rss_2.0Hungarian Studies Yearbook FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Hungarian Studies Yearbook Studies Yearbook 's Cover the enregisterment of Szekler. Communicational stereotypes recreated in the sketch by Open Stage<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article aims at unfolding the key linguistic aspects of nowadays’ stereotypical Szekler-representations through a case study on a satirical representation of regional communicative practices in the locally well-known sketch <italic>Úgy-e, Magdi?</italic> (‘Right, Magdi?’) by Open Stage. The research is mainly centred around the concept of enregisterment, thus the work is meant to be a contribution to the scarce literature on the enregisterment of Szekler (and Hungarian dialects in general) and on regional communicative practices. After providing a brief overview of the key areas and aspects along which the Szekler dialect has been enregistered so far in public discourse and in linguistics, the article tries to capture the main attributes which create the authentic Szekler voice for Hungarian speakers through analyzing the plot, the characterological figures and the linguistic repertoire conveyed by the sketch, as well as the online reactions to it given by viewers. Besides examining the most prominent phonological/phonetic, lexical and grammatical phenomena construed as characteristic to Szekler, the article also touches upon some regional conversational features depicted through stylization by the sketch.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Components of Belonging in Two Finno-Ugric Minority Literatures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The topics of the present research are, in a larger sense, two multilingual and multicultural regions: the Tornio Valley in Northern Scandinavia and Transylvania in Eastern Europe. In a narrower sense, I am analysing two novels written in minority languages, a Transylvanian Hungarian novel written by Károly Molter, entitled <italic>Tibold Márton</italic> and a novel written in Meänkieli by Bengt Pohjanen, <italic>Jopparikuninkhaan poika</italic> (The Smuggler King’s Son). I attempt to answer two main research questions: 1. How is the belonging of the two main characters to a different language and ethnic group presented in the analysed Hungarian and Meänkieli novels? 2. How can the borders between “us” and “them” be constructed through inclusion and exclusion and how can they be crossed at the individual level? I will thus concentrate on some aspects of the narratives of inclusion and exclusion, as represented in the above-mentioned novels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Cultural regionalism in Hungarian context<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As an introduction to the thematic issue of <italic>Hungarian Studies Yearbook</italic>, dedicated to <italic>Regionalism in culture – cultural regionalism</italic>, the article offers an overview of current research interests in the field. Within the domain of Hungarian studies, regional approaches and the idea of cultural areas as an important frame for cultural analysis and comparison was present in research work from the 19<sup>th</sup> century. After a general introduction, the article presents the current methodological approaches to regionalism studies and the main topics debated in the fields of literary studies, linguistics, and cultural anthropology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Four major literary code-switching strategies in Hungarian literature. Decoding monolingualism<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The field of literary multilingualism has quickly grown over the last decades. Multiple studies have examined the way linguistic diversity manifests itself in literature by focusing on specific strategies such as code-switching, code-mixing, code-shifting, hybridization, etc. However, the current understanding of multilingual practices is still dominated by a remarkable terminological inconsistency. In this article, we provide a new theoretical framework called ‘literary code-switching’ (Domokos 2018–2020), that can be used to examine most literary multilingual practices – from the most hidden or latent to the more manifest ones. This formulation, which is scaled into degrees from 0 to 5, will be applied to some key examples taken from the works of Imre Madách, Mihály Tompa, Imre Oravecz, Attila Jász, Ferenc Karinthy, Terézia Mora and Anne Tardos. The aim of picking up these heuristic examples from Hungarian literature is to point towards the necessity of investigating literature more systematically according to its hidden and manifest linguistic diversity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Writing for the Family Audience<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Családi Kör</italic> (1860–1880) was the leading Hungarian domestic magazine of the mid-19th period, which, under the editorship of the first Hungarian woman of letters Emília Kánya, played a major role in introducing the domestic readership to contemporary European literature and in discussing the struggle of women’s employment opportunities before a wider public. Critical studies have also suggested that it was edited and published under the influence of the German <italic>Gartenlaube</italic> (1853–1944), the journal credited with embedding the journal of domestic magazine in the broader regime of 19th century print culture. Based on a close reading of the two magazines’ coverage in its European cultural historical context, this chapter offers an account of the possible connections and affinities between the two periodicals, and argues that the Hungarian magazine was significantly more daring in its politics and more systematic in its pursuit of introducing the local audience to European literary trends and works.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Geographical Distribution of the Traditional Dance Culture in Mezőség<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The exact definition of the Mezőség/Câmpia Transilvaniei/Transylvanian Plain, hereafter Plain, as a region with an independent folk culture having a coherent internal structure is still a subject of debate among ethnographers. Some of them regard certain small regions (Borsa/Borșa Valley, Kis and Nagy Szamos/Someșul Mic și Someșul Mare etc.) as belonging to the Mezőség/Plain, while others do not. I distinguish a central group of the villages in the Mezőség/Plain region (Belső-Mezőség or Central Plain: e.g. Visa/Vișea, Magyarpalatka<bold>/</bold>Pălatca, Katona/Cătina, Pusztakamarás/Cămăraşu) from the rest of the territory, similarly to György Martin, István Pávai and László Barabás, relying on material culture and folklore research, as well as my own investigations. When advancing outward from this core area, the concentric circle of so-called peripheral areas follow (the West, North, East and South Plain/Mezőség), reaching the boundaries on the edges of the region: Nagy Szamos/Someșul Mare Valley, Lápos/Lăpuș Valley, Sajó/Șieu Valley, Maros/Mureş Valley, Marosszéki<sup>1</sup> Mezőség/Mureș Seat Plain, Erdőalja/Sub Pădure area, Borsa/Borșa Valley, and Kis Szamos/Someșul Mic Valley. A further, smaller group of villages can be distinguished in the area of Belső-Mezőség/Central Plain by their dance and music culture; for the regular weekend dance events of these villages, organised by local youths in the 1960s, Roma musicians of Magyarpalatka/Pălatca would play the music. I assign the name <bold>Palatka dance district</bold> to this area in my paper.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Difficulties in Reading Comprehension of Hungarian Primary School Students in Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Our study aimed to assess the level of reading comprehension, one of the cornerstones of education of the Hungarian minority in Slovakia, and to answer the research question of what kind of deficits need to be addressed in the development of reading comprehension. The research was conducted with the participation of students from primary schools with Hungarian as the language of instruction in Slovakia. In our study, we shed light on the problems found in cognitive reasoning, accurate interpretation of information and complex reading comprehension. The extent to which the development of new cognitive schemata caused problems for the studied groups was also investigated. In several cases, the responses were not based on textual information, but only on the respondents’ existing schemas. The results also show that it was a problem for the learners to answer both the multiple-choice questions and the open-ended and explanatory questions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-23T00:00:00.000+00:00A Missed Opportunity? Transylvania as a Virtual Central Europe<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article focuses on the analysis of the ideas of Aladár Kuncz, a writer, literary critic and editor who defined Transylvanian Hungarian literature after 1918 in a European context. The concept of Transylvanism is discussed through the debates of the interwar period, and is situated within the context of Hungarian literary modernism. In the light of the Transylvanian literary ideas of the 1920s and 1930s, minority / regional literatures would have been directly related to a new concept of European and world literature beyond national literatures, along a line of thought that acknowledged the deterministic character of regionalism, and prioritized it also at the level of cultural memory, considering it to be primary over linguistic, national, and the changing geographical boundaries. These endeavours sought to revive an emphatic idea of Central Europe with its strict ideals of quality besides strong local, decentralized, yet transnational aspirations, while making them compatible with the preservation of linguistic and cultural ties with the three traditional Transylvanian nations. The article also discusses the reasons why, in the midst of the 1930s, facing political restrictions, the literary form of Transylvanism became outdated in the eye of the younger generations of the Hungarian community.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Living on the both sides of an invisible border – the impacts of Covid-19 in the Tornio River Valley<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In her article “Living on the both sides of an invisible border – the impacts of Covid-19 in the Tornio River Valley” Helena Ruotsala discusses what impacts the Covid-19 had in the cross-border region between Finland and Sweden. She uses concepts of transnationalism and multilocality when studying local everyday life. The area is divided by a national border, which has been invisible until March 2020, but when Covid-19 spread over the nations, Finland and Sweden, the border became visible and was marked by a riot fence. The effects of Covid-19 and closing the border from the point of view of local inhabitants are discussed in this article.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Do Verbal Meanings Have a Radial Organization?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents a cognitive-functional analysis of two Hungarian verbs, <italic>eszik</italic> ‘eat’ and <italic>táplál</italic> ‘feed’, with the aim of providing a sample for an exhaustive semantic description of verbal polysemy and of relations between verbal meanings.</p> <p>The hypothesis of the study was that a radial category description of the internal semantic structure of both verbs is possible. The assumption, however, was not confirmed by the analysis; not all meanings of the verb <italic>eszik</italic> ‘eat’ can be described as deriving from the prototypical eating situation. Some show cases of conceptual blending, while others have a source domain other than the prototypical eating situation. Nonetheless, many figurative meanings seem to be the result of metaphorical meaning shift trigged by common components we experience in the prototypical eating situation and other perceptions. These common components show resemblance on a schematic base.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The glocal as scale and provocation in Hungarian Studies<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This introduction reconstructs the arguments of the editors and contributors of a thematic cluster of the Hungarian Studies Yearbook that focuses on the possible methodological uses of the glocal both as a scale and as a methodological challenge for contemporary Hungarian studies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Will to Language, Culture, and Power. Dániel Berzsenyi and his Martial Poetry<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In his article “Will to Language, Culture, and Power” Gábor Vaderna investigates different discourses of violence in early 19<sup>th</sup>-century Hungary. According to Norbert Elias, violence has not disappeared from modern society but the individual has transferred the institution, opportunity, and protocols of violence to the state. There are also aesthetic consequences of this process. The question is whether institutionalized violence was a tool of power to stabilize modern societies or rather it was in fact a threat to aesthetic beauty. From the analysis of a poem by the Hungarian poet, Dániel Berzsenyi (1776–1832), written in wartime, Vaderna concludes that the Central European noble classes perceived a tension between the eternal virtue and real history. The exercise of power, the possession of violence and the nation-building potential of culture were closely intertwined in their political language.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The Sovietization of Creative Writing in Romania. The Role of the Mihai Eminescu School of Literature and Literary Criticism (1950–1955)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Within the paradigm of socialist realism, one of the means of introducing new models of producing literature in Romania and other neighbouring countries was the Soviet idea and practice of literary training. In the Romanian context, the Mihai Eminescu School of Literature and Literary Criticism from Bucharest was intended to produce the new, young generation of writers that would articulate the new system of values. Reports about the School show that the social origin of the students was carefully monitorized, and ethnic diversity also played a role in the process of the sovietization of the whole Romanian literary field. The personal level of experiencing the cultural and political practice of the School shows the possibilities and also the limitations of the project. The paper examines the history of the School through official party documents and also personal accounts, in order to analyze the particular strategies and also the difficulties of adapting certain Soviet institutional models within the Romanian context.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Two Relative Contact Phenomena in the Language use of Hungarians in Transylvania<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper discusses two peculiarities of language use generally taken to be relative contact phenomena in case of Hungarian in bilingual, non-dominant context: the preference of analytical linguistic variants and non-standard plural forms. The data come from two sociolinguistic surveys conducted in Transylvania (in 1996 and 2009). The surveys were carried out with the participation of a representative sample of speakers. The 1996 survey was conducted with a quota sample (N = 216 in Romania and N = 107 in Hungary) and the 2009 sample with a representative sample (N = 4058 in Romania). The hypothesis that Romanian-dominant bilingual speakers tend to exhibit relative contact phenomena to a larger extent was supported with respect to these two issues. The results show that the occurrence of these phenomena is determined both by the language competence of the dominant language and by the regional characteristics of the bilingualism. The results confirm the possibility that the spoken-language properties under discussion are relative contact phenomena.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Practices of Colonization in Regional Literary Histories<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The discourses on 20th century Eastern European regional literatures are predominantly determined by the use of terminology and interrelationships of national and ethnic literatures, which originated in social and state organizational embeddedness. Besides, the majority–minority relation is significantly present in the discourse on these literatures, with this relation representing a – sometimes implicit, sometimes explicit – approach of colonization. If ethnic (or minority) literatures are not only examined as opposed to national (or majority) literatures, it might occur that ethnic literatures themselves often resorted to practices of colonization when describing the literary context. This paper aims at examining the processes of literary history writing of German and Hungarian literatures from Romania, and by looking at them from a transnational perspective, identifying the in-between space where the mutually oppressive spatial practices are eliminated.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Loanwords and Expressions Denoting Hues in Old Hungarian<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The study presents loanwords and expressions referring to hues in the old Hungarian language. It relays mostly on data collected from the <italic>Historical Dictionary of Hungarian Language from Transylvania</italic> (SzT.), and it also uses data from the <italic>Hungarian Etymological Dictionary</italic> (TESz.). A number of studies have been written about the Hungarian colour terms presenting usage and distribution, yet only few of them dealt with their etymology and their historical usage. The present paper focuses on the etymology of terms denoting hues, and aims to present reasons for naming and using these loan colour terms. The study investigates whether these terms appearing in old Transylvanian texts were loanwords, loan expressions or they were simply used as a result of linguistic interference.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The Glocality of the Acta Comparationis Litterarum. Local Interpretations of Educational Freedom, Coercive Innovation and Comparative Literature<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><italic>The Present Tasks of Comparative Literature</italic> (<italic>Vorläufige Aufgaben der Vergleichenden Litteratur</italic>) is the most often-cited essay of the first international journal of comparative literature, the ActaComparationis Litterarum Universarum. The article proposes a revision of the generally established explanations of this pioneering text, and traces back the microcultural genealogy of the idea of freedom and autonomy associated with the emerging modern discipline of comparative literature in the essay. In this new intellectual framework both the essay and its broad horizon are interpreted as a glocal interplay of recycled and enthrallingly reinvented transnational ideas.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00“DO YOU WANT TO BE KRAMPUS?” Santa Claus, globality and locality of Christmas tradition<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this paper the author argues that the Christmas holidays, notwithstanding their international standing as a religious and commercial season, are most productively understood as a <italic>glocal</italic> phenomena, a concept intended to link the local with the global in a dialectics of homogenization and particularism. Juxtaposing data from Hungary and Eastern Europe, the author provides an anthropological analysis that highlights the transformative power Christmas traditions and Santa Claus have played in diverse cultural settings since the late twentieth-century. For even the imposition of communist ideology, conceived as a globalizing force, failed to eradicate images of Santa Claus; both his persona and that of his devilish imp, Krampus, survived such ruthless attempts at indoctrination with only the slightest of modifications. In view of its economic and cultural significance, this paper argues in favor of international recognition of Saint Nicholas day, December 6<sup>th,</sup> as a glocal civil holiday.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Reinventing Linguistic Ethnographic Fieldwork During the COVID-19 Pandemic<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Our paper discusses the methodological implications of an ethnographic linguistic research project in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020. Starting from pertinent definitions of linguistic ethnography and interpretations of the field, we offer a demonstration of the process in which this particular participatory research project was faced with the fact that the field became unavailable and inaccessible for the non-local participants. We argue that moving the research online in this case does not mean a shift to “virtual ethnography” (Hine) or “digital ethnography” (Varis), but provides an example for the research site as an emerging construct which adds to the complexities of ethnographic research.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Digital Genealogy<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper demonstrates how methods of digital genealogy can be used to trace personal histories in innovative ways to uncover potentially significant details of settlement history where information in historical sources is scarce. It uses the example of a mid-18th century Roman Catholic settler and his family in Szentes, a small town on the Great Hungarian Plain, at a time when mass migration into this region was happening from overpopulated regions of the Kingdom of Hungary. Records of the settlement history of the town are meagre at best, but this important aspect of social history can be supplemented through meticulous research into the Family Search genealogy database.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1