rss_2.0Helminthologia FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Helminthologia Feed data on parasites of the invasive brown bullhead (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae) in Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This study describes the parasite community of non-native brown bullhead, <italic>Ameiurus nebulosus</italic> (Actinopterygii: Ictaluridae), collected at three sites in the river Vistula Basin (Lake Svitiaz, Lake Pisochne, and Lake on Plastova) and one site in the river Diester Basin (Lake Stryiska), in Ukraine. Our data represent the first comprehensive study of parasite community in this fish species in Europe. Sixteen parasite taxa were found, including species co-introduced from North America and species acquired in the European range. Maximum parasite richness (13 spp.) was recorded in Lake Svitiaz situated in a Natural Protected Area, while lowest species richness (3 spp.) was observed at Lake on Plastova, an artificial pond in the city of Lviv. Three co-introduced monogenean species, <italic>Gyrodactylus nebulosus</italic>, <italic>Ligictaluridus pricei</italic> and <italic>Ligictaluridus monticellii</italic>, are recorded in Ukraine for the first time, widening the knowledge of the European distribution of these North American parasites. Metric features for hard parts of invasive and native monogeneans showed overlap in ligictalurid parasites, but slightly smaller metrics in Ukrainian <italic>G. nebulosus</italic>, possibly reflecting water temperature during fish sampling. Though prevalence and abundance of acquired parasites was relatively low, infection parameters for metacercariae of <italic>Diplostomum</italic> spp. were relatively high at Lake Svitiaz and the natural Lake Stryiska in Lviv. In two lakes in the Vistula basin, we found high prevalence and abundance of <italic>Anguillicola crassus</italic>, an Asian nematode infecting eels, possibly supporting the invasional meltdown hypothesis. Our study confirms both further spread of non-native parasites in Europe and use of non-native fish as competent hosts for local native and introduced parasites.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue anthelmintic potentials of and against gastrointestinal parasite ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Gastrointestinal parasites which are responsible for soil-transmitted helminthiases cause illness globally. The control of helminthiasis depends on mass distribution of anthelmintics which has been reported for its resistance, toxicity and low efficacy. In this study, anthelmintic potentials of <italic>Gongronema latifolium</italic> and <italic>Picralima nitida</italic> which have wide application in traditional medicine were determined <italic>in vivo</italic> using <italic>Heligmosomoides bakeri</italic> a naturally occurring gastro-intestinal parasite of rodents that is closely related to highly prevalent human nematode parasites.</p> <p>Extracts of <italic>P. nitida</italic> at 500 mg/kg had higher (<italic>p</italic>&lt; 0.05) chemosuppression (92.45 %) than extracts of <italic>G. latifolium</italic> (65.82 %) and was highly comparable to albendazole (92.61 %). As the dose of the extracts increased from 300 to 500 mg/kg body weight, chemosuppression of 84.91 % and 92.45 % (<italic>P. nitida</italic>) and 43.54 % and 65.82 % (<italic>G. latifolium</italic>) respectively were produced. The extract of <italic>P. nitida</italic> gave deparasitization rates (p&lt;0.05) of 72.60 % and 77.16 % at 300g/kg and 500mg/kg of body weight respectively. The glucose level and protein content reduced (p&lt;0.05) in mice treated with extract of <italic>P. nitida</italic> when compared with extract of <italic>G. latifolium</italic> and untreated mice. Phytochemical screening revealed that <italic>P. nitida</italic> and <italic>G. latifolium</italic> contained flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and polyphenols. Acute toxicity studies showed that <italic>Gongronema latifolium</italic> and <italic>Picralima nitida</italic> have no apparent toxic effect in mice even at the dose of 5000 mg/kg.</p> <p>Extracts of <italic>P. nitida</italic> and <italic>G. latifolium</italic> have anthelmintic properties that are dose-dependent, and this could offer potential lead for the development of safe, effective and affordable anthelmintics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Food-Fatale: Food-borne Trematode and Cholangiocarcinoma<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a group of communicable diseases with a long history with human beings. NTDs are the proxy of poverty since they affect those in low-income and extreme-poverty populations, as those populations lack access to proper health care, clean water, sanitary conditions, and hygiene. NTDs create losses for a nation that come from the health and the economic sectors as well since the costs of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment strain the national purse strings. One of the 20 different forms of NTDs on the list is food-borne trematodes, comprises of <italic>Fasciola</italic>, <italic>Paragonimus</italic>, <italic>Clonorchis</italic>, and <italic>Opisthorchis</italic>. Currently, it is estimated that food-borne trematodes can cause a devastating effect on mortality and morbidity. All of them are zoonotic, as humans become infected by ingestion of a second intermediate host, such as freshwater snails, fish, or water vegetables. <italic>Opisthorchis viverrini</italic>, one of the food-borne trematodes that can be found mostly in South East Asia regions, especially in the Mekong basin, is regarded as a group 1 carcinogen leading to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This study aims to present the updated review of <italic>Opisthorchis viverrini</italic> and CCA.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue record of (Trematoda: Cathaemasiidae) in a new bird host, the Eastern Imperial Eagle ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>An injured young individual of the Eastern Imperial Eagle (<italic>Aquila heliaca</italic>; Accipitridae) from the Protected Bird Area „Medzibodrožie” in the south-eastern Slovakia was subjected to the complete clinical examination at the Clinic for Birds and Exotic Animals of the University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy. Adult trematodes were isolated from the pharynx of the eagle after oesophagoscopy. The morphological and molecular identification of the flukes confirmed a trematode <italic>Cathaemasia hians</italic> (Cathaemasiidae), the obligate parasite of black storks (<italic>Ciconia nigra</italic>) and white storks (<italic>Ciconia ciconia</italic>). This finding represents the first documented case of <italic>C. hians</italic> in new bird host species and indicates broader spectrum of definitive hosts of the fluke.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue load of the Pacific mackerel, (Pisces: Scombridae) from Northwestern Baja California, Mexico<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Globally, the exploitation of small pelagic fish, like Pacific mackerel is of great importance due to food industry demand. However, there are few studies regarding its parasites load and there are no in this geographic zone. This study aimed to assess the parasitic composition, some temporal changes (during spring and summer) in abundance, prevalence and intensity of infection parasitic of the Pacific mackerel (<italic>Scomber japonicus</italic>) from Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico. The parasite fauna of the Pacific mackerel consisted of 1930 parasites (1413 in spring and 517 in summer) distributed in the follow taxa: an Tetraphyllidea (Cestoda), <italic>Kuhnia scombri</italic> (Monogenea), Didymozoidae (Digenea), <italic>Anisakis</italic> sp. (Nematoda), <italic>Rhadinorhynchus</italic> sp. (Acanthocephala) and <italic>Caligus pelamydis</italic> (Copepoda). The nematodes parasite were the most abundant both in spring with a mean abundance of 27.6 parasites and in summer 8.2 parasites compared with the other taxa like Cestoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Acanthocephala and Copepoda (<italic>P</italic> = 0.003). The mean intensity of the nematodes in spring and summer was 28.1 and 13.4, respectively. The nematodes prevalence was 90 % in spring and 60 % in summer. In general, the parasite load is more abundant in spring than summer. In summer, absence of taxa as Cestoda and Copepoda were registered. Nematode larvae were present in the fish guts mesentery and inside of the stomach, pyloric caeca, intestine. Also the nematodes were found in the liver, muscle and gonads. The most affected organ by nematodes was the intestine mesentery. The most predominant parasite of this study has been <italic>Anisakis</italic> sp. during spring.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in rhesus macaques and local residents in the central mid-hills of Nepal<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Rhesus macaques (<italic>Macaca mulatta)</italic> are distributed across Nepal in close association with humans and with a high probability of sharing of soil-transmitted intestinal helminth parasites. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, richness and risk factors of gastrointestinal (GI) helminth parasites among rhesus macaques and humans in the Daunne Forest area, a community managed forest in the central mid-hills of Nepal. A total of 190 fecal samples, including 120 samples from rhesus macaques residing around the Daunne Devi Temple and in the surrounding forest, and 70 from local people, were microscopically examined by direct wet mount, floatation and sedimentation methods. Seasonal and age-sex based variations in helminth parasite prevalence were analyzed. Among the rhesus macaques, the total parasite prevalence was 39.2 %. <italic>Strongyloides</italic> sp. accounted for the highest prevalence (19.17 %) followed by <italic>Ascaris</italic> sp. (13.33 %), hookworm (10.83 %) and <italic>Trichuris</italic> sp. (4.17 %). Among the humans, <italic>Ascaris lumbricoides</italic> (11.3 %) was the only parasite detected. The Sorenson’s coefficient of similarity of GI parasites between the macaques and local people at the generic level was 0.4. Mean parasite richness for the macaques was 1.21 ± 0.41 (SD) per infected sample. Parasite prevalence in the summer season (41.4 %) was higher than in the winter season (36 %). Adult macaques (41.67 %) had higher GI parasite prevalence than the young (30.77 %) and infants (27.27 %). Among the adult macaques, the prevalence rate was significantly higher (<italic>P</italic>=0.005) in females (52.46 %) than in males (22.86 %). Our results indicate that the temple rhesus macaques have a high prevalence of GI helminth parasites and could pose a potential zoonotic risk. As such, the need for routine monitoring and an effective management strategy is essential.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for taking Scanning Electron Microscope photographs of nematodes and meiofauna with the support of a low-cost and easy-made container<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This paper presents a method for capturing Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) photographs of small specimens, including nematodes, arthropods, small insects, and other meiofauna. Our method is tailored to handle nematode specimens mounted on permanent slides, an area with relatively limited documentation. Besides, the process of transferring such delicate specimens from one solution to another has historically posed numerous challenges. To address this issue, we introduce a low-cost and easy-made container designed specifically to facilitate the aforementioned procedure, with a particular focus on SEM photography. The newly introduced container offers a practical solution that enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of specimen handling, ultimately enabling high-quality SEM imaging. This method holds significant promise for researchers working in the field of micro-scopic organism analysis, providing a valuable tool for their investigations with minimum cost.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue helminths of alien invasive anurans in Butuan City, Northeastern Mindanao, Philippines<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This study aimed to identify the helminth parasites of invasive anuran species in selected barangays in Butuan City, Philippines. In urbanized areas, invasive species dominate anuran diversity, and one of the primary threats they pose to native wildlife is the transmission of diseases and parasites. Out of the 91 collected individuals of invasive anuran species, <italic>Rhinella marina</italic> was the most abundant (88 %), followed by <italic>Hoplobatrachus rugulosus</italic> (12 %) and <italic>Kaloula pulchra</italic> (3 %). The study identified five species of parasites, with <italic>Spirometra</italic> sp. being the most prevalent (17.58 %), followed by <italic>Echinostoma</italic> sp. (16.5 %), <italic>Rhabdias bufonis</italic> (14.3 %), <italic>Cosmocerca</italic> sp. (6.6 %), and <italic>Strongyloides stercoralis</italic> (3.30 %), respectively. <italic>Spirometra</italic> sp. also had the highest intensity (7.67), followed by <italic>Cosmocerc</italic>a sp. (5), <italic>Strongyloides stercoralis</italic> (3.33), <italic>Rhabdias bufonis</italic> (3.30), and <italic>Echinostom</italic>a sp. (2.73). This parasitological survey revealed that <italic>H. rugulosus</italic> had the highest prevalence and infection of parasites, and residential areas had the highest parasite prevalence among the habitat types. Adult hosts were found to harbor a higher prevalence and intensity, and male hosts had a higher prevalence. The results highlight the high risk of parasite transmission from anurans to other animals and emphasize the need for the community to control the population of invasive anuran species for the safety of native anurans and to prevent zoonotic transmission to other animals and humans.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue timing for assessing phenotypic resistance against gastrointestinal nematodes in Pelibuey ewes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The objective was to identify the optimal stage of production to evaluate the resistance of Pelibuey ewes against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Faecal egg count (FEC) was used to classify the ewes as resistant, sensible or intermediate against GIN. Forty-seven ewes were mating during 30 d. The gestation was verified by ultrasonography, and the breeding date was used to calculate the productive stages. Faeces were taken weekly to determine the FEC. Blood samples were taken to determine the packed cell volume (PCV), the peripheral eosinophils count (PEC), plasma protein concentration (PP), and Immunoglobulin A (IgA) against <italic>Haemonchus contortus</italic>. The body condition score (BCS) was recorded at each visit. Six moments during the study (early, mid and late gestation; early, mid and late lactation) were considered. The ewes were classified according to FEC (mean FEC ± three standard errors). The higher FEC occurred during all lactation stages than during early and mid-gestation stages (P&lt;0.05). PCV, PP, and BCS during early gestation stage were higher than shown during the lactation stages (P&lt;0.01). The PEC and IgA were higher during all lactation stages than early and mid-gestation stages (P&lt;0.05). Concerning the type of birth, double births showed higher FEC than single birth (P&lt;0.01). The highest values of accuracy (100 %) and concordance (Youden's J = 1.0) were found during early lactation. Therefore, it is concluded that the optimal stage of production to evaluate phenotypic resistance against GIN infections in Pelibuey ewes was during the early lactation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of anthropogenous environmental factors on the marine ecosystem of trophically transmitted helminths and hosting seabirds: Focus on North Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic and the Arctic seas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Alongside natural factors, human activities have a major impact on the marine environment and thus influence processes in vulnerable ecosystems. The major purpose of this review is to summarise the current understanding as to how manmade factors influence the marine biocenosis of helminths, their intermediate hosts as well as seabirds as their final hosts. Moreover, it highlights current knowledge gaps regarding this ecosystem, which should be closed in order to gain a more complete understanding of these interactions. This work is primarily focused on helminths parasitizing seabirds of the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean.</p> <p>The complex life cycles of seabird helminths may be impacted by fishing and aquaculture, as they interfere with the abundance of fish and seabird species, while the latter also affects the geographical distribution of intermediate hosts (marine bivalve and fish species), and may therefore alter the intertwined marine ecosystem. Increasing temperatures and seawater acidification as well as environmental pollutants may have negative or positive effects on different parts of this interactive ecosystem and may entail shifts in the abundance or regional distribution of parasites and/or intermediate and final hosts. Organic pollutants and trace elements may weaken the immune system of the hosting seabirds and hence affect the final host’s ability to control the endoparasites. On the other hand, in some cases helminths seem to function as a sink for trace elements resulting in decreased concentrations of heavy metals in birds’ tissues. Furthermore, this article also describes the role of helminths in mass mortality events amongst seabird populations, which beside natural causes (weather, viral and bacterial infections) have anthropogenous origin as well (e.g. oil spills, climate change, overfishing and environmental pollution).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and molecular detection of neurocysticercosis among epileptic patients in Nagpur, Maharashtra state (India)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Neurocysticercosis (NCC), one of the most important neuroparasitic diseases in humans, is caused by <italic>Cysticercus cellulosae</italic>, the metacestode stage of digenetic zoonotic cestode <italic>Taenia solium</italic>. The present study aims at the detection of anti-cysticercus antibodies in the sera of epileptic patients (n=26) visiting a tertiary care hospital in Nagpur, Maharashtra state, India, by an in-house developed indirect IgG-ELISA and enzyme-linked immunoelectro transfer blot (EITB) assay using different antigens (namely, Whole Cyst Antigen (WCA), Cystic Fluid Antigen (CFA), Scolex Antigen (SA), Excretory-Secretory Antigen (ESA) and Membrane-Body Antigen (MBA)) prepared from <italic>T. solium</italic> metacestodes to find out the status of NCC. An attempt has also been made for molecular detection of NCC from blood samples of those patients by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay targeted at <italic>large subunit rRNA</italic> gene of <italic>T. solium</italic>. The IgG ELISA level of anti-cysticercus antibodies against WCA, CFA, SA, ESA and MBA antigens were as follows: 19.23 %, 23.07 %, 38.46 %, 30.76 % and 15.38 %. The seroreactivity to CFA, SA and ESA was found in equal proportions in patients with ring-enhancing lesions. In the EITB assay, the lower and medium molecular weight protein bands of SA and ESA were immunodominant compared to the higher WCA and CFA peptides. PCR positivity could be observed in 34.6 % (9/26) of the patients under study. It is the first report of detecting NCC among epileptic patients of the Nagpur region of Maharashtra state in India using serological and molecular tools.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue parasites as indicators of an animal component in the diet of the Water Vole<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The intestinal trematode fauna of the Water Vole <italic>Arvicola amphibius</italic>, (previously <italic>A. terrestris</italic>), was investigated to determine whether it might provide evidence of an animal component in the diet of this aquatic herbivorous small mammal. Interrogation of the electronic Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum London revealed the presence of fourteen species of intestinal trematode in water voles, infection with each of which would require the ingestion of tissue from an animal intermediate host. The results obtained using these parasite indicators provide convincing evidence of animal components in the diet of <italic>A. amphibius</italic> and support anecdotal reports of water voles feeding on animal material in the field.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of intercepted from baobab ( L.) seedlings from Thailand during Japanese import plant quarantine inspection<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In April 2019, baobab (<italic>Adansonia digitata</italic> L.) seedlings from Thailand, exhibiting galls on the roots, were intercepted during an import plant quarantine inspection at Chubu Centrair International Airport, Japan. Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) were extracted from the galled roots of baobab seedlings and identified by morphological, morphometrical and molecular methods as the guava root-knot nematode, <italic>Meloidogyne enterolobii</italic> Yang &amp; Eisenback. The morphology and morphometrics of the intercepted population were similar to those of the original and subsequent descriptions of <italic>M. enterolobii</italic>. The sequences of D2–D3 of 28S rRNA, mtDNA intergenic COII-16S rRNA and COI genes obtained in this study matched well (99–100% similarity) with each of the gene sequences of <italic>M. enterolobii</italic> deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes revealed that the intercepted population clustered with <italic>M. enterolobii</italic> and clearly differed from other RKN species. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of <italic>M. enterolobii</italic> from baobab.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue report of (Rudolphi, 1819) Looss, 1901 (Digenea: Rhytidodidae) in an olive-ridley Turtle (Eschscholtz, 1829) from Brazil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This article reports the first occurrence of <italic>Rhytidodes gelatinosus</italic> (Rudolphi, 1819) <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2023-0030_ref_011">Looss, 1901</xref> (Digenea: Rhytidodidae) in the olive-ridley turtle <italic>Lepidochelys olivacea</italic> (Testudines: Chelonidae), in an individual found in the State of Sergipe, Brazil. Although <italic>R. gelatinosus</italic> has already been described in other species of sea turtles in the world, this is the first report of this parasite in <italic>L. olivacea</italic>. We also present a list of hosts and locations where this helminth has already been identified.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) associated with from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Georgia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><italic>Bursaphelenchus mucronatus</italic> was detected in association with the pine sawyer beetle (<italic>Monochamus galloprovincialis</italic>) during the implementation and testing of cross traps with insect attractants as an efficient tool for detection survey for pine wood nematode (<italic>Bursaphelenchus xylophilus</italic>) in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Georgia in 2017 and 2018, respectively. This nematode was characterized by morphological, morphometric and molecular features. This is the first report of <italic>B. mucronatus</italic> in association with a <italic>M. galloprovincialis</italic> in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Georgia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue position of the enigmatic (Rêgo, 1967) (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The systematic position of <italic>Quentinia mesovitellinica</italic> (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2023-0031_ref_019">Rêgo, 1967</xref>) (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea) from the hystricomorph rodent <italic>Galea spixii</italic> (Wagler) (Caviidae) in Brazil is reevaluated based on published information. <italic>Quentinia mesovitellinica</italic> is generally thought to belong to the family Catenotaeniidae, being thus the only catenotaeniid cestode parasitizing hystricomorph rodents and also the only catenotaeniid in South America. However, the present study shows that <italic>Q. mesovitellinica</italic> differs fundamentally from <italic>Catenotaenia</italic> Janicki, 1904 sensu lato and other catenotaeniids with respect to several morphologic features, but shares these features with <italic>Monoecocestus</italic> Beddard, 1914 sensu <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2023-0031_ref_001">Beveridge (1994)</xref>, a genus in the family Anoplocephalidae sensu stricto (i.e. sensu Spasskii, 1951). However, <italic>Q. mesovitellinica</italic> is not assigned here to <italic>Monoecocestus</italic>, because the latter is a morphologically heterogeneous genus and will probably be split when subjected to a comprehensive phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis. Instead, <italic>Quentinia</italic> <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2023-0031_ref_021">Spasskii, 1969</xref> is considered a valid genus in the family Anoplocephalidae s. s. The morphologically closely related <italic>Monoecocestus eljefe</italic> <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2023-0031_ref_012">Haverkost &amp; Gardner, 2010</xref> from <italic>Galea musteloides</italic> Meyen in Bolivia is assigned to <italic>Quentinia</italic> as <italic>Q</italic>. <italic>eljefe</italic> (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2023-0031_ref_012">Haverkost &amp; Gardner, 2010</xref>) n. comb. An amended diagnosis is provided for <italic>Quentinia</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Molecular note on the identity of Cobb, 1917 (Nematoda: Mylonchulidae) from Pakistan<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>A species of predatory nematode, <italic>Mylonchulus sigmaturus</italic> <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2023-0024_ref_022">Cobb, 1917</xref>, was recovered around the soil and roots of banana plants (<italic>Musa paradisiaca</italic>) from four different localities of Pakistan. The male of this species represents a new record from Pakistan. Morphological and morphometric data of the species have been contributed along with the molecular study. The phylogenetic analysis using 18S rDNA placed the Pakistani populations of <italic>M. sigmaturus</italic> with the same species in a clade with 100 posterior probabilities. The first input of 28S rDNA data placed Pakistani <italic>M. sigmaturus</italic> in a separate clade with 100 posterior probability support, however close with <italic>Prionchulus punctatus</italic> (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2023-0024_ref_022">Cobb, 1917</xref>) <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2023-0024_ref_009">Andrássy, 1958</xref> and <italic>Clarkus papillatus</italic> (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2023-0024_ref_014">Bastian, 1865</xref>) <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2023-0024_ref_043">Jairajpuri, 1970</xref>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of hepatic and pulmonary hydatidosis with albendazole and praziquantel<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Conservative treatment of human hydatidosis (cystic echinococcosis) with albendazole has improved significantly the prognosis of the disease. But its therapeutic effectiveness is 30 – 70 %. There is some evidence that the effectiveness of albendazole can be enhanced by praziquantel but there is no strict recommendation for the use of praziquantel as part of long-term drug therapy for hydatidosis.</p> <p>The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of albendazole and praziquantel in patients with hepatic and/or pulmonary hydatidosis.</p> <p>A total of 20 patients (aged 12 – 70 years old) were included in the study for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients (70 %) were with hepatic hydatidosis, 4 (20 %) with pulmonary and 2 (10 %) with hepatic and pulmonary hydatidosis. They were treated with albendazole (15 mg/kg/day) and praziquantel (40 mg/kg/weekly) for 2 – 9 one-month courses. The result of the therapy was followed using imaging (abdominal ultrasound, lung radiography, computed tomography) and serology.</p> <p>Seventeen (85 %) out of 20 patients showed evidence of response on imaging defined as improvement or cure of hydatid cysts. Seven (35 %) of the patients with multiple cystic echinococcosis took praziquantel once a week for 6 months. Only 3 patients (15 %) with multiple hydatidosis (2 with liver and 1 with pulmonary hydatidosis) failed to respond to the therapy with both drugs. No side effects have been reported by the patients.</p> <p>The combination of albendazole and praziquantel seems to be an option to improve the therapeutic effectiveness of the conservative treatment of cystic echinococcosis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the anthelmintic activity of L (Olive) leaves extract and oleuropein in mice naturally infected with<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Oxyuriasis, caused by the nematode <italic>Enterobius vermicularis,</italic> is one of the cosmopolitan intestinal infections of humans. <italic>Aspiculuris tetraptera</italic> commonly infects mice and it is morphologically similar to <italic>E. vermicularis</italic>. Parasitic resistance reduces the efficiency of synthetic drugs and poses economic impacts on the dairy sector, thus necessitating novel anthelmintic agents. <italic>Olea europaea</italic> L. (Olive) is a bioactive plant with potent pharmacological activities. However, its effects on oxyurids are poorly known, and no studies are currently exploring olives’ anthelmintic potential. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetic behaviors of <italic>O. europaea</italic> leaves extract (OLE) and its phenolic compound oleuropein in mice infected with <italic>A. tetraptera</italic>, in comparison with Albendazole (ABZ), a standard drug used to treat parasitic worms. Fecal flotation method was used to identify the infestation with <italic>A. tetraptera</italic> eggs by examining the stool samples from mice. Infected animals were divided into 7 groups. 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg doses of OLE, 5 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg doses of oleuropein, 10 mg/kg of ABZ and tap water were orally administered by gavage for 7 days during treatments. Drug efficacies and statistical differences between the treatments and controls were evaluated. Our results revealed 92.43 % efficacy of ABZ, similar to 92.19 % efficacy of 1000 mg/kg of OLE. At the same time, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg concentrations of OLE remained 70.03 % and 63.18 % effective in reducing worm counts. Efficacy percentages of 5 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg of oleuropein were 9.27 % and 70.56 %, respectively. Statistical analysis of ABZ was significant compared to 1000 mg/kg of OLE, which was almost equal but insignificant. In general, our results confirm the anthelmintic potential of OLE and oleuropein against mice pinworms and open the way for targeted extraction of bioactive compounds from plants to optimize its use in human and veterinary medicine.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among pregnant women in Taiz Governorate, Yemen: A hospital-based study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Intestinal parasitic infections in pregnant women have been associated with severe adverse outcomes such as anemia, low birth weight, and mother and fetus morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and its associated risk factors among pregnant women in Taiz, Yemen.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2022 and January 2023. Sociodemographic and other explanatory variables were obtained via face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. The wet-mount and formol-ether concentration techniques were applied to identify the IPIs. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 20, and p-values &lt; 0.05 were considered statistically significant. An analysis of descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression was conducted. A p-value &lt; 0.05 was deemed statistically significant. The study included a total of 393 pregnant women.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Of the 393 pregnant women screened for intestinal parasites, 144 (36.6 %) had at least one parasite. The most common intestinal parasite was Giardia lamblia (12.2 %), followed by <italic>Ascaris lumbricoides</italic> (10.9 %), <italic>Entamoeba histolytica/dispar</italic> (7.4 %), <italic>Enterobius vermicularis</italic> (14.3 %), and <italic>Hymenolepis nana</italic> (1.8 %). Being a farmer (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.69–4.26, p = 0:003) and drinking from unsafe water wells, streams, rain, and dams (AOR = 2:6, 95% CI: 1.68–4.25, p ≤ 0:001) were significantly associated with IPIs.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Pregnant women in the study area still face a severe health burden due to intestinal parasitic infection. Therefore, it is recommended that health education should be improved, and safe tap water should be provided to pregnant women to reduce the incidence of IPIs.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue