rss_2.0Journal of Linguistics/Jazykovedný casopis FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Linguistics/Jazykovedný casopis of Linguistics/Jazykovedný casopis Feed Stylistics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Developmental stylistics, a sub-discipline of stylistics, studies the development of and changes in stylistic competence during a speaker’s life. This developmental perspective is under-used in stylistic research. The article summarises current definitions of developmental stylistics and proposes a set of new and complex parameters for a discipline that studies stylistic competence at all stages of life, in both production and reception, and in typical and less typical contexts. It discusses the main factors which make ‘developmental’ research within stylistics problematic, and which may contribute to the fragmented nature of the discipline. The wide range of topics within developmental research often calls for an interdisciplinary approach. The great variability in the way speakers communicate and interact with one another, the limited capacity to make generalisations from the research, and the analysis of various types of ‘imperfect’ language all present significant methodological challenges.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of style and stylistics from Jozef Mistrík to the digital era<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study is to follow the metamorphoses of the notion of style (above all) in Slovak stylistics within the last about 30 years. From the initial recapitulation of the traditional ideas of structural linguistics as a science aimed at non-contextual linguistic models of the manners of shaping the texts, the perspective of viewing style is being shifted to viewing it as a socially conditioned speech lingual activity. The culmination is represented by the profiling of style as a construction of a contextually conditioned cultural reflection of text in context. The current communicatively conditioned concepts of style anchored in discourse reality reflect the updated needs of people of the digital era. A non-negligible prerequisite for effectively grasping style (especially in interaction) is the competence of the acting people to interact optimally and in an assimilation-accommodation manner with the surrounding world in the name of harmony, understanding and inclusive behaviour.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue language communication<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The pragmatic reason for supporting the promotion of equal language communication is that this communication is part of a social event that aims to develop an inclusive society. However, this support also has an anthropological reason, which is based on the reconstruction of the origin of man as a being of his kind and his humanization. His humanization is based on continuous self-realization and rational social solidarity, consisting in the fact that the actors of social interaction are committed to creating a lively environment for parity self-realization. Such self-realization is governed by the principle of equality differentiation, which includes the contextual neutralization of relevant differences between actors. Transparency is essential for overcoming equality barriers in language communication, but it is important to perceive the opposition between levelling and cultivated equality communication. This contrast draws attention to the idea of optimally transparent language, which leads the actors to set the optimal ratio between transparent and non-transparent forms of expression. Since the humanization of individuals and society corresponds to cultivated equality communication, the order of the day is to increase the volume of language communication in society with such a degree of non-transparency (negativity) that stimulates the interpretive activity of the actors. When examining equal language communication with regard to its impact on the cultural level of society, one of the relevant issues is the adaptation of the relationship between positive and negative transparency to current communication events.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue communicative acts in literary style<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many literary texts prove a tendency to simulate features of diverse communicative acts, styles and genres that are primarily applied in non-literary spheres of communication (for instance journalism, administration, science). The aim of this paper is to suggest a possible theoretical framework for this phenomenon and to describe some ways of simulating non-literary styles in literary texts. The aforementioned simulating can be seen as a form of interdiscursivity that introduces external elements into literary texts. The functioning of it is conditioned by a process of decontextualization and recontextualization that is signalled by various paratextual and textual cues. Taking three Czech prosaic works as examples, the concrete use of this form of interdiscursivity is illustrated in the last part of the paper.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue culture on the internet and media linguoecology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The development of digital technologies impacted Internet-communication, which has become the dominant type of communication and a new form of language use. The Internet today is the most influential sphere of social communication, and it has a strong influence on the transformation of traditional norms and rules of speech behavior – both public and interpersonal. The digitalization of language and the digitalization of culture has posed a number of new problems for society: from the destruction of traditional and the emergence of a new literacy in Internet communication to the formation of a new type of culture – media culture, with certain communicative dominants that distinguish it from traditional culture. The media and digital turns in modern linguistics have served as triggers for the awareness of the new linguistic reality being formed in the Internet environment as an increasingly significant part of modern media space. Therefore, it is necessary to create within the framework of the new scientific direction of linguoecology an independent field, which we have conventionally designated as media linguoecology. We think of media linguoecology as a theoretical and applied discipline, in the scientific field of which not only riskogenic zones of Internet communication will be identified, but also ways of overcoming them will be worked out.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue rhetoric and social inclusion<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The subject of the study is <italic>current civic rhetoric</italic> with regard to the inclusive rhetorical mechanisms employed in it. In classical rhetoric, we rely on the Aristotle’s deliberative type of rhetoric. We are interested in the citizen’s predisposition for involvement in deliberation (deliberative competence including its rhetorical aspect), the identity of rhetorical deliberative subjects, as well as the rhetorical procedures and genres in civic rhetoric. We work on the assumption that inequality of deliberation actors is the impetus for the creation of inclusive rhetoric. In this paper we distinguish three functions of inclusive rhetoric: (1) <italic>coordination function</italic> (coordination of various individual or group interests, opinions, intentions), (2) <italic>compensatory function</italic> (compensating for knowledge, information and other deficits) and (3) <italic>solidarity function</italic> (strengthening collectivity as a prerequisite for the influence and success of proposals in the negotiation phase of civic rhetoric. These particular functions characterize inclusive rhetoric in the public debate phase of civic rhetoric (i.e., deliberation in its own sense). We characterize and illustrate them through the rhetorical speeches and deliberative practices of the founder of the civic initiative IG24.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue style of accompanying dialogues<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Conversations accompanying collective activities are exceptionally appropriate material for the development of “interactional stylistics” (cf. Orgoňová – Bohunická 2018). They display a number of specific aspects, including a low frequency of full-meaning expressions and, conversely, a high frequency of substitute deictic expressions, used when showing and pointing. Characteristic for these dialogues is the observation of the cooperative principle (Grice 1975), above all through various forms of agreement, strengthened by reduplication and intensification (<italic>yeah that’s it that’s it; yeah that’s clear</italic>, <italic>of course</italic>); also through speakers repeating after their interlocutors, but also through emphatic, confirmational repetition of their own expressions or the accompaniment of utterances and turns with strong coreference. Less frequent, but striking, are the expressions of motivated, functional disagreement, gradually eliminated through negotiation. Through the use of all of these means, a specific structure of the conversation is created, often based on the actual coproduction of turns, on non-extensive overlaps and on the use of numerous continuers. Here, verbal communication merges inseparably with gestures, movements and facial expressions, which necessarily leads to the use of methods based on the analysis of video recordings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue faces of style and stylistics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The starting point for the author’s considerations is the conception of style as the humanistic structure of text, which he uses as the foundation of integrating stylistic synthesis. The synthesis is to be characterized by the following: 1) <bold>holism</bold> (moderately and functionally directed, brought down to a system in which relations connecting different manners of the existence and functioning of language in text are exposed); 2) <bold>integrationism</bold> (integrating knowledge of language reality, primarily of the functioning of language in text); 3) <bold>intermethodologism and transdisciplinariness</bold>. Acceptance of this conception of style offers – regarding the understanding of it – a very broad and open cognitive space. There may appear in it different frameworks which present diverse faces of style and stylistics. Their cognitive use enriches the integrative synthesis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue fishing terminology using GNU/Linux tools<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The technological revolution that has occurred in recent decades has made accessible for researches large textual data collections. At the same time, the development of increasingly sophisticated computer tools provides them with new methods of analyzing texts. In the present study however we examine the functionalities offered by traditional tools, namely GNU/Linux tools, easily accessible via the command line but still unknown among linguists with little or no computer knowledge. Our goal is to show how using the web corpus on the one hand and the processing GNU/Linux tools on the other, we can extract key-terms of fishing jargon.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue corpus digital database and exploitation. Test of lexicometric analysis of the identity dimension in the romanesque discourse<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this contribution is to show, through a preliminary analysis of a corpus sample composed of the first five kabyle novels (1963-1990), the contribution of lexicometry as a new method based on statistics, in the treatment of large corpora and the establishment of databases. The aim is to describe all the phases intrinsic to the preliminary processing of a corpus (transcription, tagging and lemmatization) before submitting them to the various stages of its exploitation. Thus, in our corpus, we have opted to deal with the theme of identity induced by the five works by highlighting both the overused vocabulary and the singularity of each work in relation to the corpus as a whole. But before moving on to the quantitative analysis of the vocabulary, a work of data preparation is necessary. We intend to focus on the orthographic choices to be adopted by removing all ambiguities, the marking out and the lemmatization of the corpus. In order to do this, we have resorted to Lexico5 computer tool.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue different types of linguistic corpora shed light (or not) on various categories of substandard lexicon: contrastive analysis of vocabulary in the comedy “Les Kaïra” [Porn in the hood], a typical example of the hood film genre<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The arrival of WaC corpora, including Aranea family corpora, with its “close-to-spoken language” writings from different non-formal web pages brought the new options to researchers of sociolects, mainly to those who were previously obliged to observe youth collectives in its spontaneous discourses with its consequent time-consuming transcripts. Non-spontaneous spoken language from rap songs or youth film dialogues also help researchers to describe the level of societal diffusion of some typical features of youth slang. In this paper, we focus on demonstration of these crossed approaches in order to describe three types of verbs, used in a successful comedy about Parisian peri-urban post-adolescents <italic>Les Kaïra</italic> (2012), representing different types of substandard lexicon.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Errors in Russian Web Corpora<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The explosion of the Web leads to the production of large amounts of texts and inevitably influences their quality. Errors that tend to occur more often can distort results, especially when texts are used for scientific purposes, in language teaching or learning. Hence, there is a need to examine the existing corpora based on web texts and to clean up the data, which may contain such “noisy” fragments. In our study, we deal with the problem of errors and analyze the Aranea Russicum Maximum corpus. Among such errors, we can name, above all, encoding errors, incorrect font types, as well as segments written in other languages. These phenomena result in incorrect morphological analysis and lemmatization, frequency distortion, as well as the fact that lexical units cannot be found and therefore displayed to corpus users. The paper focuses on the errors, describes their types and outlines possible ways to eliminate them.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of morphological dictionary MorfFlex<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Language corpora usually contain, in addition to their own texts, various types of annotations. The most common one is a morphological annotation, which consists in assigning a lemma and a morphological tag to each wordform. For morphological tagging, morphological dictionaries are traditionally used. Our paper presents a new version of the so-called “Prague” morphological dictionary MorfFlex used for tagging many Czech corpora (particularly Prague Dependency Treebanks, corpora published by the Institute of the Czech National Corpus in Prague or large Czech web corpora of the Aranea series). Three basic principles were used to update the dictionary: the Golden Rule of Morphology, the Principle of Paradigm Unity, and the Principle of Paradigm Uniqueness.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Language Word Embeddings Based on the Corpus Hanku<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Vector models based on word embeddings are an indispensable part of advanced Natural Language Processing research and language analysis. We describe several Chinese language (Pǔtōnghuà) word embeddings, the differences from “western” language models caused by specific orthographic and linguistic features of the written Chinese language, and introduce a publicly available web interface for querying the vector models, aimed at linguistically or pedagogically oriented users.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue type as a problem of automatic morphological analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of our paper is to demonstrate the procedures by which the data needed to refine tools for automatic morphological analysis of Czech can be obtained using a corpus, namely the Araneum Bohemicum IV Maximum (Czech, 20.03) 7.10 G web corpus of the ARANEA series and Araneum Bohemicum Maximum (Czech, 15.04) 3,20 G (hereinafter Araneum). Particularly, we will focus on propria of the Kladenští type, i.e., substantivized adjectives of denoting groups of persons according to affiliation. The goal of the probe into the Aranea web corpus is: 1) a corpus-based description of frequented properties of the <italic>Kladenští</italic> type, which can be used as a starting point for rule disambiguation; 2) creating a list of the most frequent lemmas belonging to the <italic>Kladenští</italic> type, which can then be included into dictionaries of automatic morphological analyzers (e.g. the MorfFlex dictionary by Hajič and Hlaváčová). We believe that the probe can help improve the results of tools for automatic morphological analysis of Czech.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue interpretation of German migration discourse (in comparison view of the years 2019 and 2015/16)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The presented paper is a research dive into the topic of web corpora as well as an analysis of linguistic grasp of the issue of migration from the perspective of social, cultural and cognitive linguistics. The presented research reflects the problem of the construction of the language grasp of this issue in Europe in a selected German mass media discourse. We compare the phenomenon of migration in 2015/2016, when record migration flows to the EU were recorded, and in 2019, when migration kept increasing. The analysis of language grasp of the issue of migration is a part of our scientific research within the project VEGA Xenisms in German and Slovak communications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue observations on the composition by blending in contemporary French from Petit Robert<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this article is to analyze the composition by amalgam in current French by focusing on the one hand on the notion of amalgam in linguistics and on the other hand on the use and the frequency of use of the chosen amalgams in the diatopic variation of French. The notion of amalgam and / or of portmanteau word does not seem obvious and the explanations or definitions offered by dictionaries as well as by works on lexicology are not unanimous and differ from one another. Before presenting the results of a more detailed research, we therefore find it essential to frame the contribution in a theoretical context dealing with the notion of amalgam, or even of portmanteau word, which allows us to better understand the whole problem.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Corpus-Driven Study of Prepositional Semantics in Russian and Czech<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper deals with prepositions with causal meaning in Russian and Czech. In Slavic languages prepositions are closely connected to cases. Russian and Czech prepositions have many common features. Prepositions show a relation in space or time or a special relationship between two or more people, places, things or situations. In the current paper we are dealing with causal relations. There are different ways to express them. Among these means, the most common are prepositional-case forms and complex sentences with a subordinate causal part. We analyze the repertoire of causal prepositions in both languages and describe their statistical representation in corpora. Another task is to reveal translation equivalents between two languages.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue specialised parallel corpora: the case of European directives<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Within the framework of a didactic proposal, this article proposes to present a preliminary step to the specialized translation French-Greek. It will attempt to highlight the benefits of autonomous learning through the consultation of a corpus of specialized parallel texts established by the EU institutions. The use of concordancers will provide solutions to students wishing to study the variability of terminology and specialized vocabulary at monolingual and bilingual levels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Project Work as a Way of Bringing Corpora to Secondary School<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Corpus linguistics is one of the most dynamic and rapidly developing areas of modern linguistics. It affects all areas of linguistics, including methodology of teaching foreign languages, translation and other linguistic disciplines. Corpus linguistics has had a direct impact on teaching foreign languages. However, in general, it remains a marginal method in teaching. Analysis of publications on the subject allows us to conclude that very few studies are long-term and aimed at working with schoolchildren. This article proposes a model for the development of sustainable interest among high school students in online corpora as sources of linguistic information, including the initiation stage in the form of project work in mini-groups to study well-known sayings with the consequent stage aiming at completing tasks supplementing the main textbook on a regular basis. The organization of project work addressing the corps of 11<sup>th</sup> grade students of the Natural Science Lyceum at Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University is described. The paper outlines further research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue