rss_2.0Helminthologia FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Helminthologia Feed wildlife comes to town: interaction of sylvatic and domestic host animals in transmission of spp. in Namibia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The present study was conducted in the isolated desert town of Oranjemund in the far south of Namibia. It is an extremely arid region where no livestock husbandry is practiced and only animals adapted to the desert can be found. However, in and around the city, artificial irrigation maintains lush green patches of grass that attract wild animals, in particular oryx antelopes (<italic>Oryx gazella</italic>). In 2015 four oryx antelopes were euthanised due to poor conditions and a post-mortem examination was conducted. Two were found positive for cystic echinococcosis and 16 cysts were collected for molecular analyses. In addition, faecal samples from black-backed jackals (n=5) and domestic dogs (n=9), which were regularly observed to feed on oryx carcasses, were collected and taeniid eggs isolated. Parasite species identification of the cysts and eggs was done by amplifying and sequencing the mitochondrial <italic>nad1</italic> gene. Both oryx antelopes were found infected with <italic>E. ortleppi</italic> and one co-infected with <italic>E. canadensis</italic> G6/7. Both <italic>Echinococcus</italic> species were able to develop fertile cysts in oryx, making oryx antelopes competent hosts for these parasites. Therefore, the analysis of faecal samples was of high interest and although the numbers were quite small, taeniid eggs were found in three out of five faecal samples of jackals and in all nine dog samples. However, species determination was only successful with two jackal and one dog sample. All three were positive for <italic>E. canadensis</italic> G6/7. The absence of <italic>E. ortleppi</italic> may be due to the low number of faecal samples examined. In our small study, we discovered a rather unique lifecycle of <italic>Echinococcus</italic> spp. between jackals and domestic dogs as definitive hosts and oryx antelopes as intermediate hosts. Here, the presence of <italic>E. canadensis</italic> G6/7 is of particular concern, as it is the second most important causative agent of CE in humans.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effects of peppermint (), lemon (), and tea tree () essential oils against Monogenean parasite ( sp.) on carp ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><italic>Dactylogyrus</italic> sp. (Monogenea) is one of the most dangerous pathogens causing parasitic infections in carp (<italic>Cyprinus carpio</italic>) and other freshwater fish. Due to the adverse effects of conventional chemical treatments on the environment and fish, the use of herbal products in aquaculture against various diseases has increased. In the present study, anthelmintic effects of peppermint (<italic>Mentha piperita</italic>), lemon (<italic>Citrus limon</italic>), and tea tree (<italic>Melaleuca alternifolia</italic>) essential oils against <italic>Dactylogyrus</italic> sp. found on the gills of carp were studied using <italic>in vitro</italic> and <italic>in vivo</italic> experiments. In <italic>in vitro</italic> experiments, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 μl/ml concentrations of these essential oils were tested on the parasites and cumulative mortalities were observed to reach 100 % after treatment with peppermint, lemon, and tea tree essential oils of 1 μl/ml concentration in approximately 15, 10 and 2 min, respectively. The <italic>in vitro</italic> experiments demonstrated that the cumulative mortality of the parasites increased with essential oil concentration and exposure duration. As the concentration of essential oil used increased, the observed mean time to death of parasites decreased. In <italic>in vivo</italic> experiments, median effective concentrations (EC50) as assessed by <italic>in vitro</italic> tests for peppermint and lemon essential oils in 5 min exposure and EC50 concentration for tea tree essential oil in 2 min exposure was applied on fish as a single bath and there was a significant decrease in the mean parasite intensities (p&lt;0.05). Antiparasitic efficacies of peppermint, lemon, and tea tree essential oils were determined as 28.23 %, 30.95 %, and 35.31 %, respectively. The tea tree oil was the most effective and peppermint oil was the least effective in both <italic>in vitro</italic> and <italic>in vivo</italic> experiments. All three herbal essential oils tested in this study have weak antiparasitic potential against monogenean infections in fish.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Fauna of Juvenile Green Sea Turtles () from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The helminth fauna of juvenile green sea turtles (<italic>Chelonia mydas</italic> Linnaeus, 1758) is still poorly known. Herein, we study the gastrointestinal helminths of 28 juvenile green sea turtles found stranded on the north coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. All turtles were infected showing a rich helminth fauna. In total, 14802 trematodes belonging to 30 species and 5 families including Micros-caphidiidae, Plagiorchiidae, Pronocephalidae, Hapalotrematidae, and Telorchiidae were recovered. An unidentified nematode specimens was also found. The mean intensity was 536 (95% CI = 362 – 853) (range: 1 – 2831), and the species richness was 7.86 (95% CI = 6.46 – 9.21) (range: 1 – 17). The coast of Rio de Janeiro state represents new locality records for <italic>Angiodictyum posterovitellatum, Microscaphidium aberrans, M. warui, Octangium hyphalum, O. sagitta, Enodiotrema reductum</italic> and <italic>Pleurogonius laterouterus</italic>. This study confirms that the green sea turtle harbors the richest helminth fauna among sea turtle species and provides useful information on the gastrointestinal helminths of a poorly known stage in the life cycle of this endangered chelonian.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effects of silver nanoparticles (AG-NPs) on the root-knot nematode, associated with Swiss chard ( L.)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) are important nematode pests, causing huge economic losses on vegetable crops worldwide. A decline in the yield of Swiss chard (<italic>Beta vulgaris</italic> L.) which was associated with RKNs was observed on an organic vegetable farm in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Nematodes were extracted from galled plant roots and identified using molecular tools. PCR-based Sequence Characterised Amplified Region (SCAR) primers was used to confirm the specie of the RKN associated with the infected plants. Thereafter, a pot assay was conducted to determine the response of artificially infected Swiss chard plants to varying concentrations of bio-synthesized silver nanoparticle Ag-NP (1 μg/mL, 2 μg/mL, and 3 μg/mL) under controlled conditions. The results of the study showed that Swiss chard is highly susceptible to <italic>M. javanica</italic> with an egg-laying-female index of &gt;5 in all infected plants. Significantly lower values (at P=0.05) in egg masses (EM), juveniles (J2s), and reproduction factor (RF) of nematodes were recorded on plants treated with 3 μg/mL, indicating a potential for nematode control. A negative correlation was also observed in the number of egg masses, J2s, and RF of the nematodes with increasing concentrations of the Ag-NP. This study confirms that Swiss chard is highly susceptible to <italic>M. javanica</italic> and demonstrates the potential nematicidal property of Ag-NP in controlling the nematode pest of Swiss chard.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue fauna in roe deer ( Linnaeus, 1758) in the province of Grosseto (central Italy)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Helminth infection was analysed at necropsy and coprology in a total of 54 roe deer from the province of Grosseto (central Italy) between 2018 – 2020. Age and sex data were recorded for each deer for a total of 31 adults (23 females, 8 males) and 23 juveniles (11 females, 12 males).</p> <p>The results on the small intestine (51 samples) highlighted that nematodes belonging to the species <italic>Trichostrongylus colubriformis</italic> were the most prevalent parasite (41.2 %), followed by the cestode <italic>Moniezia expansa</italic> (7.8 %). The large intestine results (52 samples) showed <italic>Trichuris</italic> spp. (53.8 %), <italic>Oesophagostomum venulosum</italic> (50 %) and <italic>Chabertia ovina</italic> (26.9 %). In the abomasum, only <italic>Ostertagia ostertagi</italic> (17.9 %) was found. Of the 34 samples analysed by bronchopulmonary, only the lung of an adult female was positive for <italic>Dictyocaulus</italic> spp. In two livers out of 33 samples analysed, nematodes of the species <italic>Setaria tundra</italic> were found on the surface. Copropositivity was observed in 45 of the 52 faecal samples analysed. The results of the present study indicate that the roe deer is host to several species of parasites, which are also common in other cervids and domestic ruminants. Statistical testing highlighted a significant difference between mean intensities in males and females.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue factors associated with dog endoparasites infection spread in East Slovak Lowland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This study aimed to determine the prevalence of endoparasites in dog feces from public places, investigate the occurrence of endoparasites in soil, and identify potential risk factors associated with the dog endoparasites infection spread in East Slovak Lowland - the region near the EU border with Ukraine. In a one-year study, a total of 803 dog fecal samples and 148 soil samples from public places were examined for the presence of endoparasite developmental stages. In general, 43.59 % of dog excrements were positive. Six different species of intestinal parasites were detected: <italic>Toxocara canis</italic> (22.65 %), <italic>Trichuris vulpis</italic> (14.07 %), family Ancylostomatidae (10.09 %), <italic>Capillaria aerophilla</italic> (5.60 %), <italic>Ascaris</italic> spp. (1.49 %). Altogether, 52.03 % of soil samples were positive for at least one endoparasites species. The occurrence of parasitic eggs in the soil was as follows: <italic>Ascaris</italic> spp. (37.16 %), <italic>Toxocara</italic> spp. (29.05 %), <italic>Trichuris</italic> spp. (29.05 %) %), family Ancylostomatidae (2.03 %) and <italic>Toxascaris leonina</italic> (2.03 %). The occurrence of endoparasites between the towns and villages varied significantly. The distribution of endoparasites in dogs and soil was affected by the population density, the minority people living in the studied territory, the number of people living in poor hygienic conditions with limited access to drinking water and the usage of sewerage. Persisting endoparasitic contamination of the environment in East Slovak Lowland forms a reservoir with zoonotic potential representing public and environmental health problems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and molecular characterization of isolated from the small ruminants of south Gujarat, India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The successful design of strategic control measures against the blood-sucking gastrointestinal nematode, <italic>Haemonchus contortus</italic> in small ruminants can be facilitated by revealing its general features from morphology to the molecular level. In the south Gujarat region of India, a total of 2408 <italic>H. contortus</italic> were collected from 84 slaughtered sheep's abomasum, consisting of 347 males and 2061 females (1:6 ratio) (p&lt;0.05). Furthermore, 726 <italic>H. contortus</italic> were collected from 61 goats, comprising 145 males and 581 females (1:4 ratio) (p&lt;0.05). The male worms were approximately 12±0.06 mm long, while female worms were about 20±0.09 mm long. The vulvar morphotypes of the female worms were found to be 17.7% linguiform, 76.6 % knobbed/button (p&lt;0.05), and 5.7 % smooth type, demonstrating common features of <italic>H. contortus</italic>. The nucleotide sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS-1) of 165 bp or ITS-2 plus of 256 bp were aligned, and it was found that the genotypes of male and female specimens of either sheep or goat origin were identical, with a 100 % match. The present isolates shared &gt;95 % and &gt;94 % homology with published sequences of ITS-1 and ITS-2 plus of <italic>H. contortus</italic>, respectively, with more nucleotide transitions than transversions in the aligned sequences. The reconstructed phylogram of either ITS-1 or ITS-2 plus revealed two major clades, one for <italic>H. contortus</italic> and another for other nematodes, with <italic>Haemonchus placei</italic> showing its proximity with the clade of <italic>H. contortus</italic>. The study established the role of morphological and molecular features in identifying and differentiating <italic>H. contortus</italic> parasite at the local level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of flukes ( and paramphistomids) in cattle in south-eastern Mexico<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors and prevalence of trematodes in south-eastern Mexico. The prevalence of trematodes was determined in 1010 bovines. The study was carried out from October 2018 (n=291) to December 2019 (n=719). Only in 2019 rumen and liver fluke eggs were differentiated. Faecal samples (n=311) were obtained from farms in southeast Mexico located in Tabasco, Chiapas and Campeche. In addition, the presence of flukes in liver and rumen from slaughtered cattle in abattoirs was recorded with a total of 408 samples. A logistic procedure was used to obtain the prevalence and the effect of main risk factors such as land physiography (flooded areas and hills), year, sex, animals’ age and type of sample obtained (eggs in faeces and flukes). The general prevalence of flukes in cattle was 32.3 % in 2018 and 41.7 % in 2019. Prevalence of <italic>F. hepatica</italic> (liver fluke) was 18.6 % (134/719) and that of paramphistomids (rumen fluke) was 33.4 % (240/719). The infected cattle from the slaughterhouse indicated a lower prevalence of <italic>F. hepatica</italic> (1 %) and rumen fluke (26.7 %) than in farms detected by egg in faeces (41.8 % and 42.1 %, respectively). The physiographic zone was decisive in the presence of <italic>F. hepatica</italic> and rumen fluke, while sex did not represent a risk factor (P &gt; 0.05). The environmental conditions of the Mexican southeast favour the presence of both liver and rumen fluke.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue endoparasitism in wild cat () from Banat area (Romania)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The wild cat (<italic>Felis silvestris</italic>), spread in Romania from the Danube Delta to the mountain range is present in the Banat area, on the hunting ground that can be contaminated with different stage developmental forms of parasites, some of them having real zoonotic potential. The wild cat is an animal protected by the Romanian law of protection animals.</p> <p>Coprological samples from 88 wild cats from 16 hunting grounds, as well as the gastrointestinal tract collected from six wild cats cadavers and the molecular characterization of the cestodes identified in their intestines, allowed us to establish intestinal parasitic fauna. During coprological examination <italic>Isospora</italic> oocysts, tapeworm eggs, eggs of <italic>Toxocara cati</italic>, <italic>Ancylostoma spp</italic>. and <italic>Capillaria spp</italic> were found. At the same time, the form of genera Mesocestoides, Taenia, Toxocara/Toxascaris and Ancylostoma were identified at necropsy. Further polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification revealed the species of <italic>Taenia taenieformis</italic>, and <italic>Mesocestoides litteratus</italic>, the latter providing a zoonotic potential.</p> <p>This study, the first in the western part of the country (Banat area, Timis County), provides information about the parasitic fauna of wild cats and underlines the importance of the human contamination risk.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and resurrection of the status of () (Eucestoda, Dipylidiidae)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>A study of the parasite fauna of feral cats in Dubai revealed the presence of two <italic>Joyeuxiella</italic> species, <italic>J. pasqualei</italic> (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2023-0016_ref_015">Diamare, 1893</xref>) and <italic>J. fuhrmanni</italic> (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2023-0016_ref_006">Baer, 1924</xref>). While the wide distribution of <italic>J. pasqualei</italic> includes countries of the Middle East, Africa, Asia and Europe, <italic>J. fuhrmanni</italic> was previously reported from felid hosts from southern Africa and has not been found in other cat parasite surveys in the Middle East, except from Dubai. The availability of historical references, however, raised doubts about the correctness of the allocation of the small <italic>Joyeuxiella</italic> sp. from Dubai cats to <italic>J. fuhrmanni</italic> and for this reason, a reexamination of stored material in the parasite collection of the Central Veterinary Research Laboratory in Dubai was carried out. A total of 40 specimens of the small <italic>Joyeuxiella</italic> sp. with a strobila length between 30 and 60 mm and consisting of 52 to 85 segments obtained from domestic cats and formerly allocated to <italic>J. fuhrmanni</italic> were studied. In complete specimens, 10 – 13 rows of rostellar hooks were counted. Mature segments were wider than long, round testes were concentrated posterior to coiled vasa deferentia and did not reach the anterior rim of the proglottids. Narrow cirri reached up to 520 μm in length. Gravid segments were longer than wide and egg capsules were restricted to the space between longitudinal excretory vessels. The examination revealed that the morphology of these cestodes matched the main characteristics of <italic>J. fuhrmanni</italic>. However, the little known cestode, <italic>J. gervaisi</italic> (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2023-0016_ref_035">Setti, 1895</xref>), that had been described from <italic>Genetta abyssinica</italic> imported from Eritrea 29 years earlier and was declared a <italic>species inquirenda</italic> met the same main morphological criteria. In this paper, the status of <italic>J. gervaisi</italic> as a valid species was resurrected and <italic>J. fuhrmanni</italic> was declared a junior synonym.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and distribution of urinary schistosomiasis among senior primary school pupils of Siphofaneni area in the low veld of Eswatini: A cross-sectional study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>A cross-sectional survey of <italic>Schistosoma haematobium</italic> prevalence was conducted among senior primary school pupils of Siphofaneni area, Eswatini. This area is devoid of potable water, with a newly constructed Lubovane dam and an LUSIP irrigation scheme. The objective of the study was to investigate the distribution of urinary schistosomiasis among Siphofaneni senior primary school pupils. Using simple random sampling, 200 partcipants were enroled from four of six schools in the area. Ten millimetres (10 ml) of urine samples were obtained from each participant and examined for <italic>S. haematobium</italic> eggs. The intensity of the infection was estimated by calculating the total number of <italic>S. haematobium</italic> eggs present in 10 ml urine. Out of 200 participants, 45% (n = 91) were males, and 55% (n = 109) were females. The mean age for participants was 13 years, and almost half (47%, n = 94) were in Grade 5. Overall, the prevalence of <italic>S. haematobium</italic> infection was 16% (32/200). More than half (59%, 19/32) of the Schistosomiasis cases were from females. Positive and significant associations were observed between the number of eggs (χ<sup>2</sup>=170.9) and the presence of red blood cells (χ<sup>2</sup>=49.2) at <italic>p</italic> = 0.001. In conclusion, the prevalence of Schistosomiasis is high among pupils enrolled in Siphofaneni area primary schools that needs comprehensive treatment and education to prevent from <italic>S. haematobium</italic> infection.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) and (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) from Garlic Plantation in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>There were two most found genera of plant parasitic nematodes from garlic plantation in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia which suffered losses due to bulb rot, <italic>Aphelenchoides</italic> and <italic>Helicotylenchus</italic>. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was conducted using a pair of universal nematode primer (D2A/D3B) to determine the <italic>Aphelenchoides</italic> and <italic>Helicotylenchus</italic> species from those host. Both genera were amplified at ~780 bp. The Blast-N results for the <italic>Aphelenchoides</italic> showed high identity to <italic>Aphelenchoides varicaudatus</italic> from Yunnan China (HQ283353) with 99.47 % identity, while the <italic>Helicotylenchus</italic> showed 95.22 % identity to <italic>Helicotylenchus erythrinae</italic> from Colombia (MT321739). From morphological and molecular data, we confirm that the <italic>Aphelenchoides</italic> species is <italic>A. varicaudatus.</italic> Based on female morphological character, <italic>Helicotylenchus</italic> species refers to <italic>H. erythrinae</italic>. Which is also supported by its nucleotide alignment which has same region character as <italic>H. erythrinae</italic> (MT321739). This is the first report of molecular characterization of <italic>H. erythrinae</italic> in Indonesia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue on the biology of Hodasi, 1967 (Trematoda: Brachylaimidae) based on intermediate and definitive hosts found in Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Following the recovery of the metacercariae of a brachylaimid trematode from the rectum of the frog <italic>Amnirana galamensis</italic> from Ase in Delta State, Nigeria, we investigated the land snails in the locality to establish their roles in the life cycle of the parasite. Of the four land snails investigated from Ase (<italic>Limicolaria aurora</italic>, <italic>Archachatina marginata</italic>, <italic>A. papyracea</italic>, and <italic>Thapsia oscitans</italic>), and a <italic>Limicolaria</italic> sp. from Tombia (Bayelsa State), four harboured larval stages of the bracylaimid. Only <italic>L. aurora</italic> and the <italic>Limicolaria</italic> sp. harboured cercariogenous sporocysts and are therefore presumed to serve as the first intermediate hosts of the parasite. Metacercariae were recovered from the <italic>Limicolaria</italic> spp. and the <italic>Archachatina</italic> spp. and so serve as the second intermediate hosts. No larval brachylaimids were recovered from <italic>T. oscitans</italic>. Metacercariae from <italic>L. aurora</italic> and <italic>A. papyracea</italic> were cultured <italic>in vivo</italic> in 14 days old chicks of <italic>Gallus gallus domesticus</italic>. Parasites recovered from the experimental hosts 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-infection, showed progressive development of the parasite with the full maturity attained by the 28<sup>th</sup> day post-infection. Adult parasites recovered from the experimental birds and from free range chicken purchased from Ase and Tombia showed that the brachylaimid infecting these birds was <italic>Postharmostomum ntowi</italic>, a parasite previously reported in domestic chicken in Ghana. There is need to investigate the host range of the parasite in Nigeria as this trematode is also known to infect the Guinea fowl in Ghana.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of digeneans parasitizing and (Teleostean, Mullidae) off the coast of Algerian<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><italic>Mullus barbatus</italic> and <italic>Mullus surmuletus</italic> (Perciformes, Mullidae) are a common marine teleost of great commercial importance in many coastal areas. We studied the communities of Digenea species in two congeneric Mullidae hosts collected on the Algerian coast in the southern Mediterranean. Five hundred and seven <italic>M. barbatus</italic> and one hundred and twenty-three <italic>M. surmuletus</italic> were examined. During this work, we collected six species of parasitic Digenea which are related to five different families: Hemiuridae represented by <italic>Lecithocladium excisum</italic>, Fellodistomidae by <italic>Proctoeces maculatus</italic> and which is reported only from <italic>M. surmuletus</italic>, Derogenidae by <italic>Derogenes latus</italic>, Monorchiidae by <italic>Proctotrema bacilliovatum</italic> and finally Opecoelidae represented by two species <italic>Opecoeloides furcatus</italic> and <italic>Poracanthium furcatum</italic>. A critical systematic study revealed an apparent overlap in morphometric data of the six Digenean species from two host fishes. Therefore, the two mullet species are likely to share the same parasite community, and the stenoxenic specificity of Digenean parasites is briefly argued. Prevalence values showed that in the midst of six hundred and thirty Mullidae, one hundred and ninety-six are parasitized (31.11 %). Statistical tests showed that the most parasitized fish hosts are <italic>M. surmuletus</italic> with a high prevalence value (47.15 %), and on the other hand, they proved that small fish are more parasitized than others. Also, the lack of homogeneity between the different parasites is reported. We also note that the use of factorial correspondence analysis (FCA) allowed us, for the first time to highlight the distribution of the parasite species identified in the two mullets according to the seasons.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue study on helminths of three species of Gobiidae from the Danube River, Bulgaria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>A total of 72 specimens of <italic>Babka gymnotrachelus</italic> (Kessler, 1857), <italic>Neogobius fluviatilis</italic> (Pallas, 1814), and <italic>Neogobius melanostomus</italic> (Pallas, 1814) from four sampling sites along the Bulgarian section of the Danube River (Kudelin, Novo selo, Koshava, and Kutovo), Northwestern Bulgaria were submitted to ecologohelminthological investigation. During the examination 6 species of helminths have been identified from 3 classes: Trematoda (<italic>Nicolla skrjabini</italic> (Iwanitzky, 1928) Dollfus, 1960), Acanthocephala (<italic>Acanthocephalus anguillae</italic> (Müller, 1780) Lühe, 1911; <italic>Acanthocephalus lucii</italic> (Müller, 1776) Lühe, 1911; <italic>Pomphorhynchus laevis</italic> (Zoega in Müller, 1776) Porta, 1908) and Nematoda (<italic>Contracaecum</italic> sp., <italic>Eustrongylides excisus</italic> Jägerskiöld, 1909). Ecological indices of the established endohelminth species were tracked. The four sampling sites from the Danube River are new habitats for the discovered endohelminth species of racer goby, monkey goby, and round goby. The three goby species are new host records: <italic>B. gymnotrachelus</italic> and <italic>N. fluviatilis</italic> for <italic>Ac. lucii</italic>; <italic>N. melanostomus</italic> for <italic>Ac. lucii</italic>, <italic>Ac. anguillae</italic> and <italic>Contracaecum</italic> sp. New species of helminths are found in the helminth fauna of the three studied species of gobies from the Danube River and the river basin (<italic>Ac. lucii</italic> of <italic>N. fluviatilis</italic>) and in Bulgaria (<italic>Ac. lucii</italic> of <italic>B. gymnotrachelus</italic>; <italic>Ac. lucii</italic>, <italic>Ac. anguillae</italic> and <italic>Contracaecum</italic> sp. of <italic>N. melanostomus</italic>). The pathogenic species helminths for the fish and humans are found.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue accuracy of swine echinococcosis cytopathological tests and challenges for a differential diagnosis: slaughterhouse data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Echinococcosis disease shows clinical signs similar to many diseases. Hence we report cases that need to be confirmed using appropriate tests. A confirmatory study has been conducted to assess the accuracy of two cytopathological tests, with the histopathology test as the reference standard. The first cytopathological test evaluates the Ziehl Neelsen staining with an epifluorescence microscope (cytopath 1). The second cytopathological test uses the same staining followed by a transmitted light microscope examination (cytopath 2). Of a total of 2524 inspected pigs, 101 suspected cases of echinococcosis were detected, of which 67 were found positive with the two cytopathological tests and the histopathological one. The specificity of cytopath 1 (100 % [95 % CI 100 – 100]) and cytopath 2 (100 % [95 % CI 100;100]) were similar, as well as their respective positive predictive values: 100 % [95 % CI 100 – 100] vs. 100 % [95 % CI 100 – 100]. The sensitivity of cytopath 1 is 79.66 % [95 % CI 69.39 – 89.93], while cytopath 2 equals 66.10 % [95 % CI 54.02 – 78.18]. The difference in sensitivity of both tests was not significant. Negative predictive values found for cytopath 1, and cytopath 2 were 40 [95 % CI 18.53 – 61.47] and 28.57 [95 % CI 11.84 – 45.3], leading to the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) Model estimate for an odds ratio of 1.4 [95 % CI 0.41 – 5.2], p = 0.06. Cytopath 1 and cytopath 2 are equivalent in terms of specificity (100 % [95 % CI 100 – 100] vs. 100 % [95 % CI 100;100]) and positive predictive value (100 % [95 % CI 100 – 100]. Cytopath 1 is more sensitive than cytopath 2 but not significant (79.66 % [ 95 % CI 69.39 – 89.93] vs. 66.10 % [95 % CI 54.02 – 78.18]). However, the negative predictive value of cytopath 1 is better than that of cytopath 2: 40 % [95 % CI 18.53 – 61.47] vs. 28.57 % [95 % CI 11.84 – 45.3].</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue case of natural infection with in a coati () from Mexico<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This paper aims to describe the natural infection with <italic>Dirofilaria immitis</italic> in <italic>Nasua narica</italic> (white-nosed coati) from Yucatán, Mexico. Two carcasses of <italic>N. narica</italic> were collected on a highway that crosses through a dense forest with patches used for agriculture and livestock activities. We performed necropsies, and two female adult nematode parasites from the heart of one specimen were collected and preserved for their molecular identification using a conventional PCR directed at a fragment of the small subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA (<italic>18S-</italic>rRNA) gene. Bioinformatic analysis showed a similarity of 99 % with three sequences from <italic>D. immitis</italic> (two from Japan). Additionally, we performed a phylogenetic tree with the recovered sequence. All these analyses showed that <italic>D. immitis</italic> is present in <italic>N. narica</italic> from Mexico. The transmission of <italic>D. immitis</italic> toward populations of <italic>Nasua</italic> sp. may be due to indirect and accidental contact with domestic dogs or wild canids that share the same environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of sp. among cooks in the region of Fez-Meknes (Morocco)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Cooks have an important role in the dissemination and transmission of enteropathogenic microorganisms, including intestinal parasites such as <italic>Blastocystis</italic> sp. responsible for blastocystosis.</p> <p>Blastocystis is a unicellular, anaerobic, eukaryotic protist that colonizes the intestinal tract of many hosts. It is the most common parasite found in human stool. It can be the cause of acute digestive disorders which could lead to chronic syndromes such as irritable bowel syndrome. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of this protozoan in cooks in the Fez-Meknes region. This is a retrospective descriptive analytical study carried out in the Parasitology-Mycology laboratory of the Moulay Ismail Military Hospital in Meknes.</p> <p>Out of a total of 200 parasitological examinations of cooks’ stools, 88 (44 %) cases were positive for intestinal parasites. <italic>Blastocystis</italic> sp. is the most frequently encountered protozoan in our study. It represents 39.78 % of those infected. It is associated in 48.57 % of cases with another intestinal parasite. <italic>Dientamoeba fragilis</italic> (<italic>D. fragilis</italic>) is the most found in 31.43 % of co-infections, respectively followed by <italic>Entamoeba coli</italic> (<italic>E. coli</italic>) (8.57 %), <italic>Endolimax nana</italic> (<italic>E. nana</italic>) (5.71 %) and <italic>Pseudolimax boutschlii</italic> (<italic>P. boutschlii</italic>) (2.86 %).</p> <p>Our results showed a high prevalence of <italic>Blastocystis</italic> sp. in the kitchen staff population. These workers must be considered as reservoirs of this microorganism, and therefore a source of infection in those around them. Consequently, preventive measures are necessary, including raising awareness among this population in order to effectively fight against the infestation by this protozoan in particular and other parasites in general.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Johnston, 1937 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) from a North American population using novel SEM images, Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis, and molecular analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>We describe a population of the acanthocephalan <italic>Corynosoma australe</italic> <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2023-0003_ref_038">Johnston, 1937</xref> (Polymorphidae) from a California sea lion <italic>Zalophus californianus</italic> (Lesson, 1828) in California using novel scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, Energy Dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA), and molecular analysis for the first time. The taxonomic history of <italic>C. australe</italic> is replete with accounts using only line drawings some of which proved erroneous. The distribution of ventral spines on the female trunk has been the primary distinction between <italic>C. australe</italic> and <italic>Corynosoma obtuscens</italic> <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2023-0003_ref_044">Lincicome, 1943</xref>, its junior synonym; being continuous in the latter but discontinuous posteriorly in the former species. The distribution of ventral spines is invariably discontinuous in males. Our redescription and SEM images help to resolve this issue further validating the synonymy. Morphological variability has been documented between our California population and others from various host species in California, South Australia, South Shetlands, and the Argentinian coast. Our SEM images document features not previously detectable in line drawings, erroneously reported or missed in previous accounts. The EDXA spectra show high levels of calcium and phosphorous and low levels of sulfur characteristic of <italic>C. australe.</italic> EDXA for other species of <italic>Corynosoma</italic> Lühe, 1904 provide support for the diagnostic distinction of <italic>C. australe</italic>. EDXA spectra were shown to be species specific and have diagnostic value in the taxonomy of the Acanthocephala. Our molecular analysis used amplification of 18S of ribosomal DNA and cytochrome c oxidase 1 (Cox1) gene. Phylogenetic analyses for Cox1 gene revealed a close relationship between <italic>Corynosoma hannae</italic> <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2023-0003_ref_068">Zdzitowiecki, 1984</xref> and <italic>C. australe.</italic> The phylogenetic trees confirmed that the isolates belonged to <italic>C. australe</italic>. The haplotype network inferred by Cox1 with <italic>C. australe</italic> sequences revealed that haplotypes clearly separated from each other and formed clusters related to samples from the Northern Hemisphere (the USA and Mexico), and the second from the Southern Hemisphere (Argentina, Brazil and Peru).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue prevalence of potentially zoonotic intestinal parasites in dogs and cats in Moscow, Russia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of <italic>Toxocara canis/cati</italic>, <italic>Strongyloides stercoralis, Giardia</italic> spp., and <italic>Cryptosporidium</italic> spp., which occur and are potentially zoonotic to humans in domestic dogs and cats in Moscow (Russia). The fecal flotation method and larvae detection by microscopy of a direct feces smear were performed to detect <italic>Toxocara, Giardia</italic> spp., and <italic>Cryptosporidium</italic> spp. The total parasitic prevalence in dogs was as follows: <italic>Giardia</italic> spp.: 10.2 % (226/2208), <italic>Cryptosporidium</italic> spp.: 2.7 % (60/2208), <italic>T. canis</italic>: 2 % (45/2208), <italic>S. stercoralis</italic> larvae: 1.1 % (25/2208). The younger animals under were infected more than those over 12 months of age (p&lt;0.001). The preva lence rates were along these lines: <italic>Giardia</italic> spp. (18.2 %), <italic>Cryptosporidium</italic> spp. (5.7 %), <italic>T.canis</italic> (3 %), <italic>S. stercoralis</italic> larvae (2.3 %). The overall prevalence in cats was as follows: <italic>Giardia</italic> spp. - 5.2 % (71/1350), <italic>Cryptosporidium</italic> spp. - 4.8 % (65/1350), <italic>T. cati</italic> - 4.1 % (56/1350). Similarly to dogs, the infection rates were higher in cats under 12 months of age <italic>Giardia</italic> spp. (8.2 %), <italic>Cryptosporidium</italic> spp. (8.6 %), <italic>T. cati</italic> (7.5 %. Analysis of combined infections in dogs revealed the following combinations: <italic>Giardia</italic> spp. and <italic>Cryptosporidium</italic> spp. (35.5 %) larvae of <italic>S. stercoralis</italic> sp. and <italic>Giardia</italic> spp. (32.3 %), <italic>T.canis</italic> and <italic>Giardia</italic> spp. (22.6 %), <italic>T.canis</italic> and <italic>Cryptosporidium</italic> spp. (6.6 %), <italic>T.canis</italic> and <italic>S.stercoralis</italic> and (3.2 %), respectively. In cats, only two coinfections by <italic>Giardia</italic> spp. and <italic>Cryptosporidium</italic> spp. (58.3 %), and <italic>T.cati with Giardia</italic> spp. (41.7 %) were noticed. Further research is needed to study the spread of parasitic diseases in pet animals. The data will improve countermeasures to prevent these diseases’ spread among animals and humans.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue