rss_2.0Journal of Forensic Accounting Profession FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Forensic Accounting Profession of Forensic Accounting Profession Feed Role of Forensic Accountants in Fraud and Corruption Cases and Its Impact on Business Development: The Case of Saudi Arabia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of forensic accountants in different fraud and corruption cases and its impact on business development. Drawing on the Fraud Triangle Theory by Cressey (1953) and the theoretical concept of capability by Wolfe and Harmanson (2004) this study focuses on the significance of ‘opportunity’, ‘pressure’, ‘rationalization’ and ‘capability’ for forensic accountants in addressing fraud and corruption issues and evaluates the influence of their findings on business development. The study relied on a mixed method design to conduct the research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue insight into the internet frauds within` the context of consumers in Bosnia and Herzegovina<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Online shopping helps consumers search for information about products and services, makes it easier to compare prices and product features, and enables a quick and easy exchange of positive and negative experiences. However, through numerous positive advantages, there is inevitably a constant increase in the negative consequences of online shopping, especially from the consumer's perspective.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue concern assessment: a literature review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper addresses a underlying assumption of financial statements: going concern assumption. The going concern assumption constitutes a foundational premise presuming that the entity will conduct its operations in the forthcoming period (at least 12 months) without significant risk of business interruption. The primary objective of financial reporting is to provide information regarding the entity's financial position and performance to diverse users. Management is obligated to apprise users, and auditors are tasked with scrutinizing the assertion that the entity will continue its operations for a period exceeding 12 months. This paper meticulously examines the regulatory framework grounded in International Financial Reporting Standards and International Standards on Auditing. It particularly scrutinizes the role and significance of auditors in assessing the going concern assumption, encompassing an analysis of factors influencing the auditor's opinion on the going concern assumption and addressing criticisms directed at auditors. Furthermore, the paper explores past experiences in developing models for evaluating going concern assumptions, potentially aiding forensic accountants in uncovering irregularities in financial statements, given the correlation between a heightened bankruptcy risk and fraudulent activities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Gap: Integrating Forensic Accounting Skillsets for Enhanced Audit Quality in the Post-Pandemic Era<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In response to recent high-profile accounting scandals, the auditing sector is undergoing a critical review of practices. Despite regulatory changes and technological advancements, doubts persist about auditors' effectiveness in identifying financial statement fraud. This article advocates for a paradigm shift in auditors' skillsets, especially amid challenges posed by remote and hybrid work scenarios.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of a forensic accountant in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina finance sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper aims to identify the possibility of positioning the profession of forensic accountant in the financial sector of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter FBiH). To answer the question of how the profession of forensic accountant could be introduced into the financial sector, qualitative research was conducted using the method of interviews with respondents who have many years of experience in the financial sector of FBiH.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Digital Forensics in Combating Financial Crimes in the Computer Era<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Information and communication technologies (ICT) have changed every area of our lives. Cyberspace-related areas have reflected these shifts. Cyberspace has an undeniable positive impact on information, trade, industry, and communication. On the other hand, cybercrime is a dark side of the Internet that degrades its peaceful use. Any illegal activity carried out by or via cyberspace and its electronic environment is characterized as cybercrime. Unlike traditional crimes, cybercrimes present a real dilemma because the identities of criminals may be hidden in the virtual domain. Digital forensics has emerged to formulate possible ways for cybercrime investigation and analysis process. In this paper, we deplore the idea of digital forensics in the context of cybercrimes. An investigation of the positive impact of digital forensics in combating cybercrimes is discussed. In today’s world of computers, any information can be made available within a few clicks for different endeavors. The information may be tampered with by changing the statistical properties and can be further used for criminal activities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Accounting: Time for a Unified Global Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Forensic accountants need to respond to the ever-growing global threat of financial crime and the continuing need for expertise within the area of financial dispute work. The global development of forensic accounting as a discipline has been ad hoc, and this paper will focus on the two most developed nations regarding the expansion of forensic accounting i.e., the USA and the UK. From this study two major themes have emerged: that of the status of the regulation and education of forensic accountants within the USA and the UK and we ultimately call for radical reform in both areas. Currently there is no recognised regulatory body which encompasses all aspects of a forensic accountant’s role, thus there is no standard code of ethics which practicing forensic accountants are obliged to follow. In addition, the absence of a recognised educational route to becoming a forensic accountant has resulted in a lack of awareness of the role as a potential career path and makes succession planning within forensic accounting firms problematic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Current State of Forensic Accounting in Saudi Arabia and Possible Ways of Elevating It to Assist the Government Fighting Corruption<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Corruption occurs when there is a misuse of current resources to maximize personal benefits at the expense of other parties, causing financial problems and preventing the development of emerging economies.</p> <p>Forensic accounting services utilize financial data to solve legal disputes. Saudi Arabia’s government does not tolerate obstacles that impede the realization of its ambitious Vision 2030, a long-term plan for transforming society and reforming the economy. The war on corruption has been observed in Saudi Arabian domestic policy. Whether the forensic accounting profession and the readiness of accountants qualified to conduct forensic inquiries and investigations are effectively accompanied by the government’s fight is probed. This study explores the current state of forensic accounting in Saudi Arabia. Potential means of employing such status to make Saudi Vision 2030 a reality to combat corruption and the ability of forensic accounting to ease the government’s fight are also investigated. A questionnaire was conducted on 181 participants comprising accountants, auditors, judges, accountancy academics, Oversight and Anti-Corruption Authority employees, and any supervisory body in Saudi Arabia. The results show that 46% of the surveyed participants were unaware of forensic accounting, implying that despite its significance and demand for its services, forensic accounting is undersupplied in Saudi Arabia. Thus, it is inferred that the current state of forensic accounting is below the required level. To address this issue, forensic accounting should be incorporated into accounting curricula, accountants should join specialized scholarship programs and seek to be certified forensic accountants. Policy-makers must develop charter institutions and related forensic accounting standards.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue risk as the neglected phenomenon: an insight into publishing trends<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In today’s increasingly connected and digitized business environment, brands face numerous challenges that can significantly affect their reputation and value, and one of the key challenges that many organizations across the world face is brand risk. Due to its role in many aspects of business, the main purpose of this paper is to revitalize this phenomenon by exploring it through bibliometric indicators, publishing trends and analyzing it through the current literature. In this sense, the paper adresses two research questions, both related to revealing the scope and nature of brand risk as the construct of a great relevance in many scientific fields, whereas a special attention has been given to the analysis of the most cited papers on this matter. The findings show that the construct although presented two decades ago is still in infancy phase, and quite neglected in the current body of knowledge.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of special credit risk in the function of real financial reporting<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Banks and banking business are exposed to the influence of numerous risks, of which the importance of credit risk management stands out, because credit risk is the only risk that banks are obliged to measure, record in accounting and report. Banks monitor credit risk through the segmentation of the credit portfolio according to the level of risk. This paper is focused on research related to the management of the riskiest category of the credit portfolio, for which we will use the term special credit risk (SCR) in this paper.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Online Lessons from Accounting Courses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>COVID-19 is behind us, that is, it no longer poses a direct threat to the normal functioning of higher education. Nevertheless, the answers to the challenges in teaching, brought with it by COVID-19, have become an integral part of the curriculum of higher education institutions. When it comes to online teaching in accounting courses, additional creativity was expected from the teaching staff to successfully transfer knowledge. This was a particularly difficult challenge for those institutions and teaching staff who had not previously applied online teaching and online tools in the teaching process.</p> <p>The research was conducted on students of the Faculty of Economics of the University of Mostar (EF Mostar, FEM) and students of the Faculty of Economics of the University of Split (EF Split, FES), who took one or more accounting courses in the pandemic academic year 2020/2021 and partly in the academic year 2021/2022. The paper tried to offer answers to the questions about the degree of student satisfaction with online teaching, what are the advantages and disadvantages of this kind of teaching, and in which aspects there is room for improvement when considering the teaching of accounting courses in the context of online teaching.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Auditor’s Opinion on Financial Statements of Public Enterprises Based on Indicators of the Beneish M-score Model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Considering the burning problem of corruption and non-transparency of public enterprises in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH), the paper aims to investigate whether the Beneish M-score model can be used to predict inaccurate financial statements. Where, the cause of inaccurate financial statements are intentional or unintentional errors.</p> <p>On a sample of 200 financial statements of public enterprises and related audit reports issued by the Audit Office of the Institutions in FBiH, we made a link between the Beneish M score model with its partial indicators (DSRI, GMI, AQI, SGI, DEPI, SGAI, LVGI, TATA) and four types of opinions: positive, opinion with distraction, negative and refraining from giving opinions. The research was conducted using descriptive statistics and an artificial neural network with the “scaled conjugate gradient backpropagation (trainscg)” algorithm for pattern recognition and classification. The research results show that it is possible on the basis of 8 partial indicators (DSRI, GMI, AQI, SGI, DEPI, SGAI, LVGI, TATA) i.e. 24 balance sheet position for their calculation, predict the auditor’s opinion on the quality of financial statements of public companies with an accuracy ranging between 98 and 100% in repeated procedures. The results of the research have their practical usefulness and can serve to researchers, creditors, customers, suppliers and state auditors in planning resources and priorities for performing financial audits at public companies in the FBiH.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Management of Preventing Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aware of the danger that the risk of money laundering and terroist financing has on the whole society, and with the aim of increasing awareness of the effective fight against the same risk in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), the paper deals with the research of mechanisms for managing the risk of money laundering and terrorist financing activities.</p> <p>The research of this work will be focused on determining the degree of application of the requirements of the legislative and institutional framework for the fight against money laundering and terrorist financing by those obliged to apply law. Also, the paper points to the cooperation of state institutions with entities of the BiH, and examines the degree of compliance of the BiH system with international standards related to the fight against money laundering and terrorist financing. In order to assess the management of this risk as efficiently as possible, the paper will cover financial and non-financial money transfer systems, and indicate the level of measures taken in this fight by the competent institutions. For the purposes of research in the paper, the data published by the competent institutions through their reports/publications will be used, with a special focus on the data published by the Banking Agency of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina as the legal entity that reported the largest number of suspicious transactions in the analyzed period. The results of the research indicate that there is no concern regarding the management of the risks of money laundering and terrorist financing in BiH, and that the risk can be quantified in the category of moderate risk.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Accounting in Business Law of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper is dealing with one of the major challenges confronting the development of forensic accounting primarily legislation to combat fraudulent practices in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The focus of our research is corporate and practice in the finance and banking sectors, since business operations are becoming more complex, especially with the recent developments in information and communication technology and as a consequence of the global pandemics of Covid-19 and the looming economic crisis. This has changed the nature of corporate fraud and fraudulent practices. This study has a primary goal to investigate the theoretical aspects of the integration of forensic accounting and corporate law and related regulation as tools for combating corporate and cyber fraud. In that sense, forensic accounting with a more than strong backing in the legislative aspects is strongly geared towards the minimization of the cost of employed capacities for forensic accounting activities to mitigate and eventually eliminate cyber fraud.</p> <p>The study also explores the effect of integrating forensic accounting and management control systems on banks’ reputations and the huge loss of revenue resulting from cyber fraud. The study develops a conceptual model to show the relationship between forensic accounting, the management control system, and cyber fraud in the banking sector. A legal context analysis methodological research approach was employed to express the relationship amongst the variables considered in this study to reduce corporate and public sector fraud, minimize cost and improve the reputation of corporate and public government sectors. Preliminary research in the formulation of clear conclusions gives an idea of the feasibility of combining the components of forensic accounting, corporate and related laws and regulations, management control systems, and corporate reputation to combat business fraud. This was validated in some general conclusions which resulted in an acceptable, logical, and feasible model of forensic accounting solidly founded in corporate law and structure. Some of the findings are that the speed and ease of convergence process symbiotic integration of forensic accounting and corporate law is the best solution that is feasible and suitable for achieving the set objectives. Our initial conclusion and recommendation are that the government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia should introduce legislation that would ensure strict corporate disclosure standards, requirements, and norms as this would defend companies’ critical assets as well as its anti-fraud programs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for Public Sector Management Improvement by the Digitalization of Financial Management and Control System in the Western Balkan Countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper investigated the opportunities for public sector improvement by digitalization Financial Management and Control (FMC) system in the Western Balkans (WB) countries. Optimizing business processes within public sector through the digitalization of the FMC system offers opportunities for public sector improvement.</p> <p>The idea is to analyze the existing legal solutions on FMC system in the WB countries and evaluate the current level of digitalization of the system to find the abilities for improvement FMC. The data obtained through an interview with management persons in the Ministry of Finance of the WB Countries and key experts who worked on behalf of the EU as expert consultants on EU-funded projects. Also, we use secondary data collected by exploring literature and OECD reports. Since the database is limited, we use descriptive statistics to analyze the data and the case-study method. The digitalization of the entire system presented only at the entity and state level in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The research showed that the development of a quality FMC system can be enabled by the digitalization of the entire system. The main contribution of this paper is its focus on digitalization of FMC system, since there is limited research paper on this subject.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Action Against Irregularities and Fraud - Are We Still at the Beginning?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this paper is to approximate the current state of risk management in irregularities and fraud in public sector organizations. Current regulations in the field of financial management and control in the public sector in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina define the concepts of irregularities and fraud within the system of internal controls in public sector organizations, the responsibility of management and employees for reports and actions. The paper will present data from official consolidated reports on the functioning of the financial management and control system, which indicate that the management of risks of irregularities and fraud and the implementation of actions to prevent and eliminate irregularities and fraud by users are still insufficiently developed. The possible causes of such a situation will be analyzed, and possible solutions will be considered: elaboration of legal enactments and concretization of individual roles in taking actions against irregularities and fraud.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Fraud Assessment within the External Auditing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper is dealing with the first pioneering steps to introduce continuous fraud risk assessment tools and techniques in the medium size audit clients in Montenegro. Based on the available experience and audit evidence data gathered in the period 2019 to 2021 statutory audits of medium size enterprise the clients were open and perceptive to adopt simple techniques of the continuous fraud assessment by applying the MS Excel templates. The beforementioned approach is improving the quality of internal control, lowering the levels of asset’s misappropriation, improving the quality of financial and non-financial reporting, regulatory compliance and significantly preventing illegal acts within the enterprise.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Perspectives of Forensic Accounting Development in Bosnia and Herzegovina<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fraud in accounting, as well as falsification of financial statements, has a long history, and in recent years their scale has been growing and with much more serious consequences. Decisions made by investors and other users of financial statements based on erroneous financial information cause enormous damage to users of financial information, but also to the general public. Many major financial frauds are only detected when companies reach the point of financial collapse, in a situation where it is difficult to do something to repair major damages.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Procurement Corruption in Bosnia and Herzegovina<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Public procurement system, which is being implemented in Bosnia and Herzegovina, is an integrated system that includes a large number of actors. This system is described, including the identified competencies and responsibilities of all participants, by law and bylaws. And, corruption is one of the social phenomena whose definitions change in time and space. Many behaviors that are considered corruption today have been an integral part of regular behavior in the past.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of Academic and Professional Education of Forensic Accountants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Although forensic accounting is a relatively young scientific discipline, it will certainly be one of the most sought after areas in the coming period, and it is important that activities be undertaken for its development and improvement as soon as possible.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue