rss_2.0Geopolitical, Social Security and Freedom Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Geopolitical, Social Security and Freedom Journal, Social Security and Freedom Journal 's Cover freedom to be sustainable, from the past to the future<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to investigate the historical evolution of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR), with a particular focus on the main theories and events that led it to no longer be a voluntary choice but a necessity for the company’s long-term survival. The article will first analyze the main definitions in the literature to determine the aspects that characterize it. Subsequently, using a theoretical approach, a literature review will be performed to describe its historical evolution, starting from its birth during the Industrial Revolution period (1760-1840) up to the present day. The analysis results show that, in the scientific debate, the CSR concept was initially focused on the workers’ well-being and, subsequently, it expanded its scope and significance to include all stakeholders’ categories. Furthermore, it emerged that CSR become a necessity for the companies’ long-term survival, especially in the post-pandemic period. For this reason, companies must develop new business models to face sustainability issues and meet social needs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Aged people and tourism<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The increase in the elderly population is a phenomenon of growing importance with various repercussions on the economic side, both in terms of costs that society has to bear from a social and health care point of view, and in terms of opportunities for the various economic sectors that can see the third age as a possible market. The change in attitudes towards ageing has led to an increase in the proportion of older people who are actively living in the third age. Travelling, visiting new places and/or spending time away from home, even abroad, are activities that are now part of the lives of older people, at least those with an adequate income level. Consequently, the elderly have become potential users of the tourism sector: this article attempts to outline the dimensions and characteristics of this phenomenon.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Life-Long Learning: intercultural education and communication Europe and beyond<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Life-Long Learning seems to be an all-sides studied model. Globalisation, work-market rapid change, and the free circulation of knowledge let researchers discover that there is a new way of designing the LLL process. The multicultural society is a drive of LLL process optimisation. After the Lisbon strategy and seeing the unstoppable path of lifelong learning stress, the requirements for a profound reflection on the role of citizen’s education. The article aims to analyse the intercultural aspect of LLL and how it can be stretched. Particular attention is dedicated to how the EU and RF reply to society and economic challenges through the implementation of the LLL process. The intercultural aspect will comprise a horizontal intercultural aspect and vertical ones. Will be examined the role of the European Commission as well as a promoter of the idea of an inclusive society and the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world. The intercultural approach will be stressed thanks to examining the Soviet Union and Russian Federation’s LLL process. The used methodology is a review of relevant intervention studies and Political Documents and Financing actions for examining the effectiveness of interventions.</p> <p>The analysis of two paths of the LLL process’s implementation and promotion; the analysis of two ways of LLL process organisation will permit an expansive view of the LLL process. Furthermore, the parallel analysis of the LLL process permits us to see how the two ways of social development can be reflected through different actions on LLL policy, starting from formal education and ultimate to third Age Education. In final, it permits us to learn more about how LLL can be a solution to avoid social welfare bankruptcy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Execution of sentences and community work: organizational dimension and role of the social worker of ministry of justice in italy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Article 27 of the Italian Constitution reads as follows: “Criminal responsibility is personal. The accused is not considered guilty until the final sentence. The penalties cannot consist of treatments contrary to the sense of humanity and must aim at the re-education of the offender. The death penalty is not allowed” (our translation).</p> <p>Fundamentally important is the international legislation on the rights of detained persons, which is based on the “Universal Declaration of Human Rights” (1948), stating in Article 5: “No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment”. This proposition is the cornerstone that affected all future directives concerning the protection of detained people.</p> <p>In Italy, the office for external penal execution, as a peripheral branch of the Ministry of Justice, is called to contribute, in addition to social security, to the reintegration and rehabilitation of sentenced persons. Obviously, this can only be possible through collaboration and sharing with the apparatuses and bodies of society, with particular reference to the role of the Third sector.</p> <p>Therefore, one of the main roles of the social workers of Italian Ministry of Justice is to guatantee the involvement of civil society, the promotion of a culture of solidarity and reintegration within the community to which the detainee belongs, reconstructing a sense of communityship and the broken citizen bond.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Russian internal migration in Kuban’. The case of Krasnodar.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Environmental migration owes its existence to pull factors, i.e. disastrous environmental factors that push people to migrate to other lands. In this article the definition of environmental migration is reversed, since in Russian internal migration towards the Kuban’ region and, in particular, towards the city of Krasnodar, pull factors are transformed into push factors, giving rise to migration in which the climate is an attractive pole, around which other migratory causes are placed. The migratory flows directed towards the city of Krasnodar are a great resource of demographic rebirth, the motor of regional and city life, the growing stimulus towards rapid urban development and the transformative and generative force of infinite territorial images, endlessly created by each migrant present on the territory under examination.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Relations between a Country and a Continent: China and Africa. A first and not a simple matter......<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Through this contribution of a geopolitical approach, the author intends to propose an updated and accurate framework on the relations between China and Africa as well as some critical reflections on various geopolitical and geo-economic aspects concerning the intense development of the diversified economic relations between China and the different African States.</p> <p>China’s foreign economic policy in Africa has laid solid foundations through the implementation of the various Sino-African Cooperation Forums that have taken place since 2000 and that have seen an increasing involvement of the Chinese government in the process.</p> <p>This paper intends to make a brief reflection on China’s visible economic and geopolitical interest in the African Continent as a whole. The analysis that follows traces the main stages in the history of relations between China and Africa, emphasizing the increased importance of the Sino-African forums that led to what is now known as Chinese neo-colonization. In addition, the case studies of the Silk Road and the Rare Lands are highlighted. Finally, some of the social impacts of the Chinese presence in Africa are also examined such as the construction of new cities for the Chinese migrant population and the teaching of the Chinese language (Mandarin) in schools in some African Countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Techno-altruism. From cultural conflict to constructive and supportive use of online environments<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Even before the Covid-19 pandemic crisis, the massive use of the digital in everyday life, in the absence of intercultural - media skills, seemed to have fuelled violence, misinformation, ethnocentrisms, prejudices towards the Other (Urry 2000; Appadurai 2005; Couldry 2015; Ziccardi 2016; Europol 2016; SWG 2017, Vox 2018).</p> <p>However, social and digital technology can also be re-thought as a civic and moral space (Silverstone, 2009) able to overcome conflict and polarisation, as a strategic medium to improve social policies and the management of migration flows, actively involving host institutions and communities (Buoncompagni, D’Ambrosi 2020).</p> <p>The panorama of humanitarian aid, in particular, i.e. that typology of interventions aimed at helping populations affected by war events or natural disasters, is completely changing in the way of operating within the world of international migration precisely thanks to the digital infrastructure (IOM 2018). Apps, virtual itinerant maps and self-narratives via social networks, sharing GPS coordinates of the safest routes among migrants, increasing numbers of socially engaged indigenous citizens enrolled in online platforms, are just a few examples of how digital media are acquiring a fundamental role within the migration network in hospitality and aid actions (Brunwasser 2015; Buoncompagni 2021. Only by developing the art of solidarity and the ability to communicate and cooperate globally, opening up to the Other, can the “different” relate effectively and productively in digital society (Chen 2005; Bennet 2015).</p> <p>Pitirim A. Sorokin himself, a still prominent figure of 20th century sociology, stated that historical and techno-cultural changes have not always produced positive results within societies, but at times also negative (or more precisely ‘destructive’) ones: individualism, antagonism, excess of technology and rationality, and in particular the fall of the bonds of solidarity towards the different and the loss of the feeling of belonging (Cimagalli 2010; Marletti 2018; Perrotta 2016).</p> <p>But the sociologist also stressed how altruism could be one of the indispensable ingredients of social life. No society can exist without an “altruistic and creative love” that has as its aim the “altruisation” of individuals and social institutions: a complex process/project capable of encompassing the emotional, supra-rational and spiritual aspects of human relationships (including online), starting from the idea that all men can recognise themselves in certain moral principles, eternal and universal (Mangone, 2020).</p> <p>And such a condition could be re-created/supported also through digital tools and exist in online environments, thus trying to extend, on a theoretical level, Sorokin’s attempt to make sociology (also digital, in this case) a “science of altruism” in the post-pandemic era of global interconnectedness.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Sustainable and digital education during and beyond the Covid-19 crisis.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The pandemic crisis has coincided with a time of global economic crisis. The education system has suffered from this double impact: the simultaneous closure of schools and universities and a significant worsening of the business and productivity system. Digitalisation in the education process started in the far past, but it has become a priority with the pandemic. The use of digital tools in the educational process ensured that the latter did not come to a complete standstill during the pandemic. Although digitalisation is seen as a possible solution to the problems facing schools, it can also be seen as a factor in widening the gap between rich and developing countries. The article proposes a reflection about education during the pandemic and the digitalisation process of schools in all its facets and at alle education level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00A theoretical approach to the Cyprus Problem: Neoclassical Realism with Neoliberalism<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper, which covers the period of the 2004 Annan Plan and its rejection to date, places the Cyprus Problem in an International Relations theoretic framework. It searches for a “foreign policy outcome,” essentially a decision by the leaders of the Greek-Cypriot and Turkish-Cypriot communities, to politically reunite these two communities under the auspices of the UN. The paper provides a synthesis of the neo-liberal and the neoclassical realist paradigms, aiming to better interpret the existing experience and to shed light on the prospect of a future solution to the problem. The strategic environment for the Republic of Cyprus (RoC) and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) is ‘permissive’ because the message sent by the international system for reunification does not require the use of hard power. The leaders of the two communities play a key role, although the strategic political culture in small states such as the TRNC is not developed and state-society relations are underdeveloped. Also, the civil society at large can play a role in influencing the leaders' images regarding the reunification opportunity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Risk, risk management between healthcare and economy.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the paper is to talk about the risk management system especially today in pandemic time. The authors would like to analyze the issue of risk management in an economic and healthcare context. taking into account that there are strong relationships between society and health such as the question of social responsibility and organization, social responsibility and social impact and social responsibility and competitiveness. The correlation between economy and health is highlighted in the healthcare sector, where the risk profile is in fact considered complex and extremely dynamic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Gender equality, diversity, and inclusion in academia: successes and failures of the initiatives promoted by the European Union<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article summarises the scientific debate on the strengths and weaknesses of the strategies adopted by the European Union to promote gender equality in academia and the adoption of a gender perspective in research.</p> <p>The article focuses on introducing gender mainstreaming, promoting gender equality and structural change in research performing and financing organisations, and adopting gender action/equality plans. The discussion is structured around textual analysis of relevant EU acts, scientific literature, reports of EU funded research projects, communication and support actions. The authors discuss the critics of the various initiative and advance some considerations about what could support individuals and groups interested in promoting positive changes towards gender equality, diversity and inclusion in the academic field. The article relevance is linked to the innovation promoted by Horizon Europe, that requires all public institutions applying for Eu funding to have a Gender equality plan, and the risks that previous mistakes can be repeated hindering the process towards gender equality as in the recent past.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-26T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of the covid-19 crisis on higher education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current pandemic crisis is unique in its kind, becoming a global cataclysm with a multilateral impact and an extended spread over time. Affecting all aspects of human activity, this crisis has inevitably affected the higher education system, and its consequences are manifesting both locally and internationally. The purpose of this paper was to establish the influence of crisis on the economic situation of higher education institutions. After studying of different institutions reports, analytical presentations of authors from different countries, as well as the author's communication with colleagues from different educational institutions during online academic meetings, it became possible to compile a complex picture of economic consequences of the COVID-19 crisis on higher education system. The research results showed an extremely uneven spread of the economic effects of the pandemic crisis. Thus, the least COVID-19 crisis has affected universities in industrially developed countries and the disastrous impact will manifested in developing countries. In addition, a dependence of evolution of economic situation of educational institutions of a complex of important factors was detected. It is about of change in living standard of the population, the capacity of the local authorities to manage the consequences of the pandemic, the changes in higher education policies, presiding students to do higher education, managerial ability to manage the economic and financial status of higher education institutions and others. Likewise, certain ways of solving economic problems have been outlined.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Problems of image recognition systems associated with the possibility of its use in terrorist attacks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article discusses systems for recognizing human faces, as well as systems for identifying flying objects. The paper deals with the main security issues related to the recognition of faces and images of objects. Today, automation systems that help to recognize an object, compare it with existing databases, can help prevent terrorist attacks, unauthorized penetrations, as well as the proliferation of biological and nuclear weapons. To date, the study of issues related to the possibility of using these systems is relevant and very much in demand.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Politics and Eschatology in Iran<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article studies the Iranian political society, starting from the analysis of the Iranian Constitution, the only one in the world characterized by “eschatological” components. The authors retrace the history of the birth of the Islamic Republic of Iran, which is fundamental to ensure an interpretation of the politics of that country that takes into account religious and cultural factors and clarifies possible future developments. Furthermore, they address the problem relative to the symbolic system on which the configuration of the Iranian Republic theoretically rests, which must necessarily come to terms with pragmatic reality. In fact, to have a following in his revolutionary project, Khomeini used the “symbolic spring”, in which the politics of Iran in these years have demonstrated the necessity of realism with a parallel with the concept of agnosticism, which thus becomes natural, in opposition to theories that are often more subjective than objective. Finally, the authors go so far as to say that today is the time for a change, even if in a country like Iran, everything proceeds slowly. Young Iranians will have to obtain a role, reorganize and rekindle from below. The involvement of the young people themselves can increase hope in a process that promises to be complex and articulated, which sees the theocratic model as opposed to the model of Muslim politics in a purely eschatological context, which to most, especially in the West, appears anachronistic, but this is not always the case.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Internationalization and interaction in the time of covid 19.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Covid-19 pandemic has made interdependence globally relevant. Communication channels provide us with technological advances; they can make our lives easier, but they can also bring us viruses. In this session, we aim to explore the impact of Covid-19 on relationships between states and other global actors. To what extent will the pandemic affect international relations? What role will emerging actors such as large corporations, pressure groups or multilateral organizations take on? What impact will the possible reconfiguration of global relations have on Europe, but also on the world? This article aims to analyze the consequences of Covid-19 in our societies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-26T00:00:00.000+00:00COVID-19 and mass-media: the weight of the words<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The events of the year 2020 have had and heavy impact on the whole world. For the first time, each of us felt that we were part of this great globalised family. For the first time, the events that happened on a strict continent were directly related to other continents’ inhabitants. The new words entered to be a part of our vocabulary, and the new way of behaviour have been performed. On the positive side, we could mention that countries have been discovered for people with low geographical culture and the existence of certain professions and certain hospital departments have been discovered. The role of mass-media has been decisive in transmitting the news about Covid 19 in various ways. The article aims to show the role of mass media on the headlines of high ranking newspapers in UK Germany and Italy by analysing the weight of the words. The used methodology was the analysis to analyse the headlines of high ranking newspapers in UK Germany and Italy. Through content analysis, it was possible to individuate how the news-papers attract the audience through the headlines and how they contributed to keeping up the attention and the stress among social reality.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Student wellbeing during the pandemic: distance and continuing education<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>It would be right to say 2020 took us by surprise. Currently, countries all over the world are faced with a pandemic and its consequences. People were not ready to change the type of education. Due to the constant presence of electronic smart devices at the screens during distance learning and due to the lack of social contacts, the mental and physical health of students does not change for the better. Students experience depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, and distracted attention.</p><p>The idea of continuing education is reflected in the implementation of distance learning that received this name primarily due to its “flexibility” in terms of choosing the place, time, and sometimes the pace of learning. However, continuing education in the context of distance learning blurs the boundaries between personal time and work, which generally has a negative impact on mental health and learning effectiveness. In most cases, the combination of continuing education and distance learning provokes an increase in the load on students.</p><p>However, both the educational structure and the student should be ready for distance learning. We are talking not only about the technical base, computer skills and individual programs, but also about the skills of independent work.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Covid 19 between globalisation, mobility and complexity<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the article, the authors analyse how Covid 19 have influenced and modified the dynamics generated by the globalization processes in the last decades, in comparison with other recent global crises. Globalization is here treated as a complex phenomenon, that led to major changes in every aspect of modern society, on a large scale and on a small one. To this purpose, an in-depth analysis of the current socio-economic scenario in both developed and developing countries is carried out, with a focus on the data regarding the sectors that were most influenced by the pandemic outbreak.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Culture, health and well-being sit in places. Impact of COVID-19 on the African Society: geo-anthropological perspectives<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Through an interdisciplinary contribution, the authors intend to propose an updated framework of the progress of the COVID-19 pandemic on the African continent and some critical reflections on various geopolitical and geo-anthropological aspects concerning the new vulnerabilities associated with the pandemic crisis in Africa and the importance of culture and its effects on well-being and health.</p><p>The pandemic seems to have hit the African continent much less severely than the rest of the world, with a mortality index (2,4%) lower than the global one (3,5%). The spread of the virus in this geographical area is largely underestimated because health care facilities do not have the tracking power that rich countries have, several factors show how Africa is managing to counter the impact of the pandemic. One reason could be the intervention of the immune capacity of a population exposed in the recent past to numerous other infections that could have stimulated greater protection, both in terms of innate and acquired immunity. The dispersion of the rural population, which represents the majority of the African population (43%), could act as a geographical barrier to the virus. It is a complex picture where there are feelings of distrust between the institutions and the population on the management of the pandemic and the circulation of an excessive amount of data that creates confusion. In the African context, the need to understand the relationship between culture and health becomes fundamental. If the role of cultural values is underestimated, the positive potential of culture as a critical element for maintaining and improving health is negated. According to the World Health Organization, traditional medicine is the cornerstone of health care or its complement in the countries where community membership is most deeply rooted. In Africa, the World Health Organisation estimates that 85% of the population uses it because it is more widespread and accessible than traditional healing systems.</p><p>Only one form of contagion travels faster than a virus. And that’s fear. Dan Brown</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00European Union and Russia: international relations evolution<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Today the relationship between Russia and the today EU-28 (today EU-27) members of the European Union is essential and very strategically important; this issue is bound to become more urgent as the two draws closer together over the next decades. In this paper, we discuss this and the Russian Federation’s role in the Ukraine conflict that has seriously affected EU-Russia relations. The EU and Russia have a long record of cooperation on issues of bilateral and international concern in several fields, from climate change to drug and human trafficking, but also the organized crime, terrorism, and non-proliferation. In particular, Europe, the “old traditional Europe”, acquires special weight for Russia in the context of the cooling down of relations between Russia and the United States. We will discuss gas, oil, and energy, but we can see that the solution can be only economic, and the oil and agriculture sectors could help do just that. “Business is business”.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1