rss_2.0International Journal of Music Business Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for International Journal of Music Business Research Journal of Music Business Research Feed The Creative Business Cluster and its Life Cycle<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nashville, Tennessee, otherwise known as Music City, exhibits the characteristics of what has been called a creative business cluster that is centred around the business of country music. The presence of major record labels in the city devoted to the genre of music has created career opportunities for various types of music professionals as well as a community where there is a sense of camaraderie and cooperation among competitors. The community's success has bolstered the local economy due to the successes of the genre of music as well as the tourism country music has brought to the city. Business clusters have been shown to have life cycles that include the emerging phase, growing phase, sustaining stage and declining phase. This study utilises research from the literature on business clusters and their life cycles, along with the literature gained from the interviews of workers within the market, to determine where Music City currently lies along its creative cluster life cycle.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Innovation: Digital Live Music Models in a Post-COVID-19 Trinidad and Tobago<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_ijmbr-2023-0005_ref_041">Joseph (2021)</xref> advanced a detailed qualitative portrayal of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the value network of the Trinidad and Tobago (T&amp;T) live music sector. The study culminated by proposing a potential business model for digital live music showcase and monetisation. Supported by a cross-sectional survey with a group of 204 live music fans, this paper pursues an initial quantitative examination of <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_ijmbr-2023-0005_ref_041">Joseph’s study (2021)</xref>. It follows-up on select aspects of the sustainability and adoption possibilities of the proposed model. The results outline the customer profiles of online concert fans during the COVID-19 lockdown period in T&amp;T, identifying 25–34-year-old fans as constituting a major audience segment, followed by the 35–45-year-old category. Tertiary education is a defining feature of the audience, who are tech savvy lovers of local music. They thrive in online environments, gaining information from social media, and are familiar with making online purchases using credit cards and alternative payment methods. Expanding on payment technology, the data suggest that there is no statistically significant relationship between the method of payment used for online concerts and spending, making the case for multiple payment options for monetisation of online concerts. Conversely, there is a statistically significant relationship between incorporating augmented reality/virtual reality features as well as on-demand business models, with the majority of fans expressing a willingness to spend on the format.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Work of Reproduction in the Age of Digital Art: The Role of ‘Aura’ in the Revitalisation of Vinyl Records and Cassettes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We explain recent popularity in vinyl records by reframing Walter Benjamin’s notion of ‘aura’ in terms of social forces such as alienation and cultural capital. Where he pays attention to specific artefacts’ mechanical reproducibility as a way of assessing their aura, we consider how <italic>mediums</italic> themselves broadly possess variable levels of aura inversely related to their ability to be mechanically reproduced by consumers. The more easily consumers can reproduce a medium, the less aura it possesses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Music Business: Music Contexts, Rights, Data and COVID-19. Edited by Guy Morrow, Daniel Nordgård and Peter Tschmuck Sheets in Ghanaian Recording Studios<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The <italic>split sheet</italic> used at a recording studio is one of the essential means for any creative artist who understands its implementation benefits from the royalties that the creative work generates as it gets commercial merchandise. However, surprisingly, Ghanaian music producers and practitioners are yet to tap into the full potential of this avenue. This paper investigates the awareness and benefits of the <italic>split sheet</italic> among Ghanaian music producers and practitioners in the recording industry and the extent to which they have explored it. Using a mixed-methods mode of inquiry for data collection, we sampled music producers and practitioners (<italic>n</italic> = 218) in Ghana to briefly analyse the moneymaking through <italic>split sheets</italic> of songs available to music practitioners in Ghana’s recording industry. It was noted that 94.9% of respondents were unaware of the <italic>split sheet</italic>, while 92.7% did not know the benefit of the <italic>split sheet</italic>. However, only 4.6% of the respondents had used the <italic>split sheet</italic>. Subsequently, we conclude that the low awareness of the <italic>split sheet</italic> among Ghanaian music producers and practitioners compromises the decorum of the business side of creativity in the Ghanaian recording industry. Therefore, we recommend that more intensive education be undertaken to sensitise Ghanaian music producers and practitioners to the benefit of the <italic>split sheet</italic> in their daily work to enhance revenue generation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Economic Rationale of Music Publishers’ Relationships with Rights Management Entities – Shifting to a Systematic Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As international competition and cooperation in collective rights management evolves, the ecosystem of rights management entities grows. Consequently, the scope of inter-RME organisation across copyright management channels is becoming more complex and thus difficult to manage. Based on the insights of interviews with nine German music publishers and the best practices specified in the Information Technology Infrastructure Library standard for <italic>supplier management</italic>, this paper re-conceptualises a unified model for <italic>RME Relationship Management</italic> for music publishers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Hustla Playbook: Negotiating the Business Politics of Reggae in the Jamaican Rock Music Scene<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The hustla philosophy of the Jamaican economy advocates the use of innovative and/or illicit methods to negotiate the harsh economic realities of the society. From two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Jamaica, I gleaned that local musicians applied this philosophy to support themselves and family. Most notably, local rock musicians used this mindset to survive their disadvantageous position on the periphery of the Jamaican reggae industry. They earned this status because their merger of “foreign” genres with reggae was perceived as undermining the cultural heritage of the Black populace. As a result, my analysis interrogates the attempts of rock musicians to secure work and legitimacy in a precarious and prejudicial job market. Institutionalized prejudices limited the popularity of local rock music and enforced repressive scripts. Despite these disadvantages, the Jamaican rock scene has made major contributions to the music economy by merging rock music with reggae and facilitating innovation and creativity within the contemporary Reggae Revival.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Osborne and Dave Laing† (eds.) (2021). . Intellect. 270 pp. Festivals: Gatekeepers and Bridge Builders in the Music Industries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Showcase festivals are industry events comprising artist showcases and conferences. It may be argued that showcase festivals are an understudied offline field, since their role in configuring and maintaining a festival-like arena and providing a meeting place for the music industries remains largely unexplored from a scholarly point of view, as well as underappreciated and underestimated within the mainstream academic community. Their purpose is to present artists hoping to attract the attention of the core audience: industry professionals looking for new talent to sign and represent. The article provides an empirical study of the Nordic showcase festival by:Larm using theories of gatekeeping, fields and capital.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Conscience? Live Music Streaming: Utility, Capital and Control<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article takes a look at the ever expanding and increasingly commercially significant world of live music streaming through the nexus of electronic dance music. After charting the history of live music streaming, the article outlines the positive impacts that live music streaming has on promotion, sales and preservation of rare ethno-folk musics. However, interviews with industry insiders reveal opaque practices, where copyright enforcement is specifically utilised by a few large broadcasters in such a way as to maintain the dominance of their position within the live music streaming industry. A heightened agency in the hands of major corporations over what music audiences can see or hear is also identified. This article concludes that as live music streaming is co-opted across more music genres, these opaque practices will likely transfer across genre boundaries too. As such, it is important for live music streaming to come under further examination within the academy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact of Article 17 – A Study into its Effects on the Music Industry's Innovation Processes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The recent adoption of article 17 in the EU's new Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market has led to much debate. Proponents believe it will facilitate fair and balanced competition, while opponents fear increased censorship and surveillance on the Internet. Based on comprehensive document analysis, the paper explores the relationship between regulation and innovation. Through a study into article 17's implementation in Denmark, this paper investigates how article 17 will affect the innovation processes in the European music industry. The paper argues that although article 17 strengthens the rightsholders’ negotiation position, it does not decrease its dependence on the external IT Sector and its innovations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in China's Digital Music Industry: How the Protection of Music Copyright Causes Oligopoly<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Along with the rapid growth of China's music industry, laws and policies that protect music copyrights are also gradually improving. However, the distribution of copyrights among major music platforms is uneven. Music copyrights have become an effective implement for the major music companies in China to eliminate players in the market and create barriers to the industry. This paper analyses the cause of the uneven distribution of music copyrights among music platforms, discusses how this situation leads to an oligopoly that affects the consumers and music producers, and indicates some possible solutions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Morrow (2020): Designing the Music Business: Design Culture, Music Video and Virtual Reality, Springer Music Business Research book series Loves Live Music: A Theory of Performance Institutions Has Digitalisation Influenced Value in the Music Market?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper focuses on how digitalisation has influenced actors’ value determination and value creation in the Swedish music market. It draws on the service-dominant logic (SDL) and the service ecosystem perspective to conceptualise value as co-created through the integration of resources by multiple actors in service exchange, enabled and constrained by institutions and institutional arrangements. Empirically, we draw on a qualitative study of the digitalisation of the Swedish music market that consists of fifty-two interviews with various actors. The findings suggest that digitalisation has influenced service engagement and consequently value creation and determination for various actors, and especially for consumers and producers. This paper contributes by integrating SDL and the service ecosystem perspective into music business research in a novel way to promote a deeper understanding of value, value determination, and value co-creation. This paper also contributes to SDL by suggesting that both value-in-exchange and value-in-use are important aspects of value determination and value co-creation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Technologies and Music Digitisation: Challenges and Opportunities for the Nepalese Music Industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper investigates the current legitimate digital music business trends and models created by the innovation of new digital technologies and examines their pertinence in the Nepalese music industry. Further, it scrutinises neighbouring music markets and juxtaposes the Nepalese music market against their current market trends. Based on eight in-depth semi-structured interviews with executives and stakeholders of different major, medium and independent Nepalese record labels, the paper examines two questions: what is preventing Nepalese recorded music from being found digitally and accessible legally; and what are the opportunities, gaps and requirements that confront the search for a commercially viable route for the optimal digital music business model to make Nepalese music digitally and legally accessible, both locally and globally?</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue