rss_2.0International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems FeedSciendo RSS Feed for International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systemshttps://sciendo.com/journal/IJSSIShttps://www.sciendo.comInternational Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/62453c8dc5c9ad3049e6f18d/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220927T200649Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20220927%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=da85b24393a07f1f4b72826f3a4619658063758980cd9bfcf0a4e7d601bab477200300Investigating the effect of number of metal electrodes on performance parameters of AlGaN MSM photodetectorshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijssis-2022-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In most past studies, MSM (Metal–Semiconductor–Metal) detectors with the varying area have been investigated for varying number of fingers (metal electrodes) of equal width (W) and spacing (S). Therefore, there is a need to investigate fixed area MSM detectors with varying number of fingers as there are few reports on electrical analysis of larger electrode spacing dimensions. In the current work effect of variation in the number of fingers is studied for two types of Al<sub>0.5</sub>Ga<sub>0.5</sub>N/AlN/Sapphire based fixed area MSM detectors. Comparative performance analysis between (S = W) and (S = 2W) based detectors is carried out for photocurrent, dark current density and transient response. I–V characteristics, structure diagram plots are generated using the TCAD Silvaco simulator. It has been observed that S = W detectors exhibit higher photocurrent and lower dark current density is shown by S = 2W designs. Therefore, simulation outcomes can be beneficial for selecting suitable MSM detector for reliable, high-speed optical communication and switching applications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Real time IoT mobile anchor nodes outdoor localization mechanismhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijssis-2022-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Recently, most outdoor localizations use a hybrid mechanism that integrating some IoT devices occupying with GPS (Anchor Nodes) and other wireless sensor nodes like LoRaWAN (without GPS-Unknown node). This hybrid method employed to achieve low power consumption and low cost solution. Our proposed framework focuses on determining the Mobile Anchor node locations with high accuracy to enhance the overall accuracy of all IoT nodes. To achieve this goal, the installation of low power consummations and low-cost localization sensors modules will be used in the proposed Anchor IoT node. These modules are the inertial measuring unit (IMU) and the low cost Global Positioning System (GPS). Then, this method will be implemented on AVR microcontroller (ATMega 128) to develop an IoT enhanced localization unit. The achieved results for our proposal show how the IoT device's state can be known accurately and at a high update rate (100 Hz, 10 milliseconds).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-14T00:00:00.000+00:00An overview of DLMS/COSEM and g3-plc for smart metering applicationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijssis-2022-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A crucial part of the smart grid communication network is the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), connecting a utility company to end-users to support telemetry and remote-control applications. Although different technologies and standards for smart metering systems exist, Power-Line Communication is the preferred technology for AMI networks in dense urban areas, and the G3-PLC, which uses DLMS/COSEM to support data exchange, is the most used standard in PLC-based AMI networks. This paper provides a holistic view of G3-PLC in smart metering systems, including its interaction with the DLMS/COSEM. It also covers the challenges and research opportunities in G3-PLC smart metering systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Virtual Multiphase Flow Meter using combination of Ensemble Learning and first principle physics basedhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijssis-2022-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper describes a Virtual Flow Meter (VFM) to estimate oil, gas and water flow rate by combining two distinct approaches i.e., data-driven Ensemble Learning algorithm and first principle physics-based transient multiphase flow simulator. The VFM uses a common real-time sensor readings and the estimated flow rates were then combined using a new combiner approach which provides confidence decay and historical performance factors to assign confidence and contribution weights to the base estimators, and then aggregates their estimates to deliver more accurate flow rate estimates. This technique was tested for over 6 months at an offshore oil facility having two oil wells. The technique successfully delivered a 50% improvement in measurement performance compared to stand-alone VFMs. This combiner technique will be of great benefit to surveillance engineers by providing additional real-time production monitoring in addition to acting as a verification tool for physical multiphase flow meters (MPFMs).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The ordinary negative changing refractive index for estimation of optical confinement factorhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijssis-2022-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The electro-optic effect is considered very important in optical communication systems. The small optical confinement factor is attributed to the weak overlap between the electric field and optical wave and hence the optical signal is not efficiently modulated. In this paper, the problem of the small optical confinement factor in the Mach–Zehnder modulator based on lithium niobate (LN) which is deeply studied. The data were analyzed through a proposed mathematical model to explain the relationship between the change in the ordinary negative refractive index and the confinement factor. The system is improved using a small length of the modulator arm as only 3 to 8 µm, low driving power of about 4 V/µm, a large change in the negative ordinary refractive index of about—0.2 × 10<sup>−7</sup>, and a compact optical modulator. This can reflect a strong optical confinement factor when the electric field is applied to the electrodes of the optical modulator.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Efficient way to ensure the data security in cloud computinghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijssis-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This manuscript proposes a cloud data storage security, which has always been an important aspect of Quality of Service (QOS). Here, an effectual and flexible distributed scheme (DS) with Explicit Dynamic Data Support (EDDS) is proposed to ensure the accuracy of user data in the cloud. By using hemimorphic token with distributed verification of erasure-coded data, the proposed scheme achieves the integration of storage correctness insurance and data error localization. The proposed scheme supports secure and efficient dynamic operations on data blocks, such as data update, delete and append. The performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme is highly efficient.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Eigen-structure problem optimization for multirate, multi-input multi-output systems applied to a roll rate autopilothttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijssis-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper, an optimal solution to the eigen-structure problem that dramatically reduces the control effort required for a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) multirate system is proposed. This technique not only minimize the amplitude of state transmission and control signal changes but also reduce the sensitivity to the effects of internal sampling in multirate MIMO systems results from interactions of the model order reduction. In this study, a constrained eigen-structure method with nonlinear constraints is used. The novelty of this study is that by using partial derivatives, a gain optimization process to optimize the nonlinearly constrained eigen-structure method is proposed. First, this method is explained, and then the desired method is applied for optimization operations, and finally, the results will be shown with a numerical example and a simulation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Model based on the principles of smart agriculture to mitigate the effects of frost and improve agricultural production in the Cundiboyacense plateauhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijssis-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, a model was proposed based on Smart Agriculture technologies to mitigate the effects of frost, which is one of the phenomena that significantly affects the Cundiboyacense plateau agricultural production. The basis of this model is data from real-time environmental information to generate forecasts and alerts that would be used to activate irrigation or fertilizer systems and help farmers in the decision-making process. Despite encountering some investment, cultural and accessibility barriers if the model is applied, it is intended that the long-term economic and product quality benefits would be higher.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Utilizing augmented reality technology for teaching fundamentals of the human brain and EEG electrode placementhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijssis-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper demonstrates the use of augmented reality (AR) to teach the fundamental aspects of the human brain and guide proper EEG electrode placement. The proposed application consists of two main parts: (1) the proposed marker-based AR system uses the Vuforia technique to determine the dimension of the head to create the virtual brain and virtual EEG electrodes; and (2) user interaction and implementation. We performed two experiments using a phantom head to verify the size and workspace area of the marker and validated the position of the virtual electrode with ground truth data. The results showed that the proposed method can be employed for electrode placement guidance in the recommended range. We aim to use the proposed system for beginners. We will further test the system with human heads to evaluate the usability and determine key areas for application improvement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Utilizing augmented reality technology for teaching fundamentals of the human brain and EEG electrode placementhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/ijssis-2022-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper demonstrates the use of augmented reality (AR) to teach the fundamental aspects of the human brain and guide proper EEG electrode placement. The proposed application consists of two main parts: (1) the proposed marker-based AR system uses the Vuforia technique to determine the dimension of the head to create the virtual brain and virtual EEG electrodes; and (2) user interaction and implementation. We performed two experiments using a phantom head to verify the size and workspace area of the marker and validated the position of the virtual electrode with ground truth data. The results showed that the proposed method can be employed for electrode placement guidance in the recommended range. We aim to use the proposed system for beginners. We will further test the system with human heads to evaluate the usability and determine key areas for application improvement.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00A novel approach to capture the similarity in summarized text using embedded modelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijssis-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The presence of near duplicate textual content imposes great challenges while extracting information from it. To handle these challenges, detection of near duplicates is a prime research concern. Existing research mostly uses text clustering, classification and retrieval algorithms for detection of near duplicates. Text summarization, an important tool of text mining, is not explored yet for the detection of near duplicates. Instead of using the whole document, the proposed method uses its summary as it saves both time and storage. Experimental results show that traditional similarity algorithms were able to capture similarity relatedness to a great extent even on the summarized text with a similarity score of 44.685%. Moreover, degree of similarity capture was greater (0.52%) in case of use of embedding models with better text representation as compared to traditional methods. Also, this paper highlights the research status of various similarity measures in terms of concept involved, merits and demerits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-17T00:00:00.000+00:00A novel approach to capture the similarity in summarized text using embedded modelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/ijssis-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The presence of near duplicate textual content imposes great challenges while extracting information from it. To handle these challenges, detection of near duplicates is a prime research concern. Existing research mostly uses text clustering, classification and retrieval algorithms for detection of near duplicates. Text summarization, an important tool of text mining, is not explored yet for the detection of near duplicates. Instead of using the whole document, the proposed method uses its summary as it saves both time and storage. Experimental results show that traditional similarity algorithms were able to capture similarity relatedness to a great extent even on the summarized text with a similarity score of 44.685%. Moreover, degree of similarity capture was greater (0.52%) in case of use of embedding models with better text representation as compared to traditional methods. Also, this paper highlights the research status of various similarity measures in terms of concept involved, merits and demerits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00A novel optimal approach for control law of multi-rate systems with different rate operationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/ijssis-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main purpose of this study is to propose a method to achieve optimal response and performance of the multi rate systems in existence of different sampling rates and to avoid data losses in such systems. In this paper, a new approach based on the multi-rate digital system is proposed. Based on this method, we will be able to maintain optimal performance of these systems without losing data, in addition to establishing connections between subsystems with different sampling rates. By the proposed method, not only the effect of different sampling rates in multi-rate systems is ignored, but also, we can connect subsystems with different rate operations without compromising system performance and data loss which simplified system design and sensor selection by the digital system designers. This means the designer can choose any sensor without concerning about the sampling rate and the operation rate of the system and matching them together. Finally, a guided missile with different sampling rates between the seeker, autopilot, guidance law and the output feedback are simulated and its effective performance in pursuit, hitting and smooth motion toward the target in a motion scenario is shown.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Design and implementation of a safety algorithm on V2V routing protocolhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/ijssis-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communications have been widely employed to ameliorate a variety of transportation-related issues in cities, the most significant of which being traffic congestion. The inefficient utilization of resources in vehicle infrastructure is frequently the source of a great deal of traffic congestion. Furthermore, due to its high dynamic nature, incorporating traffic congestion into vehicular traffic decision-making is difficult. In this paper, V2V communications will be implemented as an intelligent transportation systems (ITS) safety mechanism solution to solve these traffic congestion problems. The proposed mechanism is applied over integration between AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector) as one of the best topology-based routing protocols with one of geographic-based routing protocols to overcome OADV limitations. As AODV floods the network with control messages to find a path to the target, and the network is going to host a high volume of control packets. So the proposed method will use Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates to search the region where a path to the target is likely to be found. As this paper describes the efforts to create a hybrid model that combines a typical reactive routing protocol with a geographic one, there will be two steps to identify the proposed ITS network. In first Phase: Choose the most functioning Geographic routing protocol on the V2V simulation environment. In the second Phase: Integrate this suggested Geographic routing protocol with ADOV protocol to implement ITS architectures. The RIVERBED modulator and NS2 simulator will be utilized to choose the best routing protocol. Based on the paper’s key performance indicators simulation results, Distance-Vector-Based Recovery-Strategy (PBR-DV) geographic routing protocol is selected to integrate with AODV routing protocol. Comparing the proposed method with the independent use of AODV, it demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method in overcoming all the problems related to resource scarcity and geographical obstacles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Fast fourier transform based new pooling layer for deep learninghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/ijssis-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Convolution is considered most significant layer in deep learning because it can extract best features of data through the network but it may result in huge volume of data. This problem can be solved by using pooling. In this paper, A novel pooling method is proposed by using discrete Fourier transform (DFT), this method is used DFT technique to transform the data from spatial domain into frequency domain to preserve the most important information from the details coefficients, where the details information of the image is less significant, therefore it can be discarded to down sample the size of dimensions. Its effect will be great with advantage of reducing the eliminated details information as compared with other standard methods. After applying DFT, the most significant coefficients, which represent most important features are cropped while less important details will be discarded then the data are reconstructed by applying inverse DF, therefore the high quality of features are extracted, which solve the problem of losing significant information during the pooling layer. Different methods are proposed based on the scenario of using DFT. The proposed methods are tested by extracting pooled image then the original images were retrieved using only the pooled images. Then the retrieved images are compared with original images by using different measures such as SNR, correlation and SSIM. Then the proposed layers used for image classification for two different datasets. The results proved that the proposed methods outperformed standard methods, thus it can be used for deep learning application.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Fast fourier transform based new pooling layer for deep learninghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijssis-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Convolution is considered most significant layer in deep learning because it can extract best features of data through the network but it may result in huge volume of data. This problem can be solved by using pooling. In this paper, A novel pooling method is proposed by using discrete Fourier transform (DFT), this method is used DFT technique to transform the data from spatial domain into frequency domain to preserve the most important information from the details coefficients, where the details information of the image is less significant, therefore it can be discarded to down sample the size of dimensions. Its effect will be great with advantage of reducing the eliminated details information as compared with other standard methods. After applying DFT, the most significant coefficients, which represent most important features are cropped while less important details will be discarded then the data are reconstructed by applying inverse DF, therefore the high quality of features are extracted, which solve the problem of losing significant information during the pooling layer. Different methods are proposed based on the scenario of using DFT. The proposed methods are tested by extracting pooled image then the original images were retrieved using only the pooled images. Then the retrieved images are compared with original images by using different measures such as SNR, correlation and SSIM. Then the proposed layers used for image classification for two different datasets. The results proved that the proposed methods outperformed standard methods, thus it can be used for deep learning application.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-15T00:00:00.000+00:00A novel optimal approach for control law of multi-rate systems with different rate operationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijssis-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main purpose of this study is to propose a method to achieve optimal response and performance of the multi rate systems in existence of different sampling rates and to avoid data losses in such systems. In this paper, a new approach based on the multi-rate digital system is proposed. Based on this method, we will be able to maintain optimal performance of these systems without losing data, in addition to establishing connections between subsystems with different sampling rates. By the proposed method, not only the effect of different sampling rates in multi-rate systems is ignored, but also, we can connect subsystems with different rate operations without compromising system performance and data loss which simplified system design and sensor selection by the digital system designers. This means the designer can choose any sensor without concerning about the sampling rate and the operation rate of the system and matching them together. Finally, a guided missile with different sampling rates between the seeker, autopilot, guidance law and the output feedback are simulated and its effective performance in pursuit, hitting and smooth motion toward the target in a motion scenario is shown.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Design and implementation of a safety algorithm on V2V routing protocolhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijssis-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communications have been widely employed to ameliorate a variety of transportation-related issues in cities, the most significant of which being traffic congestion. The inefficient utilization of resources in vehicle infrastructure is frequently the source of a great deal of traffic congestion. Furthermore, due to its high dynamic nature, incorporating traffic congestion into vehicular traffic decision-making is difficult. In this paper, V2V communications will be implemented as an intelligent transportation systems (ITS) safety mechanism solution to solve these traffic congestion problems. The proposed mechanism is applied over integration between AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector) as one of the best topology-based routing protocols with one of geographic-based routing protocols to overcome OADV limitations. As AODV floods the network with control messages to find a path to the target, and the network is going to host a high volume of control packets. So the proposed method will use Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates to search the region where a path to the target is likely to be found. As this paper describes the efforts to create a hybrid model that combines a typical reactive routing protocol with a geographic one, there will be two steps to identify the proposed ITS network. In first Phase: Choose the most functioning Geographic routing protocol on the V2V simulation environment. In the second Phase: Integrate this suggested Geographic routing protocol with ADOV protocol to implement ITS architectures. The RIVERBED modulator and NS2 simulator will be utilized to choose the best routing protocol. Based on the paper’s key performance indicators simulation results, Distance-Vector-Based Recovery-Strategy (PBR-DV) geographic routing protocol is selected to integrate with AODV routing protocol. Comparing the proposed method with the independent use of AODV, it demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method in overcoming all the problems related to resource scarcity and geographical obstacles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Image Segmentation Algorithm Based On Color Features: Case Study With Giant Pandahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/ijssis-2017-896<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Color which is one of the basic features of the image is widely used in image processing. The choice of color space is a primary issue for the color image segmentation based on color features. In this paper, giant pandas are chosen as the research objects. In order to achieve good segmentation results, different color spaces and the corresponding algorithms are chosen for image segmentation according to the color characteristics of different background of panda images. There are three kinds of color spaces introduced in detail and its advantages and disadvantages for the giant panda image segmentation are also summarized in this paper</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Errors of Manometric Co Sorption Experiments On Coal Caused By Accuracy Of Pressure Sensorhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/ijssis-2017-879<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The accuracy of supercritical CO<sub>2</sub> sorption determination on coal is important for estimating the CO<sub>2</sub> sequestration potential of coal bed using CO<sub>2</sub> injection into deep unminable coal seams. Based on the CO2 density change and CO2 sorption data of three selected coal samples, this paper investigates the effect of pressure-sensor accuracy on measurements of CO2 adsorption isotherms on coals with manometric equipment. The characteristic density-change of CO2 in proper pressure range determines a greater influence of pressure error on CO2 adsorption data on coal. The sensor accuracy has significant influence on Excess sorption increment of CO<sub>2</sub> on coal in medium pressure (7-12 MPa), and on CO2 Excess-sorption isotherm at medium-and high pressure. The medium pressures with a greater CO2 density-change at a constant temperature in the sample cell are probably inevitable. A lower experiment-temperature will results in a greater measurement error of the sorption caused by pressure sensor accuracy. The pressure sensor accuracy may result in the less reproducibility and repeatability of CO2 adsorption on coals at medium- and high pressure, and negative sorption increment and even negative adsorption</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-01T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1