rss_2.0International Journal of Management and Economics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for International Journal of Management and Economics Journal of Management and Economics Feed work in Poland: Worker characteristics and prevalence in society<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>One of the new trends in modern economies is the development of platform-mediated work (PMW), also known as the gig economy. The current article aims to discuss the results of the original survey to determine the number and structure of gig workers among the adult residents of Poland; this discussion is based on the broader context of the existing knowledge on the subject pertaining to society and also focuses on the plans for the future.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Methods applied</title> <p>This article is based on the systematic literature review and the findings of the survey conducted on a representative nationwide sample of 3,165 Polish residents aged 18–70.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Findings</title> <p>The survey carried out in July 2021, showed that, in Poland, online or offline PMW was performed by about 16% of the investigated population over the year and by about 8% over the month. Moreover, an increase in the interest in platform work is expected.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Originality value</title> <p>PMW is a relatively rare phenomenon, which is difficult to measure. The present article proposes a research approach that can be used to establish the prevalence and prospects of PMW in Poland.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue as an important element of a food retailer’s business model: A managerial view<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study is to explore how geomarketing becomes a key element in managing the business model (BM) of an established retailer on the food market. The survey sample comprised 244 stores, whose managers were questioned by means of a semi-structured interview in 2021. Cluster analysis was used to assess 40 statements from the managers about the BMs of the current store. The resulting clusters indicate, among others, that large retailers devote more and more attention to the analysis of a territory, and their decision-making deepens even more due to the use of a multi-format strategy on the food market. The article contributes to the discussion about the market within geomarketing research in terms of both theory and practice at a time when the population’s income is expected to decrease due to several crises, for example, health-economic and energy, on the food market.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Shaping the Future of Leasing in Poland. The Role of External Shocks, Regulations, and Emerging Technologies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to identify and evaluate the key trends in the leasing sector in Poland from the perspective of both the present situation and the coming years. The literature review and the conducted In-Depth Interviews among senior executives of leasing businesses in Poland and among representatives of the Polish Leasing Association enabled us to determine the following list of contemporary trends that are relevant to the leasing sector: the circular economy, the sharing economy and product-as-a-service, incidental and shock-related changes, digitalization, automation and robotization, as well as the development of the electric vehicle segment. Furthermore, many of these phenomena fit into the broader concept of so-called sustainable finance. All of the indicated trends were deemed as relevant by the experts. The leasing sector has not yet reached the maximum of its potential for market expansion in Poland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of reviewers in 2023 sector cash holding – optimal levels, macro context, or external shocks?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this paper is to validate the existence of an extensively documented secular upward trend in corporate cash holding. To do this, we use the new data for Poland and review original datasets from <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_ijme-2023-0018_ref_007">Bates et al. [2009]</xref> for the U.S. We find no trace of a trend for Poland and believe most trends for the U.S. come from the cash piling toward the end of the sample period. At best, the U.S. trend applies merely to small firms. We believe cash holding is a period-dependent time-varying variable which also depends on external shocks (e.g., the pandemic or tax regulations). We show that simple addition of macro data (GDP in our case) vastly improves models focused only on optimal cash holding and firm-specific characteristics. We call for a new three-stage approach to study corporate cash, in which micro considerations are complemented by macro data and external liquidity shock analysis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue events and their role in portfolio optimization of generations X, Y, and Z<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We examine how generations X, Y, and Z might react to market-moving events over short- and long-term horizons to maintain an optimal balance among risk, return, and investor preferences. To analyze various portfolio variants, we use data on selected global assets and several types of economic and non-economic events for 2000-2021H1, applying the mean-variance optimization procedure. According to our results, in optimal portfolios, fixed-income assets dominate and are the main driver of portfolio adjustments. Portfolios with short-term horizons with less risk-averse investors and those for generation Z are the most reactive to analyzed types of events. None of the events <italic>per se</italic> creates an extraordinary opportunity to increase returns. However, expansionary monetary policy generates the greatest potential for incremental returns. Our findings provide practical implications for investors on how to adjust their portfolios in response to significant market events.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Russian invasion of Ukraine and the exchange rate of the Polish zloty: A fallacy of monetary autonomy?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We use the Twitter application programming interface to construct a novel indicator capturing the varying perceptions of geopolitical risk related to the war in Ukraine. We show that the Twitter variable is a statistically significant determinant of the EUR/PLN exchange rate following the invasion. We estimate that the war in Ukraine was responsible for an increase in the EUR/PLN exchange rate of about 5.0% in the first 2 weeks following its breakout and that the weakening of PLN contributed to an increase of headline inflation in Poland by about 0.33 percentage points. Our findings suggest that monetary policy autonomy can be substantially constrained due to conflicts in nearby countries. Therefore, they provide an argument for Poland in seeking Eurozone membership as a way to contain the impact of geopolitical factors on exchange rate volatility, which is likely to remain at play in the longer run.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue dark side of social relationships – the context of the video game industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Paper’s objectives</title> <p>The paper aims to explore the negative impacts of social relationships (SR) on business activity. As a research context, the video game industry (VGI) and the video game developers’ (VGDs) relationships are analyzed.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Design/methods</title> <p>17 semistructured in-depth interviews and 1 focus group interview with Polish VGDs were conducted.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Findings</title> <p>(1) support for five negatives of SR previously discussed in the literature (2) recognition of the four original negatives (i.e., employee turnover, buying up employees, inefficiency/termination of interorganizational cooperation, and confidential information leakage); and (3) recognition of the harmful results of SR as an industry-dependent issue.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Originality/value</title> <p>(1) Analyzing the negative consequences of SR for business, which is less frequently considered compared to the positive consequences of these relationships for business; (2) identifying dark sides previously unidentified in the literature; and (3) using the VGI as the research context.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue direct employment impact of public investment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We evaluate the direct employment effect of the public investment in key infrastructure ‒ electricity, roads, schools and hospitals, and water and sanitation. Using rich firm-level panel data from 41 countries over 19 years, we estimate that US$1 million of public spending on infrastructure creates 3–7 jobs in advanced economies, 10–17 jobs in emerging market economies, and 16–30 jobs in low-income developing countries. As a comparison, US$1 million in public spending on R&amp;D yields 5–11 jobs in R&amp;D in OECD countries. Green investment and investment with a larger R&amp;D component deliver a higher employment effect. Overall, we estimate that 1% of global GDP in public investment can create more than seven million jobs worldwide through its direct employment effects alone.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue global cross-border mergers and acquisitions network between 1990 and 2021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The literature is characterized by a lack of research analyzing cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&amp;A) as a network. This article aims to evaluate the topology properties (the geographical and sectoral structure) of the global CBM&amp;A network in 1990–2021. A quantitative study is conducted by using the social network analysis (SNA) method. The countries’ structural power in this global system is measured by the centrality indicators. From a geographical perspective, the study shows that in 1990–2021, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, and France occupied the most central place in the network. From the beginning of the 21st century, there has also been a marked increase in the importance of Asian countries, with China and India receiving a large inflow of foreign capital. In turn, entities from Hong Kong, Singapore, Japan, and China invested heavily abroad through M&amp;A. The Asian countries’ economies also played the role of important intermediaries in the global CBM&amp;A network. From a sectoral perspective, it can be stated that in 1990–2021, mainly entities operated in the financial, industrial, basic materials, technology, and consumer cyclical sectors made transactions in the global CBM&amp;A network. They were also the main investment targets within this network.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and threats to shaping energy security in the conditions of development and use of new technologies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article aims to show the areas in which technological changes will take place to bring about energy security, and the prerequisites and costs. It has been assumed that technological progress will contribute to the development of energy markets and increase the level of energy security. Changes in energy markets are a necessity. Energy is a source of economic competitiveness. The ability to produce cheap energy and in quantities adequate to needs is a social and economic development factor. The opportunities for change will be the need for new energy sources, instability in the energy markets, as well as technological progress. New technological solutions allow for better energy demand and supply management and preparing forecasts for increases/decreases in the energy demand. The threats are high costs of introducing new technologies and the necessity of implementing many investments at the same time, which require changes in entire systems. Investments require a long period of time and anticipation of trends.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’ organizational resilience in post-COVID times<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper is theoretical and empirical. Its basic purpose is to examine the resilience of organizational startups during the post-COVID-19 pandemic. The basic research method used in the study was CAWI. The group of surveyed companies consisted of startups operating in Zachodniopomorskie, Wielkopolskie, and Lubuskie voivodeships. The survey covered 62 enterprises in 2022. The research revealed that owing to their organizational resilience the startups were able to adapt to the changes in the market. Thus, on the one hand, they were able to quickly tailor their offer to the current needs of customers, and on the other hand, they could modify the processes taking place inside the company. As a result of these measures, the startups increased their revenues, which may directly determine the future competitiveness of the surveyed companies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in income taxation: are taxes converging in Central and Eastern European countries?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper examines the convergence of tax systems in Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) over the period 1995–2018. Due to the increasing impact of tax competition, we have focused on income taxes, in particular, corporate ones. We have identified the factors that influence the taxation system and trends in income taxation in the CEECs by adapting the hidden Markov model approach. We find that many CEECs have reduced income taxation in the analysis period, mainly by lowering tax rates. Corporate income taxes have also decreased in many CEECs in the same period; however, the reverse has been observed too. Both convergence and divergence have been identified among the CEECs over the period considered. The speed of these processes based on the used variables varied depending on both exogenous and endogenous factors. These factors have been diagnosed as being specific to the periods of tax reforms, i.e., before and after accession to the European Union (EU) and the global financial crisis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue quality among high-share liquidity companies: evidence from Central and Eastern European firms<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Paper’s objectives</title> <p>The main aim of the paper is to analyze the earnings quality of high-share liquidity companies from Poland, Romania, and Hungary whose activities are outside the finance sector.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Methods applied</title> <p>Earnings quality, i.e., earnings persistence, predictability, and accruals quality, was assessed using the Kruskal–Wallis test, the <italic>U</italic> Mann–Whitney test, the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test, and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Findings</title> <p>The research demonstrates that companies listed in the Bucharest Stock Exchange tend to provide higher earnings quality than other firms in the CEEplus index. In the tested sample, there was a noticeable domination of managerial practices aimed at managing the earnings downward. This also happened in 2020, the period negatively affected by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Originality/value</title> <p>This study fills a gap in the literature regarding the quality of accounting data reported among listed companies from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) countries that are characterized by high liquidity of shares.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue ranking of economic growth toward sustainable growth with grey system theory: the case of small countries in advanced and emerging economies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article refers to the new Synthetic Efficiency Indicator for Economic Growth (SEI-EG) proposed in an earlier publication. Research from 2016–2018 in 11 EU countries revealed small nations were notably more effective at sustainable growth than their larger counterparts. This prompted the authors to ask about the differences between small countries with developed economies and small countries with lower levels of development joining the EU in 2004. The article aims to determine the relative efficiency of transforming growth inputs and debt into sustainability outcomes for small countries in the EU using the SEI-EG index over the period 2016–2020. The study group symmetrically includes six countries each from developed economies and six countries that joined the EU in 2004. The adopted indicator complements the expanded SDGs and aligns with the trend linking research inputs to sustainable development effects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue inequality among European households and their biological type<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the socioeconomic development of each country, income rates constitute a measure of the economic situation. They are also the principle factor influencing social stratification. When discussing the income of European households in a regional approach, one may analyze changes, regional development indicators, and the degree to which needs are satisfied. It is underlined in the relevant literature that the differences observed across macroeconomic and microeconomic indicators are reflected in the phenomenon of income inequality, and their levels are also differentiated by the biological type of households. In view of the above, this study analyzed the financial standing of households from the spatial standpoint (selected EU countries) and considered the fractions of households isolated based on their biological composition in the light of inequality indices: Gini, Atkinson, and Theil. Inequality rates were computed using the median net equivalized income. The material examined in this study consisted of secondary data collected and published in the Eurostat database.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue deterioration in rule of law per se create or destroy value?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We investigate the link between the rule of law and equity returns in post-transitional economies over the period January 2010–December 2020 by using panel data regressions. By applying several rule-of-law proxies for national legal frameworks and justice system quality as proxies for the rule-of-law principle, the data sets from the capital markets of Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia showed that country-level judicial system quality is an important driver of company market performance, and that post-transitional countries with lower rule-of-law measures exhibit higher returns on equity than those with better measures. Our results support the idea that since poor governance and country instability increase agency and transaction costs, in addition to decreasing growth prospects and profitable projects available to companies, the risk premium demanded by investors increases, leading to higher equity returns.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue hotel employees’ work engagement and its service outcomes: The critical role of intrinsic motivation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Purpose</title> <p>The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between intrinsic job-related motivators and hotel employees’ work engagement and to examine how it may correlate with important employees’ outcomes, such as the prescribed-role and extra-role customer service.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Design/methodology/approach</title> <p>The literature review and empirical research based on a survey method were employed.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Findings</title> <p>The findings revealed that there is a positive and significant correlation between intrinsic job-related motivators and hotel employees’ work engagement. It was also demonstrated that work engagement significantly and positively correlates with both the prescribed-role and extra-role customer service provided by employees.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Originality/value</title> <p>This study adds to the growing body of research on employees’ work motivation, particularly focusing on the intrinsic dimension that it has still not received enough empirical attention in the literature of both hotel management and marketing.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue