rss_2.0Hungarian Studies Yearbook FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Hungarian Studies Yearbook Studies Yearbook Feed – Republishing – Distribution<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Contemporary press networks played a significant role in shaping the literary career-building strategies of Hungarian writers at the fin-de-siècle. Several of these writers served as journalists or maintained ties with numerous newspapers concurrently. The networks involved in the publication of an author’s text reveal valuable information on the operations of the literary institution (the literary establishment) during the era, particularly in the careers of relatively unknown authors like László Cholnoky. During the early years of his career, Cholnoky’s strategies diverged from those of his contemporaries in several ways: he refrained from publishing his first volume for an extended period, withdrew from publishing intermittently, and revised his work more frequently than others. This paper will investigate the publication networks Cholnoky utilised between the years 1900 and 1914, shedding light on the unique aspects of publishing and networking relevant in three periods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue between language, environment and identity in the poems of the Csángó Demeter Lakatos and the Kven Alf Nilsen-Børsskog<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this study is to make a comparative analysis of the interconnections between language, environment and identity from an ecolinguistic point of view. It is meant to analyse the attachment of two Finno-Ugric poets, Demeter Lakatos and Alf Nilsen-Børsskog to their own cultural and natural environment.</p> <p>Demeter Lakatos was a Csángó folk poet, who consciously adopted the local, popular dialect to express his loyalty to his ancestry, to his roots that lay in the Moldavian Csángó identity. Alf Nilsen-Børsskog was the first writer and poet who wrote in Kven. His literary work has been of great significance in the context of the cultural emancipation of his ethnic minority and the revitalization of their language.</p> <p>The main things that keep together a minority community – especially an endangered community – are basically language, faith, and certain characteristics of their own local natural surroundings (including the place where – for one reason or another – they had to flee from). This can be practically anything: a mountain, a river, even a tree. And whatever it is, it has a special, almost sacred place in the hearts of the members of the community.</p> <p>I have chosen these two poets because their poetry has not been much analysed and also because both belong to Finno-Ugric minorities whose languages are highly endangered, and this fact marks their attitude towards their environment.</p> <p>This study follows a qualitative approach through discourse analysis, and the source of data are the volumes of poems written by Demeter Lakatos and Alf Nilsen- Børsskog.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue subjects. The myth of the Middle Class and the imaginary of Cluj IT<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Romanian IT professionals are marketized as young, highly skilled, and full of potential individuals. However, there is a contradiction in their image. In the discourse of international outsourcing, they are presented as cheap labour, while on the national and local level they are considered high earners. Under the privilege of income tax exemption, the IT sector is continuously growing and attracting labour, providing well-paying entry-level jobs and bringing in foreign capital. At the same time, on a symbolic level, it also developed a reputation as a facilitator of social ascension and of importer of European ideas. In this paper I aim to examine what drives people towards professional reorientation to IT. How is the idea of the middle class being used? What is the imaginary that makes people take on the risky and arduous road of re-professionalization and what are its consequences?</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Ecosophies and Ecorhythmology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present paper compares the author’s original proposal called ecorhythmology with contemporary ecophilosophies. After briefly outlining the background and results of more than two decades of research, it examines the seminal theses of Object Oriented Ontology (Graham Harman), Action Network Theory (Bruno Latour) and the concept of <italic>being ecological</italic> (Timothy Morton) from an ecorhythmological perspective. Taking stock of interesting similarities and correspondences, this analysis also raises new questions, to which the author proposes different solutions. The paper presents two critiques of the reductionism of string theory and compares Harman’s theory of metaphor with the concept of art based on gestural resonance. Further investigations connect Latour’s redistribution of agency to the intersubjective relationship between the human and non-human, and relate hybridity to proximity. In the second part of the paper, Morton’s different temporalities are juxtaposed with rhythmic dimensions, and finally, the article makes a difference between the casual, political and ethical approaches to the phenomenon of tuning. The stakes are always learning and relearning what kind of contact making can lead to greater peace in difficult human – non-human coexistence.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue is no Other Air Here, we are Alive With the Air of the Paltinsky Meadow…”<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The focus of this paper is an ecocritical examination of Ádám Bodor’s <italic>The Birds of Verhovina</italic>. The study begins with an introduction to Hubert Zapf ’s theory of sustainable texts and the ecocritical concept of Greg Garrard’s Ecocriticism, and concludes with an interpretation of the chosen work along ecocritical tropes. The paper starts from the premise that Ádám Bodor’s work employs the rhetoric of ecocriticism, thereby closely linking literature to a wider web of discourses on nature and the environment. The hypothesis of the study is that the relationship between human and nature, nature and culture, and power and the individual are emphasised in the work. The inhabitants of Verhovina live in harmony with nature; wild and untamed nature not only provides the community with raw materials, but also creeps into the consciousness of the characters, determining their behaviour, their attitudes towards each other, as well as their way of thinking about life. However, the various signs of this shift of power suggest that a rupture has occurred in the hitherto harmonious relationship between the community and nature, the individual and nature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue historical films as collective memory-work in Eastern Europe: from Polish to Romanian and Hungarian<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Historical film – a film genre supported in the Cold War era – has re-emerged in the 21<sup>st</sup> century in Eastern European cinemas, its success signalled by popularity, dedicated state financing funds or political support. This article frames the phenomenon within the Assmannian model of three communicative generations, suggested to be interlinked on the level of both the creative staff and the audience of Eastern European historical films. Based on box-office data of the Lumiere Database of the European Audiovisual Observatory, and research referring to further elements of canonization, it is argued that titles such as Polish <italic>Katyn</italic> (2007), Romanian <italic>Aferim!</italic> (2015) or Hungarian <italic>Bet on Revenge</italic> (2016) – the first majority production historical films to achieve significant audience, and, consequently, critical success in their domestic markets in the 21<sup>st</sup> century – signal a successful collective memory-work process. While in the major Polish market this may be inscribed within the three communicative generations of the victims, the forgetters and the mourners doing memory-work – possibly processing collective traumatization too –, the two small national examples fall outside the validity of the Assmannian model. In order to somewhat refine this apparent opposition between 21<sup>st</sup> century Eastern European major and small national collective memory-work through historical films, further examples from the Polish, Hungarian and Romanian top lists are examined. Poetic-medial features – the actualization of “trauma narratives” (Alexander 2012) or of postmodern irony, the employment of cinematic and/or televisual visuality – seem to facilitate collective memory-work differently for major and small national domestic audiences, activating or not their belonging to the three communicative generations with respect to the historical events represented in the films.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue is Possible to Work with Them and Develop such a Mutually Good Relationship…”<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, I examine the complex intertwining of the relationship between man and nature through the activities of a typical group of farmers dominated by urban-rural farmers, the artisan cheese makers of Hungary. I focus on a specific issue, raw milk cheese making, where humans and microbes work together on a daily basis to produce a sellable product. In this context, I will describe how the complex, hybrid nature of the knowledge required for this process of cheese making is produced, and then review the different narratives of Hungarian cheesemakers about the method. I will then show how this method and the particular perspective it entails affects the daily practice of farming, and how working with invisible microbes transforms the fundamental way these farmers think about the relationship between humans and non-human actors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue “Giant Role Model”: the “Serbian” Petőfi<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The reception of Sándor Petőfi’s poems and the critical discourse on them in German by bilingual German poets and publicists in Hungary began during the poet’s lifetime and ran parallel to the development of his career. In the same period, however, from the mid-1840s, a very intense interest in his person and his poetry, which was even deeper and more diverse than in German, was awakened in southern Slavic, especially Serbian, literature. This paper explores the possible reasons for his integration in Serbian poetry and public poetry. Among the most important factors is the fact that in the 18th and 19th centuries, strong centres of Serbian culture developed in Hungary, including Buda, and that in the northern part of present-day Serbia, in Vojvodina, the population had for centuries been of mixed nationality, including Serbs, Hungarians and Germans. As a result, a large part of the Serbian intelligentsia spoke Hungarian, and many of the Hungarians in Vojvodina had spoken Serbian since the last century, so they could read each other’s literature in the original. Petőfi’s poetry, like much of 19th century Hungarian literature, was translated by renowned authors, sometimes of European quality, and his poetry was an inspiration for Serbian Romanticism in terms of form, theme and poetics (Jovan Jovanović Zmaj, Đura Jakšić). Finally, it is worth mentioning the historical circumstances, the fact that, although the two peoples were on opposite political sides in the Hungarian War of Independence of 1848 and several times later, Petőfi’s figure transcended political differences and his reception remained unbroken even in the most difficult periods. The belief that Petőfi, who originally went by the name Petrovics, was of Serbian origin – a belief that is difficult to verify biographically – and which dates back to Petőfi’s own time, has contributed to this. The layers and trends in the history of Petőfi’s reception in Serbia also shed light on the mechanisms of intellectual relations in the common cultural space of the peoples of Central and Eastern Europe and the Western Balkans.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Oleander Bush at Delphi, The Minotaur in the Bullring<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study treats literature as a reflection of cultural memory and explores how literature mediates between mythical and cultural relations to the natural world. The paper aims to promote interdisciplinary dialogue between cultural memory, ecocriticism, and literary studies and draws on foundational texts from these disciplines and previous research that seeks to link them as a theoretical basis. By analysing the works of Gábor Devecseri, chosen as representative examples, the paper demonstrates how literature reveals the return to the deep layers of cultural memory represented in myths and the defects of the relationship between humans and nature, and how it thus contributes to the understanding of a complex (and interdisciplinary) process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue imperatives in contemporary Hungarian poetry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study reviews from an ecopoetic point of view the tendencies in Hungarian poetry of recent years that emphasise the biopoetic aspects of existence. László Lázár Lövétei’s eclogues, for example, renew the discourse from the perspective of the ancient tradition, while Tamás Korpa and Mátyás Sirokai transform the reader’s mental consciousness by focusing on the plant life, and in doing so, reassess and rethink the concept of being embedded in nature. For example, Gábor Dávid Németh combines the mechanisms of cultural memory, the ecosystems of environmental awareness and the plant metaphor system arising from the organicity of language. Gábor Mezei approaches the question from the perspective of hybridity. Besides blurring the traditional boundaries of body and self, these authors also exploit the subversive, resistant character of ecopoetics, not once asserting the principle of what they call the ecopoetic imperative whose topological, tropological, entropological and ethnological dimensions are worth exploring.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Education in a Minority Language in the Context of Hungarians From Zagreb<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The latest research conducted in the Hungarian community of the City of Zagreb has shown that the Hungarian language is slowly losing its communication functions in informal domains (family, friends, the sphere of intimacy) and is withdrawing before Croatian, i.e., that language shift is in progress. As one of the key factors affecting language shift, school is mentioned as support in families in intergenerational language transmission and language preservation in the community. Croatia has ensured an institutional framework for education in minority languages to its minorities through a series of regulatory acts. However, exercising this right is often followed by numerous difficulties. In case of the Hungarian minority, this is due to geographical dispersity. Nevertheless, during the 1990s, a  Hungarian group in kindergarten, a  bilingual class and nurturing language for primary- and secondary-school pupils were launched in Zagreb. In order to obtain a clearer image of how various class models in a minority language actually function and which problems their participants are faced with, we conducted a preliminary research among younger members of the community who attended classes in Hungarian at least at one point during their education. We completed the results with information obtained through informal conversations with preschool and school teachers as well as through immediate observations of the community.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of Genitival Components in Time Metaphors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Such a universal yet abstract concept as time can show variation in metaphorical language. This research focuses on metaphorical language within the framework of the cognitive metaphor theory, investigating the image of time through a contrastive cross-linguistic approach. This study attempts to identify genitival components associated with time in a metaphorical context, with a focus on image-based metaphors e.g. <italic>the teeth of time</italic> or <italic>the river of time.</italic> The hypothesis is that certain patterns of lexicalization of cognitive processes related to time could differ in Hungarian, English and Finnish, and to support this claim cognitive underpinnings of metaphors are investigated using an empirical corpus-based method.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue“Transylvanian Hunglish” Phonological Properties of Hungarian Accented English in Transylvania<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hunglish is a term for Hungarian native speakers’ English pronunciation. It is a well recognisable and quite homogeneous accent, which is thoroughly described in the literature of second language acquisition. However, this paper proposes that Hungarian speakers living in Romania use a phonologically different Hunglish compared to those living in Hungary. The study is built on direct speech recordings made with 30 Hungarian speakers descending from various parts of Transylvania. Their accent is confronted with the pronunciation of 15 speakers from Hungary, who participated in the same reading experiment. Results indicate that the English pronunciation of the two groups mostly share the same phonetic and phonological features. Only a few persistent phonological differences can be identified; for instance, English open back vowels [ʌ, ɒ, ɑ] are replaced with Hungarian [ɒ] by the Transylvanian informants, and with [a] by the speakers from Hungary; Transylvanian informants preserve more English schwas and diphthongs due to their L2 Romanian, etc. The differences basically originate in the fact that Transylvanian speakers’ interlanguage is much more heterogeneous than that of Hungarians’, i.e. Transylvanians speak a substandard version of Hungarian as L1, they speak a Transylvanian dialect, they speak Romanian at high level as L2, and they usually speak further foreign languages as well beyond English; these varieties all affect their foreign accent. The paper takes account of the most important characteristics of Transylvanian Hunglish, with a synchronic phono-logical analysis, and a contrastive analysis with the general phonological properties of Hunglish found in the literature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Friulian Presence in Hungarian Industry with Particular Regard to the Meat Industry of Debrecen in the 19th century<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Emigration has been a crucial experience for the inhabitants of the Italian Friuli region, at least since the 13th century when Friulian peddlers started journeying from country to country. When it grew into a mass phenomenon in the 19th century, an increasing number of Friulian workers arrived in Hungary, and were involved in industrial activities as both entrepreneurs and employed labour. They gained a leading role in the Hungarian meat industry with the establishment of salami factories that created the conditions for the spread of a new product, the salami. In Debrecen, two Friulian families pursued this activity with numerous Friulian workers and one of them, the Vidoni company, became the third-largest salami factory in Hungary. The activities of the Friulian factories are considerable not only for Hungarian industrial history, but also because they shed light on the migratory processes and broaden the horizon of historical knowledge on Hungarian-Italian relations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue are we Speaking of? A New Perspective on the Post-verbal Field in Hungarian<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hungarian displays a characteristic syntax, that within the generative approach was called non-configurational. For this reason its description is at least unusual, and it cannot be taught with the same formal concepts used for most of the other European languages.</p> <p>Functional approaches, with Functional Discourse Grammar among them, seem to be especially useful in both describing and teaching Hungarian, because they allow the interplay between pragmatics, syntax and semantics. This article sets the most important traditional assumptions about Hungarian syntax within the functional approach, concentrating on issues with word order. It is suggested that the so-called post-verbal field is very important. The central claim is that in a Hungarian sentence not only is the context of the expression recognized, given by the Topic and a possible Focus of communication, but also a distinct target of our discourse: a constituent signalling what we are speaking of that facilitates the making of the sentence.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Beyond the Border On the Contexts of Education, Bilingualism, and Labour Market in the Early 21 Century. The Transylvanian Perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Borders are particular (in-between) spaces: they have this side and the other side, which involve several real and imaginary spaces at the same time. For minorities, “beyond the borders” is also a specific space of language use. This paper discusses the correlations between minority bilingualism and social structure characteristics based on sociological surveys, taking as approach the sociology of space and John Ogbu’s ecological cultural model of schooling. It aims to offer an overview of my research carried out on this topic and tries to provide some references for rethinking the sociological implications of minority education considering the experiences of three decades since the fall of communism in Romania. The main results of this research – in concordance with other findings of similar inquiries – show that a mother-tongue education for ethnic Hungarian children in Romania is a necessary but not sufficient condition for reducing the structural gap that Hungarians in Transylvania have inherited from the 20<sup>th</sup> century. This study is centred on the aspects of interrelation between the language of education and labour market, more specifically on those linked to the attitudes and patterns of behaviour towards the official language, with particular focus on the role that languages play in the society and, in a narrower sense, in self-positioning on the labour market.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Sociolinguistics in the Carpathian Basin, 1985–2022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Until about 1985, apart from traditional dialectological research, the study of Hungarian in Hungary focused mostly on the Codified Standard Hungarian variety, whose speakers are powerful in social but not in numerical terms. Sociolinguistic research since 1985 has now resulted in a program which embraces not only the 10 million (largely monolingual) Hungarians in Hungary proper, but also the 3 million bi- or multilingual minority Hungarians in the seven neighboring countries (kin-states). This program was initiated by researchers of the Department of Sociolinguistics in the Linguistics Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. This paper offers linguists who do not read Hungarian an overview of this research carried out between 1985 and 2022.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of Online Bible Readers in Biblical Concordance Making<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bible concordances lead Bible readers with rendering words and phrases of the Holy Bible in alphabetical listings and show where the terms occur throughout all books of Scripture. With cross-references for verses, concordances make it easy to understand the meaning of terms and the context in which those words are used. In Hungarian Bible studies several translations of the Bible are available (also online) and some of the contemporary translations are provided with on-the-fly concordances. Online versions of the Bible translations can easily build KWIC-concordances but not in an equal way. The study shows different approaches to online Bible concordance of the Hungarian translations to be found online and also tries to illustrate bottlenecks of concordance making on the off-line concordance being built to the so called ÚRK Bible (Újonnan Revideált Biblia – Newly Revised Bible). The obstacles in this concordance are connected with terminological and lexicographic approaches as this concordance is based on translations of the keywords of the ESV Bible Concordance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue From Musealisation of Music to Italian Migrant Workers in Hungary Through Some Linguistic Issues<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This introduction reconstructs the arguments of the editor and contributors of 2022 volume of the Hungarian Studies Yearbook that focuses on the possible thematic and methodological challenge that authors brought in our attention.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Liszt and the Temple of Art<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Is it possible or desirable at all to establish a museum for music? The question was first posed by Franz Liszt in the 19<sup>th</sup> century. This essay will not only present the background and context of the question, but also the contradictory conclusions that emerge from the idea of the musealisation of music, and which still linger in 20<sup>th</sup>-and 21<sup>st</sup>-century music culture.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue