rss_2.0International Journal of Management and Economics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for International Journal of Management and Economics Journal of Management and Economics 's Cover media use in international marketing: Impact on brand and firm performance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research investigates the influence of brand and customer orientations on social media (SM) marketing engagement and how applications of SM in international marketing affect brand and firm performance in foreign markets. The study relies on a survey of a representative sample of 245 medium and large companies using SM in international branding. Performance metrics include an index of brand performance (BP) in a foreign market and return on assets (ROA). Structural equation modeling analysis reveals the overall effect of SM use in international branding as positive, with brand-image creation and market research being significant contributors to brand and firm performance in a foreign market. SM effectiveness is negatively moderated by foreign partner involvement and centralization degree. Firms co-owned by foreign entities turn out to be more successful than their Polish-only counterparts. Of the two antecedents of SM international marketing engagement, customer orientation is significant for all firms, while brand orientation is meaningful only for those with foreign capital.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-31T00:00:00.000+00:00In-depth literature review analysis of Iraqi economy compared to the oil-exporting neighbors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Foreign aid helps in transforming nations and ensuring that they attain economic development. Foreign aid levels in Iraq are higher than those of its oil-producing neighbors due to numerous factors that are discussed in the present study. Iraq is the second largest oil producer in the Middle East after Saudi Arabia, but some activities within the country have curtailed development, leaving it at the mercy of foreign nations and investors. The present study aims to evaluate the level of foreign aid in Iraq, comparing it to its oil-rich neighbors. It highlights various factors that have increased Iraq's dependence on foreign aid and the role and management of this assistance. The article shows how negative factors like war, poor governance, and corruption have contributed to the over-reliance on foreign aid, in spite of Iraqbeing endowed with natural resources. The qualitative evaluation of the development of Iraq's oil aid reveals that continued reliance on foreign aid will jeopardizes the country's economic development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Who gains more from networking? A comparative study of Polish exporting and non-exporting SMEs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Paper’s objectives</title> <p>The paper aims to identify differences in the perceived benefits of cooperation in domestic and foreign networks achieved by Polish small and medium enterprise (SME) exporters and non-exporters.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods applied</title> <p>A quantitative study was conducted using computer-assisted telephone interviewing and computer-assisted web interviewing on 240 Polish exporting and non-exporting SMEs. The <italic>t</italic>-test and correlation analysis were used to investigate the phenomena under study.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Findings</title> <p>While exporting SMEs attach greater importance to networking with foreign partners than non-exporting ones, domestic partners are of equal importance for exporting and non-exporting firms. Exporting SMEs perceive local business partners to have more influence on their market success than foreign ones. Exporting SMEs benefit more from networking than non-exporting companies.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Originality/value</title> <p>The paper compares the importance of local and foreign network partners for the market success of exporting and non-exporting SMEs, contributing to both internationalization and entrepreneurial literature.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Forms of COVID-19 state aid by beneficiary size in Poland in 2020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lockdowns imposed by the European Union (EU) Member States produced significant consequences in the form of losses to companies, which is why the Member States decided to assist businesses from public funds. This paper aims to identify and initially assess the implementation of schemes under which coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-related state aid was granted in Poland in 2020 for different instruments and beneficiary sizes. The idea was to find out how well aforementioned schemes responded to the needs of companies affected the most by the COVID-19-inflicted crisis. To this end, statistical analysis was deployed to learn about the share of individual groups of businesses of different sizes in support instruments granted in relation with COVID-19 by type of aid. The study helped to demonstrate that Polish aid schemes approved by the European Commission in 2020 assisted mainly micro- and small-sized companies, which usually suffered from poor liquidity, by predominantly soft instruments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial additionality: the role of cooperation with research institutions in fostering technological maturity of enterprises<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main aim of the article is to examine how cooperation with research institutions influences technological maturity of enterprises. It is accompanied with the additional aim, which is to assess the role of innovation policy interventions in this process, as captured by the concept of behavioral additionality, which is one of the externalities of public support for R&amp;D. The focus of this article is put on one of the specific types of behavioral additionality—cooperation additionality—which takes place in the situation where public support influences the collaboration behavior of a firm receiving R&amp;D support. The study was conducted with the use of firm-level data collected in a survey on the sample of 464 enterprises operating within national smart specializations in Poland. The results of the research suggest that public funding fosters the cooperation between scientific institutions and enterprises, thus confirms the cooperation additionality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Don’t tell me stories – the narratives of retirement and their relation with brand associations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Purpose</title> <p>The concept of cultural branding based on various narratives has been established in the marketing literature, but there is a lack of studies linking this concept with brand-related effects. The aim of this paper is to explore and explain the possible relationships between various brand narratives based on the changing meaning of retirement and brand associations.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Design/methodology/approach</title> <p>An experimental design was used to test the proposed conceptual model and examine the impact of brand narrative on brand associations. Data were collected using an online survey from a random group of 432 respondents and analyzed using MANOVA.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Findings</title> <p>Our research did not confirm that in the case of financial products, brand narratives represented by distinctive retirement cultural codes had an impact on brand associations. Partial relation was found only for brand personality.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Originality</title> <p>This is the first study that explores brand narratives’ based on cultural codes relations with brand associations.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Startup Accelerators<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Accelerators have been becoming increasingly popular among young entrepreneurs interested in developing products, attracting investors, or establishing relations with industry represented by large companies.</p> <p>The focus of the studies is to conduct literature review due to the small number of scientific articles are available on this topic. The article aims to show the current state of knowledge about startup accelerators and the support they provide. It outlines what added value accelerators offer in their programs for young innovative companies.</p> <p>To achieve the stated aim, the authors combine a systematic literature review with a bibliometric analysis. The results of this research will be helpful in better matching the developed project with existing accelerator programs on the market. It can contribute to a better understanding of the principles governing the programs, program expectations of the accelerator and its partners with respect to the proposed solutions (corporations, business angels, and venture capital funds).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Poland and global value chains at the beginning of the 21st century – An opportunity or a threat?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article aims to examine and present trade relations in global value chains (GVCs) and their impact on Polish trade, emphasizing Poland's ability to react to rapid changes in the global economy, as in the case of the COVID-19 pandemic. For this purpose, the author proposed a two-stage study. The first stage focuses on analyzing selected indexes describing the Polish share and position in GVCs against the background of the European Union (EU) and OECD countries. The second stage is related to the analysis of the latest economic trade data and the reaction of Poland, the EU, and OECD to changes in international trade in 2020 and 2021 in the context of GVC. The study uses data from the OECD and WTO Trade in Value Added Database and the Eurostat Database. The relatively quick adaptation of Poland to the world's standards indicates great possibilities for adaptation of the Polish economy. The share of foreign value added in Polish exports was consistent with global trends. The export orientation of Polish production increased during the analyzed period, proving Poland's deep commitment to global production chains. Despite a similar decline in import and export in the first months of 2020, as in the OECD and the EU26, the growth dynamics in the following months were higher in Poland. Many industries in Poland are highly dependent on the smooth operation of GVCs. At the same time, the service sector is gaining importance, and its share in exports is systematically growing. The highly flexible nature of Poland's international trade allowed it to reduce the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on its economy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessing the diversification risk of a single equity market: evidence from the largest European stock indexes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Diversification of financial securities is considered a substantial element of portfolio risk. In this context, the construction of an optimal portfolio is an ongoing concern for portfolio managers. This study measures the risk–reward tradeoffs linked to the stock indexes of Germany, Spain, Italy, France, and England. First, the stock indexes are analyzed as individual portfolios and later compared to the hypothetical common equity index. The results show diversification benefits gained from a hypothetical common European stock market. Individual stock prices and trade volumes are collected weekly from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2018. The results indicate that, on average, the most well-diversified equity indexes are IBEX35, FTSE MIB, and FTSE100. In contrast, DAX, MDAX, and CAC40 on average tend to be less diversified. The diversification risk for DAX, MDAX, and CAC40 decreases from joining a common hypothetical stock market, while for FTSE100, FTSE MIB, and IBEX it increases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-13T00:00:00.000+00:00List of reviewers in 2021 over the reasons for Sweden's economic success: Nima Sanandaji and his critics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>I analyze selected views of the well-known Swedish analyst of Nordic economies, Nima Sanandaji, on the reasons for the economic (and social) successes of Sweden and other Nordic countries in the 20th and 21st centuries. My aim is not to provide a detailed and full appraisal of these views but to confront them with the arguments of Sanandaji's critics. Only occasionally do I supplement the arguments of Sanandaji's commentators with additional comments of my own.</p> <p>In particular, my interests include the following theses of Sanandaji: the thesis that Sweden's prosperity arose before the development of the welfare state, which contributed little to its creation; the thesis that other Swedish successes (health, small inequalities, equal opportunities) are wrongly attributed to the Swedish welfare state or are far from complete; the thesis that there is very limited scope for other countries to copy the Swedish (Nordic) experience.</p> <p>In the Conclusion, I comment on the reception of Sanandaji's views in Poland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of customer capital on company's market value: An empirical study from 100 U.S. stock market leaders<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>The aim of the paper is to establish the relationship between the customer capital and the company's market value (MV). Examining this impact seems justified as the topic has been rarely investigated till now.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>The regression analysis was used to achieve the research objective. We analyzed reports of 100 U.S. stock market leaders for 2018, which were prepared in accordance with the requirements of International Financial Reporting Standard 3 «Business Combinations» and included information about customer capital.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Findings</title> <p>The hypothesis that the customer capital has a direct impact on the company's MV is confirmed by the results of this study.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Practical implication</title> <p>The proposed regression model (Model 3) can be used for needs of value-based management.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Originality/value</title> <p>Customer capital as a tool of value-based management is a poorly studied topic in the context of understanding the importance of the role of intangibles in creating value for company.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Perception of formal and informal institutions by entrepreneurs in China, Morocco, and Germany – A cross-cultural pilot study<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction and Aims</title><p>Entrepreneurship and the business environment, in general, are being influenced by the existence of formal and informal institutions. This study focuses on the negative versus positive perceptions of Moroccan, Chinese, and German entrepreneurs to formal and informal institutions, and the associations of these perceptions with self-efficacy and market versus network orientation of the business environment.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>In a sample of <italic>n</italic> = 319 female and male entrepreneurs, we have examined similarities and differences in the perception of informal and formal institutions and their effects on self-efficacy and business strategy, while conducting <italic>t</italic>-tests and linear regressions.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>In all three cultural contexts, both formal and informal institutions play a significant role because of different reasons.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>The nature of entrepreneurship is complex as both formal and informal institutional factors are differently associated with businesses. The results could enhance the understanding regarding the coexistence of formal or informal institutions within the business environments of different countries and the connections between business orientation and self-efficacy.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-06T00:00:00.000+00:00International Brand Strategies. The Perspective of the Companies from Emerging Markets investigation of brand equity dimensions and customer retention: A perspective of postpaid telecom subscribers in Lagos State, Nigeria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study investigates brand equity dimensions and customer retention of the Nigerian telecommunications industry. Cross-sectional research design was adopted to survey 368 postpaid subscribers. The respondents were selected through multistage sampling techniques. The four dimensions of brand equity (brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, and brand loyalty) were found to be correlated with one another and with overall brand equity. Similarly, the four dimensions were correlated to and significantly predicted customer retention. The study concluded that improvement of all the four dimensions of brand equity is indispensably vital to customer retention in the mobile telecom industry. The study recommended that telecom operator that is desirous of sustaining high brand notch in the marketplace should intensify their effort to improve on all the four dimensions of brand equity to enhance subscribers’ retention. Findings of this study fill important gaps and contribute to the body of literature related to brand equity dimensions and customer retention from customers’ perspective.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Passing on negative interest rates<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Since the ECB has lowered the interest rate on deposits into negative territory, more and more commercial banks are also passing on this negative interest rate to their customers. The main aim of this paper is to answer the question under which conditions the commercial banking sector will be more or less reluctant to pass the negative deposit rate on to its private customers. We first clarify the circumstances under which demand deposits and excess liquidity arise, and what role quantitative easing plays in this context. Within a game-theoretical framework, it is derived that the pressure to pass on the negative interest rate is particularly high if there are no switching costs, and the banking market follows a Bertrand competition.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00List of reviewers in 2020