rss_2.0Journal of Linguistics/Jazykovedný casopis FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Linguistics/Jazykovedný casopis of Linguistics/Jazykovedný casopis Feed Corpus Data to Constructional Networks: Analyzing Language with the Usage-Based Construction Grammar Framework<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Construction Grammar (CxG) is an innovative approach to language that has become increasingly popular in the Anglosphere over the last 30 years. In CxG, the basic units of linguistic analysis are constructions: arbitrary and conventional form-meaning pairings, reminiscent of Saussure’s linguistic sign, but applied to levels of linguistic analysis beyond the lexicon. A large body of research has provided ample evidence in support of CxG. However, the theory remains unknown to many colleagues outside the Anglosphere.</p> <p>In this paper, I highlight a particularly interesting strand of CxG that is referred to as ‘usage-based’, an approach that assumes constructions are learned based on input frequency, that is, through repeated exposure to and use of a linguistic structure (hence <italic>usage-</italic>based). The main aim of this paper is thus to demonstrate how corpus data can be analyzed to find evidence for ‘entrenchment’ of linguistic structures and thus, the existence of constructions. I will illustrate this procedure by applying so-called covarying-collexeme analyses to data from the Slovak National Corpus (SNC) and the Slovak Web 2011 corpus from which I extracted 785 tokens of the so-called Comparative Correlative (CC) construction (e.g. <italic>Čím viac čítam, tým viac rozumiem).</italic></p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrueÁČ, Jiří – MAREŠ, Petr – HOFFMANNOVÁ, Jana – JÍLKOVÁ, Lucie – KOPECKÝ, Jakub – MRÁZKOVÁ, Kamila: Praha: Academia 2022. 375 s. ISBN 978-80-200-3319-2 the conception of proper names and deproprial expressions in the academic dictionary of contemporary Czech<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper is a conceptual supplement sui generis, the aim of which is to present a modified treatment of proper names and deproprial expressions in the <italic>Academic Dictionary of Contemporary Czech </italic>(ADCC). The focus of the study is both a reflection on the past and current lexicographical practice and a discussion of the key issues related to the treatment of the respective lexical subsystem in the dictionary. First, we summarize the basic facts concerning the lexicographic processing of proprial and deproprial lexical units in the field of explanatory lexicography. Second, we provide some more general information about the ADCC and, most importantly, about the macrostructure and microstructure of the dictionary in reference to the topic of the present study. We focus on the inclusion of proprial and deproprial entries in the ADCC and the specific treatment of proper names contained in phrasemes. Special attention is paid to the microstructure of proprial and deproprial entries, as well.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and copyright law in the process of translation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper aims to point to the presence of creativity in translation. First, it analyzes the translation process, in which it uncovers its creative aspects, and then identifies the creative potential of individual types of translation. It reveals the possibilities available to translators in order to apply their creative translation solutions. The above view of translation as a process and translation as a product presents translators in a role that is often questioned and even overlooked – the role of a creator, while complementing the assessment of their work from the point of view of law. How does the law interpret creative activity in the case of translation, and when is the result of such activity, a translation, protected by copyright law? Under what conditions can a translator become an author? The authors attempt to answer such questions with an interdisciplinary understanding of the issue of creativity in translation, which, from their perspective, deserves increased attention from both the lay and professional public.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’s analogism in the acquisition of morphology as a reflection of linguistic thinking<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents psycholinguistic personal case study in its character. It focuses on the analogous (hypergeneralizing) formation of nouns and verbs in the ontogenesis of children’s speech through the prism of linguistic principles. The basic research material is diary entries of 364 grammatical forms of two children aged 1;10 – 2;7 years and 3;8 – 4;5 years (recorded during the ten months in 2017), which are incompatible with the literary norm of the Slovak language. The basic starting point was the hypothesis that agrammatic forms in children’s speech can be categorized and explained on the basis of natural language principles, whose application presupposes a certain level in the development and functioning of logical and thought operations and the cognitive system as such. The analysis of research material enabled us to generalize certain tendencies in the ontogenesis of the morphological system in children, which lead to structural iconism, uniform symbolization, systemicity and unification of the word-formation basis. The application of the principles in children’s speech has proved to be specific – the child applies in his speech mainly the principles of analogy, naturalness and dominance. The limit of the presented longitudinal research is the small number of respondents and the very nature of the research problem, whose solution requires intensive contact with the child subject, a longer period of time and more extensive research material.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of languages as the interlinguistic problem<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study attempts to sketch the vast problem of the construction of languages or construction within languages. So far, linguists have paid little attention to these issues, as under the influence of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, stressed especially by A. Schleicher based on Darwinism, they were considered understood and untouchable. Only later, especially under the influence of B. de Courtenay, H. Schuchardt and O. Jespersen, language started to be understood as a sociopsychological tool that allows conscious influence on its structure and evolution. After dealing with the topic of the attributes of language according to a new classification, the author then discusses the object of interlinguistics, which is presented according to the latest concept of the Gesellschaft für Interlinguistik (GIL). The following three overviews of important interlinguistics works with an emphasis on the construction of languages begin with D. Blanke’s book <italic>Internationale Plansprachen</italic>, which offers the reader the most extensive work on this topic until now, with an extraordinarily rich bibliography. Then there is a rather detailed review of A. Piperski’s book focuses on the construction of languages, and the author ends his extensive study with a short analysis of Y. Wahlgren’s work on fantasy languages, for which the moment of construction plays an essential role.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Dolník – enlightened Slovak linguist of the 20 and 21 centuries<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Juraj Dolník belongs to the most notable Slovak linguists, next to Ján Horecký (1920 – 2006) or Jozef Mistrík (1921 – 2000). His research areas comprise mainly general linguistics, Slovak studies and German studies. In the synchronic Slovak studies, he has devoted himself thoroughly to the study of lexicology, as well as to individual aspects of cultural stylistics, sociolinguistics and linguistic pragmatics. His ideas about the linguistic culture have become significant stimuli for the Slovak linguistic and cultural theory and language counseling practice. He has also laid the theoretical foundations for studies of linguistic otherness in the Slovak linguistic environment. As a distinguished professor emeritus, he authored a modern trilogy about language and society (2017 – 2021), thus providing further conspicuous methodological and theoretical inspirations for Slovak linguistics, and, in a wider context, also for Slavic linguistics of the 21<sup>st </sup>century.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and communication education at school and other language education between linguistic feeling and linguistic intelligence<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The author reflects on the specific ambivalence between linguistic feeling and linguistic intelligence, which many native language users encounter from the beginning of school language education. A similar duality of the relationship to the mother (native) language can also be felt by any adult individual who is interested in the valid language norm and its current fulfillment in the national communication space, and therefore formulates his or her comments on real “language life” or raises questions addressed to experts in language issues. The author tries to suggest ways to a solution both in educational practice and at the level of language education and language counselling for the wider public. Her approach is based on the current situation in the Czech Republic compared to some features in the Slovak environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue„We“ and „they“ in the linguistic construction of the image of language (or the reflection of lay people in Slovak linguistics)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article maps the linguistic views on the common language users as non-experts in the field of linguistics and their ability to think reflectively and rationally about issues related to language. An overview of attitudes towards non-linguists is presented against the background of the development of linguistics, ranging from a structural understanding of language with an emphasis on standard language cultivation and linguistic prescription, through a sociolinguistic approach that emphasizes the role of the language user as a creator of the linguistic norm and its variation, to the view of folk linguistics and citizen linguistics, which examine how ordinary people in various forms of public communication present their opinions, beliefs, as well as their myths and ideologies about language. At the same time, the paper argues for the view that some folk knowledge and beliefs about language are not only incorrect or inaccurate, but, on the contrary, that they provide valuable information for linguistics about the background of language behaviour and language change. The material was drawn from the databases of Slovak linguistic journals and the specialized corpus of the journal <italic>Slovenská reč</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue linguists emphasize about conditions and what logicians emphasize and what each should take from the other<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the first part of the study, we proposed that logicians adopt from linguists their detailed distinction of conditions on a scale of varying degrees of satisfiability from factually true via potentially satisfiable to absolutely irreal. On this basis, we have proposed a suitable distinction for the logico-semantic investigation of conditionals of the following kinds: Factual, hypothetical (agnostic), counterfactual, and counterpossible. We consider the syntactic-semantic distinction between potentially and absolutely irreal conditions to be crucial. Therefore, we think that the conditional mode in the form of antepreterite is an appropriate syntactic signal for identifying the absolute irreality of the condition and, especially in scientific and artistic style, we consider it functional. On the other hand, the distinction between sufficient and necessary conditions could be inspiring for linguists. In classical logic, these are the basic kinds of conditions and are associated with the rules of deductive reasoning modus ponens and modus tollens, respectively. These rules are central to the application of logic. It turns out that these tools are not sufficiently established in Slovak linguistics, as there is no systematic distinction between sufficient and necessary conditions. The situation in czech dictionaries is similar. Finally, we have put forward a hypothesis why the conjunction <italic>unless </italic>is considered in Slovak linguistics as a double – in our opinion wrongly – of the conjunction <italic>only</italic>: There is a “forgotten” ellipsis behind it, which is not brought to the reader’s attention.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue accompanying dialogue and the follow-up interview: the analysis of trans-interactional management<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The accompanying dialogue (realized while the participants are engaged in work activities together) provides very suitable material for the in-depth analysis of interaction and its relational, content, self-presentation and conative aspects, above all in the case of asymmetrical roles (superior – inferior). This contribution uses a video recording and a transcript of two collaborators in a violin workshop and, in addition, a follow-up interview, which forms an interesting complement to the original recording. Here it is possible to trace how, in the interview, the workshop leader tries to balance out the relational, content and conative aspects, weaken the expressions of his own superiority, mitigate the command-like tone of the communication, and to cooperate with his partner as much as possible; however, he himself labels these methods as “manipulation”. Methods of interactional linguistics were utilized in the analysis of both interviews. The theoretical framework for the empirical analysis consists of ego-linguistics as conceived by J. Dolník (emphasis on the egocentrism of the participants, their ego-motivation and ego-mobility) and language management theory with a focus on communicative (organized, trans-interactional) management.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue concept of inclusive communication style on the way to inclusive stylistics<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The contouring of inclusive stylistics as a new key concept of this discipline is inspired by panchronic continuity (especially) with rhetorical and stylistic considerations, as well as with considerations originating in the wider context of social sciences in the intersection of scientistic and antiscientist methodological frameworks. The inclusive style is a pillar of stylistics that aims to meet the communication needs of civil society of the 21<sup>st</sup> century. I integrate considerations on the way to inclusive stylistics (as a subset of interactional stylistics) in the spirit of the cognitive pluralism of the time (Gajda 2022, p. 8) as my contribution to the plurality of stylistic considerations in the name of unity in the diversity of the discipline. The attached text is an entry “shoot” to the team project of inclusive stylistics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue against standard language: requirements for language of literature and Jan Zábrana’s stories<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The language of literary texts is a complex and multiform phenomenon. One of the problems connected with it is the employment of non-standard linguistic varieties. This paper focuses on the especial situation in Czech culture in the 1950s. In that decade, literary critics and linguists strictly required the use of Standard Czech and the restriction of non-standard varieties in literary texts. On the other hand, various inedited works were written the language of which was based on the so-called Common Czech, colloquialisms and slangs. The main part of the paper describes the language of stories by Jan Zábrana (from the years 1954 to 1957) in relation to the official requirements. Zábrana’s stories (published posthumously in the 1990s) represent a radical denying of these requirements. Zábrana depicts spontaneous and informal spoken communication that differs from the idea of cultivated standard expression. Both the figures and the narrator consistently use nonstandard linguistic means and colloquial lexicon (including vulgarisms).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, , . Masculine virile nominal forms for names of music bands and their meanings on metonymic continuum<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study deals with the special usage of masculine virile forms to name music bands in Slovak. The names of music bands are usually classified as a special subtype of chrematonyms which name the artistic groups and are labelled as ergonyms in the theoretical works. Masculine virile forms can be used with a heterogenous range of meanings depending on context which can be understood as result of metonymic transpositions. The study focuses on description of units warranted by proper names which arise in two deproprial processes – transonymization and appellativization. The analysed material comes from web corpus Omnia Slovaca IV Maior. Metonymy is understood as a gradient phenomenon with instantiations that form a continuum on a scale depending on the strength of contiguity. Metonymy gives rise to a variety of readings, which are often difficult to capture and whose meaning has to be specified in the course of interpretation by contextual cues and pragmatic inferences. This fact leads to orthographic instability concerning the usage of capital letters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue indexical identification<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Indexical expressions are typical linguistic means aimed at identifying objects in the surroundings of communication participants. Sometimes, however, by using them, one can single out objects beyond the boundaries of the communication context. For example, by using the pronoun <italic>he</italic> supplemented by an act of ostension directed at a work of art, one can identify the author of that artwork, not the work itself. This is a case of an indirect indexical identification, which consists in the fact that the object of ostension is different from the object of identification of the use of the indexical expression. This phenomenon poses a challenge to semantic theories of indexical expressions. Their content must be modeled such that the transition from the object of ostension to the object of identification is captured. The paper proposes an explanation according to which the semantic content of the occurrence of an indexical expression used for indirect identification is descriptive (rather than referential). Specifically, it is a content in which the object of identification is described on the basis of its contextually relevant relationship to the object of ostension, which can also be expressed through a suitable descriptive expression. Such an explanation avoids some of the problems that indexical terms used for indirect identification bring.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue determination of ( in ego-related contexts<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The impetus to write this paper was an analysis of the expression <italic>as if </italic>(<italic>akoby</italic>) as a component of the “equivalence” principle and the determination of its legitimacy as a component of the “behavior” principle. The study is focused on the search for further connections between the verbal behavior of the speaker and the linguistic aspects of <italic>as if </italic>(<italic>akoby</italic>) because it is used as a manifestation of motivated, ego-related and assertive verbal behavior. <italic>As if </italic>(<italic>akoby</italic>) can be viewed as: (a) a component of the principle of verbal behavior that attributes an egocentric meaning to the speaker’s behavior; (b) an egocentric expression of the hypotaxis with an implicit speaker and the semantics of circumstantial and characteristic contexts; (c) a pragmatic marker of the speaker’s ego-related interpretation of facts. Interpretation, which is grasped at the following two levels, is the methodological framework of the monitored aspects: (i) in the sense of the ego-related evaluation of a fact or event by the speaker, i.e. in the sense of participatory interpretation, and (ii) in the sense of explaining the verbal behavior of the speaker, i.e. in the sense of searching for the motives, intentions and goals that form the preconditions for his/her verbal behavior.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the research of children’s text comprehension<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents theoretical background and empirical research on text comprehension processes of a junior school-age child. The first part of the paper discusses the most influential models of text comprehension and inference making as centrally important component of comprehension. The research findings concerning children’s text comprehension are discussed as well. Further, we present our ongoing empirical research, which focuses on children’s inference making when listening to and reading an informational, narrative, and multimodal text. We focus both on the online and offline inferences, i.e., on the inferences during and after listening to and reading the text. The aim of the research is to find out how children make different types of inferences and to compare their individual skills in inference making. The last part of the paper outlines preliminary data collected via retelling technique after reading the informational text. The data indicate individual differences between children in processing and verbalising information from the text and beyond the text. However, to draw complex conclusions about individual inference making profiles of children, further research is needed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Na Záver: Zakladateľ, Šíriteľ A Rozvíjateľ Slovenského Lingvistického Pragmatizmu Oslávil Jubileum repeat therefore I am: The parasyntactic perspective<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The text presents a theoretical platform and a case study of a new method for authorship attribution based on an author’s specific low-frequency lexicon. It will be shown that an author’s text is largely context-independent and is constructed by the author’s habit based on the regular repetition of certain topics or modes of expression. The author’s idiosyncratic way of choosing between synonymous linguistic devices in the text happens at a distance of several word forms or sentence units. This means that texts themselves are constructed using a much wider range of repetitions than expected and that the structure of the text above the level of intersentential linking is determined by a specific group of words (functional but above all content words) obligatorily used by the author in the formulation of the text. The newly introduced method can be used to attribute authorship by relying on the specific linguistic imprint of the author in the text (in this context, we talk about parasyntactic linguistic level). The method is compared with a function-word-based method.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue self-actualization<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The author’s intention is to contribute to the interpretation of linguistic self-actualization as a specific form of human self-actualization. In the first part of the text, he discusses self-actualization from an anthropological, philosophical and psychological point of view, in order to be able to formulate a definition of the relevant term. He develops the thesis that self-actualization is a constitutional property of man as a being of his kind and a constituent of the individual, observable in his ontogenesis. He introduces the term self-actualization base and describes it as a structure that determines the authentic way of human activity. Against this background, he approaches the interpretation of language self-actualization and defines the terms mentalization, acquisition, and operational language self-actualization. For him, linguistic self-actualization is an activity by which the user responds to mentalization, socialization and flexible expression needs. How an individual realizes this activity depends on his will to freely navigate the world of signs, language rules and language operations, on his semiotic-practical, imitative and operational practical intelligence disposition, as well as on his decision-making disposition, applied when choosing from options in specific conditions of language use.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue