rss_2.0Journal of Heterodox Economics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Heterodox Economics of Heterodox Economics Feed Corporate Tax Burden Affect Growth? Evidences from OECD Countries<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper explores the tax burden - economic growth nexus. It advances an explanatory framework for the existence of such nexus. First, we argue that tax burden reduces the income remaining at the disposal of the private sector. Second, we empirically test for the existence of a non-linear impact of corporate tax burden on growth for a dataset of 21 OECD countries, for the period 1975 - 2012. We mostly involve mixed effects models with three levels of nested random effects. Our main empirical result consists in the evidences of a non-linear relation between corporate tax burden and economic growth.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Productivity and Service Stake. A Heterodox Widened Approach<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of the present paper is to put together, point out and underline the core characteristics of a generalized concept of productivity built on a heterodox outlook. The analysis is conducted under the assumption that the developing knowledge in nowadays society and the concern for basing the economy on it require a reviewed approach on productivity. Relevant moments from the economic thought and literature are invoked(certain approaches on productivity from the most representative Romanian economic thought here included); the research finds reason and main conceptual grounds in the genuine liberalism and in the service economy, by a critical view on the concern for productivity growth as commonly seen and calculated. The paper also aims to bring to the current attention some pioneer work, less known but very important for the productivity mark. The paper develops the service stake as defining value creation and reveals the most important differences between common productivity (usually calculated productivity) and the new approach that takes into account the generalized service approach consistent with nowadays society.</p><p>This paper is a theoretical presentation designed to serve as an improved context for reconsidering the researches focused on – or connected with – productivity.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Methodological Context of (Post)-Modern Econometrics and Competing Philosophical Discourses for Policy Prescription<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This research article was championed as a way of providing discourses pertaining to the concept of “Critical Realism (CR)” approach, which is amongst many other forms of competing postmodern philosophical concepts for the engagement of dialogical discourses in the area of established econometric methodologies for effective policy prescription in the economic science discipline. On the whole, there is no doubt surrounding the value of empirical endeavours in econometrics to address real world economic problems, but equally so, the heavy weighted use and reliance on mathematical contents as a way of justifying its scientific base seemed to be losing traction on the intended focus of economics when it comes to confronting real world problems in the domain of social interaction. In this vein, the construction of mixed methods discourse(s), which favour that of CR philosophy is hereby suggested in this article as a way forward in confronting with issues raised by critics of mainstream economics and other professionals in the postmodern era.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Heterodox Economics Critique of Financial Liberalization<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> We explore a short run structural macroeconomic model with a focus on “the problem of financing economic development“ (Kaleçki, 1976). It is demonstrated that banks, in contrast to nonbanks, have a unique role to play in the production and circulation of commodities in a monetary economy. A case is made for class-based policy.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue There Too Much Government in Developed Countries? A Time-Series Analysis of 24 OECD-Economies<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The economic consequences of public sector oversizing have been analyzed in hundreds of scientific contributions. The empirical branch of this literature tries to measure these effects through the use of three main tools: cross-sectional analysis of countries’ samples, time-series analysis of individual economies, and panel-data analysis. Most authors conclude that the current size of the public sector is too big in their analyzed economies, thus leading to reduced output. For different reasons, however, the results of both cross-sectional and time-series analyses are open to criticism. This article aims to check the validity of the converging conclusions obtained by time-series analyses. To this end, a simultaneous-equation model is designed, which evades the critiques addressed to prior contributions. Application of this model to 24 OECD countries during the 1975-to-2007 period suggests that at least most of these have indeed let their public sector grow beyond the level that is optimum for their economic performance.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Democracy<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Based on the World Values Surveys 2005 data, measures of different aspects of religion are constructed and tested against various measures of democracy on a cross-national level for a set of 41 countries. The analyses reveal that there are some significant inter-linkages between the involved variables; however, the religious variables act in a nonuniform manner on the explanatory ones. We conclude that both conceptual and empirical arguments support the idea of democracy viewed as a religious dependent variable.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Patterns in Global Regions:: Do Specific Success Factors Make a Difference?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Globalisation is not a state of the world but an evolutionary process, which entails the increasing planetary integration of markets for goods and services, markets of location sites for economic activities, markets of production factors as technologies and information. Regions are involved in the globalization process to a different extent depending on their industrial specialization and physical accessibility from outside.</p><p>The aim of this paper is to investigate how regions most exposed to globalization face tougher competition. Distinguishing between open and closed regional economies, the paper investigates the regional performance of each type of region and identifies the most important success factors linked to growth performance patterns. The aim of the analysis is to determine whether the role played by each success factor in regional growth changes across regions with different degrees of openness to the rest of the world. Interestingly, our results do not clearly show that more open regions take advantage from particular success factors. The impact of most success factors on regional differential growth, in fact, do not change among groups of regions. A higher average regional growth rate in open regions with respect to closed ones is therefore mainly explained by the regional endowment of success factors rather than by differentiated marginal effects among groups of regions.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Notion of Entropy in an Economic Analysis: the Classical Examples and New Perspectives<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article deals with the notion of entropy in its applicability to economics. Briefly, it regards some classical cases of such a use as the labour concept of Podolinsky and the bioeconomics of Georgescu-Roegen. This article also attempts to apply the concept of entropy to the analysis of market structures in the example of the perfect competition model. Thus, the article asserts that if we compare different entropy concepts with the main characteristics of a market with perfect competition, we must conclude that the latter is a structure with the maximum level of entropy. But maximum entropy means the system’s death. So, as a system, a perfectly competitive market cannot exist. Despite economists recognise the unreality of such a market from an empirical point of view, the application of the entropy concept helps us to repeat this approval also as a methodological one. The use of the entropy concept as a methodological instrument helps to question some other economic models, too.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue for Happiness in the Global Village<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article employs three different measures of life satisfaction viewed as proxy for social utility, in order to test for the possible non-linear interactions between the quality of public governance, as reflected by the World Bank indicators, and globalization, as captured by the KOF index, for a dataset of 99 countries for a time span between 2001 and 2010. We conclude that efficient and trustworthy public policies may enhance life satisfaction. Moreover, there may occur a synergy effect between ‘good’ governance and globalization (especially for those components describing social globalization), while there is no substitute for the failure of public policies, in terms of human development and growth (with the effects on human development being substantially more important than those corresponding to the increase in national wealth).</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue commonsense assessment of Arrow’s theorem<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The usual, pessimistic interpretation of Arrow’s General Possibility Theorem (often “Impossibility” in textbooks) is excessive. The impossibility defined by Arrow occurs only in presence of a tie or of a cycle. These cases are rare or very rare, and their presence may be assessed ex post. If they occur it is necessary to resort to a second-best rule, but this two-stage procedure does not induce strategic behavior, nor impeaches the use of the Condorcet rule (in observance of the axioms) in all the others.</p><p>The paper conclusions sustain that implementation of modern management systems to government’s public institutions should deal with a different behavior used to know at companies. In this respect, the paper high-lights different aspects between companies and public institutions behavior admitting similarities on organizational structure and internal procedures.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Old for New: Econobiology and Econophysics as Explanatory Frameworks of Current Financial System<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The present study aim is to deliver a succinct overview of the existing literature concerning economic systems, and in particular financial systemsfrom the Econobiology, or the “evolutionary economics” perspective, mainly treated within the Adaptive Market Hypothesis, and the Econophysics perspective.In the heterodox frame, both the A.M.H. and the Econophysics are trying to explain the complexity of financial markets from a „bottom up” perspective, hence „macroscopic” properties are viewed as the result of interactions at the level of the ‘microscopic’ constituents (Rickles, 2011, p.531-565). Given the expanded level of information we can access nowadays, we consider that an important attention should be given to the inclusion of both perspectives as explanatory frameworks of the financial markets.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue versus Keynes: the causal nexus between Government Expenditures and Economic Growth: An Empirical study of Burkina Faso<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The spending patterns of governments in the world especially developing economies have changed significantly over the last several decades. The main objective of this paper is analysing the relationship between government expenditures and growth in Burkina Faso’s economy. The study focuses on testing the various versions of Wagner’s hypothesis using the Burkina Faso data between 1960-2015 by an Autoregressive-Distributed Lag (ARDL) model. Cointegration tests, the long-run parameters and causality tests found valid Keynesian and Wagnerian relationship, but results are sensitive to the variable definition; the use of relative and absolute measures, local and international currency leads to a different conclusion.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue programs and policies assessment in the transition economies during the transition and the post-transition period<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> We analyze empirically whether IMF financial assistance in 31 transition countries, during the transition and the post-transition period, has achieved the purposes stated in the IMF's own articles of agreement, namely employment enhancement, confidence provision and export promotion. By employing panel data and impact evaluation analysis, we find that IMF presence persistently fails to be correlated with upgrades in sovereign rating, FDI attraction and employment improvement. By focusing on specific IMF policies, we present some intriguing results, which reveal whether these individual policies actually contribute to the achievement of the official IMF purposes or not.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Czechoslovakia: A Theoretical Critique<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper focuses on the proposals of post-war order in Czechoslovakia and its theoretical analysis. While there exists a wide range of studies, both Czech and foreign, dedicated to the history of Czechoslovakia in the post-war period, a majority of the studies deals with political development. Then the interpretations of the failure of President Beneš’ “distinct model of socialism” are purely political – weakness of President Beneš and democratic elites, the aggressive politics of Communist party, influence of Soviet diplomacy, etc. On the other hand, economic studies are only descriptive without theoretical analysis of proposed post-war order. Our paper offers different interpretation of the fall of Czechoslovak democratic regime (1945–1948). Using the framework of Austrian school, we are trying to show the institutional incompatibility of proposed post-war order. Special emphasis is put on the relation of freedom, democracy and socialist economic planning.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Lending and Poverty in Developing Countries<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>An arduous debate has developed around the question of whether the multiple IMF’s ‘stabilization’ interventions in developing countries have actually met one of the most important of its initial programmatic goals, i.e., the provision of resources to members, with a view to eliminating temporary Balance of Payments maladjustments, avoiding at the same time destroying ‘national or international prosperity’. More importantly, there have been many voices claiming that these programs have rather accentuated poverty than alleviated it. We explore this claim both theoretically and empirically. Our results show an unequivocal negative relationship between IMF lending and poverty in the developing world.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Coordination Problem in the Stockholm School<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>We revisit the Stockholm School of Economics with first principles. The objective is a rendition of a cumulative Myrdal-Wicksell process. To that end, we derive heterogeneous responses of consumers and producers to changes in the state of the world and define a Myrdal-Keynes equilibrium.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Critical Review of the Main Approaches on Financial Market Dynamics Modelling<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>While the interpretation of the EMH has changed over the last 50 years, its meaningfulness continues to define our view on how financial markets work. Competing approaches such as BFT and ACT have been proven to be in particular cases of an infinite spectrum of market states; all come under the framework of the AMH. The flexible framework of the AMH enables a trans-disciplinary approach for the study of financial system dynamics. An evolutionary and contextual view on financial systems allows researchers to use techniques and instruments from quantum mechanics and statistical physics to quantify volatility and provide an interpretation to the cognitive processes underlying investor decision making. Such a context also enables to tackle the interpretation of information processing at a cognitive level through consideration of quantum effects in the price formation mechanism.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of NHS Cost-Saving and its Morality on the ‘Living Dead’<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article has been championed on account of the experience of (perceived) economic rationalization which seem to be the foremost of patients’ care as opposed to addressing distress to human existing well-being, while in a state of being tormented with agonizing news of prolonged ill health. Several considerations have been proposed as a way of addressing the need to rationalize resources in ensuring the long standing history of the NHS focus on <italic>‘</italic>free health care<italic>’</italic> is critically covered, but not in a way that destroys confidence on the ability of professionals to manifest ethical prudence in their acts of judgments about whether patients care is to be made immediate or prolonged on a waiting list. There is certainly serious impacts to be comprehended with in situation of economic rationality through services provided by the NHS; it is believed that tangible outcomes about definitive care for patients can be addressed collaboratively.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact of European Uncertainty on the Gulf Cooperation Council Markets<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The interconnectedness of global economies made it inevitable for countries to isolate themselves rather, they partner with each other majorly for economic and political gains. This often at times have a positive and negatives outcomes base on the fact that the more advanced economy tends to cast shadow on the smooth and predictable movement of some markets in the less advanced economy. On this note, it is essential for scholars to relate and determine the impact and the direction of the movement specifically with regards to stock market performance and Economic Policy Uncertainty (EPU), as it concerns the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region and the continent of Europe. Hence, this study investigates the effect of the changes of European Policy Uncertainty index on net oil exporter countries of the GCC stock market performance. Using the Vector Autoregressive (VAR) methodology to estimate the result, the outcome of the result implies that the impact of the changes in European policy uncertainty index on GCC’s stock markets is negative but not significant; the effect of Dollar exchange rate and US 3-month Treasury bill rate is not significant and finally, the effect of Brent Oil price on GCC countries’ stock markets is positive and significant.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Product Complexity in Africa:<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Applying the linear LAS (Latin American Structuralists) technological intensity model in Africa, this paper presents African nations are still diversifying their outputs towards the ubiquitous (fewer complexes) products. Put it simple, using the economic complexity index of Africa (explanatory variable) as a proxy for the technological intensity in Africa and per capita GDP gap (explanatory variable) as a proxy for technology gap, the paper presents a significant and positive relationship between economic complexity index of Africa and the time derivative of the economic complexity index of Africa (the explained variable). This implies that “weak” effort African nations exerted so far in diversifying their outputs towards the less ubiquitous commodities and absence of “automatic catch up tendency” (unlike what is presupposed by the mainstream neo-classical growth models). The linear panel data regression is employed on sample of 23 African economies and OECD member economies for the period 1996-2014.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue