rss_2.0Herba Polonica FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Herba Polonica Polonica 's Cover supplements in Poland in context of issues related to their safety as food<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In Poland, food supplements have been popular among consumers for many years. Their sale brings producers huge profits. The interest in these products, especially in vitamin and mineral preparations and in immunity-supporting products increased dramatically due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Self-medication with untested dietary supplements may be health hazardous. Since in Poland and in other countries the procedures of quality control of food supplements are imperfect, this situation raises serious concerns about the risks of their unrestricted use and food fraud. The article briefly presents important problems in the safety of food supplements from the point of view of experts involved in their evaluation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Content of sterols in propagated (L.) Holub plants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> <italic>Chamerion angustifolium</italic> (L.) Holub (syn. <italic>Epilobium angustifolium</italic> L.) plants have been used in the treatment and alleviating symptoms of mild Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Plants are abundant in polyphenols, particularly ellagitannins, phenolic acids and flavonoids. Apart from polyphenols, herb of this species also contains steroids, triterpenes and fatty acids.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The aim of this study was to determine the content of campesterol, <italic>β</italic>-sitosterol and stigmasterol in <italic>C. angustifolium</italic> genotypes cultivated <italic>in vitro</italic>.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> Plants grown <italic>in vitro</italic> and the plants harvested from field were subjected to the HPLC-DAD analysis.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The investigated genotypes differed in sterol content. Stigmasterol (375.64–577.77 mg/100 g of dry weight – DW) was a predominant compound among the tested sterols. In contrast to <italic>in vitro</italic> cultures, plants harvested from field synthesized mainly <italic>β</italic>-sitosterol (103.05 mg/100 g DW), whereas campesterol and stigmasterol were less abundant.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> <italic>C. angustifolium in vitro</italic> cultures are rich source of phytosterols, particularly stigmasterol. Genotype had a significant effect on phytosterol accumulation under <italic>in vitro</italic> conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Role of natural fatty acids in prophylaxis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) known as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs), commonly called fish oils, on the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. In a living organism, omega-3 FA (EPA and DHA) and omega-6 FA (arachidonic acid [AA]) are also involved in the formation of key regulators of platelet aggregation, vasodilation and inflammation. It is important to know that EPA and DHA act in different ways on membrane structure and lipid metabolism. For this reason, combining DHA with EPA may modify the clinical effects of only EPA treatment. The effects of omega-3 FAs on cardiovascular system remain uncertain. Two recent negative trials of EPA + DHA, STRENGTH and OMEMI, have put the utility of omega-3 FAs in preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular events under debate. This paper presents the actual knowledge on the role of polyunsaturated acids in cardiovascular diseases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of ethanolic extract of rosella ( L.) on vital signs, kidney, and liver safety<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: Rosella (<italic>Hibiscus sabdariffa</italic> L) extract is often used as immune-stimulant because it contains flavonoids, especially anthocyanin and quercetin with antioxidant activities.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> This study aimed to determine the safety of the rosella extract consumed in the form of capsules on the vital signs, haematologic parameters as well as kidney and liver function.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> This research was conducted using clinical trial pre- and post-test design in healthy participants. There were 21 healthy participants (52% male, age ranged 8–45) consuming rosella capsules for thirty days, in a dose of 500 mg extract daily. Leukocytes, lymphocytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and vital signs were consecutively evaluated on days 0, 31, and 45, respectively. The Wilcoxon and paired sample t-test were used to compare the parameters among the evaluated times.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The result showed that no significant difference for all parameters among the three time points (<italic>p</italic>&gt;0.05).</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> These findings suggested that the administration of ethanolic extract of rosella is potential safe and does not negatively affect the vital signs, haemoglobin, leukocytes, lymphocytes, BUN, SGOT, and SGPT.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Chemical constituents and biological effects of essential oils of genus (): A review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><italic>Clausena</italic> is a genus of <italic>Rutaceae</italic> family commonly used in traditional medicine. This report aims to provide the brief review on the chemical components and bioactivities of essential oils (EOs) isolated from <italic>Clausena</italic> plants. The phyto-chemicals of EOs obtained from different plant parts of <italic>Clausena</italic> species are characterized by several chemical groups such as oxygenated sesquiterpene, oxygenated monoterpene, monoterpene hydrocarbons, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, etc. In addition, the studied oils also possess the antimicrobial, insecticidal and larvicidal activities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Valorisation of morphological and agricultural traits of 21 varieties of flax L.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Valorisation of the genetic resources of crop plants is related to the protection of biodiversity.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The morphological and agricultural valorisation of 21 genotypes of flax (<italic>Linum usitatissimum</italic> L.) was carried out. Ten accessions of fibre flax were investigated: Fortuna, Izolda, Lazur, Swadzimski, Zwisły, Ariadna, Bryta, Waza, Milenium, Golęciński from Poland; Jordan, Tabor from Czech Republic; Argos, Venus from France; Baltuciai, Vega 2 from Lithuania: Irma, Persey from Ukraine; Rusicz from Russia and Alba from The Netherlands. The evaluation was also made for one linseed varieties from France, Drakkar.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> The studied genotypes of flax were the research material in two locations: in 2010 in Pętkowo and in 2011 in Wojciechów. The valorisation of the tested morphological and agricultural traits was carried out traditionally. Some of the valorised morphological features were also presented in the form of data for the International Flax Database.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Venus, Argos, Tabor and Jordan are varieties with a high fibre content in the stem. The highest fibre yield was found in Vega 2 in Pętkowo and Milenium in Wojciechów, and the lowest in Lazur in Pętkowo and Drakkar in Wojciechów. In both locations and years, the following cultivars were characterized by the highest seed yields: Lazur, Jordan, Argos, Vega 2, Golęciński and Persey. Cultivars Milenium in Pętkowo and Bryta in Wojciechów were the least valuable in terms of seed yield.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Morphological and agricultural valorisation differed in both locations and years. The conducted experiment confirms the literature data that the valorisation results of flax accessions depend on agrometeorological conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative cytological studies of naturally grown plants and grown plants of – an important medicinal plant species<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> <italic>Gynura procumbens</italic> is an important medicinal plant that contains different types of chemical constituents that show tremendous curative effects.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The aim of this research work was comparative karyomorphological analysis between <italic>in vitro</italic> and <italic>in vivo</italic> grown selected medicinal plant species.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> The roots were collected properly from naturally grown plants and <italic>in vitro</italic> propagated plants and pretreated with 1,4-para-dichlorobenzene (PDB) for 2.00 – 3.00 hours at room temperature. After pretreating with PDB the roots were washed thoroughly and kept in 1:3 (v/v) aceto-alcohol for 24 hours and then, transferred to 70% alcohol (v/v) for preservation. After that completing staining process, prepared slides were observed under microscope for karyotype analysis &amp; ideogram preparation.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> This research work reveled that both mother plant and tissue culture raised plants had 2n=20 chromosomes in somatic cell. No telocentric or acrocentric chromosome observed in the basic set of chromosomes. Both plants had 3 submetacentric and 7 metacentric chromosomes in the basic set of chromosomes. The centromeric formula for both plants was 3sm + 7m. The length of individual chromosome of <italic>in vivo</italic> plants ranged from 6.20 to 11.24 <italic>µ</italic>m, whereas chromosome length of <italic>in vitro</italic> grown plants ranged from 6.08 to 11.22 <italic>µ</italic>m. The total form percent (TF%) of naturally grown plants and micro-propagated plants were same (43.93%). Mother plant had 2A type of karyotype, the formula being 2Lsm + 4Msm + 4Mm + 10Sm. <italic>In vitro</italic> grown plant had also 2A type of karyotype which could be expressed by the formula, 2Lsm + 4Msm + 2Mm + 12Sm.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> The results of cytological studies point out that chromosome numbers of naturally grown plants and micro-propagated plants were same. There were very little karyotypic variations observed in case of both micropropagated and mother plants.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Use of polyunsaturated fatty acids in prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, obesity and cancer<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Fatty acids are important structural and functional elements of human body. We can distinguish several types: among others polyunsaturated fatty acids, which include omega-3 fatty acids (<italic>ω</italic>-3PUFA) and omega-6 fatty acids(<italic>ω</italic>-6PUFA). The first group has pleiotropic health-promoting effects, while the second group, <italic>ω</italic>-6PUFA, negatively affects the homeostasis of the human body and contributes to the development of numerous diseases. Both the amount and the relative ratio of these acids in the diet is an important factor affecting health and quality of life.</p> <p>Laboratory and clinical studies indicate that <italic>ω</italic>-3PUFA have a positive effect on the therapy of illnesses such as obesity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). <italic>ω</italic>-3 PUFA supplementation also appears to have a helpful effect in the adjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer and recovery.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and phytochemical qualitative analysis of Boiss. ex C.A. Mey.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: <italic>Ephedra foliata</italic> Boiss. ex C.A. Mey of the <italic>Ephedraceae</italic> family is an evergreen shrub distributed throughout North Africa and Southwest Asia. It has been a characteristic source of alkaloids like ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and other related mixes, which are of great importance for their biological and pharmacological potential.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> This study is aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential and phytochemical constituents studies on stem, leaves and flowers extracts of <italic>E. foliata</italic>.</p> <p><bold>Method:</bold> The air-dried plant sample was powdered with an electric grinder, then extracted successively with solvents, namely petroleum ether, petroleum benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous using Soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The solid matter was separated by filtration and then solvents were evaporated with a vacuum rotary evaporator to obtain the crude extracts. Freshly prepared crude extracts were subjected to the standard procedures of preliminary phytochemical screening for the investigation of the presence or absence of different phytoconstituents. The result showed the presence of reducing sugars, flavonoids, and cardiac glycosides. Antimicrobial activity of the crude extract was determined by agar well diffusion method.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Ethyl acetate extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity against all the tested pathogens (<italic>Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus</italic>, <italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</italic>, <italic>Yersinia enterocolitica</italic>, <italic>Streptococcus pneumonia</italic>, <italic>Aspergillus terreus, Cladosporium herbarum</italic> and <italic>Candida tropicalis</italic>). All five extracts inhibited the growth of <italic>Y. enterocolitica.</italic></p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> The antimicrobial properties of <italic>E. foliata</italic> extracts are of great interest in light of the ongoing threat of microbial resistance to conventional antibiotics. Phytoconstituents present in the <italic>E. foliata</italic> extracts might be a good alternative to modern antimicrobials as a natural compound.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Mucormycosis, a post-COVID infection: possible adjunctive herbal therapeutics for the realigning of impaired immune-metabolism in diabetic subjects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Cytokine storm is believed as a major root cause for multi-organ failure and death in severely infected diabetic patients with COVID-19. This condition is treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, mainly steroids, to recover people from critical conditions. However, steroid therapy causes immune suppression and uncontrolled hyper-glycaemia in post-COVID. This altered immune-metabolism provides a fertile environment for the infection of a black fungus, <italic>Rhizopus arrhizus</italic> which causes mucormycosis in diabetic patients. It is a life-threatening infection causing death in different countries. It is treated either with anti-fungal drugs, surgical debridement, or adjunctive therapies. The available therapies for mucormycosis have been associated with several drawbacks. Thus, the present review has explored and suggested herbs-spices based adjunctive therapy for possible realignment of the impaired immune system in the post-COVID diabetic subjects. The consumption of herbal therapeutics after COVID-19 could realign the impaired immune-metabolism in the post-COVID and thereby exert prophylactic effects against mucormycosis. Furthermore, the suggested herbal sources could help in the discovery of novel therapeutics against the COVID-19 associated mucormycosis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-02T00:00:00.000+00:00FTIR-ATR based fingerprinting and chemometrics analysis of metabolites profile of L. affected by fertilization with NPK-chitosan nanopolymer and harvesting age<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: <italic>Phyllanthus niruri</italic> L. (PnL) is a herbaceous plant containing flavonoid quercetin and can be used as an immunomodulator to prevent Covid-19. However, the flavonoid content and yield of herbs extract were not maximized. Therefore, PnL herbs were planted in various harvest periods and application of NPK-chitosan nanopolymer fertilizer to estimate these parameters.</p> <p><bold>Objectives</bold>: Determine the effect of NPK-chitosan nanopolymer fertilizer and harvesting age on herb extracts also determine the grouping pattern and correlation between responses based on FTIR-ATR spectral pattern using a chemometric approach.</p> <p><bold>Methods</bold>: Each group consisted of 50 plants. The formulation of NPK-chitosan nanopolymer fertilizer based on the dose of NPK consisting of the first dose is 15.5 grams/group, the second dose is 31 grams/group, and the third dose is 7.5 grams/group. Grouping of differences in harvesting age for plants consisted of 4, 6, and 8 weeks after the plant (WAP). Extraction used ultrasound-assisted extraction, and data were analyzed using a chemometric approach.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Extract with the highest yield was found in second harvest time and third doses of fertilizer (W2D3) which is 9.73 %, and the highest TFC obtained in an extract with second harvest time and first doses of fertilizer (W2D1) is 17.34 mg QE/g. Total flavonoid content and extract yield were influenced by functional groups at wavenumbers 3486.77–3157.12 cm<sup>−1</sup> (1); 1740.96–1670.34 cm-1 (3); 1425.02–1272.62 cm-1 (5); 1257,753–1138,81 cm<sup>−1</sup> (6); 1131.38–945.53 cm-1 (7); 711.36–529.23 cm-1 (8).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The results showed that harvest time and fertilizer dose affected the growth parameters of PnL, total flavonoid content, and yield of extract. Functional groups in IR spectra also have positive and negative correlations with total flavonoid and yield extract responses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Identification of causal agent of wilt of common sage ( L.)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: Common sage is cultivated in Europe and North America. It has strong antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal properties. This plant can be infected by different pathogenic fungi species, such as <italic>Alternaria alternata</italic>, <italic>Fusarium</italic> spp. (<italic>F. culmorum</italic>, <italic>F. equiseti</italic>, <italic>F. oxysporum</italic>), <italic>Phomopsis sclarea</italic> and <italic>Botrytis cinerea</italic>. Those species are the most frequently isolated fungi from sage stem base.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The aim of this study was to identify the causal agent of common sage wilt disease.</p> <p><bold>Methods</bold>: Studies were carried out in 2018–2020. 23 fungal isolates were identified based on their morphology and with use of PCR technique. Length and width of 100 conidia growing on SNA medium were measured after 7 days. Koch’s postulates were checked and the development of one fungus isolate (no. 13) was compared on seven media: the CMA, MEA, OA, PCA, SNA, PDA and Czapek medium. Sequences of the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2) were used to identify the pathogen.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: The fungus formed 3 kinds of spores: thin-walled, hyaline, slightly folded at the base, mostly 4-cell macroconidia, oblong, hyaline one- or two-cell microconidia and oval thick-walled chlamydospores. The Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. The fungus formed the most abundant aerial mycelium on the Czapek medium, and the least on the CMA medium. On the SNA medium, the mycelium grew into the medium and the aerial mycelium was not formed. The obtained RPB2 nucleotide sequence was 100% similar to the <italic>Fusarium oxysporum</italic> sequence deposited in GenBank (NCBI).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: The results of this research can be used in further studies on the biological diversity of this species.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Antioxidant potential of various extracts from 5 common European mosses and its correlation with phenolic compounds<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> This paper presents the results of research about the antioxidant properties of extracts from 5 moss species, namely <italic>Brachythecium rutabulum</italic>, <italic>Callicladium haldanianum</italic>, <italic>Hypnum cupressiforme</italic>, <italic>Orthodicranum montanum</italic> and <italic>Polytrichastrum formosum</italic>. The macerates of each above mentioned species in water and ethanol (50% and 96%) solutions were analysed.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> Total phenolic acids, total flavonoids and total flavonols concentrations and content of carotenoids was determined. Also some phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities and the advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) formation inhibition were studied.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The obtained results showed that the extracts prepared with 50% ethanol had the strongest radical scavenging activities. Every 50% ethanol extract also inhibited formation of AOPP. 96% ethanol extracts had the lowest free radical scavenging activities, although <italic>B. rutabulum</italic> extract strongly inhibited protein oxidation. Pearson’s correlation showed that the radical scavenging effects of water extracts and extracts prepared with 50% ethanol are dependent on the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> The results suggest the moss extracts as materials for potential use in pharmacy or cosmetology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Response of L. plant to foliar spraying with extracts of moringa leaves and peels of the pomegranate<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> <italic>Monarda citriodora</italic> L. plant belongs to the <italic>Lamiaceae</italic> family. It is a medicinal and aromatic plant, an annual herb, one of important sources of thymol compound. This plant has various purposes such as medicinal properties, food industry, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals industry, a  powerful antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> There is an ongoing need to find safe, natural sources of plant nutrients. Moringa leaves and pomegranate peels extracts are being used as a secure source of natural nutrients, and natural growth regulators on the growth and productivity of plants. Applying these bio stimulants helps avoid the excessive use of industrial materials in agriculture. So, this experiment was carried out to determine the effect of both moringa leaves extract, and pomegranate peels extract as a bio regulator on the productivity of <italic>M. citriodora</italic> plant.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> This experiment was carried out during two seasons (2017/2018 and 2018/2019) at the Experimental Station of Adlya Farm, Sekem Company, ElSharkia Governorate, Egypt, to study the influence of some natural extracts of moringa leaves and pomegranate peels on growth, yield as well as some chemical constituents of the dry herbs, such as total carbohydrate, total flavonoids compounds, total phenolic content, NPK content and essential oil contents and its components and determination of free radical scavenging activity of <italic>M. citriodora</italic> L. plant.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Both extracts of moringa leaves and pomegranate peels positively affected growth, yield, and chemical constituents compared to untreated plants. Moringa leaves extract had more effect compared with pomegranate peels extract. The main essential oil constituents were thymol, <italic>p</italic>-cymene, and carvacrol compounds.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> The application of bio-stimulants of moringa leaves extract (MLE) and pomegranate peels extract (PPE) positively affect the growth and production of <italic>M. citriodora</italic> plant.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Study of total antioxidant activity of green tea leaves ( L.)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> There is a high interest in creating medicines, dietary supplements, cosmetics including plant extract with antioxidant activity. For understanding whether plant extract has a maximum level of antioxidant activity it is important to know the total antioxidant activity of raw material.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The main goal of study was to find out the green tea leaves total antioxidant activity.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> The antioxidant activity was measured by potentiometric method. Total phenolic, flavonoids, catechins and hydrocinnamic acids derivatives were quantified using Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminium chloride, vanillin and sodium molibdate methods, respectively.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The green tea leaves total antioxidant activity was 660.75 mmol-eqv./mres. dry weight. A significant correlation was observed between the amount of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity, which indicated its main role in antioxidant activity.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> The research showed that the green rea leaves possess a high value of antioxidant activity and it is a good source of phenolic constituents.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00The occurrence of fungi on the commercial dietary supplements based on the milk thistle ( (L.) Gaertn.) available on Polish market<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Milk thistle (<italic>Silybum marianum</italic> (L.) Gaertn.) is an important medicinal plant, its achenes contain a silymarin, which has a regenerating and stabilizing effect on liver cells. The milk thistle based dietary supplements are among the best-selling plant pharmaceuticals in the US and the UE.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The goal of the experiment was to determine which – if any – fungi contaminated either the whole or ground milk thistle achenes, available on the Polish market.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> The mycological analyses were performed on 200 achenes, using deep-freeze blotter method. Ground material was assessed using agar test method. For each sample, 10 Petri dishes were used. The material was applied in five places per one Petri dish, with a micro scoop laboratory spatula. Then, Petri dishes with achenes and ground material were incubated at 20°C under alternating cycles of 12 h NUV light and 12 h darkness. The identification of fungi was performed using stereo microscope and compound microscope, if necessary.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The milk thistle achenes were infested with following fungi: <italic>Alternaria alternata</italic>, <italic>Alternaria</italic> sp., <italic>Aspergillus flavus</italic>, <italic>Aspergillus</italic> spp., <italic>Bipolaris</italic> sp., <italic>Cladosporium</italic> spp., <italic>Epicoccum nigrum</italic>, <italic>Fusarium</italic> spp., <italic>Melanospora simplex</italic>, <italic>Mucor</italic> spp., <italic>Penicillium</italic> spp., <italic>Phoma</italic> sp., <italic>Rhizopus stolonifer</italic>, <italic>Sarocladium strictum</italic>, <italic>Stemphylium botryosum</italic>, <italic>Trichothecium roseum</italic>, <italic>Ulocladium consortiale</italic> and <italic>Verticillium</italic> sp. Among them <italic>A. alternata</italic> predominated. Whereas, milled milk thistle achenes were occupied by <italic>Aspergillus flavus</italic>, <italic>A. niger</italic>, <italic>Aspergillus</italic> spp., <italic>Fusarium</italic> sp., <italic>Mortierella</italic> spp., <italic>Mucor</italic> spp., <italic>Penicillium</italic> spp. and <italic>R. stolonifer</italic>.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> Considering the significant fungal contamination of milk thistle achenes-based dietary supplements, it seems reasonable to introduce a system of achene control due to possible microbiological contamination.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Anti-methicillin resistant and growth inhibitory studies of extract and fractions of leaves of (Lam.) Kurz ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: <italic>Bryophyllum pinnatum</italic> is a plant with diverse ethnomedicinal claims yet to be verified scientifically.</p> <p><bold>Objective</bold>: This work was aimed at evaluating the extract and vacuum liquid chromatographic (VLC) fractions of <italic>B. pinnatum</italic> on methicillin-resistant <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> (MRSA) and anti-proliferating seed radicle cells of <italic>Sorghum bicolor</italic>.</p> <p><bold>Methods</bold>: The extract and VLC fractions of <italic>B. pinatum</italic> were screened phytochemically and subsequently tested against MRSA at concentrations of 3.125–100 mg/ml, while the antiproliferative assay at 1–30 and 1–10 mg/ml.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: The extract recorded zone of inhibition of 7.05 mm was only at 100 mg/ml against L20 MRSA strains. While VLC bulked fractions A(1), C (5–7), D (8–9) and E (10) had no zones of inhibition against the strains, fraction B had zones of inhibitions at all concentrations with the highest ones of 9.7 and 8.5 mm at 125 and 62.5 mg/ml, respectively, against MRSA sample (L20). The MIC of the active fraction B was observed at 3.9, 7.8 and 15.6 mg/ml for all samples used. At 96 h of seed incubation, 56 mm radicle length was recorded by the control seeds was reduced to 1.5 mm (97%) and 0.4 mm (99%) when treated with 20 and 30 mg/ml of the extract. The VLC sub-fraction B at 10 mg/ml showed more inhibitory effects on the germinating radicles as it recorded 100% reduction when compared to the control at 96 h against 80 and 70% recorded by fractions ‘A’ and ‘C’, respectively.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: The results obtained showed an evidence of susceptibility of methicillin-resistant <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> and growth inhibitory potentials of <italic>B. pinnatum</italic>, particularly the active VLC fraction “B”. Thus, further studies are required to support these findings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of antioxidant activity of extracts from<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> <italic>Leucosidea sericea</italic> finds applications in the treatment of herpes and HIV.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity and determine the total flavonoid contents (TFCs) and total phenolic contents <bold>(</bold>TPCs) of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol crude extracts obtained from leaves and stem-bark of <italic>L. sericea</italic>.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> Maceration and hot solvent extraction methods were used to obtain various crude extracts. DPPH and ferric reducing power assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Colorimetric aluminium chloride and Folin-Ciocalteu methods were used to determine the TFCs and TPCs, respectively.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The methanol leaf extract showed highest radical scavenging activity of 82.00±0.93% at a concentration of 3000 <italic>µ</italic>g/ml followed by ethyl acetate leaf extract and methanol stem-bark extract with 79.40±5.21 and 75.16±1.15%, respectively. Acetone stem-bark extract showed highest ferric reducing power of 0.539±0.004 at 700 nm at a concentration of 100 <italic>µ</italic>g/ml followed by hexane leaf extract and hexane stem-bark extract with 0.474±0.014 and 0.437±0.013 at 700 nm, respectively. Ethyl acetate stem-bark extract showed highest TFCs of 655.6±0.1111 mg QE/g of DW of the extract followed by acetone stem-bark extract with 450.0±0.00711 mg QE/g of DW of the extract. Acetone stem-bark extract showed highest TPCs of 891.9±0.657 mg TAE/g of the DW of extract followed by methanol stem-bark extract with 878.3±0.029 mg TAE/g of DW of the extract.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> The antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from leaves and stem-bark of <italic>L. sericea</italic> was evaluated. <italic>L. sericea</italic> could be a source of potent antioxidants.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Natural aldose reductase inhibitors for treatment and prevention of diabetic cataract: A review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Aldose reductase (AR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of glucose to sorbitol responsible for the development of diabetic complications like cataracts. Medicinal plants contain several phytocompounds that can inhibit this enzyme.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The purpose of this review is to cite medicinal plants that have been tested for their ability to inhibit aldose reductase and consequently prevent cataracts and classify the major isolated compounds that have this activity.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> We reviewed 154 articles published between 1954 and 2020 in English <italic>via</italic> three databases: ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and PubMed. We have classified the plants that showed a significant anti-cataract effect, in the form of a list including the scientific and family names of each plant. Also, we have cited the IC<sub>50</sub> values and the active constituents of each plant that showed inhibitory activity towards AR.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> We have described 38 herbs belonging to 29 families. Besides, 47 isolated compounds obtained from the cited herbs have shown an AR inhibitory effect: luteolin, luteolin-7-O-<italic>β</italic>-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin, 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, delphinidin 3-O-<italic>β</italic>-galactopyranoside-3’-O-<italic>β</italic>-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester, andrographolide, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl<italic>-β-</italic>D-glucose, 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl<italic>-β-</italic>D-glucose, 7-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3-methyl-8<italic>-β-</italic>O-D-glucoside-2H-chromen-2-one, E-4-(60-hydroxyhex-30-en-1-yl)phenyl propionate, delphinidin 3-O-<italic>β</italic>-galactopyranoside-3’,5’-di-O-<italic>β</italic>-glucopyranoside, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl<italic>-β-</italic>D-glucose, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl<italic>-β-</italic>D-glucose, 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl<italic>-β-</italic>D-glucose, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanol, (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methanol, <italic>trans</italic>-anethole, gallic acid 4-O<italic>-β-</italic>D-(6’-O-galloyl)-glucoside, <italic>β</italic>-glucogallin, puerariafuran, quercetin, gallic acid 4-O<italic>-β-</italic>D-glucoside, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone, protocatechuic acid, <italic>trans</italic>-cinnamic acid, gallic acid, <italic>p</italic>-coumaric acid and syringic acid.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> natural therapy becomes an interesting alternative in the treatment and prevention of cataract by using medicinal plants rich in active compounds considered as AR inhibitors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Kinetic study on peroxidase inactivation and anthocyanin degradation of black cherry tomatoes ( cv. OG) during blanching<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Blanching is a necessary treatment stage in processing of tomato products to inactivate enzymes. However, it may cause the degradation of nutrients.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title><p>In this study, the kinetics of thermal peroxidase inactivation and anthocyanin degradation in black cherry tomatoes (cv. OG) were determined to predict the quality changes during the blanching.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>Tomatoes were blanched at five levels of temperature (75–95oC) for five time periods (30–150 s).</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>It was found that as the blanching temperature increased and the blanching time is prolonged, more peroxidase was inactivated and the greater number of anthocyanins was lost. The thermal peroxidase inactivation and anthocyanin degradation showed an apparent first-order reaction with the activation energy of 129.96 kJ/mol and 65.99 kJ/mol, respectively. Peroxidase and anthocyanin in black cherry tomatoes were found to be heat-sensitive.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>These kinetic parameters were necessary to select and design appropriate blanching conditions for black cherry tomatoes on larger scale processing.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1