rss_2.0Hellenic Plant Protection Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Hellenic Plant Protection Journal Plant Protection Journal Feed report of prunus necrotic ringspot virus infecting rose ( spp.) in Lebanon<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) was detected in several rose plants showing symptoms of rose mosaic disease (RMD) in Beqaa valley, Lebanon. PNRSV was found in 29 plants by molecular and serological analyses, while other viruses associated with RMD were absent. Although PNRSV is known to have a wide host range, the present paper reports the first occurrence of PNRSV on rose plants in Lebanon.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and fruit set of the Protected Designation of Origin apple cv. ‘Delicious Pilafa Tripoleos’ depends on insect pollinators<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Insect dependency of apple crop for pollination vary in different cultivars. The cv. ‘Delicious Pilafa Tripoleos’, is a Protected Designation of Origin apple of Greece, which lacks information on self-compatibility and needs for insect pollination for commercial fruit production. Here, the effect of wind, free (wind and insects), honeybee, free with at least one visit from a bumblebee and hand pollination was examined on fruit set and fruit characteristics. Also, the effect of flowering patches as a practice to attract pollinators in the apple orchards, on fruit quality characteristics was studied. A pollinizer apple variety and insect pollinators are necessary for successful pollination of ‘Delicious Pilafa Tripoleos’ since hand pollination with pollen of the same cv., and wind pollination resulted in very low fruit set. Single flower visits by honeybees could give fruit set, however, free pollination with at least one visit of <italic>B. terrestris</italic> resulted in higher fruit set compared to the other pollination treatments. Free pollination resulted in more fruits with higher number of seeds than wind pollination (only one fruit obtained). Apples produced from flowers adjacent to the flowering mixture patches had significantly higher skin firmness and lower total soluble solids at harvest (both desirable traits for ‘Delicious Pilafa Tripoleos’), compared to fruits from trees in naturally occurring groundcover.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of adjuvants on the effectiveness and rainfastness of rimsulfuron in potato<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Adjuvants are used with herbicides to increase their efficacy. In this study, it was demonstrated that the application of 0.1% of the non-ionic surfactant (NIS, Contact) and 0.5 L ha<sup>−1</sup> of a crop oil concentrate (COC, Renol) did not improve the efficacy of rimsulfuron on <italic>Amaranthus retroflexus.</italic> In contrast, the same treatments enhanced performance and rainfastnes of rimsulfuron in <italic>Chenopodium album.</italic> Increasing non-ionic surfactant concentration to 1 L ha<sup>−1</sup> increased rimsulfuron performance around 10-fold for <italic>A. retroflexus</italic> compared to around 3-fold for <italic>C. album.</italic> The same treatment reduced 12-fold the rainfastness of rimsulfuron on <italic>A. retroflexus</italic> while improving 2-fold the rainfastness of rimsulfuron on <italic>C. album</italic>. Measured ED<sub>50</sub> and ED<sub>90</sub> doses of rimsulfuron indicated that the addition of the 0.2 L ha<sup>−1</sup> of NIS improved the recommended (60 g a.i. ha<sub>-1</sub>) and the reduced (30 g a.i. ha<sup>−1</sup>) dose effect of rimsulfurom in potato crop in the field. The highest potato yield was recorded (60 tons per ha) when 60 g ai. ha<sup>−1</sup> of rimsulfuron was applied at three growth stages [leaf development (S1) + vegetatively propagated organs (S4) + development of tuber (S7)] of the crop without using a NIS; not significant differences were measured when the same dose of rimsulfuron was applied at the three (S1, S4, and S7) and two (S1, S4) growth stages with NIS.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue potential insect vectors of and assessment of their importance with a focus on Morocco<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Morocco, the climate conditions are favorable for the establishment and the spread of <italic>Xylella fastidiosa (X.f)</italic>. However, the successful establishment of the bacterium depends on many factors; mainly: bacterial subspecies and sequence type, host plants susceptibility, feeding behavior and transmission efficiency of the insect vectors. Knowledge of the relationship between the bacterium–affected crop agro-ecosystem and potential insect vectors is of crucial importance. In this work, we list the tritrophic interaction <italic>X.f</italic>-host plants-insect vectors that occur worldwide in order to apply it to the current situation in Morocco and for risk analysis on the bacterium in the country. Two most relevant <italic>X.f</italic> subspecies of the bacterium (in terms of impact on crops) were considered, namely, subsp. <italic>fastidiosa</italic> and subsp. <italic>pauca</italic>. Based on the international literature and public databases, the majority of the <italic>X.f</italic>-insect vectors are comprised in two families: Cicadellidae and Aphrophoridae. Among all cicadellid species recorded, a high number had the capacity to transmit <italic>X.f</italic> to hosts in America while this ability is null for other regions (except <italic>Graphocephala versuta</italic> Say (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) recorded in Algeria). In Morocco, none of the cicadellid genera reported worldwide as vectors of <italic>X.f,</italic> have been so far reported, whereas many species of spittlebugs and leafhoppers are present. <italic>Philaenus tesselatus</italic> Melichar (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) is highly abundant in Morocco and could play a role as potential vector in case the bacterium is introduced in the country. With regard to the <italic>X.f</italic> hosts, citrus, olive, almond and grapevine, forest agroecosystems and oleander are considered the main susceptible species present in Morocco.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue data on the scale insect pests of in Greece<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The dioecious gymnosperm self-sown ornamental plant <italic>Ephedra foeminea</italic> Forssk (Ephedraceae: Gnetales) has a special interest due to its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical properties. The present study contributes with data about the phenology of the plant in Attica, Greece, and the complex of its scale insect pests (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha), <italic>Stotzia ephedrae</italic> (Newstead) (Coccidae) (morphology, phenology, biology, natural enemies), <italic>Dynaspidiotus ephedrarum</italic> (Lindinger) (morphology, natural enemies) and <italic>Leucaspis riccae</italic> Targioni Tozzetti (Diaspididae) (natural enemies), based on observations made from April 2021 to June 2023. <italic>Stotzia ephedrae</italic> which was the scale species found in higher numbers on <italic>E. foeminea</italic> is a univoltine, oviparous and biparental species recorded as settled 1<sup>st</sup> instar nymph on the shoots of <italic>E. foeminea</italic> from May to January. The fecundity of the scale fluctuated between 370 and 598 eggs per female. The results on the phenology of <italic>S. ephedrae</italic> contribute to the knowledge of the critical period for the pest control, i.e. from May to January during which the scale remains in the sensitive first instar. In addition, the records of parasitoids and predators in the colonies of the scale insects infesting <italic>E. foeminea</italic> provide information on the available natural enemies for potential use in biological control schemes of these pests.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of nano-silica extracted from two different plant sources on survival and development of (Zeller) larvae<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The study examined the effect of nano-silica extracted from two different plant sources on the survival and development of the potato tuber moth, <italic>Phthorimaea opercullela.</italic> The silica powder was derived from two different agricultural byproducts, olive stones and corncobs. Characterization by X-ray diffraction revealed that the extracted powder has an amorphous silica phase. The nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements revealed that both extracted and treated silica have mesoporous structure, with a specific surface area of around 300 m2/g and 270 m<sup>2</sup>/g for the silica derived from olive stones and corncobs, respectively. The silica nanoparticles (SiO<sub>2</sub> NPs) prepared from the silica derived from olive stοnes showed higher larvae mortality, pupae weight, and larval and pupal developmental time, compared to the silica derived from corncombs. The results show that the nano-silica derived from agriculture byproducts can be as effective as the synthetic insecticide (deltamethrin) utilized in control of the potato tuber moth, with lower environmental impact in terms of preventing pesticide residue accumulation. In addition, the efficiency of SiO2 NPs applications depends on the source of the silica nanoparticles and the applied concentration to achieve the optimum results for the pest control.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue data on the parasitization of (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Greece<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><italic>Signiphora flavella</italic> (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Signiphoridae) was recorded in 2022 as a new parasitoid species of the serious pest of citrus <italic>Aleurothrixus floccosus</italic> (Maskell) in Greece, in two different areas, i.e., the provinces of Laconia and Messinia. Previously, <italic>Signiphora flavella</italic> was recorded in Greece parasitizing <italic>Hemiberlesia rapax</italic> (Comstock) and <italic>H. lataniae</italic> (Signoret) in early 60s. It is mainly a parasitoid species of scale insects belonging to Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha), whiteflies, or a hyperparasitoid of aphelinids.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effect of ethanol extracted oil on and<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The study examined the repellency of <italic>Gardenia jasminoides</italic> ethanol-extracted oil against the German cockroach, <italic>Blattella germanica</italic>, and the pharaoh ant, <italic>Monomorium pharaonis</italic>, which are serious pests in areas of public health hygiene. For the repellency tests, 31.4 μg of the oil was applied per cm<sup>2</sup> on one half of filter paper discs (9 or 15 cm diameter for the ant and cockroach, respectively), whereas the other half was treated as control (DMSO + Tween). Repellency effects were observed 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after the insect release. The oil showed high repellency against all life stages of cockroaches and worker ants. The maximum repellency was observed for the cockroach adults (81.7 ± 3.1%) followed by the fourth, third and second nymphal stages (76.7 ± 4.2, 75.0 ± 3.4, and 56.7 ± 8.4%, respectively), after 1h exposure. The repellence effect was strong against worker ants (78.3 ± 4.8%) after 1 h exposure. The repellence effect can last at least four hours for both species. Analysis of <italic>Gardenia</italic> oil with Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 14 major chemical components.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and histopathological changes of as a predatory fish against larvae following exposure to sublethal concentration of quinclorac and bensulfuron-methyl based herbicide<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><italic>Clarias gariepinus</italic> is one of the widespread culturable freshwater fish species in Africa, which is prevalent in various natural and human-made aquatic habitats including rice-fish system. This fish species displays predation potential on the aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Bensulfuron-methyl and quinclorac are herbicide active substances that have been extensively applied in rice culture in Egypt and other countries worldwide. This study assessed the adverse effects of sublethal concentration of a commercial herbicide formulation containing quinclorac and bensulfuron-methyl on the predation potential of <italic>C. gariepinus</italic> female and male predatory fish on <italic>Culex pipiens</italic> mosquito larvae. Also, stomach and intestine histopathology of the treated fish was investigated. The exposure of <italic>C. gariepinus</italic> to sublethal concentration of quinclorac and bensulfuron-methyl based herbicide produced detrimental effects on prey consumption and histopathological changes in the stomach and intestine of the fish. The mosquito consumption by the treated female and male fish decreased significantly compared to the untreated fish of both sexes. The histological changes in the intestines were hyperplasia of the intestinal epithelium and goblet cells; edema of lamina propria and broad intestinal villi, and distortion in intestinal villi in comparison to control. The stomach histopathology changes were necrosis and sloughing of mucosal epithelium with severe damage of sub-mucosa. Thus, the tested herbicide at sublethal concentration on <italic>C. gariepinus</italic> decreased the prey consumption on mosquito larvae and caused histopathological alterations in the fish that may impair its digestive physiology. These findings suggest a threat of the tested herbicide to <italic>C. gariepinus</italic> survival and potential as a native successful biocontrol agent against <italic>Cx. pipiens</italic> larvae.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of exogenous abscisic acid on antioxidant system of salt tolerant and salt sensitive cotton cultivars<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Salinity is one of the most imperative global problems that affect crop productivity on a large scale. Salinity impairs plant growth and development by imposing various stresses. Therefore it is vital to decode those stress factors and identify possible solutions to improve agriculture productivity. However, the adaptive mechanisms under saline conditions of glycophytes have not been studied. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) on salinity tolerance in cotton plants. Some patterns of resistance development were revealed on the seedlings of two cotton cultivars, a salt-tolerant (Gulistan) and a salt-sensitive one (C-4727). Moreover, the antioxidant potentials of these cultivars were compared. The activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), super-oxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the quantity of endogenous ABA, malondialdehyde (MDA), and free proline (Pro) were determined in control and post treatment. Our results demonstrate significant differences between the salt- tolerant and sensitive cotton seedlings in response to saline stress, i.e., high levels of Pro and endogenous ABA, but lower MDA concentrations, and higher activity of APX and SOD for the salt-tolerant cultivar, Gulistan, as compared to the salt stress-sensitive cultivar C-4727.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of imidacloprid, acetamiprid and methomyl in qat leaves<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Qat leaves are chewed on a daily basis by approximately 10 million inhabitants of different countries. This study investigated the persistence of three insecticides most used in qat production, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and methomyl. These chemicals were applied separately on plots of ten qat trees each at the recommended application rates. Samples of qat leaves were collected separately at time 0 (1 h post-treatment) and 1, 3, 7, 12, 19, 26 and 37 days after application. The residues of the investigated pesticides were extracted and then quantified by liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS). The half-lives of imidacloprid, acetamiprid and methomyl were 12.2, 11.7, and 5.1 days, respectively. Overall, our findings showed that imidacloprid and acetamiprid were more persistent than methomyl in qat leaves. Taking into account the maximum residue limits (MRL) in lettuce, due to lack of MRL in qat leaves, the residue concentrations were below MRL for imidacloprid 7 days after application, and 1 day after application for acetamiprid and methomyl.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue update on the occurrence of resistance-breaking populations of root-knot nematodes ( spp.) on resistant tomato in Greece with six new records from Crete<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The available published information on the occurrence of resistance-breaking populations of root-knot nematodes (<italic>Meloidogyne</italic> spp.) on resistant tomato in Greece is updated. Within the period 1994-2013, 13 populations (11 <italic>M. javanica</italic> and 2 <italic>M. incognita</italic>) able to reproduce on resistant tomato had been recorded in the regions of Crete, Epirus, Thrace, Peloponissos and Macedonia. In the present study six more resistance-breaking populations, four <italic>M. javanica</italic> and two <italic>M. incognita</italic>, were detected in the period 2013-2014, all originating from greenhouse vegetables in Crete. Four of these populations, two <italic>M. javanica</italic> and two <italic>M. incognita</italic>, originated from the region of Ierapetra. This is the first time that such populations are found in this major area of greenhouse vegetable production of Crete.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of (Lep.: Pyralidae), a potential biological control agent of (Fabaceae) in central Iran<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p><italic>Prosopis farcta</italic> (Fabaceae) is a native and common perennial weed plant in Iran. In search of environmental-friendly control methods against <italic>P. farcta,</italic> we discovered the seed feeder moth <italic>Nephopterygia austeritella</italic> (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae) in central Iran and studied its bioecology for the first time from 2008 through 2009. Infestation pattern, larval feeding behaviour, developmental period, seasonal occurrence and the adverse impact of the moth on the reproductive organs of <italic>P. farcta</italic> were investigated. Diagnostic morphological characters of the fifth larval instar of <italic>N. austeritella</italic> are provided. Two gregarious ectoparasitoids were reared and identified as <italic>Apanteles subcamilla</italic> and <italic>Phanerotoma leucobasis</italic> (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Mortality rates of the larvae were 3.03 and 13.44% in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Larvae destroyed 29.6-38.4% of the pods of their host plants. The potential of <italic>N. austeritella</italic> as an efficient biological control agent in IPM programs against <italic>P. farcta</italic> is discussed.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue effect of on (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p><italic>Fusarium subglutinans</italic> (Ascomycota: Nectriaceae) is known to have lethal effects on aphid species, while there are limited studies associated with other arthropods. In this study, the effect of different spore concentrations (1×10<sup>4</sup>, 1×10<sup>6</sup> and 1×10<sup>8</sup> spores/ml) of <italic>F. subglutinans</italic> 12A, isolated from <italic>Aphis gossypii</italic> in Adana-Karataş (Turkey), was investigated on <italic>Frankliniella occidentalis</italic> (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) females and on 2<sup>nd</sup> instar nymphs (only 1×10<sup>6</sup> spores/ml). The application method was by dipping and observations on mortality of females were conducted 24, 48, 72, 96 hours and 7 and 9 days after application. Mycosis was also observed on dead individulas. Mortality of nymphs was recorded during 8 days after application. Higher average dead females were found in the treatments compared to the control, but there was not significant difference between the tested concentrations (Mycosis rate recorded in 1×10<sup>6</sup> spores/ml was higher than those in 1×10<sup>4</sup> and 1×10<sup>8</sup> spores/ml). The highest and lowest mycosis rates were observed on the 7<sup>th</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> day, respectively. Average number of dead 2<sup>nd</sup> instar nymphs recorded in 1×10<sup>6</sup> spores/ml did not differ from control.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the first-stage juveniles of and - Distribution of and species in olive orchards and grapevines in Crete, Greece<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The occurrence of nematodes of the family Longidoridae was investigated in soil samples collected from cultivated and wild olives and grapevines in Crete. The first-stage juveniles of <italic>Xiphinema cretense</italic> and <italic>X. herakliense</italic> are described for the first time. The species <italic>X. israeliae</italic>, <italic>X. cretense</italic>, <italic>X. herakliense</italic> and <italic>Longidorus pseudoelongatus</italic>, previously recorded exclusively from olives in Crete, are herein reported in the rhizosphere of grapevines. Also <italic>L. iranicus</italic> is reported for the first time in cultivated olive, while <italic>X. italiae</italic> and <italic>L. closelongatus</italic> are reported for the first time in wild olive in Crete. Data on the occurrence of phytoparasitic nematode species in cultivated olives, wild olives and grapevines are updated with those previously published.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue role of silicon (Si) in increasing plant resistance against fungal diseases<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The use of silicon (Si) in agriculture has attracted a great deal of interest from researchers because of the numerous benefits of this element to plants. The use of silicon has decreased the intensity of several diseases in crops of great economic importance. In this study, the relationship between silicon nutrition and fungal disease development in plants was reviewed. The current review underlines the agricultural importance of silicon in crops, the potential for controlling fungal plant pathogens by silicon treatment, the different mechanisms of silicon-enhanced resistance, and the inhibitory effects of silicon on plant pathogenic fungi <italic>in vitro</italic>. By combining the data presented in this paper, a better comprehension of the relationship between silicon treatments, increasing plant resistance, and decreasing severity of fungal diseases could be achieved.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue and CHA0 against in the rhizosphere of tomato plants<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Root-knot nematodes are among the most important pests that reduce tomato yield in greenhouses and fields in Iran. The scope of this research was to evaluate the antagonistic effect of <italic>Trichoderma viride</italic> and <italic>Pseudomonas fluorescens</italic> CHA0 on the reproduction and galling rate of <italic>Meloidogyne javanica</italic> in tomato roots. A pot experiment was conducted on seedlings of tomato cultivars Bony best, Falat, Mobile and Walter grown in sterilized sandy loam soil. Inocula used for artificial inoculation were 3 J<sub>2</sub>/g of soil for the nematode, 1×10<sup>6</sup> spores/ml for the fungus and 1×10<sup>9</sup> cfu/ml for the bacterium. The nematicide RUGBY<sup>®</sup> 10 G (cadusafos) was used as a reference product at 2g per each pot. Two months after inoculation, the number of knots and egg masses per root in the treatments were (with descending order): control (nematode), nematode+bacterium, nematode+fungus, nematode+fungus+bacterium and nematode+nematicide. The combination fungus+bacterium enhanced the biocontrol effect against <italic>M. javanica</italic> activity as compared to the fungus and bacterium stand-alone treatments except for the cases of the cultivars Mobile and Bonny best in which the effect was similar to the one by the fungus alone. The <italic>fungus + bacterium</italic> combined treatment was equally effective to the nematicide treatment for all cultivars. The highest and lowest rate of nematode activity was observed in Walter and Mobile cultivars, respectively.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue report of the nematodes and on faba bean in Iran<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>During a survey in Iran, two known species of plant-parasitic nematodes of the families Tylenchidae and Criconematidae were reported for the first time. The morphological and morphometric characters of Iranian populations of the two recovered species are discussed and illustrated based on morphological and morphometrics data. Iranian population of <italic>Filenchus orientalis</italic> is characterized by having a 601-755μm body length, stylet length of 9.0-11.3 μm, lateral field with four incisures, tail length of 100-118 μm and males with 15-21 μm long spicules. <italic>Hemicriconemoides californianus</italic> population is characterized by having a body length of 430-550μm, lip region with two annuli, stylet length of 75-83μm and tail length of 20-28 μm. The morphological and morphometric characters of both species are in agreement with those in original descriptions.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of salicylic acid, CHA0 and to control race 2 on different tomato cultivars<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The effects of salicylic acid (SA), <italic>Trichoderma viride</italic> and <italic>Pseudomonas fluorescens</italic> CHA0 were studied on the root-knot nematode <italic>Meloidogyne incognita</italic> race 2 in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars (Gina VF, Falat CH, Falat 111, Karoon) during 2012-2013. Four-leaf tomato seedlings were used, grown in pots containing 1000 g of sterilized soil; each seedling receiving 20 ml of <italic>T. viride</italic> suspension containing 1×10<sup>6</sup> spores, 30 ml of <italic>P. fluorescens</italic> CHA0 with 10<sup>9</sup> cfu/ml, 5mM of salicylic acid and 2000 second stage nematode juveniles. Parameters relevant to nematode population and plant growth were evaluated. The biocontrol agents and salicylic acid were effective in nematode control in combined and single treatments. High reductions in root galling and egg mass indices were observed with combination of SA and biocontrol agents. The greatest increase in plant growth was obtained when cv. Falat CH was treated with SA followed by <italic>P. fluorescens</italic> CHA0 and <italic>T. viride</italic>. The highest number of galls was recorded in cv. Karoon, followed by cvs. Falat 111, Gina VF and Falat CH. <italic>Pseudomonas fluorescens</italic> CHA0 provoked the highest increase in fresh and dry root weight, fresh and dry shoot weight and plant length in all free nematode treatments. The results indicated that chemical inducer (salicylic acid), in combination with biocontrol agents (<italic>T. viride</italic> and <italic>P. fluorescens</italic> CHA0), stimulated and eventually increased plant growth.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue motility in plant-associated bacteria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Plant-associated environments harbor a huge number of diverse bacteria that compete and/or cooperate for the occupation of the most nutrient-rich ecological niches. Motility, a common trait among bacteria, has long been assumed to provide a survival advantage to skilful bacteria in invading these environments. Bacterial surface motility, such as swarming, a flagella-driven type of surface movement, although mostly observed and studied on agar substrates, is emerging as a major trait involved in many functions of plant-associated bacteria in regard to their ability to colonize and spread on their host. In this review, we address some novel swarming motility strategies, which enable bacteria to colonize, disperse and compete in plant surfaces.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue