rss_2.0Global Psychiatry FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Global Psychiatry Psychiatry 's Cover publishing: a developmental role for the World Psychiatric Association does not improve mental health: a systematic review on football and mental health disorders<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_gp-2018-0001_s_006_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c16b1Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d40019945e6655_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c16b1aAa">Objective</title><p>Both football (also called association football or soccer) and mental health disorders have a global impact on the lives of billions of people. Football has been used to approach and support subjects with or at risk of mental health disorders. However, it is not clear if football itself has any beneficial effect on the mental health of players, fans or spectators. Consequently, the aim of the current systematic review was to examine if playing or watching football impacts on the frequency of mental health problems in people who are involved in playing or watching the game.</p></sec><sec id="j_gp-2018-0001_s_007_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c16b2Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d40019945e6663_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c16b2aAa">Methods</title><p>We performed a systematic review on the relationship between football and mental health disorders. A total of 662 abstracts were screened initially. We identified 17 relevant papers assessing the prevalence of mental health disorders in current and previous football players, referees or spectators.</p></sec><sec id="j_gp-2018-0001_s_008_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c16b3Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d40019945e6671_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c16b3aAa">Results</title><p>The prevalence and 12 months incidence of mental health problems in active and retired professional players and referees were similar to or higher than those found in the general population, possibly as response to osteoarthritis, severe injuries, career dissatisfaction, low social support and poor employment status after retirement. Studies in adolescent amateurs and spectators indicate that playing and watching football games may negatively affect subjective mental health, even though qualitative studies indicate mental health benefits of playing or watching football.</p></sec><sec id="j_gp-2018-0001_s_009_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c16b4Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d40019945e6679_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c16b4aAa">Discussion</title><p>Players, referees and spectators are unlikely to present with fewer mental health problems than other members of society as a result of their involvement with football. It appears that some of the infrastructure that supports resilience in mental health such as a sense of inclusion, shared purpose and positive peer identification might be developed by playing in or supporting a team. Strategies that may use the assumed positive aspects of football need to be validated before implementation of large projects.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2018-02-26T00:00:00.000+00:00How to write a scientific paper: A hypothesis-based approach<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Many books and other published recommendations provide a large, sometimes excessive amount of information to be included, and of mistakes to be avoided in research papers for academic journals. However, there is a lack of simple and clear recommendations on how to write such scientific articles. To make life easier for new authors, we propose a simple hypothesis-based approach, which consistently follows the study hypothesis, section by section throughout the manuscript: The introduction section should develop the study hypothesis, by introducing and explaining the relevant concepts, connecting these concepts and by stating the study hypotheses to be tested at the end. The material and methods section must describe the sample or material, the tools, instruments, procedures and analyses used to test the study hypothesis. The results section must describe the study sample, the data collected and the data analyses that lead to the confirmation or rejection of the hypothesis. The discussion must state if the study hypothesis has been confirmed or rejected, if the study result is comparable to, and compatible with other research. It should evaluate the reliability and validity of the study outcome, clarify the limitations of the study and explore the relevance of the supported or rejected hypothesis for clinical practice and future research. If needed, an abstract at the beginning of the manuscript, usually structured in objectives, material and methods, results and conclusions, should provide summaries in two to three sentences for each section. Acknowledgements, declarations of ethical approval, of informed consent by study subjects, of interests by authors and a reference list will be needed in most scientific journals.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-02-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Antidepressant drugs for older patients on polypharmacy: a systematic review reveals best evidence for sertraline<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_gp-2018-0005_s_006_w2aab3b7b4b1b6b1aab1c16b1Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d40019945e226_w2aab3b7b4b1b6b1aab1c16b1aAa">Objectives</title><p>There is almost no data on antidepressant prescribing in older adults treated with polypharmacy, although this population represents approximately 50% of older patients. These patients are frequently excluded from double-blind randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses and existing treatment guidelines. The main aim of this paper was to identify data on antidepressant prescribing in depressed older adults on polypharmacy using a systematic review.</p></sec><sec id="j_gp-2018-0005_s_007_w2aab3b7b4b1b6b1aab1c16b2Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d40019945e234_w2aab3b7b4b1b6b1aab1c16b2aAa">Methods</title><p>Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) and other clinical trials in Medline/PubMed without language limitation (-2017) were searched to identify those with older depressed patients on polypharmacy. Only elderly patients (&gt;65 years as mean) were included. Only approved antidepressants were included.</p></sec><sec id="j_gp-2018-0005_s_008_w2aab3b7b4b1b6b1aab1c16b3Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d40019945e242_w2aab3b7b4b1b6b1aab1c16b3aAa">Results</title><p>The systematic search identified 26 different clinical trials, although only one clinical open label trial with sertraline met the final inclusion criteria. This sertraline trial indicated the absence of clinically important drug-drug interactions and confirmed the effectiveness and safety of sertraline in routine clinical practice. Heterogeneity in this trial was high in almost all the categories except attrition and reporting bias.</p></sec><sec id="j_gp-2018-0005_s_009_w2aab3b7b4b1b6b1aab1c16b4Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d40019945e250_w2aab3b7b4b1b6b1aab1c16b4aAa">Conclusions</title><p>Sertraline has the highest evidence level in older adults with depression on polypharmacy. According to the results of this review and due to a low number of appropriate trials, a basic understanding of psychopharmacology is the possible approach to avoid serious problematic drug combinations in these patients. Newer RCTs are also urgently needed. This is the first systematic review including patients treated with polypharmacy, and therefore, its results are important in the field of evidence-based medicine.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2018-06-01T00:00:00.000+00:00A systematic review on the effect of Ramadan on mental health: minor effects and no harm in general, but increased risk of relapse in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_gp-2018-0002_s_007_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c16b1Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d40019945e2457_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c16b1aAa">Objectives</title><p>Globally, Moslems are the second largest religious group. During the month of Ramadan from dawn to sundown, healthy Moslems are required to refrain from eating, drinking, smoking, sexual activity and harmful behaviour towards others and themselves. Thus Ramadan may change individual physical states and social interactions. Both might affect mental health within society. Consequently, this systematic review looks at the various effects of Ramadan on mental health.</p></sec><sec id="j_gp-2018-0002_s_008_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c16b2Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d40019945e2465_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c16b2aAa">Methods</title><p>A literature search on Ramadan and mental health initially identified 294 papers. We finally selected all 22 relevant papers covering Ramadan and mental health from which study data were extracted.</p></sec><sec id="j_gp-2018-0002_s_009_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c16b3Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d40019945e2473_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c16b3aAa">Results</title><p>Relevant papers focussed on the general population and healthy volunteers, on subjects practising sports, on subjects with severe physical disorders, on subjects at risk of eating disorders and on subjects with mental health disorders. The effects of Ramadan on mental well-being were mixed. Positive and negative effects were usually minor, except in subjects with schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome, and in subjects with bipolar disorder who suffered a substantial increase of relapses.</p></sec><sec id="j_gp-2018-0002_s_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c16b4Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d40019945e2481_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c16b4aAa">Conclusion</title><p>Ramadan fasting is safe in most conditions and disorders, but caution is required in subjects with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The research on mental health and Ramadan would profit from larger studies with more representative samples to help understand the intra-individual and social factors that affect the mental health and well-being in patients and in society. The scientific potential of such studies may have been overlooked in the psychiatric community.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2018-02-11T00:00:00.000+00:00The Main Gaps for Randomized-controlled Trials in Psychiatry: A Bibliometric Study<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>There is evidence of a progressive increase in the number of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) in the area of psychiatry. However, some areas of psychiatry receive more attention from researchers potentially to the detriment of others.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>Aiming to investigate main gaps for RCTs in psychiatry, the present bibliometric study analysed the bi-annual and five-year rates of RCTs in the main database of medical studies (Pubmed) over the 1999–2018 period (n = 3,449). This analysis was carried out using the ICD-10 mental and behavioural chapter. ICD-10, was the edition of the manual used throughout the above period.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Overall, after 16 years of considerable increase in the bi-annual absolute number of RCTs, there has been a slowdown in the last 4 years, similar to other medical areas. Affective, organic and psychotic disorders, and depression, schizophrenia and dementia were the top studied groups and disorders respectively – ahead of other groups/diagnoses. For substance use disorders, there has been a decrease of RCT in the last 5 years, in line with the fall of alcohol use disorder in the ranking of most studied disorders. Delirium and mild cognitive disorder are both ascending in this ranking. Personality disorders and mental retardation stand out as the least studied groups over the whole assessment period.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Novel treatments, ease of access to patient populations, and ‘clinical vogue’, seem to be more important in guiding the undertaking of RCTs than the actual need as indicated by prevalence and/or burden of disorders and public health impact. Regarding specific disorders, acute/transient psychosis; mixed anxiety and depression; adjustment disorder; dissociative and conversion disorders; somatization; hypochondria; and neurasthenia, would deserve future RCTs. Clinical researchers and editors of scientific journals should give special attention to the less studied areas and disorders, when considering conducting and publishing RCT studies, respectively.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-21T00:00:00.000+00:00The effects of Rhodiola Rosea supplementation on depression, anxiety and mood – A Systematic Review<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives</title><p>Rhodiola rosea is an adaptogen herb from the Crassulaceae family, which has been vastly used in the Russian and Chinese medicine. The herb is used against depression, anxiety, mental and physical fatigue and to promote overall health. In this systematic review, we examined the effects of R. rosea on depression, anxiety and mood, as these are the most relevant to mental health.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>Literature searches were made in PubMed using the term ‘Rhodiola rosea’. Inclusion criteria were: Randomized controlled trials using interventions of R. rosea on any type of participants, while focusing on the effects of the intervention on depression, anxiety or mood. Mixed interventions of R. rosea with other herbs were excluded. Studies not published in English or Greek were excluded.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>A total of 39 randomized controlled trials were identified and their abstract was screened. After screening, a total of 17 papers were excluded because they were focusing on irrelevant outcomes. The full text of the remaining 22 papers was read and an additional 17 papers were excluded. These papers were excluded because they were eventually not focusing on our main outcome or they were using R. rosea interventions with other herbs. In the end, a total of 5 papers (n = 327 participants) were found eligible for our systematic review. In these studies, R. rosea seems to improve the symptoms of mild to moderate depression, symptoms of mild anxiety and to enhance mood. The last date of our search was October 13, 2019.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Rhodiola rosea supplementation may alleviate symptoms of mild to moderate depression and mild anxiety, while it may also enhance mood. The findings of our review are not definite due to the lack of available experimental data. Randomized controlled trials with a low risk of bias are needed to further study the herb.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Undergraduate Education in Psychiatry in India<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Medical education curricula, from around the world, have often neglected psychiatry as a subject of importance in undergraduate medical training.</p><p>In India, the scenario has not been different from the rest of the world. The National Mental Health Survey done in India, recently, estimates a treatment gap of around 80–85% for various mental illnesses. This provides a strong case to strengthen the undergraduate psychiatry curricula since it would help tackle the treatment gap of common mental disorders in the community.</p><p>Further, a strong educational foundation with meaningful inclusion of mental health and well-being, will also make the trainee aware of their own mental well-being and better help seeking behaviour in the medical student. In this article, we look to review the evolution of undergraduate medical education in India.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Strategies for mitigating burnout among early career doctors in Nigeria: lessons learnt from the qualitative CHARTING study<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Early career doctors (ECDs) are faced with many challenges due to their transition from undergraduate medical/dental studentship to being postgraduate doctors and being in an early phase of their career. The specific factors that affect ECDs in their careers and endeavors at the workplace range from poor remuneration, particularly in developing countries, to psychosocial problems (such as burnout [BO] syndrome). There is a dearth of information on BO among ECDs in Nigeria. This qualitative study aims to explore the opinions of ECDs in Nigeria on the causal/predisposing factors of BO, effects of BO, and strategies for mitigating BO among ECDs in Nigeria.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Method</title><p>Using purposive sampling method, two sessions of focus group discussions (FGDs) involving 14 ECDs (key informants) holding key leadership positions and who were delegates of other ECDs in Nigeria were conducted to explore their experiences on psychological issues among ECDs. Data collected were transcribed and analyzed thematically.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>BO is an issue of serious concern among ECDs in Nigeria. The causes of BO are diverse, some of which include low staff strength, prolonged work hours, wrong counseling, lack of job description and specification, and abuse of powers by trainers. In order to mitigate the issue of BO among ECDs, the respondents recommended that work policy review, medical workforce strengthening, stakeholder dialog on ECDs’ welfare, regular psychological review of ECDs, and provision of free yearly medicals need to be looked into. Conclusion: Our findings revealed that the participants considered BO issues among ECDs to be common, and it affected their performance and the overall quality of care in Nigeria health system. Based on our findings, there is an urgent need to mitigate the problem of emotional exhaustion among ECDs in Nigeria.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Implementing a psychosocial intervention DIALOG+ for patients with psychotic disorders in low and middle income countries in South Eastern Europe: protocol for a hybrid effectiveness-implementation cluster randomized clinical trial (IMPULSE)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives</title><p>Psychotic disorders have large treatment gap in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in South-Eastern Europe, where up to 45% of affected people do not receive care for their condition. This study will assess the implementation of a generic psychosocial intervention called DIALOG+ in mental health care services and its effectiveness at improving patients’ clinical and social outcomes.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>This is a protocol for a multi-country, pragmatic, hybrid effectiveness–implementation, cluster-randomised, clinical trial. The trial aims to recruit 80 clinicians and 400 patients across 5 South-Eastern European LMICs: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, Montenegro, Republic of North Macedonia and Serbia. Clusters are clinicians working with patients with psychosis, and each clinician will deliver the intervention to five patients. After patient baseline assessments, clinicians will be randomly assigned to either the DIALOG+ intervention or treatment as usual, with an allocation ratio of 1:1. The intervention will be delivered six times over 12 months during routine clinical meetings. TThe primary outcome measure is the quality of life at 12 months [Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA)]; the secondary outcomes include mental health symptoms [Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)], satisfaction with services [Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8)] and economic costs at 12 months [based on Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI), EQ-5D-5L and Recovering Quality of Life (ReQOL-10)]. The study will assess the intervention fidelity and the experience of clinicians and patients’ about implementing DIALOG+ in real-life mental health care settings. In the health economic assessment, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is calculated with effectiveness measured by quality-adjusted life year. Data will also be collected on sustainability and reach to inform guidelines for potentially scaling up and implementing the intervention widely. Conclusion: The study is expected to generate new scientific knowledge on the treatment of people with psychosis in health care systems with limited resources. The learning from LMICs could potentially help other countries to expand the access to care and alleviate the suffering of patients with psychosis and their families.</p><p>Trial registration: ISRCTN 11913964</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Lack of Association between Academic Achievement and Social Phobia among High School Students of Kathmandu<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives</title><p>The general objective of this research was to see if academic achievement significantly relates with social anxiety of high school students. There were other specific and auxiliary objectives also. One among these was to gather prevalence data of social anxiety among adolescents of Kathmandu.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Method</title><p>A survey was conducted among 696 high school students of Kathmandu to see if academic achievement was associated with their social phobia. Convenient sample from a high school was used. Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), a self-report test, was used to measure social anxiety disorder of adolescent students. Some demographic data were also collected. Data were organized in MS Excel and analysed in SPSS.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The prevalence of ‘very severe’ social phobia among boys was 2.01% and girls had that of 1.71%. One-way ANOVA showed that academic achievement did not have a relationship with social phobia, F (2, 613) = 1.74, p &gt; 0.05.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>Academic achievement was not associated with social phobia among students of a high school in Kathmandu. Boys have more prevalence of severe forms of social anxiety than girls when they are in adolescence.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of dance movements on stereotype and repetitive behaviours of cases with autism spectrum disorder<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title><p>The objective of the study was to observe the effects of dance movements on stereotypical and repetitive behaviours of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Method</title><p>The sample consisted of 5 patients within the age range of 9 to 16 years. Of the pool of 15 patients, 5 were lying in the range of moderate autism spectrum disorder with a higher score on stereotypical and repetitive behaviours. There were three male and two female patients. The cases were regularly coming to the day care centre of a hospital located in the southern part of India. Participants were assessed by Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and BASIC-MR Part-B. Dance movement intervention was planned for these five cases.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Pre- and post-test scores were taken to observe the effects of dance movements on their behaviours. Fifteen sessions with a duration of 60 minutes per session were given. The results showed improvement in the repetitive behaviour in the sample, in which of these five, three showed greater improvement.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Hence, the result shows that dance movement could be used as an effective method to improve stereotypical and repetitive behaviour in children diagnosed with ASD.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Depression in adolescents exposed to war trauma Risk factors for development of depression in adolescents exposed to war trauma: does PTSD matter?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Depression is frequently comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substantially influences its severity, course and outcomes. Published studies linking war-related paediatric PTSD and Major depressive disorder (MDD) were mainly based on cross-sectional studies.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title><p>To prospectively examine the role of PTSD and other risk/protective factors in the development of depression among adolescents with war-related trauma.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>A longitudinal study of 160 adolescents aged 15–17 years with war-related trauma and displacement due to war in Eastern Ukraine was performed. Of the 160 adolescents, N = 86 met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-4) criteria for PTSD. All adolescents underwent comprehensive psychiatric assessments that included Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL) administered to both parents and children. Traumatic exposure was assessed using the modified Traumatic Events Screening Inventory for children (TESI-C). PTSD and MDD were assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA) and Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), and diagnosed using DSM-4 criteria. Follow-up and repeated measurements occurred at 6 and 12 months. During the study, adolescents requiring clinical care were referred for best available care in the community.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Among 92.6% of study completers, 26/79 youth with PTSD developed MDD (32.9%), compared to 6/70 without PTSD (8.5%): relative risk (RR) = 3.83 (95% CI 1.67–8.78), p = 0.0014; Number needed to harm (NNTH) = 4.108 (8.53–2.7). Using logistic regression, variables of school attendance, ‘secondary’ traumatic exposure, and treatment with Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) were significantly correlated with the incidence of new-onset depression among adolescents with PTSD.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>War-related trauma with subsequent PTSD appears to be a significant risk factor for the later development of depression in adolescents. The role of PTSD as a moderator of depression merits further investigation in larger scale longitudinal studies in diverse populations.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Depression and Associated Factors among International Students in a Private University of Bangladesh<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Depression is the second major cause of disability and is a principal source of disease burden worldwide which is quite common among international students.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Aim</title><p>This study explored the depression and its associated factors among international students of a private university in Bangladesh.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>This cross-sectional study was conducted among 149 international students at a private university in Dhaka, Bangladesh using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D 10) Scale.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The prevalence of depressive symptoms among international students was 47.7%. Students’ age, marital status, satisfaction with living conditions and problems concerning studies, food, homesickness, finances, accommodation, and health were significantly associated with depression.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>This study concluded that there is an unmet need for psychological support for international students studying in Bangladesh. Appropriate support services should be directed to them to help and to overcome the challenges they face.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Factor structure of the Albanian version of the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS): Associations with the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives:</title><p>The measurement and assessment of the emergent symptoms in various psychotic disorders is essential to the delivery of efficacious, patient centred mental health care. Despite the existence of several instruments that can measure these factors, their applicability within a global context remains undetermined. This paper aims to provide evidence for a factor structure in Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), tailored for use in the Albanian language.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods:</title><p>We recruited 106 patients with psychosis (68% male), who were aged 16 to 40 years old (M = 22, SD = 1.75), and treated in community services in Kosovo. We adapted, translated, and back-translated CAINS and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) before these measures were administered in interviews with the participants. According to Kaiser-Guttman’s criterion (i.e., eigen-value &gt;1), four components were extracted from the original measure of CAINS.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results:</title><p>Using Principal Component Analysis, CAINS was found to be a valid means of measurement of motivation and pleasure in various life domains (social, recreational, and work/school). Intercorrelation existed not only between the BSI scale and the CAINS scales, but within the CAINS scales themselves.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions:</title><p>In contrast to the previous studies that found Expression and Motivation and Pleasure as two major factors, our results revealed four components. Thus, it may be that the culture plays a substantial role in the factor structure of CAINS, and it might be related to different appraisal of emotional situations, which are influenced by different socio-cultural practices. These results have global implications for clinical practice and future research.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Media portrayal of panic buying: A content analysis of online news portals<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives</title><p>Media reporting has an influential role in panic buying (PB). We aimed to evaluate the media portrayal of PB during this COVID-19 pandemic.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>We searched, collected, and analysed the news reports from the English media discussing the PB events. The search was done between 23 and 30 May 2020.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>A total of 525 news reports were analysed. Approximately half (49.3%) discussed the government action to handle the situation, 36.4% discussed the expert opinion regarding PB, 20.6% discussed the psychology of PB, 21.5% discussed the rumours, and 18.5% suggested remedial measures. Concerning the negative aspects, 96.6% of the titles mentioned panic buying, 75.4% mentioned the cause, and 62.3% mentioned the photos of empty shelves. The media in low–middle-income countries are 1.5 times more likely to include expert opinion (p = 0.03), 2.1 times more likely to discuss rumours regarding PB (p = 0.001), almost thrice more likely to report the cause of PB (p = 0.001), and thrice more likely to mention its impact (p = 0.001).</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Media has been portraying more negative aspects of PB. Further, there are variations in reporting patterns between high-income and low–middle-income countries.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00How to measure the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on quality of life: COV19-QoL – the development, reliability and validity of a new scale<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title><p>The primary objective of this paper is to present a short measure of perceptions on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on quality of life, along with analysis of its reliability and validity in non-clinical and clinical samples.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>The scale was named The COV19 – Impact on Quality of Life (COV19-QoL) and it consists of six items presented in the form of a 5-point Likert scale. The items (i.e. statements) cover main areas of quality of life with regard to mental health. The scale was administered to 1346 participants from the general population in Croatia (the non-clinical sample) and 201 patients with severe mental illness recruited from four European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia), constituting the clinical sample. The clinical sample was part of the randomised controlled trial IMPULSE funded by the European Commission. Data on age and gender were collected for both samples, along with psychiatric diagnoses collected for the clinical sample.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Main findings included a high internal consistency of the scale and a moderate to strong positive correlation among participants’ scores on different items. Principal component analysis yielded one latent component. The correlation between participants’ age and their results on COV19-QoL was negligible. Participants’ perceived quality of life was the most impacted domain, whereas mental health, personal safety and levels of depression were the least impacted domains by the pandemic.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Discussion</title><p>The COV19-QoL is a reliable and valid scale which can be used to explore the impact of COVID-19 on quality of life. The scale can be successfully used by researchers and clinicians interested in the impact of the pandemic on people experiencing various pre-existing mental health issues (e.g. anxiety, mood and personality disorders) as well as those without such issues.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Maha Sulaiman Younis: A personal history of psychiatry in Iraq through war and conflict<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Across four decades of war and violence in Iraq between 1981 and 2003, I undertook my medical training in psychiatry. I chose this specialty in response to the suffering of the bereaved women in Iraq across these rough times. This article details a personal history of my journey specialising in psychiatry through this period in Iraq and the experience of being the first female psychiatrist who accomplished her training through the Iraqi Board of Psychiatry in a programme established in 1988. I reflect on how psychiatry was not the specialisation of choice for female doctors, which created a shortage in the field. This most acutely impacted female trauma victims, who preferred to be treated by female psychiatrists. From the 1950s to 1988, the ratio of psychiatrists in the country increased from 0.2 to 0.5 per 100,000 population. However, this saw a dramatic decrease because of two waves of migration in 1991 and 2003, as of 1998, the ratio of psychiatrists in the country had dropped to 0.1 per 100,000 of the population. The pursuit and development of this specialisation were disrupted by war, invasion and comprehensive sanctions. I also consider the socio-economic impact of these aforementioned events on society as a whole and, in particular, on the medical profession. This account tells the story of my lived experience during those difficult times and my efforts to become an example of a new generation of women psychiatrists.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00A Multinational Pilot Study on the Lived Experiences and Mental Health Impacts from the COVID-19 Pandemic<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives</title><p>To conduct a pilot study on the lived experiences of people affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on affected people.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>This mixed methods study used random and snowball techniques to recruit 91 respondents (age range 18–58 years) from 14 countries. Accessing patients with COVID-19 was restricted because of the nature of the disease and the treatment they were receiving which limited their access to being selected for our pilot study. Therefore, our respondents were members of the general population who were directly or indirectly affected by the pandemic. Respondents completed online surveys consisting of the Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) and open-ended questions. Collected data were subjected to IBM SPSS statistics software (v. 22.0) and thematic analysis.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Both quantitative and qualitative instruments reported very high feasibility, which is suggestive of an excellent feasibility of our mixed methods design. Second, we identified financial and time resources as major barriers to the recruitment process, and how to avert these in the main study was discussed. Third, COVID-19 pandemic had more anxious than depressive impacts on our respondents. We also found that more than half (58, 63.7%) of the total respondents showed high knowledge level of COVID-19, and the major sources from which they gained knowledge were television, radio, and online academic papers. Our qualitative insight showed five themes from the lived experiences of respondents from the COVID-19 pandemic. These themes were; changes in lifestyles, disruption of schooling activities, impact on options for health services, disruption of works and economy, and anxious and worrisome impacts, in that order.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Main study is feasible with minor addition required on our protocol. Given other findings, we recommend the need for adaptive coping skill training, and appropriate information sharing during pandemics. There is also the need for psychosocial preparation due to the uncertainty of pandemics. In addition, averting the likely adverse economic impacts from pandemics should be of concern to governments and other stakeholders during pandemics. Finally, we recommend that governments and other stakeholders should be cautious about the likelihood of limited health service options for the general public during pandemics.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-05T00:00:00.000+00:00High variability of the current mental health practices around the globe: Twenty days in the lives of psychiatrists and other mental health care professionals from all over the world<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>The present is the future of the past, and the past of the future. This journal as well as this paper endeavour to document the lives and practices of psychiatrists and other mental health care professionals for the future mental health community and to help the clinicians of the future to understand the history and practice of psychiatry and mental health care in 2019/20. We, therefore, report the current days in the lives of psychiatrists and other mental health care professionals.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title><p>To obtain reports of days in the lives of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals, we published the request on eight occasions from May 2019 to May 2020. We invited the prospective respondents/participants to send a relevant report of their psychiatric practice in a day with a maximum word count of 750 words.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>We received 20 reports of variable lengths from 10 countries from six continents, including from psychiatrists, psychiatrists in training, clinical psychologists and from medical students about their psychiatric training. The reports revealed a wide and highly variable range of psychiatric and mental health practices, experiences and expectations. Last but not least, the reports we received were informative and provided much information to reflect on.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>There is a common strong commitment to support patients with mental health problems, but the ways this is achieved are so diverse that generalisations about a typical common practice seem impossible. Future studies should focus more systematically on the procedures and practices applied in helping patients with mental health problems in different countries and communities. This knowledge might eventually help identify the procedures and services that are most efficient and helpful in various clinical contexts.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1