rss_2.0Gestalt Theory FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Gestalt Theory Theory Feed in Rehabilitation: The Role of Subjective Experience in a Multisensory Learning Context – A Narrative Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Game-based approaches are emerging in many fields, such as education, social sciences, marketing and government. Most studies debate its role in consolidating learning, guided by both internal and external rewards.</p> <p>These approaches are also being applied in rehabilitation, where patients must undergo a re-learning process of motor gestures after an injury to a body structure. In physiotherapy, much importance is given to analytical-functional movement aspects, but less to the recovery of the complete experience, including motivation, perception, and emotional experience of the patient during the process.</p> <p>The aim of this narrative review is to investigate the role of subjective experience in the application of gamification in physiotherapy, considering the added value it provides to recovery by involving neural structures, not just motor functions. By analyzing the most investigated aspects in using gamification in rehabilitation, we will outline the primary methods of investigation into the engagement and emotions involved in the process.</p> <p>Through a selection of scientific articles found on main databases, we identified articles investigating the patient’s experience. The analysis of these articles was based on aspects related to the recovery of movement, the technology used, as well as the methods of investigation and collection of qualitative data regarding the emotions and perceptions of patients during the gamification experience.</p> <p>The results are divided into two primary topics. Overall, this review supports the idea that gamification could represent a rehabilitation approach integrating physiotherapy, more suitable for the final stages of recovery, such as returning to work or sports.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for Papers and Systems construct of Aesthetic Relational Knowing: a scale to describe the perceptive capacity of psychotherapists in therapeutic situations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This paper presents and contextualizes the construct of Aesthetic Relational Knowing (ARK), as the intuitive experience of the therapist that emerges from the phenomenological field created in a meeting between therapist and client. The concept of isomorphism is considered as an epistemological turning point and a possible bridge connecting Gestalt therapy, Gestalt theory and Neurosciences. An example of the clinical consequences of this change of perspective is given. Moreover, a validation pilot study has shown that ARK is described by three factors: empathy, resonance and bodily awareness. The ARK can be defined as a three-dimensional construct that supports the positive use of the therapist’s perception in terms of aesthetic knowing of the phenomenological field of the therapeutic situation. The construct of Aesthetic Relational Knowing can be considered a phenomenological, aesthetic and field-oriented contribution to psychotherapy training, supervision and research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue und Ganzes in Karl Bühlers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In his <italic>Theory of language</italic>, written in 1934, the psychologist Karl Bühler proposes applying the concept of Gestalt, developed at that time in philosophy and psychology, to the study of linguistic phenomena. This paper outlines and critically examines Bühler’s proposal. In particular, this paper highlights the two-sided approach that Bühler takes. Bühler shows that both the sound shape (Gestalt) and phonematic signalment (elements) are required for the recognition of linguistic phenomena. Accordingly, two methods of word recognition can be identified in the speaker and listener. The questions that arise in this context about the content of the perception realized when a word is heard will be briefly presented in this paper.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for Michael Wertheimer (1927 - 2022) and Speech as Open, Context-dependent Wholes. A view from Prague<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Since language is the collective focus of this series, the present paper follows both historiographical and theoretical perspectives.</p> <p>The first deals with Prague as a Middle-European town, with a German and Czech University from 1882, where a philosopher, Anton Marty, from the Brentano school, focuses on language and semasiology in the framework of a psychology from an empirical standpoint. He cites Christian von Ehrenfels, and underscores the relational approach to psychic dynamism but, crucially, he emphasises the oscillations between linguistic “sketches” and semantic comprehension. <italic>Sprache ist eine Skizze</italic>, listeners are lead through suggestions, <italic>Nebenvorstellungen</italic>, to grasp meanings, <italic>Bedeutungen</italic> which do not coincide with the mere addition of explicit, variable components.</p> <p>Simultaneously, Vilém Mathesius, forthcoming founder (1926) of the Prague Linguistic Circle, dealing with English language and literature, enquires into the spontaneous ability of listeners to grasp, infer, integrate ellipsis in a sentence, consisting of a missing word, <italic>in omissione vocabuli, quod non dictum tamen cogitatur.</italic> Language enquiries will then require psychology, will aim to explain inferences, to infer implicit from explicit.</p> <p>The effort to obtain the whole, via super- or even subsummativity processes, has been a special topic for Gestalt psychology. Context being the proper habitat for both language and mind, we follow the <italic>fil rouge</italic> which leads directly to Gestalt contributions and further developments, e.g., inferential semantics and pragmatics. In conversation, as in architecture, <italic>less is more</italic>. We strive to prove this.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue from the Past: Michael Wertheimer dead at 95 K. Langers “Mind: An Essay on Human Feeling.” Eine späte Wiederentdeckung<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>It is about 100 Years ago that the German-American philosopher Susanne K. Langer started a bold and courageous appearance on the stage of consciousness-research - until then exclusively dominated by male and paternalistic figures. This contribution is to highlight SK Langers work and impact on the theory of consciousness, especially on her final three volume publication: “Mind. An Essay on Human Feeling” (1967, 1972, 1982) which, until now, has not been translated into German.</p> <p>What stands out in Langer’s work is her intuitive closeness to many Gestalt-theorists and the overriding importance she attributes to symbolization in the specific make-up of the human mind. Her main focus is centered on presentative symbolics; meaning those early forms of human expression (prior or along the development of human language) in magic rituals, rhythm, music, painting and sculpturing, early collective work experience, formalized playing or funeral activities.</p> <p>Langers view on symbols goes far beyond the typical meaning of reference towards a much more sophisticated intertwinement of form, event and being in a matrix of “living tensions”. I would like to point out that her research is of important value to a revised thinking on mental health and mental crisis in reshaping the complex interaction between image, Gestalt and Symbol.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Realist Foundations for Berlin Comparative Musicology()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Is it possible to discover the critical realist foundations of Gestalt theory in Berlin comparative musicology (<italic>vergleichende Kunstwissenschaft</italic>) associated above all with Erich M. von Hornbostel? The balance of natural science explanation and phenomenal experience is a useful model for overcoming Eurocentrism in comparative ethnomusicology, relying both on third-person tools and indigenous music systems. This paper uses Gestalt critical realist epistemology and methodology and a portrayal of the strata making up the understanding of a musical act with chemico-physical, phenomenal and cultural components to create an “amphibian” ethnomusicology. Using this framework it is possible to understand Hornbostel and Sachs’ musical instrument classification system and Hornbostel’s account of “primitive” music as strata in a Gestalt explanatory system. The potential binding agent through the strata is isomorphism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue auf Michael Wertheimer (1927 - 2022) phenomenology (?) – A rejoinder to Bianchi & Burro (2022)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, the term experimental phenomenology has come to refer to the work of various researchers, mainly Italian, of whom Gaetano Kanizsa and Paolo Bozzi are the most representative. Their work is well presented in this article by Bianchi and Burro (2022). My objection is to what I consider to be the misnomer and misleading name “experimental phenomenology,” which gives the impression that we are dealing with a homogeneous group following a unified approach. However, this is not the case. The phenomenological view is not the same for everyone, ranging from borrowings from Gestalt theory, as in Kanizsa, to Gibsonian ecologism, as in Bozzi. And, most importantly, the research designs of these researchers are only sometimes experimental, sometimes quasi-experimental, but more often non-experimental.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue multisensoriality. Reading<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In natural face-to-face interactions, verbal communication always occurs in association with expressions of nonverbal behavior. The functional contribution of these multimodal aspects to the meaning of the message and to its effects fulfils multiple communicative functions that differ according primarily to the speaker’s intentions, to the interpersonal relations between the speaker and the addressee, to the nature of the message, and to the context.</p> <p>When nonverbal behavior is reproduced in a written literary text, it becomes functional to the textual and narrative process as it serves as a signifier for the reader. A fictional character is never fixed and unchanging. Through writing, each author encourages the explicit or implicit evocation of a multisensory world, which readers decode and reconstruct, inevitably conditioned by their cognitive and cultural environment.</p> <p>In this paper, we refer to Salinger’s famous novel <italic>The Catcher in the Rye</italic> to analyze the literary valence of representing the characters’ multisensory communication, focusing on the core relationship between the explicit and the implicit parts in reconstructing the psychological depth of a literary character.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’ experience with augmented gaze: preliminary observations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Research on elders’ acceptance of virtual technologies is much needed. Here we studied the user experience of elders (N = 10, mean age = 88.2 years) during virtual biking, an exergame where participants pedal on a cycle ergometer and wear a Head-Mounted Display that provides them an immersive experience of a bike ride. We tested the effects of augmented gaze on user experience. Augmented gaze is a condition in which horizontal head turns yield amplified visual shifts, which is assumed to facilitate visual exploration. User experience was measured by asking participants to rate satisfaction, motivation, sense of presence and sense of safety. We found a very good acceptance of virtual biking and no signs of negative effects of augmented gaze. These preliminary observations suggest that augmented gaze may be a viable optimization of elders’ experience with certain virtual reality applications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Affordances and the Gestalt Legacy: enriching music perception<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In the current cognitive theory of music, concepts of Gestalt psychology are referred to in various ways. For example, neurocognitive models of music perception address the formation of auditory Gestalts as a stage in the formation of meaning. However, this view runs counter to central premises of Gestalt psychology of Carl Stumpf’s school, which precisely did not describe Gestalts as synthesized phenomena. Nevertheless, it is argued here, borrowing from Gestalt concepts can promote current non-reductionist positions. They conceptualize musical perception not in the ways of information theory, but of phenomenology and action theory. Here the theory of affordance developed by J.J. Gibson in close collaboration with his wife Eleanor J. Gibson stands out. It was explicitly introduced into musicological research by Eric Clarke, but without reference to its Gestalt psychological roots. The article explores theories of musical affordance with the help of further methodological tools, which can be assigned to the philosophical schools of direct realism and constructivism. They open up the possibility of a non-cognitivist and non-representational perspective on musical perception. It turns out that Gestalt psychological concepts also have a catalytic effect on the expansion of our understanding of musical perception in this constellation, although this connection has hardly been visible so far.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of perception for design: the view of Walter Gropius<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper discusses the theories underlying Walter Gropius’ conception of science. Starting with “Is There a Science of Design?” written by Gropius in 1947, the influences of Ganzheitspsychologie and the New Look on Perception are traced. In particular, the contribution of Earl C. Kelley is analyzed. Subsequently, Gropius’ phenomenological approach, insights on expressive qualities, and the relationship between man- environment are discussed. Finally, the influences of Gestalt theory and spiritualistic psychology on Gropius’s conception of science and perception are outlined.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the 22nd Scientific Conference of the Society for Gestalt Theory and its Applications in Trieste (2022) road to Necker cube perception<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study of cases of illusory or unstable perception of some visual stimuli allows exploration of the psychology of perception of the surrounding world. The wired construction known as “Necker cube” is one such stimulus: it can be perceived as a cube whose front face is seen higher than the back face or vice versa. The switch can occur intentionally or spontaneously. The investigations were focused on switching parameters, relation of the switching to eye position, pre-history, and environment. Here we define that the kernel of the problem is recognizing the 2D drawing as a 3D Necker cube. To this end, we have expanded Gestalt's psychology methods that allow us to recognize 2D figures in drawings for recognizing 3D figure in a flat drawing (including the Necker cube). The presented algorithm for recognizing the cube based on the imitation principle allowed the development of the model of switching between two possible perceptions of the Necker cube. The paper shows that the predictions are in conformity with previously available experimental data. The results confirm the imitation principle of perception, and suggest expanding our research on perception to a wider class of 3D figures, opening a window into the internal processes of perception.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Benussi, the Gustav Mahler of Psychology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The paper celebrates the person and work of Vittorio Benussi, a forgotten genius of psychology. In particular, it addresses the two most important scientific projects that Benussi developed during his time in Graz and Padua, respectively: the psychology of perception and the psychology of emotions and the unconscious. It highlights the originality and topicality of Benussi’s work and emphasizes its proximity to the latest trends in these research fields.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for Gerhard Stemberger on the Occasion of the Award of the Honorary Membership of the GTA