rss_2.0Sanitarno inženirstvo International Journal of Sanitary Engineering Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Sanitarno inženirstvo International Journal of Sanitary Engineering Research inženirstvo International Journal of Sanitary Engineering Research Feed A critical review of preventive and control measures in the context of the virus’ characteristics<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The year 2020 has been marked by the novel coronavirus, named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease COVID-19. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared a global pandemic on the 11<sup>th</sup> of March 2020 due to the spread of this very contagious virus throughout the world. Since the outbreak, we have gained many insights about the virus, its presence and persistence in the environment and its possible and most common transmission routes. Such knowledge about the virus is invaluable for establishing effective preventive and control measures (also referred to as Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs)) that have become a key to tackling this pandemic in the absence of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. In this review, we discuss five main groups of NPIs: 1) ventilation, 2) cleaning and disinfection, 3) hand hygiene, 4) physical distancing, and 5) protective masks. We explore their shortcomings and potential negative consequences that might occur as unwanted side effects.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue“A farmer’s time is expensive”: A qualitative study exploring the knowledge attitudes and perceptions of farmers regrading health and safety in Northern Ireland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The agricultural sector is important to Northern Ireland (NI) as it accounts for almost 10% of all jobs and 75% of all land usage. Despite a reduction in fatalities in other sectors, the number of fatalities in the agricultural sector in NI has remained stubbornly consistent. This research looked to use qualitative data to explore the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and factors that influence health and safety measures and controls. Using a snowball sampling technique, a number of semi structure interviews were undertaken with participants to explore these areas. The findings of these semi-structured interviews identified six key themes: the importance of health and safety; the impact of poor health and safety; different generational attitudes; fear; time management and finance. This revealed that although participants feel they have some level of knowledge around health and safety, they felt this was lacking. However, a lack of knowledge did not mean they were unaware of the importance of health and safety and its potential impacts, although they perceived that farmers of a different generation to themselves were more at risk. Participants also indicated they were willing to make value judgements, where the need for action and cost of health and safety outweighs the importance implementing appropriate measures and control. Therefore, despite understanding the importance of health and safety, until the cost benefit equation is rebalanced for farmers in NI they still face significant risks to their health and safety.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue activity of the volatile phase of essential oils and their constituents on<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Pathogenic bacteria of the genus <italic>Legionella</italic> cause atypical pneumonia known as Legionnaires’ disease and flu – like disease known as Pontiac fever. As pathogens of the respiratory system, these bacteria represent a public health problem and there is a need for examine new alternative ways to inactivate them. These bacteria live naturally in water and are transmitted by infectious aerosols. To purify the air, essential oils that show antimicrobial properties are widely used. The anti-<italic>Legionella</italic> activity of five exotic essential oils and five Mediterranean essential oils characteristic for coastal Croatia was examined. Model organism used in experiments was <italic>L. pneumophila</italic> (strain 130b). This experiment was conducting with modified version of sealed plate method using a BCYE medium. The exotic essential oil with highest anti-<italic>Legionella</italic> activity was Niaouli essential oil, and the best anti-<italic>Legionella</italic> activity among Mediterranean essential oils showed Immortelle essential oil. Anti- <italic>Legionella</italic> activity of four main chemical compounds was examined and compound that show significant highest anti-<italic>Legionella</italic> activity was α – pinene. Volatile components of essential oils have a great potential as anti-<italic>Legionella</italic> agents and further research are needed.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue evaluation of the effectiveness of nudge techniques in improving hygiene behaviours in Kindergartens<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Good hygiene practice is an important element in terms of preventing the spread of infections, but it is not always carried out according to instructions among employees in hygienically sensitive work processes. To improve this, tools for nudging hygienic behaviour have been developed, which subconsciously encourage the individual to perform the desired hygienic behaviour. Examples of activity where employees and children constantly come into contact with pathogenic microorganisms are educational institutions (kindergartens). By observing the working process in the selected kindergartens, we wanted to determine the time, technique, and frequency of handwashing among childcare workers and children. In the case of the first ones, we wanted to find out whether they also wear personal protective work equipment. Based on the findings, we wanted to implement the selected nudging tools for better hygiene behaviour. In the first half of the observation, we found that the hygienic behaviour regarding handwashing of childcare workers and children is poor. After setting the nudging tools, hygienic behaviour improved in all the observed groups. The results suggest that the use of nudging tools in kindergartens can significantly contribute to the better implementation of hygienic behaviour (especially handwashing) in childcare workers and children. Consequently, we conclude that with the tools for promoting hygiene behaviour, the incidence of infectious diseases in kindergartens can be reduced. We can direct children towards the healthier and hygienically appropriate way of life by means of the appropriate hygiene behaviour.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue formation capacity of on silicone, polyethylene terephthalate, Teflon, and aluminium food contact materials<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Biofilms on food contact materials represent public health issues because they are resistant to cleaning and disinfection. This study aims to assess the <italic>Bacillus cereus</italic> biofilm formation capacity on silicone, polyethylene terephthalate, Teflon, and aluminium food contact materials. The biofilm biomass was analysed with the crystal violet assay method. We used the standard strain <italic>B. cereus</italic> CCM 2010, wild strain <italic>B. cereus</italic> 100 and spores of those two strains. The results show that both the vegetative form the bacteria and it spores form large amounts of biofilm on silicone, followed by polyethylene terephthalate, Teflon, and aluminium. More detailed analysis has shown that spores form more biomass on all materials in comparison to the vegetative form and that the standard strains form low levels of biofilm in contrast to the wild strains. Selecting proper material with the lowest biofilm formation potential can prevent or reduce food contamination and consequently increase food safety.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue“How can you be allergic to peas?” – A qualitative study to explore food handler’s knowledge, attitudes and understanding of food allergens<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>It is clear that there is an increasing proportion of the United Kingdom (UK) population who are suffering with food allergies and this combined with an increase in the frequency of eating away from home (where there is less control over the content of food) poses a significant risk. In December 2014, the European Union (EU) introduced legislation which aimed to ensure that customers with food allergens could make informed choices and safely consume food, without the risk of a potentially life-threatening reaction. The research used semi-structured interviews with staff from a BCB, located in the North West of the UK, as the aim of the research was to explore food handlers’ knowledge, attitudes and understanding of food allergens. The findings of the semi-structured interviews identified five themes: E-learning training programmes: the staff felt that these were ineffective and did not take into account individual learning styles. Responsibility: there is a lack of clarity as to who is responsible, with staff believing the key responsibility lies with the customer. Communication: similarly, communication, both within the kitchen and within the company was not clear and likely to give rise to confusion. Need to make a profit: the staff felt that the drive for profit meant that customer safety was being compromised, especially when staff numbers were reduced. Staff awareness: the staff felt confident in their own ability to prepare a safe meal but indicated that staff may be dismissive towards claims of allergen sufferers. In conclusion, these themes illustrate that a significant risk exists for allergen suffers, who rely upon the knowledge, attitudes and understanding of BCB staff to ensure their meals are safely prepared.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue incidence of rotavirus infection compared to bacterial infections in different age groups of pediatric patients with gastroenteritis<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Rotavirus is the important cause of acute gastroenteritis in pediatric patients. The aim of the present research was to determine the incidence of rotavirus infections in infants and children up to seven years of age in the town of Niš. Seasonal prevalence of rotavirus-associated acute gastroenteritis was also evaluated. An enzyme immunoassay (RIDASCREEN<sup>®</sup> Rotavirus; R-Biopharm AG, Darmstadt, Germany) was used to detect rotavirus in the stool specimens of 1,156 patients (newborns up to 7 years of age) presenting with gastroenteritis. Identification of bacteria and yeasts was performed by classical methods. The overall incidence of rotavirus in examined children was 5.97%. Among 144 hospitalized children, rotavirus infection was diagnosed in 28 (19.44%). In 1,012 children treated in outpatient setting for diarrheal diseases, rotaviruses were found in 41 (4.05%). The highest incidence of rotavirus infection was among the patients of one year of age. Among 1,156 pediatric children tested, bacterial pathogens were found in 6.31% and the most frequently isolated pathogens were <italic>Campylobacter</italic> spp. and <italic>Salmonella</italic> e<italic>nteritidis.</italic> The highest prevalence of GE was recorded in the colder season, peaking in April (15.94%). Rotaviruses are an important factor in the etiology of the acute diarrheal diseases, especially in children hospitalized during the winter/spring season.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue and strategies in the education of primary school children related to microbiological food safety – a review<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Teaching microbiological food safety and food safety in general at the primary school level is crucial, because behaviour is more easily influenced at that stage. The purpose of this review was to identify challenges in the education of primary school children related to microbiological food safety and to review the type of activities published and evaluated in the scientific literature targeting primary school children. The most frequently applied approach in the reviewed studies is target population-tailored workshops. The knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) model is most widely used for evaluation purposes, based mostly on the self-report and recall levels. Studies that compared theoretical and practical educational approaches unanimously demonstrated that theoretical awareness is not effective for changing and maintaining appropriate behaviour, whereas experiences had a significant impact. The review highlighted the differences and deficiencies in home economic teachers regarding formal education. The development of proper teaching methodologies and educators seems to be the key to the achievement of aware, confident, and skilled students (on the consumer level) during primary education.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue