rss_2.0Helminthologia FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Helminthologia Feed cysticercosis in a Kunekune sow: description and molecular identification of<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>A 2-year-old Kunekune sow was submitted for necropsy following death after peritonitis and sepsis. In addition to peritonitis, numerous fluid-filled cysts were identified in the mesentery and hepatic parenchyma, which contained an approximately 1 cm metacestode (cysticercosis). Subsequent molecular characterization confirmed the presence of <italic>Taenia hydatigena,</italic> a non-zoonotic cestode species. To our knowledge, visceral cysticercosis caused by <italic>T. hydatigena</italic> has not been previously documented in Kunekune pigs. <italic>Taenia solium</italic> is a differential diagnosis of public health importance in cases of cysticercosis. Although <italic>Taenia solium</italic> is not commonly reported nor endemic in the United States, its zoonotic potential warrants consideration in the initial diagnostic assessment. Clinicians should be aware of the presence of <italic>T. hydatigena</italic> in its definitive and intermediate hosts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue characterization of infecting a primate in South India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><italic>Bertiella</italic> spp. is a mite-borne cestode parasite that inhabits the small intestine of wide range of mammals, including non-human primates. In the present study, the morphological and molecular analysis of <italic>Bertiella studeri</italic> recovered from the small intestine of a bonnet macaque (<italic>Macaca radiata</italic>) from Wayanad, Kerala (South India) was performed. Acetic alum carmine staining identified the cestode morphologically based on the characters like broader proglottids, which contain irregularly alternating genital pores, single set of reproductive organs, 280 testes and a tubular transverse uterus. Molecular characterization was done using 18SrRNA, ITS1-5.8S and COX1 genes. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using MEGA X based on the Maximum Likelihood (ML) method (Hasegawa-Kishino-Yano (HKY) model). Cytochrome oxidase I gene could detect the existence of genetic variation in the parasite from two different hosts viz., monkey (Kerala, Argentina, and Kenya) and human (Sri Lanka). A minimum spanning network of haplotypes was generated by the haplotype networking with the above sequences using the popARTv1.7. Haplotype analysis based on COX1 revealed that the parasite haplotype was different in each country with highest population frequency in Sri Lanka.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue with/without IVM: a new talk on intestinal CDX2 and muscular CD34 and Cyclin D1 during infection<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The current study assessed the efficacy of Acyclovir (ACV) and Ivermectin (IVM) as monotherapies and combined treatments for intestinal and muscular stages of <italic>Trichinella</italic> spiralis infection. One-hundred Swiss albino mice received orally 250 ± 50 infectious larvae and were divided into infected-untreated (Group-1), IVM-treated (Group-2), ACV-treated (Group-3), combined IVM+ACV (Group-4), and healthy controls (Group-5). Each group was subdivided into subgroup-A-enteric phase (10 mice, sacrificed day-7 p.i.) and subgroup-B-muscular phase (10 mice, sacrificed day-35 p.i.). Survival rate and body weight were recorded. Parasite burden and intestinal histopathology were assessed. In addition, immunohistochemical expression of epithelial CDX2 in the intestinal phase and CyclinD1 as well as CD34 in the muscular phase were evaluated. Compared, IVM and ACV monotherapies showed insignificant differences in the amelioration of enteric histopathology, except for lymphocytic counts. In the muscle phase, monotherapies showed variable disruptions in the encapsulated larvae. Compared with monotherapies, the combined treatment performed relatively better improvement of intestinal inflammation and reduction in the enteric and muscular parasite burden. CDX2 and CyclinD1 positively correlated with intestinal inflammation and parasite burden, while CD34 showed a negative correlation. CDX2 positively correlated with CyclinD1. CD34 negatively correlated with CDX2 and CyclinD1. IVM +ACV significantly ameliorated CDX2, CyclinD1, and CD34 expressions compared with monotherapies. Conclusion. <italic>T. spiralis</italic> infection-associated inflammation induced CDX2 and CyclinD1 expressions, whereas CD34 was reduced. The molecular tumorigenic effect of the nematode remains questionable. Nevertheless, IVM +ACV appeared to be a promising anthelminthic anti-inflammatory combination that, in parallel, rectified CDX2, CyclinD1, and CD34 expressions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, ultrastructural, and phylogenetic analysis of infecting domestic pigeons ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><italic>Ascaridia</italic> species are the most common nematodes infecting pigeons. The current study investigated specific identity of nematode parasites collected from domestic pigeons (<italic>Columba livia domestica</italic>) in Al-Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia. Out of 354 pigeons, 13.3 % were infected with nematode parasites. The morphological structure and genetic relationship of nematode worms were studied using conventional methods (Light and scanning electron microscopes) coupled with the newly introduced molecular method. Microscopical and ultrastructure observations showed that the present nematode worms belong to the genus <italic>Ascaridia</italic> and have all the characteristic features of <italic>Ascaridia columbae</italic>. Moreover, Random Amplifier morphometric (RAPD) PCR analysis revealed that the present <italic>A. columbae</italic> had a close identity of up to 98.3 % to <italic>Ascaridia columbae</italic> JX624729 for Cox-1 gene regions, and up to 98.3 % to <italic>Ascaridia nymphii</italic> LC057210, and <italic>Ascaridia galli</italic> EF180058 for ITS1-5.8s- ITS2 rDNA gene regions. Phylogenetic analysis supported the placement of this <italic>Ascaridia</italic> species within Ascaridiidae family with close relationships to other nematode species obtained from GenBank. Finally, our study recommends using molecular analysis in helminths identification as the main methodology for correct identification especially in closely related species.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and genetic identification of the gill monogenean parasite () that infects Twobar Seabream Fish () in the Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Ectoparasites, particularly monogeneans, negatively affect fish health and growth. This study identified monogenean parasites in the twobar seabream, <italic>Acanthopagrus bifasciatus</italic> (Sparidae), inhabited the Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia). Following that, forty <italic>A. bifasciatus</italic> fish samples were visually examined for monogeneans. Parasite species were collected from the gills and then analyzed morphometrically, morphologically, and molecularly using the partial regions of the large subunit of ribosomal RNA (28S rRNA) and mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) genes. Fish species were also identified using a DNA barcoding approach based on the COI gene. The monogenean species of <italic>Diclidophora merlangi</italic> (Diclidophoridae) were found in 45% of the fish species studied. The generic features of the <italic>Diclidophora</italic> genus distinguish this species. This species discriminated itself from congeners by having a muscular bulb with 17 grooved and recurved hooks, 218±10 (184–267) post-ovarian testes, and four pairs of pedunculated clamps of relative sizes. Partial 28S rRNA sequencing from monogeneans revealed that they grouped with members of the genus <italic>Diclidophora</italic>, forming a monophyletic group that supported the morphological descriptions. Molecular identification revealed that <italic>D. merlangi</italic> has a unique barcode made up of a COI sequence. The host identity was established as <italic>A. bifasciatus</italic> based on the COI gene sequences. Furthermore, a molecular phylogenetic study was performed to determine the phylogenetic affinity of parasite species and fish hosts. This study on <italic>Diclidophora</italic> species is considered the first record of this genus in the examined area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue parasitic helminths of bats from a cave in Luzon Island, Philippines<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Bats are often associated with several zoonotic diseases, including helminth infections. Despite their potential detrimental effects on both human and bat populations, information on helminth parasites of Philippine bats remains scarce. Here, we identify gastrointestinal helminths parasitizing bats collected from a cave complex in Cavinti, Laguna Province, Philippines, determine their prevalence (P) and mean intensity (MI), and investigate relationship of helminth prevalence and intensity with bat host characteristics including sex, diet, age, and roosting habit. We isolated 581 individuals of helminths representing six taxa (three trematodes, two nematodes, one cestode) from the gastrointestinal tract of sampled bats. Helminths were observed in 82 out of 172 bats captured (P = 47.67%), with <italic>Miniopterus paululus</italic> having the highest infection rate (P = 91.3%) and highest MI (18 ± 4.5/infected bat). Helminths parasitizing endemic bat species from the Philippines, such as <italic>Rhinolophus rufus</italic>, <italic>Rhinolophus inops</italic>, <italic>Hipposideros pygmaeus</italic>, and <italic>Ptenochirus jagori</italic> were reported here for the first time. We provide new host records for other helminth species and report the presence of two parasites, <italic>Plagiorchis</italic> sp. and <italic>Toxocara</italic> sp., known for their zoonotic potential. These data will contribute to efforts in identifying parasites and diseases harbored by bats in the country and develop additional conservation measures for bats.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue balls (Floating ovaries) of Mohamadain, 1989 from the Nile perch Linnaeus, 1758; an electron microscope study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In Acanthocephala, the ovarian balls (floating ovaries) are distinctive structures found suspended in the fluid-filled metasoma of females and are responsible for egg production and maturation. Those structures have not been studied in <italic>Rhadinorhynchus niloticus</italic>. We aimed to investigate their ultra-structure by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A total of 30 <italic>Lates niloticus</italic> fish individuals were collected by fishermen from the River Nile, Egypt, and the isolated adult female specimens were processed for electron microscopy studies. The ovarian balls are elongated and lobulated structures freely scattered in the metasoma. They exhibited three distinct primary structural zones, a central oogonial syncytium, a peripheral cellular zone and a surrounding somatic supporting syncytium. The oogonia, within the central syncytium, give rise to developing oocytes that transform into mature oocytes. The latter enclose some inclusions such as large yolk granules and smaller egg-shell granules. We also describe the process of fertilization within the ovarian ball. The structure of the ovarian ball and the steps of fertilization in <italic>R. niloticus</italic> are described, for the first time, in the present study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue potential drug targets in the kinomes of two monogenean species<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Protein kinases are enzymes involved in essential biological processes such as signal transduction, transcription, metabolism, and the cell cycle. Human kinases are targets for several drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Therefore, the identification and classification of kinases in other organisms, including pathogenic parasites, is an interesting subject of study. Monogeneans are platyhelminths, mainly ectoparasites, capable of causing health problems in farmed fish. Although some genomes and transcriptomes are available for monogenean species, their full repertoire of kinases is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify and classify the putative kinases in the transcriptomes of two monogeneans, <italic>Rhabdosynochus viridisi</italic> and <italic>Scutogyrus longicornis</italic>, and then to predict potential monogenean drug targets (MDTs) and selective inhibitor drugs using computational approaches. Monogenean kinases having orthologs in the lethal phenotype of <italic>C. elegans</italic> but not in fish or humans were considered MDTs. A total of 160 and 193 kinases were identified in <italic>R. viridisi</italic> and <italic>S. longicornis</italic>, respectively. Of these, 22 kinases, belonging mainly to the major groups CAMK, AGC, and TK, were classified as MDTs, five of which were evaluated further. Molecular docking analysis indicated that dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, and lomitapide have the highest affinity for the kinases BRSK and MEKK1. These well-known drugs could be evaluated in future studies for potential repurposing as anti-monogenean agents. The present study contributes valuable data for the development of new antiparasitic candidates for finfish aquaculture.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue parasites in captive wild birds in Mineiros, Goiás, Brazil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Studying parasites in captive wild birds is vital for their health, well-being, biodiversity preservation, species conservation, and safeguarding of both individual birds and ecosystems. It holds significance for public health by identifying potential zoonotic risks. We aimed to describe the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in captive wild birds from a Conservation Institute in Brazilian Cerrado biome. Fresh fecal samples were collected from 17 captive wild birds (<italic>Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus</italic>, <italic>Ara ararauna</italic>, <italic>Ara chloropterus</italic>, <italic>Ara macao</italic>, <italic>Megascops choliba</italic>, <italic>Pteroglossus castanotis</italic>, <italic>Ramphastos dicolorus</italic>, <italic>Ramphastos tucanus</italic> and <italic>Strix huhula</italic>) at a Conservation Institution in Mineiros, state of Goiás. The samples were processed for Willis’ simple flotation and Hoffman’s spontaneous sedimentation examinations to identify parasitic forms of gastrointestinal endoparasites. Macaw aviary birds (<italic>Ar. ararauna</italic>, <italic>Ar. chloropterus</italic> and <italic>Ar. macao</italic>) showed higher positivity, with all six fecal samples positive for helminths or protozoa. In contrast, captive toucans showed only two positive results (<italic>P. castanotis</italic> and <italic>R. dicolorus</italic>). <italic>An. hyacinthinus</italic> showed Ascarididae, Capillarinae and Trematoda eggs; whereas <italic>S. huhula</italic> had Ascarididae eggs. Regular parasitological examinations are essential for the timely detection and treatment of gastrointestinal infections in captive birds, thereby enhancing overall bird management.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue examination of internal parasites in Iraqi camels () with molecular focus on spp.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The camel has played a role in human civilization since its inception and holds significant importance in the customs and agricultural practices of various nations. This study examined the prevalence of internal parasitic infestations in camels within the Al-Diwaniyah and Al-Najaf provinces of Iraq from December 2021 to September 2022. A total of 200 fecal samples were randomly collected from farm camels, revealing that these animals were affected by one or more types of intestinal parasites. <italic>Nematodes</italic> exhibited the highest prevalence at 56 %, followed by <italic>Protozoa</italic> at 28.5 %, <italic>Cestodes</italic> at 14.5 %, and <italic>Trematodes</italic> at 1 %. Among these parasites, <italic>Trichostrongylus spp</italic>. had the highest percentage at 33 %, followed by <italic>Moneizia benedeni</italic> (12.5 %), <italic>Fasciola hepatica</italic> (10.5 %), <italic>Strongyloides spp</italic>. (8 %), <italic>Giardia spp</italic>. (7 %), <italic>Nematodirus spp</italic>. (6 %), and <italic>Eimeria spp</italic>. (6 %). Furthermore, mixed-species or single-species infections in camels were observed, including <italic>Anoplcephala perfoliata</italic> (4 %), <italic>Haemonchus spp</italic>. (3.5 %), <italic>Dictyocaulus spp</italic>. (3 %), <italic>Trichuris trichura</italic> (2.5 %), <italic>Entamoeba spp</italic>. (2 %), and <italic>Balantidium coli</italic> (1 %). Additionally, nested PCR was employed to identify <italic>Trichostrongylus spp</italic>., with 45.4 % of camels testing positive for this particular parasite.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and their helminth parasites: Potential zoonosis threats of land use change in the northeastern sub-watersheds of Mount Makiling, Laguna, Philippines<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The continuous challenges of land use change have brought potential threats to biodiversity and the spread of zoonotic diseases. In this study, synanthropic rodents and their helminth parasites were used as sentinels to assess the potential impact of land use on zoonosis. Rats were collected in different ecosystems, namely agricultural, agroforest, and residential areas in the northeastern sub-watersheds of Mount Makiling, Laguna, Philippines. Three (3) species of rats were captured, namely, <italic>Rattus tanezumi, Rattus norvegicus,</italic> and <italic>Rattus exulans</italic>. Of the total 180 rats collected, 92.7 % were found infected with helminth parasites, namely <italic>Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia pisiformis,</italic> and <italic>Strobilocercus fasciolaris</italic> (cestodes); <italic>Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis</italic>, <italic>Strongyloides ratti, Capillaria hepatica, Trichuris muris</italic>, and <italic>Rictularia</italic> sp. (nematodes); and <italic>Echinostoma ilocanum</italic> (trematode). Of these 11 species, nine (9) were considered zoonotic. This study provides important information on the helminth parasites of rats in the northeastern sub-watersheds of Mount Makiling and the potential threat of zoonotic transmission due to increasing land use change and urbanization in the area. Moreover, urbanization can provide favorable eco-epidemiological conditions for rodent-borne pathogens, such as parasites, that are seriously threatening agricultural settings and human settlements in these areas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of anthelminthic and antiprotozoal activity of myrrh () methanolic extract<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>To treat and control parasitic infections, traditional medical remedies using plant products are utilized as antiparasitic agents rather than standard synthetic chemicals due to drug resistance. Myrrh, a resinous exudate of <italic>Commiphora myrrha</italic> (Burseraceae), is a powerful antioxidant with a variety of medicinal uses. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the myrrh methanolic extract (MyE) of three concentrations (100, 50, and 25 mg/ml) on the sporulation of oocysts and as an anthelminthic effector via <italic>in vitro</italic> study. Characterization of the plant was done by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The earthworm, <italic>Eisenia fetida</italic>, is used as a model worm to evaluate the anthelminthic activity of MyE. <italic>Eimeria labbeana</italic>-like oocysts are used as a model protozoan parasite in anticoccidial assays. The sporulation and inhibition (%) of <italic>E. labbeana</italic>-like were assessed by MyE compared to other chemical substances. FT-IR revealed the presence of twelve active compounds. Our results showed that paralysis and death of earthworms at MyE (100 mg/ml) were 7.88 ± 0.37 and 9.24 ± 0.60 min, respectively, which is more potency when compared to mebendazole (reference drug). In all treated worms, microscopic examinations revealed obvious surface architecture abnormality. This study shows that MyE affects oocysts sporulation in a dose-dependent manner. At 24 and 36 hr, a high concentration of MyE (100 mg/ml) inhibits sporulation by 90.95 and 87.17 %. At 36 hr, other concentrations of MyE (50 and 25 mg/ml), as well as amprolium, Dettol<sup>TM</sup>, and phenol inhibits oocyst sporulation by 40.17 %, 29.34 %, 45.09 %, 85.11 %, and 61.58 %, respectively. According to our research, the MyE extract had powerful anthelmintic and anticoccidial properties.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and spatial patterns of eggs: a potential threat to human health in Pakistan<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This study investigates the presence of <italic>Trichuris trichiura</italic> eggs in soil samples collected from urban areas in Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 3600 soil samples were collected over two years from Lahore’s urban regions. The detection of helminth eggs in these samples was performed using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as a diagnostic technique. The study reveals an overall prevalence rate of <italic>T. trichiura</italic> at 0.97 % (35 out of 3600) in the contaminated soil samples from Lahore’s slum areas. When analyzing the data by geographical areas, the study found the highest prevalence of <italic>T. trichiura</italic> in Allama Iqbal Town (1.83 %, 11 out of 600), followed by Samanabad (1.16 %, 7 out of 600), Wapda Town (1.00 %, 6 out of 600), Gulberg (1.00 %, 6 out of 600), and Cantt (0.50 %, 3 out of 600). Conversely, Valencia Town had the lowest prevalence rate at 0.33 % (2 out of 600). However, these variations in prevalence rates were not statistically significant (p = 0.117). Prevalence rates of <italic>T. trichiura</italic>’s eggs varied significantly across different sampling seasons (p&gt;0.001). In autumn, a total of 900 soil samples were collected, with 19 samples (2.11 %) testing positive for <italic>T. trichiura</italic>. This rate was notably higher compared to the prevalence rates observed in winter, spring, and summer, which were 0.66 %, 0.22 %, and 0.88 %, respectively. Regarding the sampling months, the study observed a significantly higher prevalence during September (3.33 %, 10 out of 300), followed by October (2.33 %, 7 out of 300), and August (1.33 %, 4 out of 300). Prevalence rates gradually decreased in other months, ranging from 1 % to 0.33 % (3 to 1 out of 300), with no parasite detection in March (0 %, 0 out of 300) (p &lt; 0.001). This research underscores soil contamination due to fecal waste and highlights public unawareness of parasite biology, driven by open defecation practices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue trypanorhynch (Cestoda) infecting the dusky flounder, (Paralichthyidae: Pleuronectiformes) in the continental shelf of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Trypanorhynch cestode larvae were found parasitizing specimens of dusky flounder <italic>Syacium papillosum</italic> (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Southeastern Gulf of Mexico (s-GoM). Plerocercoids were recovered from a total of 194 flatfish, embedded in the intestine and stomach wall. Trypanorhynch were identified using morphology and a molecular phylogeny using newly sequenced partial 28S (region D1-D3) ribosomal DNA in combination with data derived from other species of trypanorhynchs available from GenBank. Larvae representing three genera of trypanorhynch cestodes, <italic>Nybelinia</italic> Poche, 1926; <italic>Kotorella</italic> <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_helm-2024-0002_ref_017">Euzet &amp; Radujkovic, 1989</xref> and <italic>Oncomegas</italic> Dollfus, 1929 were found in dusky flounder specimens in the s-GoM. These plerocercoids represent six species: <italic>Nybelinia</italic> sp. 1, <italic>Nybelinia</italic> sp. 2, <italic>Nybelinia</italic> sp. 3, <italic>Nybelinia</italic> sp. 4, <italic>Kotorella pronosoma</italic> (Stossich, 1901) and <italic>Oncomegas wageneri</italic> (Linton, 1890) Dollfus, 1929. All cestode specimens in this study represent new locality records for their respective species.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue molecular observation on from South Africa<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>During a survey of soil nematodes in South Africa, a species of predatory nematodes, namely <italic>Mylonchulus hawaiiensis</italic> was recovered from soil in the Magoebaskloof mountain of Limpopo Province, South Africa. The morphology of the material studied fit well with the previous populations of the same species. A molecular study of 18S rDNA region of <italic>M. hawaiiensis</italic> indicated a 100% similarity between the South African population and the Japanese population of <italic>M. hawaiiensis</italic> (AB361438; AB361439; AB361440; AB361442). In addition, phylogenetic analysis placed all <italic>M. hawaiiensis</italic> in a group with 0.97 posterior probability. Additionally, ITS rDNA of <italic>M. hawaiiensis</italic> amplified for the first time. However, Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a morphological variation among the different populations of <italic>M. hawaiiensis</italic>. In addition, haplotype analysis also revealed that the South African population is close to the Japanese population. In conclusion, 18S rDNA was a good marker for detecting <italic>M. hawaiiensis</italic>. Measurement, photographs, and phylogenetic position of South African <italic>M. hawaiinesis</italic> are given.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue egg extraction efficiencies of manual and automated fecal egg count methods in equines<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology recently released new recommendations for the design of fecal egg count (FEC) reduction tests for livestock. These provide suggestions as to the number of animals to be sampled and the minimum number of eggs that must be counted to produce statistically meaningful results.</p> <p>One of the considerations for study design is the multiplication factor of the FEC method to be used; methods with lower multiplication factors require fewer animals to be sampled because they are presumed to count more eggs per test. However, multiplication factor is not the sole determinant of the number of eggs counted by any given method, since different techniques use very different sample extraction methodologies that could affect the number of eggs detected beyond just the amount of feces examined.</p> <p>In this light, we compared three commonly used manual FEC methods (mini-FLOTAC, McMaster and Wisconsin) and two automated methods (Imagyst and Parasight All-in-One) with respect to how many equine strongylid and ascarid eggs they counted in the same samples.</p> <p>McMaster and mini-FLOTAC (multiplication factors of 25x and 5x, respectively) produced the most accurate results of the methods tested but mini-FLOTAC counted approximately 5-times more eggs than McMaster. However, Wisconsin and Parasight (multiplication factor = 1x) counted 3-times more ova than mini-FLOTAC, which was less than the 5-fold difference in their multiplication factors. As a result, these tests perform with multiplication factors more akin to 1.6x relative to mini-FLOTAC. Imagyst, due to its unique sample preparation methodology, does not have a traditional multiplication factor but performed similarly to McMaster with respect to egg recovery.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of neuronal form of Nitric oxide synthase in the Nurse cell of<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The free radical nitric oxide (NO) and Ca<sup>2+</sup> are critical regulators of skeletal muscle exercise performance and fatigue. The major source of NO in skeletal muscle cells is the neuronal form of the enzyme Nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). One of the most peculiar characteristics of the Nurse cell of <italic>Trichinella spiralis</italic> (<italic>T. spiralis</italic>) is the complete loss of the contractile capabilities of its derivative striated muscle fiber. The aim of the present study was to clarify the expression of nNOS protein and mRNA in striated muscles during the muscle phase of <italic>T. spiralis</italic> infection in mice. Muscle tissue samples were collected from mice at days 0, 14, 24, and 35 post infection (d.p.i.). The expression of nNOS was investigated by immunohistochemistry, and the expression levels of mRNA of mouse Nitric oxide synthase 1 (<italic>Nos1)</italic> by real-time PCR. The presence of nNOS protein was still well observable in the disintegrated sarcoplasm at the early stage of infection. The cytoplasm of the developing and mature Nurse cell showed the absence of this protein. At least at the beginning of the Nurse cell development, <italic>Trichinella</italic> uses the same repairing process of skeletal muscle cell, induced after any trauma and this corroborates very well our results concerning the nNOS expression on day 14 p.i. At a later stage, however, we could suggest that the down-regulation of nNOS in the Nurse cell of <italic>T. spiralis</italic> either serves a protective function or is an outcome of the genetic identity of the Nurse cell.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, inexpensive, and rapid approach to detect changes in the structure of soil free-living nematodes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>A general limitation of ecological investigations based on nematodes is related to the difficult and time-consuming taxonomic identification of species. Therefore, nematologists are investing many efforts to develop alternative approaches as proxies applicable in biomonitoring assessment. Recently, an alternative method that combines morpho-functional traits was proposed for detecting assemblage changes of marine nematodes. In view of the promising results, it was tested the same approach to document taxonomic structure changes of soil free-living and plant parasitic nematodes. Specifically, this attempt was carried out using three data sets that include studies from various European regions and different types of ecosystems: forests, grasslands and maize crops. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the simple combination of the four traits (i.e., buccal cavity cuticularization occurrence, amphideal fovea size and shape, morphology of the cuticle and pharynx) in a single code number perfectly mirrors the taxonomic structure trends of the nematode assemblage at genus level. Therefore, we predict that similar results can be also obtained by directly encoding nematode specimens with the selected traits and we point to new important advances if this procedure can be coupled with advanced machine learning.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue community structure of the Salema, (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Sparidae), from the Central coast of Algeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The main goal of the current work was to describe and analyse the Digenean community structure in <italic>Sarpa salpa.</italic> A total of 114 specimens of <italic>S. salpa</italic> were collected from the Central Coast of Algeria at six localities. The fish were immediately transported to the laboratory to be examined for digeneans. From 107 of the 114 <italic>S. salpa</italic> examined, a total of 8,722 specimens of seven species belonging to three families were recovered. Among them, <italic>Robphildollfusium fractum</italic> and <italic>Mesometra orbicularis</italic> were the most prevalent and abundant species. Moreover, <italic>Lepocreadium album</italic> was found for the first time in <italic>S. salpa</italic> from the coast of Algeria, and <italic>Centroderma spinosissima</italic> and <italic>Wardula capitellata</italic> represent new parasites to the Algerian digenean fauna that infect teleost fish. The component community of these Digeneans is characterised by <italic>R. fractum</italic> as its dominant species representing 62% of the total number of collected Digeneans, as well by a Shannon diversity index (H′) and Dominance Simpson index (D) of 1.03 and 2.23, respectively. According to Spearman's correlation test, <italic>Mesometra brachycoelia</italic> and <italic>W. capitellata</italic> were negatively correlated to the host biological factors. On the other hand, <italic>R. fractum</italic> showed a positive correlation between its mean abundance and the total length of the fish. With these findings, we provided the component structure of the Digenean fauna of <italic>S. salpa</italic> and highlighted their diversity, contributing to the biodiversity of the parasitic Platyhelminthes in Algeria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and molecular characterizations of infecting Ming aralia and coffee in Vietnam<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><italic>Pratylenchus coffeae</italic>, belonging to the root-lesion nematode group, is a highly prevalent and destructive plant-parasitic nematode that is able to infest a wide range of host plants. Although this species' devastating impacts on coffee plantations across the world are widely known on other host plants, its association with Ming aralia has never been reported. Our study characterized two popu lations of <italic>P. coffeae</italic> (associated with Ming aralia and coffee) and compared them with other popu lations from previous studies in Vietnam and other countries in the world. The identification of <italic>P. coffeae</italic> in our study was confirmed by the comprehensive analysis encompassing morphological examination, morphometric data, and molecular characterizations of the <italic>COI</italic> mtDNA and D2D3 of 28S rRNA regions. The cluster and MDS analyses revealed that the two populations of <italic>P. coffeae</italic> from Vietnam are closely related to those from Japan and Indonesia. The D2-D3 sequences of 28S rRNA and <italic>COI</italic> mtDNA regions exhibited high similarity among these populations, indicating a stable genetic profile. Our research contributes to a better understanding of the distribution and genetic characterizations of <italic>P. coffeae</italic> by offering new morphological and molecular insights into the presence of this nematode in Vietnam. Additionally, this nematode species was found to be associated with host plant's symptoms such as chlorotic leaves, stunted growth and root lesion in both hosts. Given the economic significance of both Ming aralia and coffee crops in Vietnam, as well as the damaging potential of <italic>P. coffeae</italic>, this study emphasizes the need of proactive nematode management measures to control this destructive pest.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue