rss_2.0Journal of Apicultural Science FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Apicultural Science of Apicultural Science 's Cover Affecting Quality of Honey Bee Venom<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Honeybee venom (HBV) is an important product of beehives, and its benefits for health have been rediscovered by modern medicine. Since HBV has the potential to treat some diseases, its quality and production conditions require a detailed investigation. The objective of this study is to understand how season, harvesting time (day or night), harvesting site of beehives (inside or entrance) and geographic location affects quality through the analysis of apamin, melittin and phospholipase A<sub><italic>2</italic></sub> (PLA2) content. Each set of six colonies were used to understand the differences in these components when HBV is harvested in the daytime either from the entrance or inside of the hives and nighttime from the inside of the hives. The experiment also investigated seasonal differences as the samples were harvested each month from May to August 2019 in our apiary. Furthermore, the effect of geographic location on quality was examined through the comparison of the data obtained from twenty-seven samples collected by beekeepers using the same device, located in the Turkish cities of Manisa, Muğla, Balıkesir, Düzce and Mersin. The results demonstrated that statistically significant differences in the amounts of analyzed components were not dependent on harvesting time, collection site on the beehives or season. On the other hand, region samples significantly differed in the amounts of all three components, ranging from 1.28% to 3.81% for apamin, 19.51–64.03% for melittin and 7.22%–28.18% for PLA2. However, beekeepers’ improper practices during harvesting and storing might be the most critical parameters that determine the quality of HBV.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Occurrence and Molecular Phylogeny of Economically Relevant Viruses Infecting Honey Bees ( L.) of Bingöl Province, Turkey<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, we conducted a six-month survey to evaluate the current status of three common honey bee viruses (black queen cell virus [BQCV], acute bee paralysis virus [ABPV], and sacbrood virus [SBV]) in Turkey’s Bingöl region and revealed their phylogenetic relationships with the same types of viruses in other parts of the world. We randomly sampled 384 worker honey bees from a total of 128 apiaries from different locations of this region. Molecular tests confirmed the presence of SBV and BQCV, with infection rates of 7.03% and 11.7%, respectively, but ABPV could not be detected in any of the surveyed apiaries. In addition, double infection was detected in an apiary with an infection rate of 0.78%. The sequences of a partial polyprotein gene region of a randomly selected isolate from each detected virus were collected and registered in GenBank under the accession numbers MZ357971 and MZ357972 for SBV and MZ357974 for BQCV. The nucleotide sequence similarity of Turkish BQCV and SBV isolates was 75.71–96.58% and 85.96–92.98%, respectively. A comparison of the phylogenetic tree of Bingöl honey bee viral genomes with other isolates from around the world revealed that Bingöl SBV isolates were closely related to another Turkey isolate while Bingöl BQCV isolate to France, Italy, Australia, and Brazil isolates. To our knowledge, the presence and phylogenetic affinity of SBV and BQCV viruses detected in the present study is the first recording for Turkey’s Bingöl province.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Pathogen Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Murray in South Korea<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The small hive beetle (SHB), <italic>Aethina tumida</italic> Murray, is a parasite of honey bee colonies and causes the fermentation of honey as well as colony collapse. Outbreaks have been confirmed in Africa, America, Europe as well as Asia, where an outbreak was reported in the Philippines and South Korea in 2014 and 2017, respectively. In South Korea, in September 2016, this honey bee parasite was first identified in apiaries in Miryang, Gyeongnam Province. However, the invasion pathway of SHB has not been identified, and honey bee pathogens harbored by SHB have not been well characterized. Therefore, phylogenetic analysis of SHB with the use of COI gene and detection of fourteen common honey bee pathogens were conducted in this study. The confirmation of the fourteen honey bee pathogens in SHB showed that this beetle carries black queen cell virus and deformed wing virus. Therefore, SHB could have a role in the spread of these viruses. The way of entry of the SHB to South Korea remains undetermined, but the phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene revealed that it was most similar to species found in the USA. There is an urgent need for national-level monitoring and quarantine measures for preventing the spread of SHB infestation in South Korea.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Simulated Climate Warming Influenced Colony Microclimatic Conditions and Gut Bacterial Abundance of Honeybee Subspecies and<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ectothermic organisms including insects are highly vulnerable to climate warming which not only influences their biology, ecology and physiology but also affects their symbiotic gut microbiota. This study determined the impact of ambient (control) and simulated warmer (heating) climatic conditions on the microclimate of brood nest and gut bacterial abundance of two <italic>Apis mellifera</italic> subspecies i.e. <italic>A. mellifera ligustica</italic> and <italic>A. mellifera sinisxinyuan</italic>. For both subspecies, brood nest temperature and relative humidity under the heating treatment were significantly different (p≤0.001) than those under the control treatment. Quantitative PCR data revealed that the abundance of gut bacteria (16<italic>S r</italic>RNA gene copy numbers) of <italic>A. mellifera ligustica</italic> and <italic>A. mellifera sinisxinyuan</italic> larvae was significantly higher (P≤0.05), 1.73 and 5.32 fold higher respectively, during the heating treatment than those in control conditions. Although gut bacterial abundance of <italic>A. mellifera ligustica</italic> (1.67 × 10<sup>7</sup> copies g<sup>−1</sup> fw) and <italic>A. mellifera sinisxinyuan</italic> (1.7 × 10<sup>7</sup> copies g<sup>−1</sup> fw) larvae was similar during the control treatment, <italic>A. mellifera sinisxinyuan</italic> larvae exhibited three times greater gut bacterial abundance than <italic>A. mellifera ligustica</italic> during the heating treatment. Similarly, adult <italic>A. mellifera sinisxinyuan</italic> bees harboured significantly greater bacterial abundance during the heating treatment than control. These findings elucidate that climate warming may significantly affect the honeybee colony microclimate and their gut bacterial abundance. However, further studies are needed to better understand how gut microbial community may influence the learning, physiological and behavioural mechanisms of the host bees in a climate warming scenario.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of the Type of Pollen Diet on the Survival, Body Weight, and Immune Response in the African Honeybee<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Pollen nutrition is critical for the development and well-being of the honeybee. Previous studies have compared the effect of pollen and carbohydrate-only diet on honeybee physiology. The effect of a monofloral versus polyfloral diet on the African honeybee (<italic>Apis mellifera scutellata</italic>) is poorly understood. This knowledge is critical as diversity-rich habitats are being altered to less diverse environments through increased urbanization and intensified agricultural activities, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we report how lowly diverse (LD) and highly diverse (HD) pollen diets influence honeybee life-history traits and physiology. To achieve this, we fed caged bees with the two pollen diets and tested their effects on the parameters of survival, body weight, pollen consumption, and immune response. HD-fed bees had significantly higher survival and greater pollen consumption than LD-fed bees. However, LD-fed bees were heavier than HD-fed bees. The correlation between body weight gain and pollen consumption was expressed strongly in HD-fed bees than in LD-fed bees. Overall, our findings reveal the benefits that the highly diverse polyfloral diets provide to honeybee workers. This study shows how pollen diversity influences honeybee life-history traits, thus informing the need for conserving the biodiversity of environments for safeguarding the health of honeybees and other pollinators.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Morphometric and Genetic Characterization of Honey Bees ( L.) From Thrace Region of Turkey<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A detailed morphological and genetic characterization of honey bees from the Thrace and west Anatolian regions of Turkey was surveyed. A total of 1650 worker bee samples (110 colonies) were evaluated with the forty-one morphological characters and 217 honey bee samples were analyzed via DNA sequencing of the tRNA<sup>leu</sup>-cox2 region. In this study, three different populations, Thrace (Tekirdağ, Kırklareli and Edirne provinces), Island Gökçeada, and western Anatolia were formed based on morphometrics, since the Marmara Sea has taken a very strong barrier role in this formation. The morphological similarity of the Thrace population was supported by the genetic analysis. The sequencing of the tRNA<sup>leu</sup>-cox2 region revealed twenty-two different haplotypes, sixteen of which are novel. The C2d, macedonica-like haplotype, was the most widely found haplotype (48%) all around the Thrace region. Along with the C2d haplotype, previously published C2s, C2v, C2i, C2j, and C2h haplotypes, and the newly found haplotypes were also observed but less frequently. In this study, Thrace honey bees were found to more similar to <italic>A. m. macedonica</italic> through the mtDNA sequence analysis, whereas carnica-like honey bees were only found near the Istranca mountain ridges, Kırklareli province and macedonica-like honey bees all around the Thrace region. According to our results, some of the Thrace honey bee populations may be both <italic>A. m. carnica</italic> and <italic>A. m. macedonica</italic> but the assignment to the latter subspecies seems more likely due to its geographic range.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Use of L. for Pollination of Mill. Cultivated in Greenhouse Environment During Winter Period<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, the pollinating potential of the red mason bee (<italic>Osmia bicornis</italic> syn. <italic>O. rufa</italic>) in seed production of a major ornamental plant - Persian cyclamen (<italic>Cyclamen persicum</italic>), was evaluated under horticultural farm conditions. The study was conducted under a greenhouse environment for five months, from October to the end of February. The juvenile hormone analogue methoprene supported the termination of bee diapause. Experimental results from <italic>Osmia</italic> pollination plots were compared with control plots that applied the hand-pollination method. Plants with flowers pollinated by the solitary bee had significantly more fruits than those pollinated by the hand method in November, December and February. In addition, significantly more seeds per capsule were produced by plants pollinated by <italic>O. bicornis</italic> from December to February. Finally, plants pollinated by <italic>Osmia</italic> bees produced more seeds than those hand-pollinated at all experimental months. These results showed that if the diapause of <italic>O. bicornis</italic> is successfully broken, this bee can be a very efficient pollinator in greenhouse environments, even during winter.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Flowering, Forage Value, and Insect Pollination in Borage ( L.) Cultivated in Se Poland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The three-year study on borage was conducted in Lublin, SE Poland. The aims were to investigate the flowering pattern and abundance, and the attractiveness (in terms of nectar and pollen production) for flower-visiting insects, mainly bees. Insect visitation and the effect of pollinators on fruit set and seed set were assessed as well. Flowering of borage started in the latter half of June and lasted eight weeks. The mean number of flowers · m<sup>−2</sup> of the crop was 4570 per season. A borage flower produced on average 4.0 mg of nectar with a mean sugar concentration of 31.5%. The mean total sugar amount secreted in nectar was 1.2 mg. The pollen amount · flower<sup>−1</sup> was 1.1 mg. A borage plant can supply insects with 1.1 g of nectar sugars and 1.1 g of pollen. The estimated nectar sugar yield and pollen yield per 1 m<sup>2</sup> of the crop were similar, i.e. 5.2 g. Bees accounted for 73.0% of all insect visits to the borage flowers. The presence of insect pollinators increased the fruit set by 43.3% and seed set by 26.8%.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Radiation Disinfestation of Honeybee Combs Infested with Greater Wax Moth Eggs<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The sensitivity of different developmental stages of greater wax moth (<italic>Galleria mellonella</italic> L.) eggs to gamma irradiation was examined. Eggs, 25 to 144 h-old, were exposed at 48 h intervals to gamma radiation dosages (50 to 400 Gy), and the effects on egg hatch, pupation and adult emergence were investigated. The developmental rate of irradiated-egg larvae and pupae to adult stage was also studied. Results showed that the irradiation sensitivity of <italic>G. mellonella</italic> eggs decreased with increased age of the eggs when irradiated. In 25–48 h-old eggs, 50 Gy dose significantly reduced egg hatch and at 200 Gy dose no egg hatch was observed. Eggs 73–96 h-old were slightly more tolerant to irradiation treatment; hatching completely ceased at 250 Gy dose. Sensitivity to gamma irradiation reached its lowest level however when 121–144 h-old eggs (few h. before egg hatch) were irradiated. 350 Gy dose reduced egg hatch to about 3%, and at 400 Gy no egg hatch was noted. Survival to the adult stage was also negatively affected. At the most radio-tolerant stage (121–144 h-old), 100 Gy dose significantly reduced larval survival to the adult stage and 300 Gy completely prevented it. The development rate of larvae and pupae resulting from irradiated eggs was also negatively affected.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of Different Pollen Substitutes for the Feeding of Laboratory Reared Bumble Bee () Colonies<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In bumble bee colonies, pollen is the only protein source for larval feeding and its shortage causes a distress in larval development. Adult bumble bees need pollen for the development of glands and the reproductive system. In bumble bee rearing, honey bee collected pollen is used as the main protein source, either as fresh-frozen or dried pellets, and pollen provisioning is the most problematic and expensive aspect of mass rearing. In honey bee breeding, pollen substitutes are used during the period of food shortage or to stimulate colony strength. We tested different protein diets (five commercial pollen substitutes and two natural protein sources) for the maintenance of bumble bee colonies in captivity. We further mixed Feedbee<sup>®</sup>, one of the substitutes that gave the best results, with different amounts of pollen to evaluate the optimal amount needed for the whole colony development. Although none of the pure protein diets alone were adequate, diets with a 1 to 1 and 1 to 3 ratio of Feedbee to pollen were both suitable for colony development and queen production. The colony consumed between 2 and 4 g per day of the Feedbee mixed diets, corresponding to a protein consumption of 0.75–0.85 g day<sup>−1</sup>. Nevertheless, the consumption rate of the pure pollen showed that a mean amount of protein between 0.4 and 0.5 g day<sup>−1</sup> was enough to allow colony development indicating the suitability of Feedbee mixed diets.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Sudden and Prevalent Deaths of Foraging Honey Bees in Early Spring During Sowing of Clothianidin Coated Maize Seeds Between 2013 and 2018 in Turkey<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Between 2013 and 2018, there was an outbreak of sudden foraging honey bee deaths in Turkey’s Çukurova Region from the beginning of February to the middle of March, a period of time when the sowing of maize seeds occurs in the region. Upon returning, the affected bees were unable to enter the hive because of unbalanced flying and walking. Deaths were seen at apiaries located on plains or near plains where maize seeds were sowed. When winds blew from the direction of the plains towards the hives, honey bee deaths increased, but when the weather was rainy, honey bee deaths decreased or stopped. Honey bee losses were mainly between 30% and 80%. Investigations related to the honey bee deaths were carried out in the affected apiaries using on-site inspection and laboratory tests. The main reason of deaths would be linked to the clothianidin coated maize seeds used in the plain during sowing period. No remarkable correlation with any bee pathogens was detected related to the sudden and prevalent honey bee deaths.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-02T00:00:00.000+00:00 As Third Parasite Gastrointestinal Tract of Honey Bees Living in Tree Trunk<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Honey bees (<italic>Apis mellifera</italic> L.) inhabiting trees in forests are not managed by humans or treated for pathogens; therefore, many researchers and beekeepers believe that viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases may lead to their decline. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of <italic>L. passim</italic> and <italic>Nosema</italic> spp. in feral colonies by real-time PCR. This study was performed on twenty-six samples of honey bees inhabiting tree trunks in north-eastern Poland. One sample consisted of sixty worker bee abdomens collected from hollow trees. Honey bees were sampled only from naturally colonized sites. Amplicons of the three evaluated pathogens were detected in twenty of the twenty-six tested samples. A significant correlation was observed between infection with three pathogens (<italic>N. apis, N. ceranae, L. passim</italic>) (r = 0.84) compared to infection with only two pathogens (<italic>N. apis</italic> and <italic>N. ceranae</italic>) (r = 0.49). <italic>N. ceranae</italic> was the predominant pathogen, but infections with various severity caused by <italic>L. passim</italic> were also noted in fourteen of the twenty-six tested samples. In view of the general scarcity of epidemiological data concerning coinfections with <italic>Nosema</italic> spp. and <italic>L. passim</italic> in honey bees in tree trunks in other countries, further research is needed to confirm the effect of concurrent pathogenic infections on the decline of bee colonies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimization of Protein Feed Fermentation Process for Supplementation of Apis Mellifera Honeybees<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>An alternative to natural food shortage for honeybees is the provision of supplements. The objective of this research was to develop a method with ideal conditions for the fermentation of a protein supplement for honeybees. The microorganisms used were <italic>Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria</italic> and <italic>Saccharomyces</italic> and the inulin prebiotic. There was an increase in lactic acid and a decrease in pH over a five-day fermentation period. The amount of acid bacteria present was 108–109 CFU/g of supplement. In the first phase the temperature and the humidity had significantly affected the fermentation but the variables inulin and probiotic didn’t. In the second phase, the lower temperatures and higher humidity produced the best effects on the fermentative responses. It was concluded that an ideal environment with temperature, humidity, inulin and probiotics could be created which allowed the fermentation of the protein supplement in five days obtaining final product fermentative characteristics close to bee bread.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-02T00:00:00.000+00:00A Modified Standardized Method to Extract and Store Insect Hemolymph with Use of a Glass Capillary<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Hemolymph is the “blood” circulating in the entire insect body. Analysis of this fluid gives information about the condition of the insect. The most precise analyses are conducted on insects’ hemolymph suspended in 0.6% physiological saline (NaCl). Most current hemolymph extraction methods are either difficult or do not provide pure material, the contamination of collected insect “blood” can change results. This study aimed to develop a technique for extract hemolymph, both easy and without risk of contaminating derived material. The presented method is a modification of available ways to extract, store and transport hemolymph with the use of a glass capillary. For the development of this technique, adult worker honey bees (<italic>Apis mellifera</italic> L.) were used. The method required such basic equipment as a glass capillary, sterile tweezer, Eppendorf tube and physiological saline. The collected hemolymph were frozen and hence sent in a glass capillary to another laboratory for analysis.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Prospects and Validity of Laboratory Cage Tests Conducted in Honeybee Research Part Two: New Possibilities for Use of Laboratory Cage Tests in Response to Challenges Revealed at the Turn of the 20 and 21 Centuries<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Nowadays, cell cultures are a standard tool in animal biotechnology, but the problem with honeybees is the constant lack of appropriate cell lines to be used in in vitro research. Until the imperfections of bee tissue cultures are resolved, researchers have to conduct experiments on bees in laboratory cage tests (LCTs).</p><p>At the turn of the 21<sup>st</sup> century many new hazards for beekeeping appeared. An early recognized problem was the Colony Collapse Disorder and Honey Bee Depopulation Syndrome, which were associated with the harmfulness of pesticides and strictly linked with a decline in bee immunity. Such problems in LCTs were attempted to be resolved through research on the interactions between biostimulators and antiparasitic drugs. LCTs allow the relationship between the dose of a specific factor and its impact to be determined, which can be used in the establishment of reference values. Furthermore, LCTs may be a useful tool in understanding the function and role of bee gut flora.</p><p>Using the honeybee as an animal model is possible thanks to knowledge of the honeybee genome and bee biology and the similarity between some physiological and biochemical processes and those occurring in humans. So far, LCTs have been used to understand better human aging, learning and gene expression regulating. This is facilitated by the advanced development of medicine and molecular genetics, and in the future the use of honeybees may become a standard in biochemical or gerontological research.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Foraging Behavior of Honeybees ( L.) and Ground Bumblebees ( L.) and its Influence on Seed Yield and Oil Quality of Oil Tree Peony Cultivar ‘Fengdan’ ( T. Hong et J. X. Zhang)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Oil peony (<italic>Paeonia</italic> spp.) is a new type of woody oil crop in China with a large cultivation area. Inadequate pollination is one of the main reasons for low seed yield. A pollination net room was built at an oil tree peony base, the numbers of honeybees (<italic>Apis mellifera</italic> L.) and ground bumblebees (<italic>Bombus terrestris</italic> L.) were artificially increased and the foraging behaviors and daily activities of the two bees on the plants were observed. Four different pollination methods (honeybee pollination, ground bumblebee pollination, natural field pollination and pollination without insects) were applied. The visit interval, single-flower visit time, number of single-flower visits, number of flowers visited per minute and number of stigma contacts were compared. Meanwhile, the effects of honeybee and bumblebee pollination on the oil yield and quality of peony seeds were compared. There were noticeable differences in daily activity between honeybees and ground bumblebees. Significant differences in the single-flower visit time, visit interval and visit frequency were also observed; honeybee and ground bumblebee pollination increased the seed yield of oil tree peony by 78.74% and 31.88%, respectively. Therefore, both honeybees and ground bumblebees are effective pollinators of oil tree peony. These results provide a theoretical basis for further utilization of bee resources for oil tree peony pollination.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of Bacterial Cell-Free Supernatant on Nutritional Parameters of and Their Toxicity Against<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><italic>Apis mellifera</italic> L. is an essential pollinator that is currently being affected by several stressors that disturb their ecological function and produce colony losses. Colonies are being seriously affected by the ectoparasitic mite <italic>Varroa destructor</italic>. The relationship between stressors and bee symbionts is being studied in order to enhance bee health. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of cell-free supernatants (CFSs) produced by <italic>Lactobacillus johnsonii</italic> AJ5, <italic>Enterococcus faecium</italic> SM21 and <italic>Bacillus subtilis</italic> subsp. <italic>subtilis</italic> Mori2 on <italic>A. mellifera</italic> nutritional parameters and their toxicity against <italic>V. destructor</italic>. Toxicity and survival bioassays were conducted on adult bees with different concentrations of CFSs. Nutritional parameters such as soluble proteins and fat bodies in abdomens were measured. <italic>Varroa destructor</italic> toxicity was analyzed by a contact exposure method and via bee hemolymph. At low concentrations, two of CFSs tends to enhance bee survival. Remarkably fat bodies maintained their levels with all CFS concentrations in the abdomens, and soluble protein increased at a high concentration of two CFSs. Toxicity against <italic>V. destructor</italic> was observed only via hemolymph, and results were in agreement with the treatment that produced an increase in bee proteins. Finally, CFS produced by <italic>L. johnsonii</italic> AJ5 could be a promising natural alternative for strengthening bee health.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Histochemical Staining of Acetylcholinesterase in Carnolian Honeybee () Brain after Chronic Exposure to Organophosphate Diazinon<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Organophosphate insecticides are known to inhibit the activity of enzyme acetylcholinesterase. They affect olfactory learning and memory formation in honeybees. These insecticides cause mushroom body inactivation in honeybees, but their influence on other brain regions involved in olfactory perception and memory is unknown. The goal of this study was to study the effects of organophosphate insecticide diazinon on carnolian honeybee (<italic>Apis mellifera carnica</italic>) acetylcholinesterase activity in the olfactory brain regions of antennal lobe, mushroom body and lateral procerebrum (lateral horn). The lamina, medulla and lobula of optic lobes were also analyzed. The level of acetylcholinesterase activity was visualized using the histochemical staining method. Densitometric analysis of histochemical signals indicated that diazinon inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity only in the lip of calyces of mushroom body, but not in other analyzed olfactory regions, antennal lobe and lateral procerebrum. The visual brain system optic lobes were also unaffected. This is in accordance with the literature reporting that mushroom body is the main brain center for olfactory learning and memory formation in honeybees.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Pesticide Residues in Honey from Stingless Bee (Meliponini, Apidae)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The present study aimed to detect pesticide residues in the honey produced by the stingless bee <italic>Melipona subnitida</italic>. A total of thirty-five samples of honey from <italic>M. subnitida</italic> were collected from twelve municipalities of the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte state, northeastern Brazil. Of these thirty-five samples, fourteen were from colonies raised in an urban area, while the other twenty-one were from the countryside. The pesticides in the samples were extracted using a modified QuEChERS method. The simultaneous analysis of 116 analytes in the honey samples was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Twenty-five samples (71.4% of samples) were contaminated by some amount of pesticide, and of them twenty-four had just one pesticide and one had three. The detected compounds included organophosphate pesticides (OPP) monocrotophos (24 samples), trichlorfon (6 samples) and chlorpyrifos-methyl (2 samples). In conclusion, the honey produced by the stingless bee <italic>M. subnitida</italic> may be contaminated by pesticides, which emphasizes the need for food monitoring before commercialization.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Integration of NDVI Imagery and Crop Coverage Registration System for Apiary Schedule<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Beekeepers need to establish migratory apiaries to benefit from pollen and nectar source plants as in order to increase honey yield. Thus, following the flowering seasons of honey source plants has vital importance when deciding the route of migration. In this study, MODIS imagery was used to generate weekly NDVI data between 1<sup>st</sup> April to 31<sup>st</sup> August 2018, when beekeeping activities start and end in the study area. Although MODIS images have high temporal resolution, low spatial resolution (250 meters) makes them insufficient when deciding the crop types and plants. While detecting plants in natural plant areas requires high spatial resolution NDVI, Crop Coverage Registration System (CCRS) parcel-based crop coverage records can enrich the NDVI data without increasing spatial resolution in agricultural lands. Thus, the CCRS data were integrated with NDVI images for migratory beekeeping in agricultural areas as an innovation. To generate both high temporal and spatial resolution, NDVI and CCRS data were integrated together with a beekeeping suitability map to generate the apiary schedule. The results were verified with 176 existing apiary locations and production dates retrieved from field studies which revealed the existence of three seasons in the study area as early and late apiaries (in natural plant areas) and apiaries in agricultural lands. Accuracy analysis showed that 82% of the apiaries intersected with suitable locations and that apiaries in agricultural areas were detected five days earlier than in field studies and obtained more accurately than natural plant apiaries.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-02T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1