rss_2.0Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Statistics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Statisticshttps://sciendo.com/journal/ICAShttps://www.sciendo.comProceedings of the International Conference on Applied Statistics Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6471f16d215d2f6c89db60ae/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/ICAS140216Kinetic energies in random vectorshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0008<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper uses the Onicescu Coefficient concept, which is the sum of squared probabilities, through mathematical formulations to show the kinetic energy in random vectors. The paper has a brief introduction section that addresses the background of the study, the purpose of the study, and its objective. The literature review section provides an in-depth industrial application of mathematical formulations in solving real-life problems. The paper contains a methodology section highlighting the study design, data collection methods, and analysis section, highlighting some of the keywords used in locating resources and significant databases that provided the study with information. Later, the study takes the result and discussion sectional approach to present the experiments’ findings backed with facts from previous studies by other scholars in the same field. Lastly, the paper concludes with a section recapping the critical points of this study and study application in real-life, concluding with a list of references utilized by this study.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00082021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Sustainability literacy in the Romanian Universitieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0024<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Sustainable university refers to the active involvement of higher education institutions in elaborating policies to protect the natural environment. The sustainable university is the one that, besides the governmental involvement, contributes to the safety of the environment by adapting the curriculum to the ecological needs and through the progress of the scientific knowledge, as a result of the didactic and research activities.</p><p>As a vector of society’s development, the primary role of the university consists of educating future decision-makers. From the point of view of sustainable education, the concept of sustainable literacy has been shaped. Sustainable literacy involves educating future generations for sustainable development, considering the social, environmental, and cultural aspects specific to each country.</p><p>In our opinion, “Sustainability literacy” in the academic environment is the formation and transmission of knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes that will allow students/graduates to engage deeply in building a sustainable future and improve their decision-making towards sustainability. The purpose of this research paper is to identify the context of ensuring and promoting sustainability in Romanian tertiary education.</p><p>For this purpose, data obtained from the Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education were used regarding the number of students (as an element of the university demand) who follow a study program related to sustainable development, as well as data on the number of study programs in sustainability (as an element of the university offer). The results show that the number of students decreases, mainly due to demographic reasons, and the low graduation rates following the baccalaureate examination. Nevertheless, the number of programs in the sphere of sustainable development was higher in 2018 than the previous year. This fact demonstrates the importance given and the serious concerns regarding sustainability literacy in Romanian universities.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00242021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00The Evolution of Romania’s Internal Migration. Findings from the 1977, 1992, 2002 and 2011 Censuseshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0015<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Although internal migration has been rather overlooked, both in terms of its magnitude and importance, its ability to reflect socio-economic changes is providing useful insights on the evolution of the Romanian society over the last decades. Based on the analysis of census microdata over the past 4 censuses, some major shifts in the magnitude and patterns in internal migration reveal the fact that characteristics of internal migrants have not only mirrored, but also preceded the changes observed for the total population. Among the most important developments revealed by our analysis have been a slight decrease in migration incidence since 1992, an increase in migrants residing in rural areas, especially in the South region, and a higher incidence among women, perhaps as a counterweight for higher international migration rates among men. Internal migrants’ age profile shows that they are 11 years older than the total population, up from a gap of only 6 years in 1977. Although they tend to be relatively more educated, their advantage has been on a declining trend and, contrary to common perceptions, are less likely to be single. At the county level, data reveals diverging patterns triggered by post-communist development, among which deindustrialization of some countries and strong international migration. These findings help portray the socio-economic changes as revealed by the analysis of census data, and provide any additional feedback to the annual internal migration flow estimates, by assessing the stock of those who moved from their birthplace, and showing how net internal migration patterns have morphed over time, both reflecting and effecting demographic and socioeconomic evolutions of the Romanian society<sup>1</sup>.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00152021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Study on the effect of crises on economic correlations and macrostabilityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Economic growth is a goal of every country and equally of the European Community. In this sense, all national strategies related and not subordinated to the European Union’s strategy aim at economic growth, which will ensure the improvement of the quality of life. Economic growth is always achieved by the level registered by the Gross Domestic Product (Gross Domestic Product per capita) these being the most important indicators of results calculated at macroeconomic level.</p><p>The proper functioning of a country’s economy must be based, first of all, on certain correlations that are established between socio-economic variables, a context in which there must be certain proportions. The evolution of the economy in free market conditions reaches imbalances at certain times, a context in which macroeconomic stability is affected. Most often, crises, regardless of their health, economic, economic or financial nature, have the first effect of affecting macroeconomic stability. In the current conditions, when we face the health crisis, combined with the economic and financial crisis, the macroeconomic imbalance is obvious by not respecting some proportions and correlations, which must be established at the macroeconomic level. The analysis of this aspect of crises and their effect on economic correlations and macrostability is the subject of the study in this article.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00022021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Looking ahead - from fossil fuel to a circular bioeconomy in Europe. Evolution and behaviourhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0026<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Giving due consideration to sustainability, the new concept of bioeconomy has faced strong support from international policymakers, changing the way the economy is currently working. And it does not involve only the replacement of fossil feedstock with bio-based fuels, but also acquiring value from waste and bringing to light the resource efficiency that can lead to a smooth transition from a linear to a circular economy. This paper aims to track the EU states movement in implementing the bioeconomy best practices by building clusters based on their progress in adapting their industries to the new requirements. To make this possible, we created two scenarios for recording the evolution of the energy industry in 27 countries: the first one that groups them according to the fossil-fuel sources, and the second one based on renewable resources. Our results revealed that the biomass tends to be used as a complementary source and not a substitute, in comparison to the traditional fuels. Same actors keep the leading positions in both scenarios, making us believe that they may face strong challenges in reaching the European Commission goals. Thus, the present study emphasizes the need to develop highly efficient policies for all EU members to keep the same path.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00262021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Measuring the Level of Financial Development of U.E. Member Countrieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0016<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A financial sector that is developed and well functional is a key component of an economy. Numerous articles in the literature study the influence of financial development on the poverty reduction or on the economic growth. However, this paper proposes to compare the level of financial development of EU member states, but also to discover a shortcut in defining the financial level of a country. The methodology that allows this is composed of three steps: creating a composite index based on the main principal components that measure the level of the financial system; creating a categorical variable based on the values of the index (financial developed countries have a positive index value and vice versa) and applying the Decision Trees algorithm to the extended dataset. The results of the study show an underdeveloped financial level for Romania, which is at the opposite pole from Luxembourg, the country with the highest level of the financial system. Among the definition patterns found, is the following condition: if the percent of accounts used to receive wages is greater than 49.74%, the saved using a savings club in the past year (%) is greater than 3.95%, the customer price index is greater than 106.99 and the debit card (%) is greater than 90.69%, then this indicate a good financial development level.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00162021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Foreword of the Proceedings of the 14 International Conference on Applied Statisticshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0030ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00302021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Budgetary efficiency expressed as the interdependence of public expenditures and the Gross Domestic Product in the Republic of Moldovahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0018<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>We address budget performance in terms of savings, efficiency, and effectiveness. To facilitate a quantitative analysis of budgetary efficiency, we perform a detailed study based on an econometric model of the interdependence of public expenditure, both capital and private, and GDP. We show that an increase in public expenditure, especially current, can significantly accelerate the growth of the productive sectors of the economy. Further, the implementation of performance indicators for public expenditure can lead to accelerated economic growth, both quantitatively as well as qualitatively, in the Republic of Moldova.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00182021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Romania’s tourism industry in free fallhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Tourism is one of the consistent branches of the national economy, which can ensure some concrete results and a tailor-made contribution to the formation of the Gross Domestic Product. The tourism industry is also called invisible trade in the sense that, although it does not export goods and services, by practicing it, by developing it, it ensures consistent revenues to the state budget, but also ensures the possibility of increasing Gross Domestic Product.</p><p>Analysing the current situation of the health and economic-financial crisis, it is found that in 2020 HoReCa, the tourism industry, complementary services have decreased alarmingly. Against this background, tourism has reduced its contribution to the formation of the Gross Domestic Product, which can lead to an even greater decrease.</p><p>Investments in tourism are eroding. There is no possibility of refinancing despite support measures provided by the authorities. We say in spite of some measures granted because the postponement of some payments, the postponement of some credits, the transition to technical unemployment and others will be coupled later with other measures with almost devastating effect for the Romanian economy. Thus, many jobs will be lost. On the other hand, tourism companies will not be able to move from technical unemployment to normal activity and give a minimum of six months to those in this situation.</p><p>The tourist market practically does not exist because there are only sequential possibilities in which it takes place, but especially under the rule of business activities, which are also considered tourist activities.</p><p>The tourist activity materialized through arrivals, overnight stays, arrivals and departures has decreased steadily and this result mainly from the data subject to the study we mentioned. It is necessary to interpret these data and possibly find ways to recover.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00012021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Does the Tax Burden impact the Performance of Companies? A case study for Romaniahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0017<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper analyzes the relationship between the total tax amount paid by the Romanian companies and several indicators of size, financial performance, and capital structure to identify whether there is an impact of these indicators on the tax potential and to assess the impact of the tax burden on the performance of companies as well. The total tax amount is viewed on the one hand as a tax burden when it is used as an independent variable, and as tax potential when it is used as a dependent variable. To assess these relationships, we applied cross-sectional regression models for each year of analysis, 2014-2018, using balance sheet data from the entire population of Romanian companies. In literature, is questioned only the relationship between tax burden and economic performance. Our study emphasizes the link between tax potential and some characteristics of the companies. We have identified, also, the determinants of return of equity in the case of Romanian companies. Overall, the data reveal major structural changes during the period of analysis. This movement did not affect the tax potential, but the performance of undertakings. Our findings show that it is necessary to rethink economic and tax policies.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00172021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Using discriminant analysis to study the discrinimation issue of refugees and migrants from MENA region in European countrieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0013<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the last years and after the arrival of a significant number of migrants, asylum seekers, and refugees. Foreigners from MENA region started facing numerous issues in the host countries. One of the major issues that the refugees and migrants are facing now adays is discrimination. As most of the studies exposes that this topic is recently debatable among the European governments. Likewise, the literature review on this matter shows that most of the European countries who welcomed refugees in large numbers were more able to understand and keep away factors that drive to discrimination. It is well known that are many factors that lead to discrimination such as the difference in nationalities, religion, and gender. Although there are different places where the migrants and refugees can feel discriminated for instance: public authorities, workplace, schools, and universities. Moving on to the methodology used in this paper is the quantitative method, we conducted an online survey distributed on refugees and youth migrants in both languages (English and Arabic) that are living in European countries. We tried in our survey to ask questions related to discrimination, in order to understand how they are dealing with this issue and to what extent is discrimination affecting them. For that reason, we used the discriminant analysis. the discriminant analysis feature is split into a 2-step process firstly is testing significance of a series of functions that most affect the migrations as the results of the discriminant analysis had shown us that the number of years lived in Europe was directly affected by discrimination, in addition to the classification. As using the discriminant analysis was an efficient way to study the main factors affected by discrimination.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00132021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Spatial changes in entrepreneurship in relation to economic crisis and recovery. Insights from Romanian countieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0012<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Trying to explain the sources of persisting high inequalities in the regional distribution of entrepreneurship in Romania, this paper puts a spotlight on the spatial interactions among neighbour regions in a spatial modelling framework. We explored the interplay of factors that inform the territorial distribution of SMEs by employing various spatial panel data models that not only provided better estimations of the parameters, but also removed the cross – sectional dependence detected in our previous research using classic panel models. We found that the existing regional inequalities in entrepreneurial activity are strongly associated with differences in economic development, gross investments, research and development, age of the population, and and differences in regional resilience to economic crises. Additional useful information was brought about by the computation of direct and indirect effects of these factors of influence.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00122021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessing the entrepreneurial intention in Romania. An approach based on a binomial logistic regressionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Entrepreneurship is an increasingly popular activity, spread worldwide. Every year, thousands of individuals choose to start their own business, some of them beginning from college, others after years of experience and activity in other companies, as simple employees. In Romania, entrepreneurial activity is a practice of great interest in society during the last years. But what could be the reasons behind the entrepreneurial intention and decision in Romania? We intend to answer this question using as a starting point the database provided by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, from which a series of variables considered relevant in line with other studies on this topic will be selected. We will therefore identify what determines Romanians to choose the path of entrepreneurship, but also to what extent. The methodology applied in this paper is the binomial logistic regression. Using this technique, four regression models will be estimated, based on them concluding which are the explanatory factors of the entrepreneurial intent in Romania. The results will show that in Romania some significant factors to explain the preference for entrepreneurship are individuals’ confidence in their own abilities, fear of failure, knowledge of other entrepreneurs, but also occupational status. These records will prove to be in line with the results obtained at the level of other states. However, it will be shown that unlike other nations and societies, in Romania there are no significant differences regarding the entrepreneurial decision in terms of age or gender.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00052021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Looking ahead - from fossil fuel to a circular bioeconomy in Europe. Evolution and behaviourhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0022<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Giving due consideration to sustainability, the new concept of bioeconomy has faced strong support from international policymakers, changing the way the economy is currently working. And it does not involve only the replacement of fossil feedstock with bio-based fuels, but also acquiring value from waste and bringing to light the resource efficiency that can lead to a smooth transition from a linear to a circular economy. This paper aims to track the EU states movement in implementing the bioeconomy best practices by building clusters based on their progress in adapting their industries to the new requirements. To make this possible, we created two scenarios for recording the evolution of the energy industry in 27 countries: the first one that groups them according to the fossil-fuel sources, and the second one based on renewable resources. Our results revealed that the biomass tends to be used as a complementary source and not a substitute, in comparison to the traditional fuels. Same actors keep the leading positions in both scenarios, making us believe that they may face strong challenges in reaching the European Commission goals. Thus, the present study emphasizes the need to develop highly efficient policies for all EU members to keep the same path.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00222021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Technical and scale efficiency in Romanian public hospitals: Estimating with Data Envelopment Analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0006<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Hospitals are a major component of the health systems, due to the complexity of the medical services they deliver and the great resources consumption. They impact the performance of the health systems, the economic policies and the public health. Since performance is a multidimensional concept, the main technique used to get a proxy evaluation of performance in the healthcare sector is Data Envelopment Analysis. DEA measures the efficiency of the healthcare providers and allows comparative analysis to identify the best practice frontier. This study addresses the performance of Romanian public hospitals from the North-Eastern region of the country and measures technical and scale efficiency. DEA basic models were run under the assumptions of constant and variable returns to scale, in an input-oriented evaluation of a sample of 18 public hospitals. The results indicated that most of the hospitals are technically inefficient (89%) and these inefficiencies are in the form of scale inefficiency for 39% of the hospitals. The average efficiency scale value was of 82%, implying that the observed hospitals could have increased their outputs by 18% if they had reached the optimal scale. The conclusion of the paper is that the inefficiency of the compared hospitals is almost equally caused by the inefficient implementation of the production plan and by the divergence of the decision making units from the most productive scale size. This kind of efficiency analyses could support managers when planning hospitals activity and policy makers when planning resources allocation and implementation of new strategies for the health system governance.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00062021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Combining Regression and Clustering for Financial Analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0007<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Artificial Intelligence is used in business through machine learning algorithms. Machine learning is a part of computer science focused on computer systems learning to perform a specific task without using explicit instructions, relying on patterns and inference instead.</p><p>Though it might seem like we’ve come a long way in the last ten years, which is true from a research perspective, the adoption of AI among corporations is still relatively low. Over time it became possible to automate more tasks and business processes than ever before. The benefit of using artificial intelligence is that does not require to program every step of the process, predicting at each step what could happen and how to resolve it. The algorithms decide for themselves in each case how the problems should be solved, based on the data that is used.</p><p>I apply Python language to create a synthetic feature vector that allows visualizations in two dimensions for EDIBTA financial ratio. I use Mean-Square Error in order to evaluate the success, having the optimal parameters. In this section, I also mentioned about the purpose, goals, and applications of cluster analysis. I indicated about the basics of cluster analysis and how to do it and also did a demonstration on how to use K-Means.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00072021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Sustainability literacy in the Romanian Universitieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0020<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Sustainable university refers to the active involvement of higher education institutions in elaborating policies to protect the natural environment. The sustainable university is the one that, besides the governmental involvement, contributes to the safety of the environment by adapting the curriculum to the ecological needs and through the progress of the scientific knowledge, as a result of the didactic and research activities.</p><p>As a vector of society’s development, the primary role of the university consists of educating future decision-makers. From the point of view of sustainable education, the concept of sustainable literacy has been shaped. Sustainable literacy involves educating future generations for sustainable development, considering the social, environmental, and cultural aspects specific to each country.</p><p>In our opinion, “Sustainability literacy” in the academic environment is the formation and transmission of knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes that will allow students/graduates to engage deeply in building a sustainable future and improve their decision-making towards sustainability. The purpose of this research paper is to identify the context of ensuring and promoting sustainability in Romanian tertiary education.</p><p>For this purpose, data obtained from the Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education were used regarding the number of students (as an element of the university demand) who follow a study program related to sustainable development, as well as data on the number of study programs in sustainability (as an element of the university offer). The results show that the number of students decreases, mainly due to demographic reasons, and the low graduation rates following the baccalaureate examination. Nevertheless, the number of programs in the sphere of sustainable development was higher in 2018 than the previous year. This fact demonstrates the importance given and the serious concerns regarding sustainability literacy in Romanian universities.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00202021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Use of Social Networks in Determining stockmarket Evolutionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0009<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article aims to use text mining methods and sentiment analysis to determine the stock market evolution of companies as well as virtual currencies such as Bitcoin. The source of the text is the social media channel Twitter and the text is composed of individual messages sent by users. Although previous papers proved with a degree of certainty that this paper hypothesis is true, as we will see bellow, the area of research was focused only on the professional environment or known opinion makers and not taking into account a high population mass. To ensure that a high level of information is maintained after the sentiment analysis process, we will use multiple algorithms based on different calculation methods and different word dictionaries. In addition, indicators such as the number of assessments, the number of replays etc. will be added to the methodology. By the end of the paper we will be able to both identify a working methodology of analyzing text for the purposes of stock market prediction and also we will touch on the limitations faced when creating it and the ways through which we can expand and improve it’s reliability. The implementation of all these methods and of the multiple dictionaries helped us in simulating human behavior and the differences of opinion, when a group wants to analyze a text. The algorithm becoming a way to balance the different “opinions” that resulted out of the sentiment analysis.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00092021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Labor force shortage analysis in Romania - size, impact and measureshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0021<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Under the impact of unfavourable demographic developments, some existing imbalances on the Romanian labor market have worsened. Thus, in 2019 the labor force shortage was estimated to 300000 persons, while in the last ten years the number of vacancies has exceeded 60,000 places, more than double the level at the beginning of the period (2010). This phenomenon may have negative social and economic effects. In this context, the present paper aims at analysing the labor shortages in Romania, at identifying its main determinants and the most important social and economic consequences and recommends a series of measures to mitigate the negative effects of this phenomenon.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00212021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Supporting secondary research in early drug discovery process through a Natural Language Processing based systemhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-0023<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Last decades were characterised by a constant decline in the productivity of research and development activities of pharmaceutical companies. This is due to the fact that the drug discovery process contains an intrinsic risk that should be managed efficiently. Within this process, the early phase projects could be streamlined by doing more secondary research. These activities would involve the integration of chemical and biological knowledge from scientific literature in order to extract an overview and the evolution of a certain research area. This would then help refine the research and development operations.</p><p>Considering the vast amount of pharmaceutical studies publications, it is not easy to identify the important information. For this task, a series of projects leveraged the advantages of the open pharmacological space through state-of-the-art technologies. The most popular are Knowledge Graphs methods. Although extremely useful, this technology requires increased investments of time and human resources. An alternative would be to develop a system that uses Natural Language Processing blocks. Still, there is no defined framework and reusable code template for the use-case of compounds development.</p><p>In this study, it is presented the design and development of a system that uses Dynamic Topic Modelling and Named Entity Recognition modules in order to extract meaningful information from a large volume of unstructured texts. Moreover, the dynamic character of the topic modelling technique allows to analyse the evolution of different subject areas over time. In order to validate the system, a collection of articles from the Pharmaceutical Research Journal was used.</p><p>Our results show that the system is able to identify the main research areas in the last 20 years, namely crystalline and amorphous systems, insulin resistance, paracellular permeability. Additionally, the evolution of the subjects is a highly valuable resource and should be used to get an in-depth understanding about the shifts that happened in a specific domain.</p><p>However, a limitation of this system is that it cannot detect association between two concepts or entities if they are not involved in the same document.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/icas-2021-00232021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1