rss_2.0International Journal of Music Business Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for International Journal of Music Business Research Journal of Music Business Research Feed Predicting Singers’ Work Efficiency and Singers’ Singing Peak<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research focusses on understanding the controls and predicting singers’ work efficiency, which is measured by rework times (RwT) in the recording studios. We conducted a comprehensive literature synthesis to identify a set of nine critical factors combining advancements in both acoustic field and recording practice. We measured each of these potential variables while 10 individual singers performed the same original song independently. The pieces of music sentences (n = 380) were analyzed by the multiple linear regression method. We found that: <list list-type="order"> <list-item><p>In the recording process, the RwT of a singer are predicted mainly by intensity, singing duration (SinD) and rhythm consistency.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>SinD mediates the connection between intensity and RwT.</p></list-item> <list-item><p>A singing peak exists in the performance.</p></list-item></list></p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Intelligence and Music Ecosystem Capitalism: How Big Tech and Big Content Captured Creative Labour Markets and How We Will Win Them Back Business Education in the Global Creative Industries: Curriculum design, inclusive practice and measures of success<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The academic study of music business is becoming increasingly relevant as the creative industries evolve with developing digital and knowledge economies. Utilising a small-scale survey, this study considers indicators of successful career development as perceived by music business graduates to examine the ambitions of music business students, the design of inclusive competency frameworks and implications for policy discourse beyond a reliance on simplistic metrics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Algorithms and the Makers of Music Recommendation Perspective on NFTs in the Arts-and-Music Industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Significant interest in non-fungible tokens (NFTs) as a means of changing the music industry has motivated this investigation. First, a comprehensive literature review (of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats [SWOT]) provides a summary of the benefits and costs associated with the deployment of blockchain- and NFT-based transactions in the music industry. Considerable effort has been devoted to identifying the economic, legal and regulatory benefits and drawbacks of applying the new technology. NFTs may be the final realisation of the digital universe, bringing exclusivity and revenues to the creator economy and the chance to revalue creative work. The technology's drawbacks may exceed its advantages. Navigation within the crypto regulatory landscape is still deemed as exploring uncharted territory. It is further complicated by the fact that it is largely uncertain which legal framework may apply due to the lack of jurisdiction-identifying criteria. Second, quantitative research is conducted as an online survey directed towards two research questions: <italic>1) What is the extent of familiarity and knowledge related to NFTs, as well as perspectives on NFTs as potential disruptors? 2) What is the extent of music creators’ perception of NFT-related opportunities and NFT integration into the music industry?</italic> Twenty EU countries were selected for the survey. Respondents answered twenty questions focused largely on demographics, their awareness of NFTs and their perceived potential for disrupting the music industry. It is too early to say whether NFTs will be utilised successfully, especially by independent musicians. The arguments in favour of NFTs are compelling, but there are issues regarding the levels of awareness and competence required for implementation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue The Creative Business Cluster and its Life Cycle<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nashville, Tennessee, otherwise known as Music City, exhibits the characteristics of what has been called a creative business cluster that is centred around the business of country music. The presence of major record labels in the city devoted to the genre of music has created career opportunities for various types of music professionals as well as a community where there is a sense of camaraderie and cooperation among competitors. The community's success has bolstered the local economy due to the successes of the genre of music as well as the tourism country music has brought to the city. Business clusters have been shown to have life cycles that include the emerging phase, growing phase, sustaining stage and declining phase. This study utilises research from the literature on business clusters and their life cycles, along with the literature gained from the interviews of workers within the market, to determine where Music City currently lies along its creative cluster life cycle.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Innovation: Digital Live Music Models in a Post-COVID-19 Trinidad and Tobago<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_ijmbr-2023-0005_ref_041">Joseph (2021)</xref> advanced a detailed qualitative portrayal of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the value network of the Trinidad and Tobago (T&amp;T) live music sector. The study culminated by proposing a potential business model for digital live music showcase and monetisation. Supported by a cross-sectional survey with a group of 204 live music fans, this paper pursues an initial quantitative examination of <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_ijmbr-2023-0005_ref_041">Joseph’s study (2021)</xref>. It follows-up on select aspects of the sustainability and adoption possibilities of the proposed model. The results outline the customer profiles of online concert fans during the COVID-19 lockdown period in T&amp;T, identifying 25–34-year-old fans as constituting a major audience segment, followed by the 35–45-year-old category. Tertiary education is a defining feature of the audience, who are tech savvy lovers of local music. They thrive in online environments, gaining information from social media, and are familiar with making online purchases using credit cards and alternative payment methods. Expanding on payment technology, the data suggest that there is no statistically significant relationship between the method of payment used for online concerts and spending, making the case for multiple payment options for monetisation of online concerts. Conversely, there is a statistically significant relationship between incorporating augmented reality/virtual reality features as well as on-demand business models, with the majority of fans expressing a willingness to spend on the format.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Work of Reproduction in the Age of Digital Art: The Role of ‘Aura’ in the Revitalisation of Vinyl Records and Cassettes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We explain recent popularity in vinyl records by reframing Walter Benjamin’s notion of ‘aura’ in terms of social forces such as alienation and cultural capital. Where he pays attention to specific artefacts’ mechanical reproducibility as a way of assessing their aura, we consider how <italic>mediums</italic> themselves broadly possess variable levels of aura inversely related to their ability to be mechanically reproduced by consumers. The more easily consumers can reproduce a medium, the less aura it possesses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Music Business: Music Contexts, Rights, Data and COVID-19. Edited by Guy Morrow, Daniel Nordgård and Peter Tschmuck Sheets in Ghanaian Recording Studios<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The <italic>split sheet</italic> used at a recording studio is one of the essential means for any creative artist who understands its implementation benefits from the royalties that the creative work generates as it gets commercial merchandise. However, surprisingly, Ghanaian music producers and practitioners are yet to tap into the full potential of this avenue. This paper investigates the awareness and benefits of the <italic>split sheet</italic> among Ghanaian music producers and practitioners in the recording industry and the extent to which they have explored it. Using a mixed-methods mode of inquiry for data collection, we sampled music producers and practitioners (<italic>n</italic> = 218) in Ghana to briefly analyse the moneymaking through <italic>split sheets</italic> of songs available to music practitioners in Ghana’s recording industry. It was noted that 94.9% of respondents were unaware of the <italic>split sheet</italic>, while 92.7% did not know the benefit of the <italic>split sheet</italic>. However, only 4.6% of the respondents had used the <italic>split sheet</italic>. Subsequently, we conclude that the low awareness of the <italic>split sheet</italic> among Ghanaian music producers and practitioners compromises the decorum of the business side of creativity in the Ghanaian recording industry. Therefore, we recommend that more intensive education be undertaken to sensitise Ghanaian music producers and practitioners to the benefit of the <italic>split sheet</italic> in their daily work to enhance revenue generation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Economic Rationale of Music Publishers’ Relationships with Rights Management Entities – Shifting to a Systematic Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As international competition and cooperation in collective rights management evolves, the ecosystem of rights management entities grows. Consequently, the scope of inter-RME organisation across copyright management channels is becoming more complex and thus difficult to manage. Based on the insights of interviews with nine German music publishers and the best practices specified in the Information Technology Infrastructure Library standard for <italic>supplier management</italic>, this paper re-conceptualises a unified model for <italic>RME Relationship Management</italic> for music publishers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Hustla Playbook: Negotiating the Business Politics of Reggae in the Jamaican Rock Music Scene<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The hustla philosophy of the Jamaican economy advocates the use of innovative and/or illicit methods to negotiate the harsh economic realities of the society. From two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Jamaica, I gleaned that local musicians applied this philosophy to support themselves and family. Most notably, local rock musicians used this mindset to survive their disadvantageous position on the periphery of the Jamaican reggae industry. They earned this status because their merger of “foreign” genres with reggae was perceived as undermining the cultural heritage of the Black populace. As a result, my analysis interrogates the attempts of rock musicians to secure work and legitimacy in a precarious and prejudicial job market. Institutionalized prejudices limited the popularity of local rock music and enforced repressive scripts. Despite these disadvantages, the Jamaican rock scene has made major contributions to the music economy by merging rock music with reggae and facilitating innovation and creativity within the contemporary Reggae Revival.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Osborne and Dave Laing† (eds.) (2021). . Intellect. 270 pp. Festivals: Gatekeepers and Bridge Builders in the Music Industries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Showcase festivals are industry events comprising artist showcases and conferences. It may be argued that showcase festivals are an understudied offline field, since their role in configuring and maintaining a festival-like arena and providing a meeting place for the music industries remains largely unexplored from a scholarly point of view, as well as underappreciated and underestimated within the mainstream academic community. Their purpose is to present artists hoping to attract the attention of the core audience: industry professionals looking for new talent to sign and represent. The article provides an empirical study of the Nordic showcase festival by:Larm using theories of gatekeeping, fields and capital.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Conscience? Live Music Streaming: Utility, Capital and Control<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article takes a look at the ever expanding and increasingly commercially significant world of live music streaming through the nexus of electronic dance music. After charting the history of live music streaming, the article outlines the positive impacts that live music streaming has on promotion, sales and preservation of rare ethno-folk musics. However, interviews with industry insiders reveal opaque practices, where copyright enforcement is specifically utilised by a few large broadcasters in such a way as to maintain the dominance of their position within the live music streaming industry. A heightened agency in the hands of major corporations over what music audiences can see or hear is also identified. This article concludes that as live music streaming is co-opted across more music genres, these opaque practices will likely transfer across genre boundaries too. As such, it is important for live music streaming to come under further examination within the academy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue