rss_2.0International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems FeedSciendo RSS Feed for International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems Feed Sensor based Human Detection Robots: A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many natural disasters occur in today's world, resulting in the loss of human life. The application of sensor technology would not stop natural disasters from happening, but it will help those who are affected. It will take time and effort to find the humans who are still alive beneath the rubbles. Ordinary bots that are assigned to rescue missions involving the discovery of living humans trapped beneath massive piles of debris are ordinarily subject to repeated harm arising from continuous contact with the damaged structures. As a result, a significant demand for sensors exists. Sensors are becoming more important as a means of gathering sensory data from the affected area. It is possible to locate humans who are still alive, as well as ascertain the condition of victims who require immediate medical attention in order to survive, using this information. The primary goal of this study is to provide an overview of current sensor-based rescue robot research. Several papers were reviewed in the areas of design, interfacing, controlling, simulation, and applications. Furthermore, this review discusses the use of sensors in the detection of humans as well as the potential for future developments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue detection model using multi-scale superpixel and body-part segmentation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A backpack is a type of carried object (CO) widely used for various purposes because of its practicality. Various valuable items such as wallets, laptops, cameras, and cellphones may be kept in backpacks. Detecting backpacks in video surveillance is challenging due to their varying shapes, sizes, and colors. The process of localizing the area of the backpack in the image is a critical stage and dramatically influences the success of detection. This paper focuses on the process of localizing the backpack area through a multi-scale segmentation approach, where different scales are intended to detect the various size of the backpacks. Based on the assumption that the backpack is generally located above the bend line, the body-part method is then used to select superpixels. The selected superpixel feature is then extracted and used to train the model. Model testing is carried out in two scenarios. In the first scenario, the model is tested using the HOG (histogram of oriented gradients) feature, while in the second scenario, the model is tested using a combination of the HOG and histogram features. The experiment results show that on the DIKE20 dataset, the proposed model obtained an average F1 score of 69%. On PETS2006 and i-LIDS datasets, the proposed model shows an average F1 score of 68%, better than the average F1 score obtained by the state-of-the-art method.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Comparison of Statistical vs. Neural-Based Translation System on Low-Resource Languages<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the important applications for which natural language processing (NLP) is used is the machine translation (MT) system, which automatically converts one natural language to another. It has witnessed various paradigm shifts since its inception. Statistical machine translation (SMT) has dominated MT research for decades. In the recent past, researchers have focused on developing MT systems based on artificial neural networks (ANN). In this paper, first, some important deep learning models that are mostly exploited in Neural Machine Translation (NMT) design are discussed. A systematic comparison was done between the performances of SMT and NMT concerning the English-to-Bangla and English-to-Hindi translation tasks. Most of the Indian scripts are morphologically rich, and the availability of a sufficient corpus is rare. We have presented and analyzed our work and a survey was conducted on other low-resource languages, and finally some useful conclusions have been drawn.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of glucose levels in urine based on classification using -nearest neighbor algorithm method<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Glucose monitoring carried out through the urine testing to make it easier for patients to check their blood sugar without having to physically injure themselves and to prevent external bacteria from entering the body, which happens while using needles. This study aims to classify glucose-containing urine specimens based on diabetes levels by using the K-nearest neighbor method. Classification of urine specimens is achieved by using the Benedict method to produce the color of the urine specimen and the AS7262 sensor to detect the color produced by the specimen. The results showed that the classification of data on urine specimens has an accuracy of 96.33%. Previous studies conducted this experiment using a photodiode sensor and a TCS sensor, which produced red, green, and blue (RGB) colors. For identifying the color of a specimen, the AS7262 sensor can produce six colors (red, green, blue, yellow, violet, and orange) to identify the glucose level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Construction Work Zone on Urban Traffic Environment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives</title> <p>Traffic management is challenging during construction because of the effects of traffic congestion, travel time, delay, and queue length. Long-term work zones on urban roads lead to many problems such as speed, inconvenience, and economic losses to drivers, which are focused on in previous studies.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Moreover, due to the construction work zone (CWZ), the impact on environmental factors such as air quality and noise levels was not focused on. Because of the building work zones, this research focused on comprehending how traffic congestion measurements and environmental factors affect urban traffic management.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Findings</title> <p>The present research uses TransCAD to estimate air pollution due to increased traffic in the urban areas. Furthermore, three nonlinear AI-based models (ANFIS, FFNN, and SVR) and one linear black box model were developed to predict the noise level in the city, in which each contained the total traffic and speed as well as the ratio of heavy vehicles in the traffic.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Novelty</title> <p>For traffic control, a variety of techniques are available, including video data analysis, infrared sensors, inductive loop detection, wireless sensor networks, etc. These are all practical techniques for efficient traffic management. It is necessary to conduct studies on the amount of traffic, the topography, accidents, time delays, and the level of safety offered in the work area. Construction operations are facilitated by the implementation of traffic flow, and during this process, long-term CWZs are inevitable. Therefore, the proposed model accomplishes the goal, namely that only analytical research and a few traffic diverter signs point drivers to alternate routes to their destinations.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Algorithms for Multiple Mobile Robots Based on Vision Detection<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Unmanned operating system is applied to various fields. The disadvantages of the single unmanned system, such as its own limitations, poor flexibility, poor ability, low efficiency, cannot be overcome, as the complexity of the tasks continue to increase. As a result, the cooperative operation system of multi-unmanned platforms is gradually regarded as the main trend of the development of unmanned systems. A novel multiple mobile robots co-avoidance scheme and an improved linear formation algorithm are proposed in this paper. The basic principle and programming steps of the algorithm are described in detail. The improved linear formation algorithm is used for simulation studies. The validity and practicability of the line formation algorithm are verified.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Popularity Based Routing in Delay Tolerant Networks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to node’s mobility, Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) feature the nonexistence of end-to- end path between source and destination, frequent topology partitions and extremely high delivery latency, thus posing great challenges to successful message transmission. To improve routing performance and provide high quality communication service, nodes' social characteristics are exploited to routing design recently. Hence, a social popularity based routing algorithm is proposed, named SPBR which takes the inter-contact time and multi-hop neighbor information into consideration. In this paper, we first introduce a method to detect the quality of relation between pair of nodes accurately. Used the reliable relationships, social popularity is proposed to evaluate the social power of node in the network. SPBR makes the routing decisions based on the popularity, leading message closer to destinations with low hops of routing and network resources. Extensive simulations are conducted and the results show that the proposed algorithm significantly improves routing performances compared to Epidemic, Prophet and First Contact (FC), especially SPBR is lower by about 55.1% in overhead ratio and higher by about 22.2% in delivery rate than Epidemic when there are 40 nodes in the networks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Characterization of a Solarbased Energy Harvesting and Power Management System for a WSN Node Applied to Optimized Goods Transport and Storage<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper describes a harvesting and power management system that can be equipped with a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) node in order to harvest energy presents in the environment to be used for sensor node power supply. The proposed scope is to develop a harvesting board exploiting available integrated circuits and devices for extending battery life-cycle of sensor node developed by Medinok SPA. The aim is to realize a WSN able to perform a monitoring of principal physical parameters deemed of interest in a facility, as automatic as possible, for the storage and handling of goods, applied for example to a commercial seaport, where stored containers need to be continuously monitored. Battery life-time is a main problem especially in networks where sensor nodes are not easily accessible. For this reason, sensor nodes are commonly equipped with power management devices able to supply power in an intelligent way from the harvester when harvestable energy is available or from backup batteries ensuring, under every operating conditions, the correct functioning of the sensor node. In this work, a solar-based harvesting system, based on LTC3330 IC, was designed and tested on Medinote sensor node but usable for any device requiring to be fed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analog Wavelet Bases Construction Using Hybrid Optimization Algorithm<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An approach for the construction of optimal analog wavelet bases is presented. First, the definition of an analog wavelet is given. Based on the definition and the least-squares error criterion, a general framework for designing optimal analog wavelet bases is established, which is one of difficult nonlinear constrained optimization problems. Then, to solve this problem, a hybrid algorithm by combining chaotic map particle swarm optimization (CPSO) with local sequential quadratic programming (SQP) is proposed. CPSO is an improved PSO in which the saw tooth chaotic map is used to raise its global search ability. CPSO is a global optimizer to search the estimates of the global solution, while the SQP is employed for the local search and refining the estimates. Benefiting from good global search ability of CPSO and powerful local search ability of SQP, a high-precision global optimum in this problem can be gained. Finally, a series of optimal analog wavelet bases are constructed using the hybrid algorithm. The proposed method is tested for various wavelet bases and the improved performance is compared with previous works.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Grouping of Moving Objects Based on Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, we present a method to identify a grouping of sensor nodes that show similar movement patterns in an ad-hoc manner. The motivation behind the ad-hoc grouping is to allow a system to monitor complex and concrete situations of people and/or devices such as “who is/are utilizing what object(s)” and “what objects are carried together” without any supervision of human before and at the time of interaction. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm was applied to a data stream to find the group members as a set of clusters within a certain height. A threshold was also determined in an unsupervised way based on simple statistics obtained from the previous clustering results. An off-line analysis was conducted on data collected in realistic situations. Although grouping two of the same but unrelated activities proved to be difficult, the proposed algorithm performed well in other relaxed cases such as walking with a bag vs. pushing a platform hand truck. Furthermore, we confirmed the effectiveness of clustering-based grouping in comparison with simple distance-based grouping.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Shortest Paths Among Cities in Java Island Using Node Combination Based on Dijkstra Algorithm<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study focuses on finding the shortest paths among cities in Java Island by repeatedly combining the start node’s nearest neighbor to implement Dijkstra algorithm. Node combination is used to find the shortest path among cities in Java by deleting the node nearest to the start node. The use of memory by node combination is more efficient than the use of memory by the original Disjkstra algorithm. The 46 cities in Java Island will be used to evaluate the performance of finding shortest path. The experimental results show that the accuracy of node combination is 92.88% with the Google Map as the reference. The successful implementation of algorithm in finding the shortest path on the real problem is a good point; therefore, the algorithm can be developed to solve the transportation network problem.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Environmental Sensing Using Device Location as Metadata<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The people-centric sensing community is paying substantial attention to the smartphone as an ad hoc, low-cost, and dense sensing method because it permits people to participate easily in sensing activities, i.e., just by carrying it as usual. People carry their smartphones in various manners, rendering measurement results unreliable. For example, humidity is typically higher in a trouser pocket than around the neck as a result of sweat. In this article, we propose a platform for people-centric sensing that considers the on-body position of a smartphone as metadata. A general architecture is presented, and a universal serial bus-based external sensing module for an Android-based terminal is developed. A heatstroke alert map that visualizes the heatstroke risk is presented as an application based on both the collected raw data and metadata using the platform.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Blind Assessment Method of Image Compression Quality Based on Image Variance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The assessment of image compression result can not only evaluate the quality of image compression results and to a certain extent, can also find the advantages and drawbacks of various compression methods. At the same time, it can provide a reference for the compressed image restoration. Firstly, the classification and shortages of image quality assessment methods are presented. Then, several objective assessment methods usually used for image compression quality are introduced and the recent research progresses are shown. Finally, in view of the shortages of traditional image assessment methods and the existing blind assessment methods, based on image invariance, we propose a blind assessment method of image compression quality by considering the edge detail recovery and artifact removing. Compared with the traditional blind assessment methods, our method is simple in form and evaluation system is easily implemented. The experimental results also show that it is reasonable and effective.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Evaluation for Blind Processing Results of BPSK Signals by Using Phase Spectral Entropy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A credibility test method based on the features of frequency domain entropy of a phase is proposed to evaluate the blind processing results of a BPSK signal. Initially, a reference signal was constructed depending on the certain identified modulation results. By analyzing the differences of the phase of the correlation series between the observed signal and the reference signal, a reliability test problem for the BPSK signal is performed by calculating the phase spectrum entropy and comparing it with a certain threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed method can be used to verify the reliability of the blind processing results of a BPSK signal at a low signal-to-noise ratio and without a priori knowledge of the signal parameters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Dual Watermarking Technology for Digital Image<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Digital image watermark has been studied as object. It analyzed the typical digital watermark algorithms based on the space domain and transform domain and key researched watermarking algorithm based on discrete wavelet transform. It has designed and improved blind watermarking algorithm and color image watermarking algorithm. Finally, based on the two improved watermarking algorithm, it has designed a dual watermarking algorithm. Both are separated but related. It authenticates dual watermarking algorithm in addition to subjective visual evaluation, but also use numerical objective evaluation and quantitative analysis. Experimental results show that this dual watermarking algorithm combines with robustness and concealment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Cutter Path in High Speed Machining Based on Mapping of Triangular Grid Surface<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper puts forward an algorithm of generating a constant CNC spiral path based on curved surface of triangular grid. This algorithm takes fully consideration of the geometry and dynamics characteristics of the cutter-path and triangular grid cell, effectively reducing numbers of cutter lifting and maintaining the continuity of the cutter-path. This algorithm starting biasing from the contact points of cutter on the boundary of profile curve of grid layer by layer and planning the contact points of biased cutter on the parametric field, fitting contact points onto the spiral path by NURBS fitting algorithm, finally the spiral cutter-path is obtained by inverse mapping it on the grid. The algorithm in this paper can generate a path with advantages of consistence boundary, smooth and continuous path and without repeatedly need for feeding or relieving of cutter compared with those paths generated through traditional ways.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Hyperspectral Band Selection Based on Game Theory and Differential Evolution Algorithm<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper uses the combination of information and class separability as a new evaluation criterion for hyperspectral imagery. Moreover, the correlation between bands is used as a constraint condition. The differential evolution algorithm is adopted during the search of optimal band combination. In addition, the game theory is introduced into the band selection to coordinate the potential conflict of searching the optimal band combination using information and class separability these two evaluation criteria. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Fusion Based on Joint Nonsubsampled Contourlet and Overcomplete Brushlet Transforms<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper proposed an image fusion method based on a novel scheme with joint nonsubsampled contourlet and overcomplete brushlet transform. And an improved region energy operator is employed as the fusion strategy, which can take full advantage of the anisotropic texture information and multidimensional singular information in the new multiresolution domain. Experimental results shows that the proposed method improved the fusion results not only in visual effects but also in objective evaluating parameters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Sensing Using Nanostructured Gas Sensors: A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fabricating a sensor for a toxic gas like carbon monoxide has been a constant need in many domestic and industrial applications. Although many sensors are commercially available, research is focused on developing a selective sensor with higher sensitivity, selectivity and low operating temperature. This paper reviews the fabrication, comparison and evaluation of different nanostructured titanium dioxide sensors used in detection. After a brief description of the structural properties of, the article presents sensing mechanism in semiconductor metal oxide sensors. For a reducing agent like, the surface reactions result in the reduction of sensor resistance. The parameters associated with sensor performance are discussed. The article presents a summary of main research findings in this field. Nanostructured morphologies offer better sensing performance and selectivity. The improved performance due to nanostructured is highlighted. The review clarifies the specific role of for the future research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Door Monitoring System for Subway Cars Based on Wireless Sensor Network<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The place and performance of wireless sensor networks are rapidly improving in the automotive industry, industrial and environmental monitoring. Uptake of this technology can be used in urban rail vehicle management system. Due to the difficult and time-consuming maintenance of vehicle management, a remote automatic monitoring system is needed. In this paper, it is proposed to design, develop and implement a remote automatic vehicle monitoring system. The complete system architecture includes a group of sensor nodes, some sink nodes, and a data centre. The sensor nodes are connected to the sink node, which is connected to a data centre through CDMA or General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) technologies. In order to improve the reliability of wireless transmission, retransmission and redundant path are discussed. The system has been tested for half a year and satisfactory results have been observed, which indicate that this system is useful for urban rail vehicle monitoring.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue