rss_2.0The Irish Journal of Management FeedSciendo RSS Feed for The Irish Journal of Management Irish Journal of Management Feed, Volume 42 Issue 2: Introducing Issue 42(2) of the And Development Practitioners in Organisations: Organising, Belonging, Learning And Performing Tensions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper provides a review of the literature on the learning and development (L&amp;D) role in organisations using the lens of paradox theory. I evaluate prior literature and organise it around four paradoxes: organising, belonging, learning and performing. The L&amp;D organisational role is fraught with paradox due to tensions around organising, belonging, learning and performance. I evaluate the different ways in which L&amp;D practitioners respond to these tensions, I highlight future research avenues and suggest practice implications for L&amp;D practitioners.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue do I do? A Categorisation of Informal Leadership Activities Among Female Professors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Underpinned by social identity theory and drawing on the concept of professors as academic leaders, this paper asks, what are the informal professorial leadership activities performed by female professors? Drawing on contemporary literature, it categorises the informal leadership activities of female professors. These activities are incorporated into a conceptual framework, which offers insight into identifying and delineating effective ways in which to better understand female professorial leadership activities. This framework provides important and novel socio-psychological insight into an under-explored but critical aspect of the daily activities of female professors as academic leaders.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue health disclosure in the workplace – An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the employee experience<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The decision to disclose or not disclose a diagnosis of mental illness (MI) is complex and influenced by a variety of factors. Research into MI disclosure has commonly focused on investigating the singular parts of the disclosure process, thus failing to capture an understanding of the individual’s holistic experience of MI disclosure. This paper seeks to gain an understanding of the phenomenon of workplace MI disclosure from the perspective of the disclosing employee. By doing so we gain an understanding of how they make sense of this experience which should help shape MI workplace policies and practices. Using a qualitative research approach and interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), interviews took place with three Irish women who had previously disclosed a mental illness in the workplace. Within the findings, three superordinate themes emerged: (1) Antecedents of Disclosure, (2) Disclosure Outcomes and the Organisation (3) Disclosure Outcomes and the Self. Without an understanding of the consequent impact of disclosure on employees’ post-disclosure work-life, appropriate resources and supports cannot be developed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Introducing Issue 42(1) and Updates in Crisis Leadership from 9/11: Delineating the constituents of Crisis Leadership and their utilization in the context of Covid-19<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The year 2020 was challenging and demanding for humankind. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic compelled thousands of organizations to shift their operations online and millions of employees to work from home. Many have compared this crisis to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, in the United States, another inconceivable incident that changed the way we think and act today. This study analyzes three leaders in the context of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, who proved to be role models of leadership during crisis situations and, thereby, have contributed to the evolution of crisis leadership. By doing so, it attempts to define the constituents of effective crisis leadership and fill the relevant gap in the existing literature on crisis leadership. The current study’s limitations, implications for practitioners, and suggestions for further research needed to shed light on cases of effective leadership during the COVID-19 pandemic are also discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of agile: The new orthodoxy of long-term product teams<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Agile management thinking has influenced organisations in several ways, but the focus of this paper is on the deprojectification of agile software development. The new agile orthodoxy has been promoted by popular books, in blogs and by Spotify and other firms: agile teams should be aligned to products or domains (not projects); cover development, maintenance and operations (to reduce handover problems); and have a long-term character (to build trust, identity and domain knowledge). We first describe and contextualise the new agile orthodoxy and then, based on an empirical study of two different “agile cases,” we describe and analyse how employees and middle managers perceived the rationale behind the change to long-term teams, how they understood teams as the basic unit of the structure, their perceptions of the resource and disciplinary dimensions of the organisation and the decline of projects and project managers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue impact of work-related technology and boundary management on work-family conflict and enrichment during COVID-19<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Technology has become a ubiquitous force in modern life, leading to the blurring of work-life boundaries. The recent global pandemic brought this to the fore, particularly in the context of academia, where the blurring of boundaries were already apparent. This study explores whether and how information communication technology (ICT) blurred boundaries and impacted work-family conflict (WFC) and work-family enrichment (WFE) during the COVID-19 pandemic. This examination is critical to optimise the value that ICTs may provide for the well-being of academics and their families. Drawing on semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 14 academics with children. Findings indicated that ICT triggered various stressors leading to WFC, while simultaneously improving participants’ availability leading to WFE. Managing boundaries was complex and depended on preferences and resources to enact these preferences. The findings highlight the paradoxical consequences of ICT, raising questions about increasing complexity in academic work and the need for more sustainable flexible work models.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue For Scaling a Social Enterprise: Key Factors and Elements<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The number of social enterprises has grown exponentially in recent times. International research regarding how social enterprises scale is starting to emerge and is becoming an area of increased focus. Due to their hybridity, social enterprises experience unique scaling challenges, and research has started to examine these experiences. This theoretical paper reviews existing literature on social enterprise scaling and, based on this, proposes a conceptual model for understanding the interdependent factors and elements social enterprises must navigate when scaling. The proposed conceptual model will provide a base for further empirical research. When validated, it will also provide a practical tool for social enterprises exploring scaling possibilities and inform future enterprise and policy supports in this area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue identity, career commitment, and self-efficacy: the role of gender and family characteristics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The career attitudes and decisions of both male and female employees depend not only on the situation at work but are also influenced by their family dynamics. This paper explores the differences in the relationship between career identity and career commitment and tested self-efficacy as a moderating variable for employees with different family dynamics. It also considered whether these relationships vary among male and female employees. The results show that in the female subsample the moderator was significant, while for males selfefficacy did not play a significant role. In terms of family characteristics, being married/cohabiting and being married/cohabiting with dependents in the household were found to be relevant differentiating factors among females when it comes to the significance of the moderating effect. In the male sample self-efficacy exhibited a significant effect only in the group of male employees with dependents.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue financial flexibility in preparation for Brexit: the case of Irish medium sized enterprises<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this paper is to examine the building of financial flexibility by Irish medium sized enterprises in the run-up to Brexit. We analyze changes in firms’ dividends, leverage, cash, investment levels and working capital in the period surrounding the passing of the Brexit referendum to test for stockpiling of financial slack. Whilst we find no evidence of financial flexibility building overall, there is some evidence to suggest that firms incentivised to build such flexibility do so. Cash poor firms appear to build financial slack by way of reducing leverage and increasing their cash reserves. In contrast, cash rich firms increase their capital expenditure using internal and external funds. Interestingly all firms irrespective of their size or financial strength increase their working capital investment and in particular build their inventory levels post the Brexit referendum. Our evidence suggests Irish medium sized enterprises are optimistic of the opportunities post Brexit.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Irish Social Enterprise Ecosystem within the wider European Landscape<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The launch in 2019 of Ireland’s first National Social Enterprise Policy has meant a significant milestone for the institutitonalisation of social enterprise within the country. However, this milestone needs to be placed within a wider framework which encompasses the Irish social enterprise ecosystem and the European landscape of social enterprises. This paper explores different elements of the Irish social enterprise ecosystem, including its policy context, definition adopted and legal forms. Moreover, it explores the private recognition through certification and marks, the development of support and advocacy networks and organisations, academia and research, and funding/financing mechanisms. These elements are contrasted with the situation in other European countries to provide a contextualized picture of the Irish social enterprise sector. The paper concludes that Ireland’s social enterprise ecosystem presents some specificities, such as the CLG as a dominant legal form and the predominance of the WISE model, but generally aligns with wider social enterprises trends at European level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue a better tomorrow – Bridging the disconnect between policy, practice, education and research in social enterprise entrepreneurship education enhancement through innovative training pedagogies across Europe<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Social Enterprises (SEs) have become the focus of increased policy attention internationally and at the EU level in recent years. Not as much attention, however, has been given to identifying and eliminating their skills gaps and training needs. Following the principles of the Training Needs Analysis (TNA) methodology and collecting data from different stakeholders on the social entrepreneurship sector of four EU countries (Italy, Ireland, Greece, and Slovenia) participating in the EU project ‘SocialB’, this paper examines the development of its training content, and how this addresses the SEs’ training challenges regarding management, sustainability and growth issues. This paper outlines the steps this project followed in tackling these issues through developing innovative learning content and training delivery methodology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue social enterprise policy making in Ireland – untangling proportionate, disproportionate and unengaged sectoral policy contributions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The National Social Enterprise Policy of Ireland was launched in 2019 following a slow and episodic process. The aim of the paper is to examine the development and implementation of the National Social Enterprise Policy. In particular the interaction between key sectoral stakeholders in the development of the policy and the primary influences on the process. The results of a substantial qualitative enquiry details the complex set of relationships underpinning the development of social enterprise policy in a multi-level governance framework. It situates the National Social Enterprise Policy in an environment unusually susceptible to sub-sectoral advocacy and highlights the particular characteristics of the Irish case where social enterprise policy is largely removed from broader social economy policy interventions in Ireland and the European Union. The paper highlights the complex and fluid environment in which various stakeholders articulated and advocated for their policy positions. It also details how the relevant policy institutions engaged with and were influenced by stakeholders. It contributes to the understanding of social enterprise policy formulation and how this process can become more inclusive.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue legal status for Irish social enterprise-an overlooked opportunity?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper argues that a dedicated legal status for Irish social enterprises - or the wider social economy - holds to date a mostly overlooked potential to increase clarity of what social enterprises are and for social enterprises themselves on governance. A legal status takes an agnostic approach towards the enterprise’s legal form while offering certain incentives and privileges for those that meet the criteria. A review of recent trends across Europe points towards a legal status being the preferred approach in more recent years, with country reports pointing towards lessons learnt in terms of aiming to capture and support the sector holistically. This paper concludes that while promising as a concept, further research is needed to validate the potential in the Irish context.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue influences on social enterprise types in the Republic of Ireland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Extensive research over the past twenty years explains and documents different approaches to and examples of social enterprise across the world. One line of research analyses the institutional contexts – considering economic development, governance, culture, and civil society - in order to explain different national approaches to social enterprise. Simultaneously, researchers have focussed on organisational level features to create typologies of social enterprises. This paper synthesises that research to create an embedded model of types, which sit within and are infl uenced by institutional contextual factors. The model is tested in the case of the Republic of Ireland, through desk research and empirical observation. A set of 57 organisations provides qualitative data for a narrative account of four types of social enterprise. Contributions include a new model of institutionally embedded social enterprise types which conceptualises and highlights the importance of historical contexts in applying typologies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Ireland’s Indigenous Social Enterprise Sector – A Policy Perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The National Social Enterprise Policy for Ireland (2019 – 2022) was a watershed moment for social enterprise in Ireland. Ireland has a rich, proud and diverse experience of social economy and social enterprise, yet the policy framework developed comparatively later than in some other EU member states. Since its launch in 2019, the Policy has helped to significantly shape the social enterprise sector in Ireland including through targeted measures and improved coherence across government policy. At the same time, the sector is still in a nascent phase and faces dramatic new challenges associated with the realities of focussing on social impact whilst trading in a competitive market economy traditionally focussed on export-potential, which have been exacerbated by the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. As this foundational Policy comes to the end of its term, the Government, in partnership with the sector, now faces another significant juncture which will determine how successful social enterprise can be in moving from the margins to the mainstream and contributing to Ireland’s economic, social and environmental progress. The current article seeks to clarify the features of Ireland’s indigenous social enterprise sector, and offers perspectives on some of the prerequisites for an ambitious and impactful successor policy in 2023 to unlock the potential of the sector to grow in scale and impact.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue is Reasonable? The Operation of ‘Reasonable Accommodation’ and ‘Disability’ Provisions Under The Employment Equality Acts 1998–2015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Anti-discrimination legislation is a key policy measure used to improve employment outcomes for people with disabilities. Law though is not necessarily value-free and can be underpinned by various discourses notably the medical and social model of disability. This article examines the process and outcomes of legal complaints taken by employees against employers relating to reasonable accommodation provisions of the Employment Equality Acts 1998–2015. We find that legal claims can involve a medicalised inquiry process while a more social model is evident regarding accommodations provisions. Accommodations sought by employees overwhelming related to a modification of their role rather than the physical environment. The success rates for employee claimants in legal cases is relatively low but case law has developed the procedural obligations of employers in dealing with disability issues. The findings are based on an analysis of adjudicated decisions under the legislation and the views of expert practitioners.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effect of organisational culture on organisational performance: the mediating role of intrapreneurship<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this research is to examine the effect of organisational culture on organisational performance in the context of the hospitality industry in the UK. Organisational culture was studied based on the Denison model. The study was conducted based on a quantitative research method and primary data was collected, with questionnaires, from 440 employees in the hospitality industry. The study reveals that organisational culture significantly affects organisational performance. Moreover, it is found that adaptability and mission are two key elements of organisational culture that significantly affect organisational performance. Furthermore, intrapreneurship fully mediates the relationship between adaptability and organisational performance. In addition, intrapreneurship fully mediates the relationship between mission and organisational performance. Hence, managers working in the hospitality industry are required to give considerable attention to adaptability and mission as two important elements of organisational culture in order to achieve intrapreneurship, and to ultimately improve the performance of an organisation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue