rss_2.0Journal of Landscape Ecology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Landscape Ecology of Landscape Ecology Feed Erosion Mapping Enhancement in Korifla Sub-Watershed (Central Morocco)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years quantitative and qualitative methods integration has become common in investigating and modeling hydric erosion. The present study focuses on using a synergistic approach of the Erosion Potential Model (EPM) and Priority Actions Program/Regional Activity Centre (PAP/RAC) in order to model the potential erosion in the Korifla Sub-watershed, Central Morocco. The combination of remotely sensed data and the EPM parameters demonstrated that the amount of soil estimated loss in the study area is between 0.001 m<sup>3</sup>/km<sup>2</sup>/y and 68.26 m<sup>3</sup>/km<sup>2</sup>/y. Furthermore, AUC (Area Under Curve) was computed to validate the EPM modeling results by implementing 162 high erosion sites, the AUC value indicates good mapping results (0.76). The PAP/RAC model shows that in the entire study area, the zones of very high and high erosion represent respectively 10.31 % and 14.53 %, whereas the equivalent of these zones by EPM represents 6.31 % and 9.52 %. The distribution of high-erosion areas correlates well with that of moderate to steep slopes, principally in forest and agricultural lands within the study area. However, the employed methods in this study successfully simulated erosion quantitatively as well as qualitatively. The findings of this study imply that hydric erosion can threaten ecological sustainability and agricultural production in several parts of the Korifla sub-watershed. Consequently, the present study results offer valuable insights for planning efficient erosion control strategies as well as redirecting soil and slope management. To sum up, the findings of this research have important implications for implementing efficient erosion control measures in north-western central Morocco, semi-arid area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Native Tree Diversity in Relation to Land-Use in the Merhabete District, Ethiopia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Most studies undertaken on native fodder and fruit species have focused on planting preferences and socioeconomic importance. The focus has been less on diversity aspects. This study aimed to make a comparative investigation on the status of native fodder and fruit tree /shrub diversity and their management in three land types in Merhabete district, North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia. A total of 127 households were randomly selected for interviews on management practices and threats to the targeted species. Furthermore, 90 sampling plots representing three land use types were used for vegetation data collection. Altogether, a total of 34 tree /shrub species were recorded from three land use types in the study area. Out of the 34 tree/shrub species identified, 31 (91.2 %) species were native fodder and fruit tree/shrub species, and the remaining 3 (8.8 %) were exotic tree/shrub species. The mean tree/shrubdiversity, species richness, and species density were significantly higher in the remnant natural forest than in homegarden and parkland (p≤0.05). Likewise, the highest tree basal area was recorded in remnant natural forest, followed by homegarden and parklands. The common management practices for native fodder and fruit species were pollarding, thinning, pruning, lopping, and fencing. Based on the findings, it is concluded that species diversities and stem numbers were lower in parkland than in other land-use types. Therefore, it is recommended that planting native fodder and fruit tree/shrub species on parkland is essential to enhance the conservation and domestication process of the targeted species.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Regeneration Status of Woody Seed Oil Species in Northern Botswana<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Concerns about energy security and environmental risks have sparked interest in edible and non-edible seed oils as potential renewable feedstocks for biodiesel production. A study was conducted to investigate the population structure and regeneration status of woody seed oil species in the districts of Chobe and Ngamiland. The population structure and regeneration condition of woody seed oil species were studied in 20 × 20 m (400 m<sup>2</sup>) quadrats spaced 50 m apart along a parallel line transect. Data on the identity of all woody species, the number of all live individuals, and the diameter at breast height (DBH) of individuals with DBH &gt; 2 cm of each woody species were collected in each quadrat. The diversity (<italic>Hʹ</italic>) and evenness (<italic>Jʹ</italic>) of woody seed oil species were 1.53, 1.42 and 0.71, and 0.85, 0.73 and 0.51 in Parakarungu, Seronga and Shorobe, respectively. <italic>Ximenia caffra</italic> was the dominant woody seed oil plant in Shorobe and Seronga, and exhibited an inverted <italic>J</italic>-shaped curve with continuous diameter classes distribution. <italic>Trichilia emetica</italic> was only found in Parakarungu, where it was the second dominant species and demonstrated excellent recruitment and regeneration. In Shorobe and Seronga, <italic>Croton megalobotrys</italic> was the second most dominant species. It had low recruitment, which was most likely due to herbivory and predation on seeds and seedlings. The least prevalent species (<italic>Sclerocarya birrea, Schinziophyton rautanenii</italic> and <italic>Guibourtia coleosperma</italic>) had no representation in the intermediate diameter-classes, which might be attributed to the selective removal in these diameter-classes. The examination of the population structure of woody seed oil species indicated variations in patterns of diameter-class distribution, indicating differences in the population dynamics of the species across the study areas. The least dominant species experienced hindered recruitment and regeneration due to herbivory and anthropogenic influences.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Variability in Land Surface Temperature Due to Land Use/Land Cover Change for a Sustainable Urban Planning<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In modern days, a sustainable urban planning system requires a balance of vegetation, water, and settlement. The proportions of these surface features directly influence the land surface temperature (LST) in an urban area. LST primarily depends on the emittance of land use/land cover (LULC) categories. In an urban area, changes in LULC categories as well as local warming are the prime regulators of LST change. The study analyses the LULC change and its impact on LST in Imphal City, India. Landsat satellite data for the summer season and winter seasons for 1991, 2001, 2011, and 2021 have been used in this study. Results show that the mean LST of the study area increased at &gt;1% rate/decade. The green area and water area decreased the LST values whereas the built-up area and fallow lands increased the LST values. The study indicates the consequences of proper land conversion to regulate the LST change. Moreover, the influence of population on LST is also determined. The continuous rising trend of population is a positive factor of increasing LST. The study may help the town and country planners to generate sustainable urban land.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Effects of Real Estate Development in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria: Emphasizing Changes in Land Use/Land Cover (LULC)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Analysis of the impacts of real estate development on biodiversity within the confines of Imo State, Nigeria, was the main objective of this study. The investigation included a look at how land use and land cover (LULC) changed between 2017 and 2022. The study made use of Sentinel-2 image with a spatial resolution of 10 m. The research team used supervised classification algorithms to classify the imagery, which were then compared to find changes in land use and land cover (LULC). The following categories apply to the land use and land cover (LULC) of the study area: In 2017, trees accounted for 58.84 % of the total land surface and covered the most land, covering an area of 315.05 km<sup>2</sup>. The amount of developed land, or 30.23 % of the total land area, was assessed to be 161.84 km<sup>2</sup>. Approximately 61.91 % of the entire land surface in 2018, or 331.47 km<sup>2</sup>, was covered by arboreal vegetation, which dominated the landscape. Comparatively, urbanised regions made up 177.41 km<sup>2</sup>, or 33.14 % of the total land area. With trees making up 59.434 % or 318.22 km<sup>2</sup> of the total land area in 2019, trees were found to be the most prevalent kind of land cover. Concurrently, built-up areas accounted for 34.30 % of the land, or 183.66 km<sup>2</sup>. The LULC map for 2020 showed a comparable pattern, with trees covering 58.46 % (equivalent to 313.02 km<sup>2</sup>) of the total land area and built-up areas covering 34.71 % (equivalent to 185.88 km<sup>2</sup>). According to the research, the impact of real estate development on the environment is primarily negative, resulting in habitat depletion, ecosystem fragmentation, and the introduction of pollutants. The researchers advised using sustainable development practises to mitigate the aforementioned negative effects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Rangeland Degradation and Its Driving Forces in Southern Hodna, Algeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Algerian steppes frequently experience droughts and significant anthropogenic activities than harm its natural resources, endangering the fragile arid ecosystem’s balance. Hence, an analysis of steppe degradation can be instrumental in initiating remedial measures in the region. This study aims to assess the level of rangeland degradation in the southern Hodna region, a crucial component of the steppe landscape, and analyse the factors driving this degradation. The methodology employed a supervised classification technique, using multi-temporal remote sensing imagery from 1987 to 2016 to analyse land cover distribution. Furthermore, land cover dynamics were combined with carefully selected climatic and anthropogenic data, which were then subjected to canonical correspondece analysis to identify the primary drivers of rangeland degradation. The results reveal a sustained change in land cover dynamics, with a no table 48.65 % reduction in the rangeland class. Simultaneously, there has been a continuous expansion in sand dunes, rangeland degradation, and agriculture classes. It is worth noting that canonical correspondence analysis reveals stronger associations between rangeland degradation and anthropogenic factors than climatic factors. Finally, the study offers crucial insights into rangeland degradation in southern Hodna, aiding policymakers and land managers in developing sustainable development strategies for the region.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and monitoring of fires caused by the War in Ukraine on Landscape scale<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article assesses the changes in the state of Ukraine’s natural environment, namely due to the fire on its territories as a result of military operations. Remote sensing can be considered as a decision support tool for landscape management, remote sensing plays a vital operational tool in the affected areas to assess the consequences, as well as to make appropriate decisions to protect the environment and support environmental recovery programs in these areas.</p> <p>This paper presented applying of remote sensing methods to assess large fires caused by military events in Ukraine war using the VIIRS spectroradiometer (375 m) on board the NASA/NOAA Suomi NPP satellite and NOAA-20 satellites, as well as NASA’s Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) resource. The paper presents examples of the use of remote sensing to detect changes in territories affected by military operations, and provided estimates of the total number of fires in 2022. Authors proposed a methodology for obtaining daily data on the localization of fires in the territories of active hostilities, in particular in 15 regions of Ukraine that are closest to the front line. Results of this paper indicated the VIIRS spectroradiometer and the FIRM’s resource as an effective tool for monitoring fires and assessing changes in the environment caused by them as a result of military operations in Ukraine.</p> <p>The possibility of using satellite imagery for operational fire monitoring has been proven, which, in combination with traditional ground-based data, can play a crucial role in protecting civilians and providing evidence of environmental violations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue spatial and geometrical patterns of Tiruchirappalli and Tier-urban centers using Spatial Metrics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Understanding spatial and geometrical patterns of urbanization is crucial in tackling associated problems. As urbanization progresses through various stages of development, it reflects different forms, patterns, and interactions based on its physical and functional aspects. Spatial metrics is a well-acclaimed technique for quantifying urban morphological characteristics. The current study was conducted for Tiruchirappalli and six tier-urban centers located within a 40-kilometers radius to comprehend the comparative growth and spatial patterns. The urban centers are divided into eight zones based on direction for more precise quantification. The study employed Landsat 5 and 8 satellite images to classify land use/cover for the periods 1996, 2008, and 2020. FRAGSTAT is the software application used to analyze spatial metrics, at patch, class, and landscape levels. The study generated a significant amount of data about spatial and geometric patterns of growth. Area, edge, and aggregation metrics indicated that zones in Manachanallur, Manapparai, Musiri, Thiruverumbur, and Thuraiyur had protrusive urban growth during the study period. Transport networks have been the instrumental factor for such growth. Diversity metrics revealed Tiruchirappalli and Thiruverumbur have abundant patches of various classes in many of their zones since they retain patches like open, vegetation, and water bodies extensively. Shape metrics across all urban centers during the period 1996-2008 were more irregular in shape; it has become significantly smooth during 2008-2020 due to infill developments on the fringe areas. The period 1996-2008 recorded a huge transition of open areas into built-ups, attributing to infill development, especially inside the urban centers; similarly, during the period 2008-2020, edge expansion has been recorded widely across the urban centers. The current study is a significant contribution to urban research in understanding relative spatial and geometric patterns of urbanization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Concept: Landscape Level Parameters and Application<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Zonal concept is a traditional approach in land assessment. Although its principles have been known for over a hundred years, they have not yet been thoroughly evaluated using modern analytical approaches. Assessing the empirically established parameters for characterising a zonal site, establishing threshold values of significant environmental factors, along with assessing the applicability of the zonal concept, were the goals of this study. The data analysed were obtained from the robust and objective Czech National Forest Inventory database. Regression, indirect ordination, hierarchical clustering and spatial analyses of geo-information systems were used. The study revealed seven crucial environmental factors: Slope, Slope Height, Terrain Surface Texture, Negative Openness, Multi-Resolution Index of Valley Bottom Flatness, Soil Type and Soil Subtype. A graphical model of zonal/azonal sites was constructed based on calculated threshold values of the factors. This methodic approach introduces significant geomorphological information that are otherwise problematically detectable in field mapping. We suggest it is possible to use the zonal concept as a base layer for general landscape assessment. Zonal site classification can become a part of a precise land management practice, consisting of valuable empiricism of traditional landscape ecological classifications enriched by modelling in disturbance ecology and prediction of climate change effects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and yield prediction of castor bean () using Sentinel-2A satellite image in a semi-arid region of india<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Castor bean (<italic>Ricinus communis</italic>) indigenous to the southeastern Mediterranean basin, eastern Africa and India is a crop having various industrial and medicinal applications. It is helpful in crop rotation and replenishing the soil nutrients due to less water consumption. The current study explores the utility of Sentinel-2A satellite image for mapping and yield prediction of castor beans. Several classification methods viz. migrating means clustering, maximum likelihood classifier, support vector machine and artificial neural network are used for the classification and mapping of different landscape categories. The overall classification accuracy was achieved to be highest for artificial neural network (85.81 %) subsequently support vector machine (80.12 %), maximum likelihood classifier (74.23 %) and migrating means clustering (73.03 %). The yield prediction is performed using Sentinel-2A-derived indices namely Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Enhanced Vegetation Index-2. Further, the cumulative values of these two indices are investigated for castor bean yield prediction using linear regression from July 2017 to April 2018 in different seasons (pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter). The regression model provided (adj R2=0.75) value using EVI-2 compared to (adj R2=0.55) using NDVI for yield prediction of <italic>Ricinus communis</italic> crop in the winter season. The methodology adopted in this study can serve as an effective tool to map and predict the productivity of <italic>Ricinus communis</italic>. The adopted methodology may also be extended to a wider spatial level and for other significant crops grown in semi-arid regions of world.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue on Factors Affecting Early Survival of Tree /Shrub Seedlings and it’s Remedy in Restoration Sites of Ethiopia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Restoration activities in degraded and/or deforested forest landscapes are common and old occurrences around the world. Tree planting is common in most forest landscape restoration initiatives. In Ethiopia, eight seedling-based landscape restoration options are identified to alleviate land degradation and its consequences. The primary purpose of this work was to review factors affecting the early survival of tree and shrub seedlings and their remedies in the restoration sites of Ethiopia. Drought and moisture stress, low soil fertility, poor seedling quality, weak species site matching, termites, livestock grazing, and seasonal frost are the basic factors that hinder the survival and growth of seedlings in the field. In situ rainwater harvesting structures, fertilizer application, the use of quality seedlings, the right species site matching, and the exclusion of livestock and grazing animals from planted seedlings are the remedies that must be employed to increase the success of tree-based restoration practices. Thus, further investigation of the factors affecting the survival of seedlings in the out-planting sites and remediation accordingly is necessary to ensure the productivity and sustainability of restoration practices in Ethiopia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Corridor Potential Between Protected Areas in a Fragmented Landscape, Gunungkidul Regency, Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fragmentation impacts disconnecting protected areas in Gunungkidul Regency, namely Bunder Forest Park (BFP) and the Paliyan Wildlife Reserve (PWR). This also decreases the carrying capacity in PWR, degrading the Long-Tailed Macaque (LTM) habitat. Therefore, this research aims to analyze the landscape structure between Protected areas, the habitat suitability of LTM in Gunungkidul Regency, and determine connectivity potential as an environmental management strategy. applied for this research to investigates the structure and fragmentation using Fragstat 4.2 and ArcGIS 10.8 software. Meanwhile, scoring and weighting methods analyze the LTM habitat, while Least Cost Patch Analysis (LCPA) supported by ArcGIS 10.8 determine the corridor. The results showed that the research land cover changed from 1999-2021. Agriculture, scrubs, and settlements are the dominant land cover suspected to cause forest fragmentation. Based on the habitat suitability analysis using parameters such as land cover, vegetation density, slope, altitude, distance from the river, and sources of threats, most of the research area is intermediate habitat suitability class. These findings can be integrated to determine connectivity between protected areas as one of the environment management strategies. Good forest cover can be used to designate a corridor that has the greatest potential to be developed between BFP and PWR and should be maintained as a wildlife crossing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Composition, Structure, and Regeneration Status of Woody Plant Species in Hurubu Natural Forest, North Shewa, Oromia Region, Ethiopia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ethiopia harbour the Eastern afromontane and Horn of Africa hotspots of biodiversity. The general objective of this study was to investigate the floristic composition and diversity of species, the structure and the regeneration status of the Hurubu forest. Three parallel transects lines with 1 km length were systematically laid across the forest with an interval of 500 m in south to north direction. Thirty sample quadrants of 20 m × 20 m were placed along transects at an interval of 200 m for mature trees and shrubs, while for the purpose of seedling and sapling inventory, four sub-quadrants of 1 m × 1 m were laid at each corner of the main quadrant. A total of 32 woody species representing 25 families were recorded consisting of trees and shrubs. The lower storey consisted of all woody plant species, except Ekebergia capensis tree species. The middle storey consisted about 14.41 % of the tree species while the upper storey involved only 2.35 % of the total individual trees in the forest. The total basal area of woody plants in Hurubu forest was 90 m<sup>2</sup> per ha. The three most important woody species with the highest IVI were Juniperus procera, Osyris quadripartite and Myrsine africana in decreasing order. The general regeneration status of the tree species of the study site was satisfactory at the community level showing a ‘fair’ regeneration status. Therefore, special conservation actions should be implemented for the poorly and not regenerating woody species of the forest.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Tourism Planning on Landscape Scale: Case Study from Slovakia (Central Europe)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The European cultural landscape and its traditional values represent a significant condition for recreation and tourism. However, we are aware of the negative consequences of human activity in the past years in rural areas and pay more attention to protecting these values. Modern rural recreation and tourism must be built on scientific background. That is why the presented contribution brings an innovative integrated approach to sustainable rural recreation and tourism model by applying landscape ecological planning methodology with a combination of ecological stability and landscape character assessment. It deals with the qualitative evaluation of the landscape potential of the foothill village of Podkonice in Slovakia and the possibilities of its use in sustainable rural tourism. Determining the potential in confrontation with different forms of tourism activities can help achieve a sustainable tourism concept. The main result of the presented research is the final optimal selection of activities and use of the landscape with regard to the development of tourism. Such a proposal can be used in spatial planning and strategic decision-making processes not only in the study area, but it can be applied in the European context.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Perception of Trees in the Landscape: The Connection Between Attitudes and Visual Preferences<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study presented in this paper uses a representative sample of the Czech population to analyse the relationships between attitudes to trees and preferences for landscapes with trees. We ask whether a positive assessment of the environmental benefits of trees in general and old and dead trees in particular leads to preferences for close-to-nature forms of the tree landscape. The results show that tree landscape preferences are primarily affected by attitudes attached to trees, rather than by sociodemographic factors. People who appreciate the environmental benefits of trees are more likely to prefer transparent and organized landscapes with trees, whereas the more specific environmental attitude appreciating old or dead trees is reflected in higher preferences for wilderness-like landscapes. The results of our research suggest that the perceived environmental benefits of trees are anthropocentric in nature, in a way utilitarian; trees serve people and their environment, and not nature as such.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Characterization Of Land Surface Temperature In Relation Landuse/Cover: A Spatial Autocorrelation Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The land use and land cover (LULC) characteristics of Ghaziabad have experienced dynamic changes because of the city’s ongoing industrialization and urbanisation processes. These shifts can be directly attributed to human actions. These shifts can be directly attributed to human actions. Thermal variation in the study area necessitates LULC analysis. Landsat and Sentinel satellite data for 2011 and 2021 were used to map LULC, estimate land surface temperature (LST) and analysis spatial autocorrelation among the variables using ArcGIS software and the Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud platform. A sharp descent is observed in the cropland while built-up area has increased during the study period. With the increase in the built-up surface in the area, the ambient temperatures have also increased from 18.70 °C in 2011 to 21.81 °C in 2021 leading to urban heat island effect. At all spatial scales, spatial autocorrelation is a characteristic property of most ecological parameters. The spatial clustering of LST in an ecosystem can play a crucial role in determining the dynamics of LULC.The Moran’s, I show that there is a considerable level of spatial autocorrelation in the values of LST and highly clustered pattern for both the years. Monitoring and understanding the surface thermal environment is crucial to discerning the causes of climate change.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the CZ-Globio Model in Beskydy Protected Landscape Area<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Spatially oriented simulation models have not yet been applied to the territory of Beskydy Protected Landscape Area (PLA) to assess the state of biodiversity at a local scale. The CZ-GLOBIO model, which is adapted to the conditions of the Czech Republic, was used as a tool to assess habitat degradation using four selected drivers. The aim of the article is to apply the CZ-GLOBIO model for biodiversity status assessment in Beskydy PLA at the biotope level using detailed habitat data. The result of the application of the model is the evaluation of the state of biodiversity and the risk of its degradation using the Mean Species Abundance (MSA) index. Values are obtained for each segment as well as the average value for the entire territory. The results of biodiversity modelling are available by five maps and five tables with output Mean Species Abundance (MSA) values. Understanding the spatial distribution of the resulting MSA values contributes to the landscape-level habitat assessment of Beskydy PLA. This can serve as a basis for further policy decisions in the environmental field.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Pollution in the Ancient Roman Empire<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article describes select examples of waste management from the Roman Empire (27 BCE to 365 CE). Classical written sources and anthropological and archeological literature were studied. The central theme of this paper is ancient man’s relationship with waste and his responses to pollution.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Discussions on Impacts of Industrial Induced Factors on the Environment of Central Kazakhstan<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Many disturbances and changes in nature are caused by a number of human activities, such as mining engineering, town planning, and also by the influences of the activities connected to these indusries.</p><p>Central Kazakhstan is one of the regions of the Republic experiencing enormous pollution pressure caused by giant industry as the coal and metallurgical, mining and chemical and machine construction.</p><p>The article reviews main industrial induced factors that define the spatial distribution of negative processes in semi arid climate of Central Kazakhstan where the intensive mining works have been conducted since 1940s and have led to a change of relief formation, groundwater and soil contamination. The damaged areas occupy vast territories, significantly reducing the habitable space for the population of Central Kazakhstan.</p><p>The research examined two environmental components to assess and improve the ecological situation at the mining area: (a) land and water as economical component and (b) relief as main natural component.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Sensitive Landscape Case Study: Public Open Green Spaces in Naser City, Egypt<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The purpose of this paper is to reveal measures to lower water demand and consumption of public green spaces in arid environments such as Cairo city while maintaining a pleasant appearance. The Water Sensitive Urban Design approach is adopted to formulate a checklist in order to evaluate the extent to which public green spaces in “Naser City” district, participate in preserving water quality and quantity. After analyzing six case studies, the study concluded that the main problems are using high-quality water to irrigate green spaces, and the gardeners’ reckless irrigation and maintenance techniques. Short term solutions were proposed, such as utilizing low flow irrigation system, minimizing the lawn areas, integrating water meters, using mulching and incorporating a competent maintenance schedule. Long term solutions mainly focused on replacing potable water with treated wastewater, which is estimated to cover irrigation needs for all green areas in the district.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue