rss_2.0Helminthologia FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Helminthologia 's Cover as soil stress indicators for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important group of organic pollutants present in all parts of the environment, affecting ecosystems and human health. PAHs, which have a strong affinity for organic carbon, are found in large quantities in soil, which is one of the most important sinks for these contaminants. Their impact on the soil biotic compartments depends on a number of different factors in combination with PAH behaviour and can be assessed using soil monitoring. Soil fauna have already shown excellent properties for biomonitoring of contaminants with most promising indicator frameworks based on nematodes, which are involved in essential processes in this environment. Nematodes respond to PAHs at multiple levels, including molecular, individual and community levels. At the molecular level, this is associated with activation of metabolic pathways for xenobiotics and increased demand for energy and resources. At the individual level, this is reflected in the slowing down of various physiological processes, which has consequences at the individual and community level for sensitive taxa. In this review, the toxicity and the direct and indirect effects of PAHs on soil nematode communities are discussed. It also considers the perspectives and challenges in assessing the toxicity of PAHs and their indication using soil nematodes.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Endoparasites of wild boars () in Primorsky Krai, Russia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>This study identified helminthic species among wild boars (<italic>Sus scrofa</italic>) in Primorsky Krai, Russia. In total, 66 fecal samples were taken from wild boars and examined using the floatation-sedimentation method to identify helminths eggs and protozoan cysts. Age and sex were estimated for each host animal investigated. The helminthic fauna of the wild boars examined involved six parasite genera, but 4 are helminths and 2 are protozoans: the nematodes <italic>Metastrongylus spp</italic>., <italic>Trichuris suis</italic>, <italic>Capillaria sp</italic>. and <italic>Ascaris suum</italic>; and the protozoan parasites <italic>Eimeria</italic> sp. and <italic>Cystoisospora suis</italic>.</p> <p>The most prevalent parasite was <italic>Metastrongylus</italic> spp. (13.6 %) followed by <italic>Trichuris suis</italic> (7.6 %).</p> <p>The other parasites found were <italic>Eimeria</italic> sp. (3 %), <italic>Ascaris suum</italic> (3 %), <italic>Capillaria</italic> sp. (1.5 %) and <italic>Cystoisospora suis</italic> (1.5 %).</p> <p>Not found positive correlation between the host’s age and sex and the parasite prevalence. This was the first detailed study on helminths infections among wild boars in Primorsky Krai.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-03T00:00:00.000+00:00New insights into the genetic variability of (Trematoda) in Algeria and relationships with other geographic regions revealed by mitochondrial DNA<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This study aims to investigate the level of genetic variability of <italic>Fasciola hepatica</italic> flukes isolated from cattle in Algeria and to determine the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships with sequences isolated worldwide. Mitochondrial (Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I gene - COI) and nuclear markers (Internal Transcribed Spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA - ITS) for 24 <italic>F. hepatica</italic> flukes isolated from 12 cattle in North Algeria were characterised. Only two haplotypes were obtained for the COI gene, resulting in a low level of genetic variation. The analysis of variation among the COI sequences isolated from around the world did not show high levels of genetic divergence, and the phylogenetic analysis revealed a genetic similarity among <italic>F. hepatica</italic> isolates from different areas of the world. The analysis of the ITS region showed a low level of variability, which prevented obtaining informative phylogenetic and phylogeographic results. The present study also revealed that specimens of <italic>F. hepatica</italic> are genetically similar in different hosts, indicating that the genetic structure among populations of this parasite is not influenced by the host species. The low levels of genetic variation for COI and ITS regions among fluke isolates from all continents are consistent with a common origin for the flukes’ worldwide distribution.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Identification of somatic proteins in infective larvae (L) and adults<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><italic>Haemonchus contortus</italic> is considered the most pathogenic nematode in sheep production systems based on grazing. Comparing infective larvae (L<sub>3</sub>) with adult parasites can lead to the identification of proteins that play an important role in parasite-host interactions. In this study, we report a list of <italic>H. contortus</italic> somatic proteins and made a comparative analysis of somatic proteins of L<sub>3</sub> and adult worms. L<sub>3</sub> and adult parasites were subjected to protein extraction and subsequently to peptide fractionation. Peptides were analysed by mass spectrometry and LC-MS/MS data analysis. Data analysis and search on SEQUEST and MASCOT against <italic>H. contortus</italic> from the WormBase ParaSite database resulted in the identification of 775 unique peptide sequences corresponding to 227 proteins at 1 % FDR. From these, 18 proteins were specific to L<sub>3</sub> and 63 to adult parasites. The gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of the proteins specific to L<sub>3</sub> and adult worms to gain insight into cellular components, molecular functions and biological processes that affect the parasite-host interaction showed some differences between the two parasite stages. The list of proteins found provides a database to identify target proteins that could be useful as biomarkers of the infection or in the generation of anthelmintic drugs that inhibit proteins essential for the establishment of the infection and the survival of adult parasites. They can also serve as new candidates for vaccine research.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Human encounter with a horsehair worm (Nematomorpha): Is there a reason to worry?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>We report here a specimen of the horsehair worm (Gordiida, Nematomorpha) <italic>Spinochordodes bacescui</italic> (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2022-0020_ref_002">Căpuşe, 1965</xref>) found in a patient´s urine. This is the first record of this species from Serbia and the sixth gordiid species known in Serbia. It is discussed that there is no evidence that gordiids are parasites of humans. Instead, gordiids parasitize terrestrial insects, which release their mature gordiid parasite into water and may thereby also use containers in human surroundings. Pseudoparasites, such as <italic>Spinochordodes bacescui</italic>, do not pose a threat to human health nor are they a serious public health issue.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-03T00:00:00.000+00:00 (Nematoda:Dioctophymatidae): epizootology and special characteristics of the development biology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><italic>Eustrongylides</italic> spp. are the nematodes from the Dioctophymatidae family which are potentially dangerous for the mammal’s heath. The first aim of the present research is to describe the biology, developmental characteristics and epizootology of the <italic>Eustrongylides</italic> spp. nematode. Eustrongylidosis is a parasitic disease commonly occurring in the countries with temperate continental, tropical and subtropical climate. The <italic>Eustrongylides</italic> spp. parasites are biohelmints with a complex life cycle. The development of the nematodes takes place in the aquatic environment and includes a vast range of intermediate, accidental and definitive hosts. It has also been reported in humans. The second aim of the research is to describe the clinical and pathomorphological changes in organs and tissues of the infected animals, and influence of biotic and abiotic factors on formation of the natural centers of spreading of eustrongylidosis; diagnostics of eustrongylidosis.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Checklist of the Monogenea (Platyhelminthes) parasitic in Tunisian aquatic vertebrates<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>153 species of monogeneans have been recorded in Tunisian aquatic vertebrates (89 hosts). A list of these species with hosts is presented. A comparison of the Monogenea diversity off the coast of Tunisia with other regions of the Mediterranean Sea and the world is provided. The number of parasites depends on the number of hosts examined and their diversity in the region. This list shows that Monopisthocotylea is the richest group. In addition, new records have been reported during a survey of the diversity of monogeneans fish in the southern coast of Tunisia (Gulf of Gabes) including: <italic>Benedenia monticellii</italic> (Parona and Perugia, 1895) Johnston, 1929<italic>, Lamellodiscus bidens</italic> <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2022-0012_ref_024">Euzet, 1984</xref><italic>, Lamellodiscus confusus</italic> Amine, Euzet &amp; Kechemir-Issad, 2007<italic>, Lamellodiscus ergensi</italic> Euzet &amp; Oliver, 1966<italic>, Lamellodiscus hilii</italic> <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2022-0012_ref_024">Euzet, 1984</xref><italic>, Lamellodiscus impervius</italic> <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2022-0012_ref_024">Euzet, 1984</xref><italic>, Lamellodiscus knoepffleri</italic> Oliver, 1969<italic>, Lamellodiscus theroni</italic> Amine, Euzet &amp; Kechemir-Issad, 2007<italic>, Ligophorus acuminatus</italic> Euzet &amp; Suriano, 1977<italic>, Ligophorus angustus</italic> Euzet &amp; Suriano, 1977<italic>, Ligophorus heteronchus</italic> Euzet &amp; Suriano, 1977<italic>, Ligophorus macrocolpos</italic> Euzet &amp; Suriano, 1977<italic>, Ligophorus minimus</italic> Euzet &amp; Suriano, 1977<italic>, Capsala maccallumi</italic> Price, 1939 and <italic>Pseudanthocotyloides heterocotyle</italic> (Van Beneden, 1871) Euzet &amp; Prost, 1969.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Occurrence of from a gray fox in southeastern Mexico<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The hookworm <italic>Ancylostoma caninum</italic> is a common nematode of wild and domestic canids worldwide. In Mexico, there are few records of helminths in wild canids, especially in the southeastern region. The aim of the present study was to examine the helminths from a gray fox <italic>Urocyon cinereoargenteus</italic> in southeastern Mexico. A road-killed female gray fox found in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, was examined for helminths. Only nematodes were found in the intestine of the gray fox and identified using morphological studies and molecular analysis of 28S rRNA gene fragments. The characteristics exhibited by the nematode specimens were in accordance with descriptions of <italic>A. caninum</italic>: e. g. oral opening with a pair of prominent chitinous plates bearing three pairs of ventral teeth, lateral rays with a common trunk, dorsal ray divided into two branches with each branch terminating in three digitations. BLAST analysis of the 28S sequence showed similarity and coverage values of 99.8 % and 100 %, respectively, with a sequence of <italic>A. caninum</italic> from the domestic dog <italic>Canis familiaris</italic> in Australia. The genetic distance between the Australian specimen and the Yucatan specimen of <italic>A. caninum</italic> was 0.1 %, that is, they were only different in a single nucleotide. The gray fox examined in this study was found close to a rural community where <italic>A. caninum</italic> has been recorded from domestic dogs, which could be the source of infection. Our study increases the distribution of this nematode parasitizing the gray fox in Mexico and provides the first nucleotide sequence of <italic>A. caninum</italic> from the gray fox.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Identification of the main intestinal helminths of local breed chickens ( Linnaeus, 1758) reared in traditional mode in the Oran region<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>In order to gain a better etiological and epidemiological knowledge of the parasitic diseases of local breed chickens reared in extensive (traditional) mode, a study was carried out in the Oran region during the periods from February 2020 to April 2020. Ten chickens were examined by the helminthologic autopsy method to identify parasitic helminths in the digestive tract. Four species of helminths have been identified: two species of nematodes: <italic>Ascaridia galli</italic> and <italic>Heterakis gallinarum</italic> and two species of cestodes: <italic>Raillietina cesticillus</italic> and <italic>Raillietina tetragona</italic>. Six chickens were carriers of the parasites, for an overall level of infestation of 60 % with an average infestation of 7 parasites per chicken. The rate of parasitism and infestation varied from species to species, <italic>Heterakis gallinarum</italic> being the most dominant species. The estimate of the infestation rate by each group shows a predominance of nematodes with 62 parasites (88.5 %) compared to cestodes (8 parasites) with a significantly higher difference (P &lt;0.05). The results obtained show that chickens of the local <italic>Gallus gallus domesticus</italic> breed in the Oran region are heavily infested by parasites including <italic>Heterakis gallinarum</italic>, the predominant species.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Observation on () Chitwood & Birchfield, 1957 associated with grass in South Africa<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><italic>Hemicriconemoides brachyurus</italic> was identified morphologically, using body annuli number (103105), stylet length (49-52 μm), tail conical with small rounded lobe, spermatheca with round sperm, and VL/VB (1.3). Molecular analysis was also undertaken, based on the 18S rDNA region, and the obtained DNA sequence data confirmed the present population from South Africa as <italic>Hemicriconemoides</italic>. Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian inference method places this population close to <italic>H. fujianensis</italic> from China (MH444620-21; MH444626-28). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the 18S rDNA sequence for <italic>H. brachyurus</italic>.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Transmission route used by parasitic lasidium larvae of the freshwater mussel on guppies during short cohabitation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>We describe for the first time the transmission route employed by the parasitic larvae of the freshwater mussel <italic>Anodontites trapesialis</italic> (Lamarck, 1819) during cohabitation on the guppy <italic>Poecilia reticulata</italic> Peter, 1859. The freshwater mussel and fish-host were employed as a model system to investigate the infection and parasite establishment. Laboratory experiments included video recording and histopathological analysis of the infection. <italic>In vivo</italic> video observations demonstrated that lasidium larvae could be transmitted to guppies during direct contact. A series of histology samples and photography suggest that this larva attaches and colonizes possibly on-site on the outer surface of the fish, causing cellular inflammation in the epidermis layer with cellular hyperplasia in the zone of parasite attachment. An evident hyaline layer, cellular hypertrophy, and a large number of undifferentiated proliferating cells were observed. Hemorrhagic tissue and swelling were observed in the epidermis and dermic zone. The total number of larvae per male and female guppy was 525 ± 86 and 494 ± 167, respectively. No parasitic preference was detected for male versus female parasitized fish.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Role of seasonal variation on the prevalence and risk factors of trichuriasis among the aboriginal community in Malaysia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><italic>Trichuris trichiura</italic> is a soil-transmitted helminth prevalent in developing countries with poor, inadequate sanitation and unsafe water sources. In Malaysia, the prevalence of trichuriasis is relatively high among the aboriginal community due to poverty and poor sanitation. However, there are few studies to determine the seasonal variation on the prevalence and risk factors to acquire <italic>Trichuris trichiura</italic> infection in Malaysia. The present study found higher <italic>Trichuris trichiura</italic> infection during the dry season (63.6%; 138/217) in comparison to the wet season (55.5%; 142/256). Low household income, low education level and practice of open defecation were significant risk factors to acquire <italic>Trichuris trichiura</italic> infection during the wet season. Usage of untreated water supplies for daily activities was a risk factor to acquire trichuriasis during the dry season. This study highlighted that poverty and poor sanitation practices as well as drinking untreated water put the aborigines at high risk to acquire trichuriasis. Therefore, health education, improved sanitation and provision of treated water supply are recommended for the prevention and control of <italic>Trichuris trichiura</italic> infections in the aboriginal community.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Phenotypic changes of treated by , and Albendazole: study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Trichinellosis is a nematode-causing disease distinguished by its continuous transmission in the carnivores and omnivores. Despite effective eradication of the enteral forms, conventional drugs fail to eliminate the migrating and muscle ones. Over the past years, researchers intensified the work on herbal medicines as alternatives or aids to albendazole, the reference drug. This research hypothesizes that the therapeutic agent absorption route could be an evidence-based carrier molecule or auxiliary drug to albendazole. Accordingly, this <italic>in vitro</italic> study was designed to investigate mainly the phenotypic changes induced by a mono-treatment of albendazole, <italic>Lipidium sativum</italic> (garden cress), and <italic>Commiphora molmol</italic> (myrrh). Incredibly, no data were reported on the morphological alterations of <italic>T. spiralis</italic> larvae treated by any of these drugs. The experimental design tested various concentrations (25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) of each herbal medicine for the lethal effects on the parasite forms for a day (1, 12, and 24h). The data showed that the highest significant mortality rate of the parasite forms was in favor of the concentration 200 μg/ml of both plant extracts in a time-dependent manner. Therefore, albendazole at 200 μg/ml dose was tested in parallel, and all experimental groups were compared to non-treated muscle larvae and worms. Albendazole-treated worms accounted for the least significant (<italic>p&lt;0.001</italic>) survival rate (2 %), followed by myrrh (5 %), and the adverse was valid for the survival rate of the muscle larvae at that time. None of the larvae/worms was alive after 24 hours of incubation with the 200μg/ml of either treatment. The scanning electron microscope investigation of the experimental groups provided a shred of evidence for different routes of taking up the candidate drugs by the parasite. In conclusion, the results of the previous work <italic>in vivo</italic> and current <italic>in vitro</italic> study recommend myrrh over garden cress as a complementary agent of albendazole.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in goats from smallholder farms in Northern Thailand<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The present study determined the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in small ruminants kept in smallholder farms in Phitsanulok, Northern Thailand. A total of 885 goats from 31 smallholder farms were selected randomly between May 2019 to January 2020. Fecal samples were collected to estimate fecal egg counts and oocysts counts using the modified McMaster technique. Furthermore, pooled fecal samples from each of the farms were cultured in order to differentiate third-stage larvae of nematode. Examination of fecal samples revealed that 885 were positive for one or more parasites, giving an overall prevalence of 87.2 %, of which 38.6 % were infected with one and 48.6 % with multiple parasite. <italic>Strongyles</italic> and <italic>Eimeria</italic> oocysts were the most prevalent. <italic>Haemonchus contortus</italic> and <italic>Strongyloides papillosus</italic> were the predominant species based on the percentage of larvae in fecal cultures. Tapeworm eggs were encountered in 14.2 % of all samples. No significant difference in gastrointestinal parasite prevalence was associated with sex of the host. Infection was significantly (P = 0.009) highest in poor body conditioned goats (72.0 %) as compared to moderate (48.9 %) and good body conditioned (50.0 %) goats. This report on prevalence of GI parasites of small ruminants in smallholder farms in Northern Thailand reveals a high endoparasitic infections that appeared well-adapted to environmental conditions. Further studies on endoparasite control are required to establish the impact of parasitism on productive performance, including monitoring control parasite programs are needed for better health and productivity.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Trematode infection in a freshwater snail (Gastropoda: Bithyniidae) in Thailand<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>1,024 individuals of <italic>Hydrobioides nassa</italic> were collected from 12 different localities in eight provinces from north, west, and central regions of Thailand. The infection of parasitic trematodes was investigated using shedding and crushing methods to search for cercariae and metacercariae. Trematode infection was found at a relatively low prevalence of 5.57%. Five different morphological types of cercariae were detected; xiphidio, monostome, mutabile, ophthalmoxiphidio, and microcercous, and three different morphological types of unknown metacercariae were observed. Microcercous cercariae of the lung fluke genus <italic>Paragonimus</italic> is reported here for the first time in a bithyniid snail. Our current finding show that <italic>H. nassa</italic> can serve as intermediate host for a range of parasitic trematodes in Thailand.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Parasite community analysis of the gray snapper (Perciformes,Lutjanidae) in a tropical region of the Southern Gulf of Mexico<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The gray snapper <italic>Lutjanus griseus</italic> is a commercially important fish species along its distribution range in the western Atlantic Ocean. However, despite its importance, there is still little knowledge about its parasitic fauna for the Mexican coasts of the Gulf of Mexico. The aims of this research were to generate a list of the parasitic fauna present in juvenile gray snapper <italic>L. griseus</italic> from a coastal lagoon located in southeastern Mexico, to evaluate the infection levels of parasites and to determine the relationship between the abundance of parasites and the fish size and condition factor. Samples of <italic>L. griseus</italic> (12 – 29.2 mm) were obtained in two periods of the year (dry and rainy seasons) to examine the intra-annual variability of its parasitic fauna. A total of 17 parasite species were recorded belonging to six taxonomic groups (Myxozoa, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda and Acanthocephala). The highest levels of infection (abundance, prevalence and intensity of infection) were found for the monogeneans <italic>Euryhaliotrema griseus</italic> and <italic>Euryhaliotrema fastigatum</italic>. There were no significant correlations between the total abundance of parasites and the fish condition and size (total length) in not any of the two seasons studied, suggesting that the body size and the biological condition index of the host did not directly influence the abundance of parasites in early life stages of <italic>L. griseus</italic>. Moreover, the species of parasites found that could be zoonotic for humans through the consumption of raw or inadequately cooked fish were the nematodes <italic>Contracaecum</italic> sp. type 1, <italic>Contracaecum</italic> sp. type 2, <italic>Cucullanus pargi</italic> and <italic>Pseudoterranova</italic> sp. The presence of the monogeneans <italic>E. griseus</italic> and <italic>E. fastigatum</italic> was also highlighted because these ectoparasite species are known to cause harm to fish under culture systems. All the parasite species found in this study, except nematodes, were new records of geographic distribution.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-04T00:00:00.000+00:00New data on pipefishes’ and seahorse’s endohelminths off Crimean coasts of the Black Sea<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>A total of 357 Syngnathidae fishes (<italic>Syngnathus abaster</italic> Risso, 1827, <italic>S. typhle</italic> Linnaeus, 1758 and <italic>Hippocampus hippocampus</italic> (Linnaeus, 1758) caught in different habitats along Crimean Black Sea shelf were examined for presence of endohelminths and revealed to be hosts of 15 helminth species. The fishes are second intermediate hosts for five “birds’” digenean species and nematodes (larvae of three species and immature adults of one more species) completing life-cycles in waterbirds and fish; for two acanthocephalans and three cestodes larvae ending development in fish. We suggest, basing on data on feeding of the Black Sea predatory fish and waterbirds, that Syngnathid fishes are paratenic hosts in parasitic systems of most cestodes, nematodes and acanthocephalans. All the trematodes found are generalists at metacercarial stage; specialists <italic>Timoniella imbutiformis</italic> and <italic>Aphallus tubarium</italic> use Syngnathidae as definitive hosts. Cestodes, nematodes as well as acanthocephalans found are generalists, too. Based on infection indices, <italic>S. typhle</italic> are main final host and <italic>H. hippocampus</italic> are main 2nd intermediate hosts for <italic>T. imbutiformis</italic>; Syngnathids are accidental hosts for other trematodes as well as for all the cestodes, nematodes and acanthocephalans. <italic>Cryptocotyle concava</italic> and <italic>Pygidiopsis genata</italic> are important as Syngnathid fishes’ threats, especially in marine protected aquatoria, being potential agents of “black spot disease”.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-04T00:00:00.000+00:00 infection in a native Leuciscid hybrid ( x ) in the Kürtün Dam Lake, Northeast Anatolia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Taxonomic evaluations are needed to accurately determine the host selection of fish parasites. The present study is a multidisciplinary research in the field of basic and fish diseases sciences. The description of the hybrid species of <italic>Squalius orientalis</italic> and <italic>Alburnus derjugini</italic> and infection of <italic>Ligula intestinalis</italic> in these hybrid fish were reported for the first time from the Kürtün Dam Lake in northeast Turkey. A total of 450 fish were sampled in March, August, and October in 2020 using gillnets. Detailed morphological characteristics (n = 24) were compared to determine the difference among ancestors and hybrid species. The prevalence of <italic>L. intestinalis</italic> between the sampling periods and the size groups of fish (0 – 10, 11 – 15, and ≥16 cm in length) were examined. Moreover, the highest prevalence of the parasite was observed in October (78.94 %), with a size range of 0 – 10 cm in length (77.8 %). In addition, the total prevalence of the parasite was 48.44 %. The results revealed that most of the diagnostic metric and meristic features of hybrid fish were ranging between the data of <italic>S. orientalis</italic> and <italic>A. derjugini</italic>. According to previous reports, when hybrid individuals were compared with their ancestors in terms of prevalence, hybrid individuals were more susceptible to <italic>L. intestinalis</italic> infections. This study was unique as it provided the first record of <italic>L. intestinalis</italic> in a hybrid fish population.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Autoimmunity in human CE: Correlative with the fertility status of the CE cyst<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Cystic echinococcosis is speculated to exert several immune-evasion strategies involving autoimmune-phenomena. We evaluated the hypothesizes that the prevalence of autoantibodies increases in the sera of CE patients that may evidence the association between the parasite and autoimmune diseases. Sera from 63 subjects at distinct types of CE cyst fertility were investigated for antinuclear antibodies (ANA), and anti-CCP antibodies. Plasma levels and cellular production of IL-17A cytokine were specifically defined as being assumed to prime for autoimmunity. Healthy-controls were age and gender-matched to test sera. ANA expressions inside the surgically removed metacestode and adventitial layer were also assayed. Out of 63 patients, 35 % had fertile highly viable cysts (group-1), 41 % had fertile low viable cysts (group-2) and 24 % had non-fertile cysts (group-3). A four-fold increase in ANA sera-levels was detected in group-1 compared with their controls (<italic>p-</italic>value 0.001) while anti-CCP levels were of insignificant differences. In group-2 and group-3, no significant differences were detected between ANA and anti-CCP sera-levels in CE patients and their controls. IL-17A sera-levels in group-1 and group- 2 were significantly higher than their healthy-controls while being of insignificant differences in group-3, <italic>p-</italic>value= 0.300. No association was detected between sera-levels of IL-17A and ANA as well as anti-CCP antibodies. Interestingly, relative IL-17A cellular expression associated positive ANA deposition in the parasite cells and adventitial layer. Collectively, based on the parasite fertility, IL-17A and ANA seemed to be involved in the host immune defenses against CE. There is no association between CE and anti-CCP antibodies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of the effect of curcumin on oxidative stress, local inflammatory response, COX-2 expression, and microvessel density in induced enteritis, myositis and myocarditis in mice<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <sec id="j_helm-2022-0002_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Curcumin exerts anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that have proven to be of value in the management of several parasitic infections.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_helm-2022-0002_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>Investigation of the value of curcumin in the management of trichinosis either alone or as an adjuvant to albendazole.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_helm-2022-0002_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Animals received either curcumin 150 mg/kg, curcumin 300 mg/kg, albendazole 50 mg/ kg or combined curcumin 150mg/kg and albendazole 50 mg/kg and were compared with control infected and non-infected mice. Estimation of intestinal and muscular parasitic load and blood malondialdehyde level, in addition to the histopathological examination of small intestine, skeletal muscle tissue and heart was performed. Also, assessment of the local expression of cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme (COX-2) and CD34 in these samples was done by immunohistochemistry.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_helm-2022-0002_s_010"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Curcumin was found efficient in reducing parasitic load. It also lowered serum MDA level, local COX-2 and CD34 expression. An evident anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin was observed in intestinal, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle histopathological sections.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_helm-2022-0002_s_011"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-angiogenic effects of curcumin can help to improve trichinellosis-induced pathology. Curcumin can therefore be of value as an adjuvant therapy to conventional antiparasitic agents and can also produce promising results when used alone at higher doses.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-04T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1