Niemeyer, the Sanatorium Complex of Curicica, by Sérgio Bernardes, the IPPMG, by Jorge Machado Moreira, and the Souza Aguiar Hospital, by Ary Garcia Roza, all have different programs, formal typologies and links with their surrounding area, they are good examples for debating the presence of gardens in the Modern architecture of hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Three of these examples have fortunately included projects by landscape designer Roberto Burle Marx - the Lagoa Hospital, the IPPMG and the Souza Aguiar Hospital. The two former hospitals have had their buildings be surrounded by large gardens, in order to mitigate the harmful health effects related to the inclusion of hospitals within urban areas. The latter has been built in the 1960s with a complex program, in a dense historical area downtown, but adjacent to an urban park. It includes a vertical garden, which delimits, along with a panel in the hall (also by the same designer), a hallway for the user, between the urban and the healing space.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Ars therapeutica, hortus sanitatem. Gardens and Therapy