rss_2.0IZA Journal of Labor Economics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for IZA Journal of Labor Economics Journal of Labor Economics Feed general is managerial human capital?: Evidence from the Retention of Managers after M&As<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper investigates the transferability of managerial human capital by examining how managers’ tenures in target firms influence their probability of retention as board members after mergers or acquisitions in Japanese firms. It develops a general equilibrium model that distinguishes several hypotheses on managerial human capital based on the coefficients of tenure on separation, given several data limitations. In particular, the paper provides a novel method to correct for selection biases by utilizing the timing of selection in a selected sample, which does not require a random sample from the population. Our results suggest that Japanese firms value both target firm-specific and general human capital after M&amp;As and that experience as an employee increases firm-specific skills, but at the expense of the accumulation of general skills. However, managerial experience does not have this effect.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue gender gap in academic productivity during the pandemic: Is childcare responsible?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>I investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent surge in childcare demand on the research productivity of female economics. Using data from SSRN and a Difference-in-Differences approach, I show that around the timing of confinements, the gender production gap widens by around 20 percentage points, an adverse effect persisting up to 4 months later the beginning of social restriction measures. Declines in production, however, vanish during the school re-opening period suggesting a prominent role in childcare demand.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue work-leisure balance in a partial equilibrium job search model with multiple job holding<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Work-leisure balances are beneficial to society. A partial equilibrium job search model is developed to explain desired work-leisure tradeoffs for single-job holders and multiple-job holders. Significant work-leisure mismatches are found: 63% of the observations underwork by an average of 17 hours per week, while 37% overwork by 8.5 hours. The value of leisure is approximately four times the average hourly real wage when a single job is held, and it drops by one-third when multiple jobs are held. Models ignoring possibilities of multiple jobholding overstate the elasticity of leisure and understate the value of leisure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Segregation and Immigrants’ Labor Market Outcomes: The Role of Education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Given the conflicting findings about whether ethnic segregation benefits or hurts immigrants’ labor market outcomes in the existing literature, this paper investigates how segregation effects vary within young immigrants’ education levels. We also test the differential segregation effects for young immigrants with different education levels and from ethnic groups with different average education levels. We find that on average, ethnic segregation negatively impacts earnings of highly educated immigrants but benefits lower educated immigrants. Additionally, the net effects of ethnic segregation depend on whether immigrants’ own education levels match their group average education levels. Specifically, being segregated with many highly educated co-ethnics can reverse the negative segregation effects on highly educated immigrants’ earnings. However, a highly educated ethnic enclave can reduce the positive isolation effects for lower educated immigrants. Finally, we do not find significant segregation effects on immigrants’ employment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue revolution is dead, long live the demolition: Education and labor market consequences of student riots<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The 1970s witnessed violent, widespread, and highly-politicized student protests in Turkey. Small protests turned into bloody street clashes, the death toll exceeded 5,000, and a military coup came in—which resulted in mass arrests. The universities were at the center of violent conflict. We study the education and labor market consequences of this political turmoil on the cohorts exposed to educational disruptions. First, we document that the number of new admissions and graduates in post-secondary education declined significantly due to the turmoil. The decline in post-secondary graduation ratio is 6.6 percentage points for the exposed individuals. Second, we estimate a counterfactual wage distribution for the exposed cohorts and check whether the turmoil affected their wage and occupation distributions. We show that the decline in educational attainment pushed the exposed population toward medium- and low-income occupations, and compressed their wages toward the minimum wage. Finally, we use the unexpected decline in post-secondary education as an instrument to estimate returns to college. We find that the college-premium is around 15 percent per year for men.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Gains from Limiting Compensation Options<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We examine the effects of a single payment structure policy (SPP) that prevents an employer from offering an employee a choice among compensation structures. An SPP reduces the employer's profit and increases the employee's welfare when the employee's (privately known) ability is exogenous. In contrast, an SPP can increase both the employer's profit and the employee's welfare when the employee's ability is endogenous. An SPP secures these Pareto gains by restricting the employer's ability to limit the rent the employee earns from high ability, thereby inducing the employee to increase his human capital investment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue adult substance use following involuntary job loss<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper uses data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to study the relationship between job displacement and substance use among young adults. Results show that displacement is associated with increases in the probability of smoking cigarettes and drinking and the intensity of consuming alcohol and marijuana. Men, whites, and those who live with family/friends at the time of displacement are more likely to use hard drugs after job loss. Findings suggest that government policy designed to aid displaced workers should contain provisions to anticipate and respond to substance use disorders that may arise, particularly among younger job losers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue district investments in general skills: The case of principal residency programs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Districts are investing more in school leadership, including the implementation of residency training programs for aspiring principals. There is limited evidence about the district return on these investments, and none in the context in which principal hiring is decentralized at the school level. This paper develops a model highlighting the conditions under which districts benefit from investments in general leadership skills and examines the residency program in the Chicago Public Schools (CPS). The event-study analysis that addresses treatment effect heterogeneity finds that principals who complete a residency are significantly more effective at raising achievement. Although the leadership skills gained through the residency are likely to make a principal more valuable to districts outside of CPS, the large majority of residents remain in CPS despite the absence of salary premia for completion of a residency or high performance. These findings suggest the presence of transition costs that enable CPS to retain more effective, residency-trained principals without having to increase pay, thereby realizing some of the return on the investment in general skills.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of co-worker wage gains<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>We address the presence, magnitude, and composition of wage gains related to former co-workers and discuss the mechanisms that could explain their existence. Using Hungarian linked employer–employee administrative data and proxying actual co-workership with overlapping work histories, we show that the overall wage gain attributable to former co-workers consists of multiple elements: a contact-specific, an individual-specific, a firm-specific and a match-specific component. Former co-workers, besides the direct effect of their presence, may funnel individuals into high-paying firms, enhance the sorting of good quality workers into firms, and may contribute to the creation of better employer–employee matches. By introducing and applying a wage-decomposition technique, we demonstrate that there are non-negligible differences between linked and market hires in all empirically separable wage elements. By focusing on specific scenarios, we provide additional empirical evidence in favor of employee referral and information transmission as the main drivers of co-worker gains.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue extension without representation? Evidence from a natural experiment in collective bargaining<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In many countries, collective bargaining coverage is enhanced by government-issued extensions that widen the reach of collective agreements beyond their signatory parties to all firms and workers in the sector. This paper analyzes the causal impact of extensions using a natural experiment in Portugal that resulted in a sharp and unanticipated decline in the extension probability of agreements. Our results, based on a regression discontinuity design, indicate that extensions had a negative impact on employment growth. This effect is concentrated among nonaffiliated firms, which may reflect the limited representativeness of employer associations.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue helps the unemployed? Workers’ receipt of public and private transfers<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>I use longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to measure the extent to which an unemployment spell increases the likelihood that a worker receives a cash transfer from family. I examine the prevalence of cash transfers from family, the demographic distribution of unemployed receivers, and the variation between family supported and not family supported spells. I further investigate how this informal, private assistance relates to public transfers from Unemployment Insurance using state-by-year variation in the UI program. I find that unemployment increases the probability a worker receives financial assistance from their family, inclusive of all demographic subgroups, that family cash transfer receipt is growing over time, and is weakly related to UI availability.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue wages in monopsonistic labor markets<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Over the last 30 years, researchers have disputed the mixed evidence of the effect of the minimum wage on teenage employment in the United States. Whenever the minimum wage has positive or no effects on employment, they appeal to monopsony models to explain their results. However, very few of these studies have empirically tested whether their results are due to monopsonistic characteristics in the labor markets. In this article, I estimate the effects of the minimum wage for the United States under concentrated labor markets and low-mobility jobs (two variables that measure monopsony), identify heterogeneous effects among different scenarios derived from the monopsony model, and provide a plausible explanation of the mixed results about the minimum wage effects in the literature. My main findings indicate that minimum wages have an elasticity to teenage employment of −0.418 under perfect competition, which is, as expected, much higher than the usual results in the literature. If the monopsony variable is one standard deviation higher than the baseline, it implies a positive change in elasticity of 0.05. The minimum wage has a positive insignificant effect between 0.04 and 0.29 under full monopsonistic labor markets. The results are consistent among different specifications and in controlling for possible external shocks and omitted variables.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Earning Losses of Smokers<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Using within-family variation from twins and siblings, I find that smokers earn approximately 16% less than nonsmokers. Possible explanations for this earning difference are addiction-related productivity declines and earning reductions from higher health insurance costs. To investigate further, I use variation in the provision of employer-supplied health insurance (ESHI) to examine the mechanism of whether the addiction or insurance component has a larger influence on earnings. While I generally observe a larger earning penalty for smokers with ESHI than smokers without ESHI, the earning difference is statistically indistinguishable from zero.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue protection legislation, labor courts, and effective firing costs<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In many countries, labor courts play a central role in the determination of firing costs by monitoring and supervising the procedures for dismissals, and, eventually, deciding severance payments mandated by the employment protection legislation (EPL). To get some insights about the impact of labor courts on effective firing costs, we explore a new database that contains information on labor courts’ intervention in firings before and after the implementation of significant EPL reforms modifying severance payments and procedures for dismissals. Our results suggest that labor court rulings on economic dismissals did not fully translate the reduction of firing costs mandated by the new EPL to effective firing costs.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue drifting apart: Heterogeneous outcomes of decentralizing public education<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Looking at the decentralized provision of public education in a middle-income country, this paper estimates the impact of local autonomy on service quality, finding large heterogeneity in the effect across different levels of local development. In the year 2002, Colombian municipalities were entrusted with autonomous management of their local public education based solely on a population threshold. I estimate the impact that autonomy has had on education performance across the territory, using a municipality and time fixed-effects model. I find a quality gap arising between highly developed and low-developed autonomous municipalities, in a trend that reinforces over time: the reform has induced regional inequality in education quality. I am able to support the hypothesis that autonomous and nonautonomous municipalities were on similar performance trends before decentralization was implemented, even when looking within different local development ranges. Based on the analysis of detailed municipal balance sheet data and administration indicators, I argue that local administration capacity represents the most likely explanation of why the autonomy-related discrepancies have been arising.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue preferences in choice of major<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The primary objective of this study is to examine the contribution of available information constrained by parents’ fields of study to the observed assortative preferences in their children’s choice of major. Comparable to panel models, we define within-family transmission functions with 1-to-2 matches (1 for each parent). Using the confidential major file of the 2011 National Household Survey from Canada, the results show that children’s choice of field of study exhibits significant assortative preferences isolated from ability sorting and unobserved differences across majors and other family characteristics. With some caution, we attribute this persisting assortative tendency to the information asymmetry across alternative majors built on by parents’ educational backgrounds within families.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Cash Transfer Programs Can Both Stimulate and Slow Down Job Finding<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article analyzes the behavioral effects of cash transfer programs when jobless people need to have access to a minimum consumption level. Our model reconciles recent evidence about negligible or favorable effects of cash transfers on job-finding rates and the more standard view of negative effects. When unemployment compensation, if any, is low enough, we argue that cash transfer programs can raise the hiring probability. Our framework is flexible enough to generate the standard conclusion as well. Looking specifically at unemployment compensation, its optimal level is generally higher than when a lower bound on consumption is ignored.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue vs Scraped Data: Comparing Time Series Properties of Web and Survey Vacancy Data<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper studies the relationship between a vacancy population obtained from web crawling and vacancies in the economy inferred by a National Statistics Office (NSO) using a traditional method. We compare the time series properties of samples obtained between 2007 and 2014 by Statistics Netherlands and by a web scraping company. We find that the web and NSO vacancy data present similar time series properties, suggesting that both time series are generated by the same underlying phenomenon: the real number of new vacancies in the economy. We conclude that, in our case study, web-sourced data are able to capture aggregate economic activity in the labor market.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue with an Unemployed Adult Child: Consumption, Income, and Savings Effects<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The risk of labor market, health, and asset-value shocks comprise profound retirement savings challenges for older workers. Parents, however, may experience added risk if their children experience adverse labor market shocks. Prior research has shown that parents support their children financially through an unemployment spell. In this paper, we also provide evidence of financial support from parents and investigate if this financial support is accompanied by adjustments to parental consumption, income, or savings behavior. With longitudinal data on mothers and children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we use within-mother variation in behavior to identify the effect of a child’s labor market shock on parent outcomes. We find evidence of a decline in consumption, an increase in labor supply, and a decrease retirement savings, though the results are heterogenous among mothers. Our results point to aggregate inefficiencies and inequities that may result from family risk sharing.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue and the Role of Firm Composition Effects on Aggregate Wage Dynamics<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Aggregate wages display little cyclicality compared to what a standard model would predict. Wage rigidities are an obvious candidate, but the existing literature has emphasized the need to take into account the growing importance of worker composition effects, especially during downturns. This paper seeks to understand the role of firm heterogeneity for aggregate wage dynamics with reference to the Italian case. Using a newly available dataset based on social security records covering the universe of Italian employers between 1990 and 2015, we document that firm composition effects increasingly matter in explaining aggregate wage growth and largely reflect shifts of labor from low-paying to high-paying firms, especially in the most recent years. We find that changes in reallocation of workers across firms accounted for approximately one-fourth of aggregate wage growth during the crisis.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue