rss_2.0Journal of Landscape Ecology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Landscape Ecologyhttps://sciendo.com/journal/JLECOLhttps://www.sciendo.comJournal of Landscape Ecology Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/647219a0215d2f6c89dbbfb3/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/JLECOL140216Measuring Urban Expansion and Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing and Landscape Metrics: A Case of Rewari City, Indiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2024-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The industrial and economic development has initiated the rapid growth of small and medium-sized towns in India. Rewari City, a part of the National Capital Region of India, is undergoing rapid urban expansion. This study analyzes the process of urban expansion in Rewari city, its effect on land use &amp; land cover dynamics and landscape spatial patterns. The methodology of the study is reliant on open-source Landsat satellite data, GIS-based unsupervised classification, and spatial metrics analysis. The city expansion has been analyzed for a period of 31 years, from 1989 to 2020, and population growth has been studied since 1901. Within the study period, built-up area increased by 704%, with an annual expansion rate of 12.8 %. The other land cover classes, such as agriculture land, vegetation, barren land, and water bodies shrank in size over the years. Between 1989 and 2020, 69.4 % of the increase in built up area came at the expense of vegetation and agricultural land. It was also found that per capita land consumption rate increased significantly from 0.0024 to 0.0084, hinting towards dispersed and low-density development. Built-up land had a growth rate nearly 5 times higher than population, indicating urban sprawl. An evaluation of different landscape metrics revealed that the landscape of Rewari has lost land use diversity. The findings of this study offer information about the present state of urban growth. It also serves as a valuable resource for formulating comprehensive planning and development policies, ensuring the promotion of sustainable urban development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2024-00072024-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Urban Flood Hazard Zonation in Bengaluru Urban District, Indiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2024-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Flooding in urban areas is increasingly becoming a global challenge, driven by extreme rainfall events and the vulnerability or resilience of affected regions. This urban flood disaster not only threatens societal security but also hampers economic development in cities. Satellite remote sensing technology has played a crucial role in all aspects of flood disaster management, including preparedness, prevention, and relief efforts. Space systems, with their advantageous perspective, have proven their ability to provide essential information and services for effective flood management.</p> <p>This study focuses on creating flood hazard maps for Bengaluru’s urban district using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)-based Multi-Criterion Decision Analysis (MCDA) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. Factors such as rainfall, drainage networks, land use, groundwater levels, terrain elevation, slope, and soil type are considered. The AHP method assigns weights and ranks to each factor, and a weighted linear combination approach is used to merge basic maps into the final flood vulnerability map.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2024-00062024-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Contribution of Protected Areas to Mitigate the Effect of Landscape Fragmentation in Slovakiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2024-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main aim of the research is to identify landscape fragmentation (LF) in Slovakia with special emphasis on the contribution of protected areas (PAs) to mitigate the effect of LF. Results are presented in the final raster output (10 m grid). The raster contains 490,321,151 individual 10 m raster grids, with the LF average value of 59.12 % (where 0 represents fragmented landscape, 100 represents fully connected landscape by natural or semi-natural ecosystems) on the national level. Most of the territory of Slovakia falls within the range of values 55 – 65 %, which confirms the presence of significant continuous unfragmented areas. Based on the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) statistics results, there is a positive correlation of lower LF within the PAs network (p &lt; 0.05, Table 1) in comparison to the unprotected part of Slovakia. The results of geographically weight regression (GWR) proved a medium positive correlation (r2=0.36; r2adj=0.36; n=49,003), thus confirming to a certain extent the role of PAs in the mitigation of the effect of LF. On the other hand, the level of protection does not correlate significantly with fragmentation values, where a higher level of protection is not significantly connected with a lower level of LF. For each category of PA, individual statistics of quality and quantity of LF are estimated and subsequently compared with unprotected parts of Slovakia. The comparison of all PAs with each other resulted in 1,132 unique assessments. The overall average value of LF of unprotected parts is still rather high (56.42 %) and it shows that there are still significant areas existing, which are situated in unprotected parts of the country. Spatial analysis revealed, that these important parts are covering 93,065 hectares, and are variously spread across the whole of Slovakia. The average value of LF for these newly identified areas is 68.5 %. As output, the results of this research present a comprehensive national map of the level of LF and lists of PAs ranked according to the overall assessment of LF.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2024-00042024-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Sole Survivors: Using Tree-Trunk Wells from Archaeological Excavations to Inform Reconstructions of Medieval Deforestation, and Future Reforestationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2024-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper represents an attempt at a detailed analysis of woodland presence and dynamics during the Middle Ages (AD 500-1500), as a contribution to the current debate on large-scale reforestation in the Netherlands. Palynological data for this particular period are scarce and allow only global reconstructions. To widen our search for historical woodland proxies, we investigated the potential of archaeologically excavated tree-trunk wells. We carried out a nation-wide inventory of this type of well, in which the shaft is formed by hollowed-out tree trunks, typically large oak trees. Our suspicion that such trees indicate the local presence of (old) woodland in the past was confirmed by a marked positive correlation with spatial reconstructions based on other sources of information: archaeological (charcoal kilns) and non-archaeological (place names and historical references). The observed correlations suggest that mapping the distribution of precisely dated tree-trunk wells can indeed contribute to achieving fairly detailed reconstructions of medieval woodland cover.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2024-00052024-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Connecting Habitats: Modelling Landscape Connectivity for Large Mammals in Omo-Shasha-Oluwa Forest Reserves, South-West Nigeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2024-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Preserving landscape connectivity in the Omo-Shasha-Oluwa Forest Reserves is crucial due to human-induced fragmentation, shrinking habitats, and disrupted migration routes for wildlife. From 2014 to 2016, we conducted surveys to gather large mammal presence data, mapping their distribution using the MaxEnt algorithm. Employing Circuitscape software and circuit theory concepts, we predicted connectivity patterns for six large mammal species. Our results consistently showed robust predictive performance, with Area Under the Curve (AUC) values exceeding 0.75 for species distribution models. Notably, we identified suitable habitat patches for seven key species, spanning 1760 km<sup>2</sup> for <italic>C. civetta</italic>, 1515 km<sup>2</sup> for <italic>T. Scriptus</italic>, 729 km<sup>2</sup> for <italic>L. cyclotis</italic>, 1693 km<sup>2</sup> for <italic>P. porcus</italic>, 1350 km<sup>2</sup> for <italic>C. mona</italic>, 1406 km<sup>2</sup> for <italic>P. maxwellii</italic>, and 1379 km<sup>2</sup> for <italic>C. torquatus</italic>. Our analysis highlighted distance to human settlements as the most significant predictor for habitat models concerning <italic>T. Scriptus</italic>, <italic>C. civetta</italic>, <italic>P. maxwellii</italic>, <italic>C. torquatus</italic>, <italic>P. porcus</italic>, and <italic>C. mona</italic>, whereas land use type emerged as a critical factor for <italic>L. cyclotis</italic>. Furthermore, examination of maximum current flow patterns revealed varying degrees of connectivity among habitat patches, indicating potential bottlenecks to species movement, particularly across major rivers and in areas affected by human activities. These findings offer crucial insights for conservation efforts, guiding strategies to preserve wildlife metapopulation dynamics in the Omo-Shasha-Oluwa Forest Reserves landscape</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2024-00032024-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Soil Erosion Hazard Zonation in Bandu Sub-Watershed, Indiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2024-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Soil hazard zonation in watershed is quite significant to take the necessary actions for soil conservation. The present study attempts to identify soil hazard zones for proper soil conservation and prepare a treatment plan for the Bandu sub-watershed of India through morphometric analysis techniques by giving rank based on priority. The result of the prioritization of eighteen micro-watersheds is entirely satisfactory due to the use of fourteen morphometric parameters. The study quantifies the potential soil loss and identifies the soil eroded zone of the sub-watershed using the universal soil loss equation method and the entire region is categorized into three soil hazard zones with varying degrees. Indian Remote Sensing Satellite data have been used to conduct the whole study. The micro-watershed prioritization has been estimated by applying the composite morphometric value. The micro-watershed having 5.625 composite value ranks first for prioritization (most vulnerable with maximum soil erosion) and having 15.875 composite value ranks last for prioritization (least vulnerable with minimum soil erosion). The result also shows that the soil loss ranges from 0-30 tonne/hectare/year with an average soil loss of 0-10 tonne/hectare/year in maximum areas of the sub-watershed. The soil loss map shows that along the Bandu and in some agricultural fields, the central part of the region is susceptible to soil erosion. The scientific approach of this research could be more effective in maintaining sustainable rural planning. The study can be used as a reference work for determining soil hazard zones in any tropical watershed with high soil loss risk.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2024-00012024-03-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Sustainable Groundwater Management Through Micro Irrigation: A Critical Review on Challenges and Solutionshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2024-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Groundwater plays a vital role in global water resources, supporting agricultural, industrial, and domestic water supply systems. However, the long-term sustainability of groundwater is increasingly threatened due to the widespread adoption of irrigation systems especially micro irrigation. Micro irrigation is a widespread agricultural technique that involves water application to crops through drip irrigation and sprinkler systems. This method has gained widespread adoption due to its ability to deliver water efficiently to crops. This review paper examines the impacts of micro irrigation on groundwater sustainability, focusing on its effects on groundwater quantity, quality, and overall sustainability. The findings reveal that micro irrigation can significantly contribute to groundwater conservation by reducing water losses. However, improper management practices, such as over-irrigation or incorrect application rates, can lead to excessive groundwater extraction, depletion of aquifers, and declining water tables. Applying fertilizers and pesticides in micro irrigation systems may lead to groundwater pollution, thereby affecting water quality and posing a risk to human health. This review article emphasizes the significance of appropriate design, installation, and upkeep of micro irrigation systems to minimize potential adverse effects on groundwater. Furthermore, regulatory frameworks, policies, and educational programs are crucial in promoting sustainable groundwater management practices in micro irrigation. The present review highlights the significance of adopting balanced water use practices, enhancing water management techniques, and implementing relevant regulations to ensure the sustainable utilization of groundwater resources in micro irrigation systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2024-00022024-03-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Ecological Status of Floodplains and their Potential to Carbon Storage: Case Study From Three Watersheds in the South Moravian Region, Czech Republichttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Floodplains are important ecosystems that contribute to the ecological stability of the landscape. A number of ecosystem functions and services are significantly influenced by ecological aspects of floodplain habitats. This article focuses on the ecological quality and estimated amount of carbon stored in the biomass of habitats located in the studied watersheds, with an emphasis on floodplains. The habitats and their ecological quality were determined and assessed using the Biotope Valuation Method (BVM), an expert method for evaluating habitat (biotope) types based on eight ecological characteristics, mainly concerning various aspects of their biodiversity and vulnerability. The objective of this study is to compare the resulting assessments of habitats located in floodplains with assessments of habitats situated in the surrounding landscape. The study was carried out on three selected small stream watersheds in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic, which differ from each other in terms of the predominant land use and the overall level of anthropogenic pressure on the landscape. The results indicate that floodplains have a higher ecological value compared to the surrounding landscape, except for floodplains in areas with intensive agriculture. The ability of floodplains to store carbon in biomass turned out to be higher in the watershed with a higher percentage of tree stands, where woody plants store significantly more carbon in the biomass compared to other types of vegetation. It has been shown that human pressure on floodplains and land use significantly affects ecosystem functions and services. In addition to the intensity of agriculture, these were, in particular, pressures from an expansion of built-up areas and infrastructure developments, and forest management. In this study, forest stands in floodplain were more stable and had a more beneficial species composition than forests in the surrounding landscape.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-00192024-01-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Extensification of Agricultural Land-Use Generates Severe Effects on the Critically Endangered Inter-Andean Dry Forest in the Ecuadorian Andean Landscapehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Inter-Andean Dry Forest is one of the most endangered ecosystems in the world. The extensification of anthropogenic land-use has transformed the Inter-Andean Dry Forest in the landscape of the Rio Chota watershed, Ecuador. However, there is no evaluation of the land use/land cover dynamics to determine the loss and recovery of this ecosystem. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the extensification of agricultural land-use on the spatial pattern of the Inter-Andean Dry Forest ecosystem and the state of the landscape in the RCW during the periods 1991–2000 and 2000–2017. The effects of land-use change on the spatial pattern of the Inter-Andean Dry Forest were evaluated at the landscape level using satellite images and landscape metrics. The loss of the Inter-Andean Dry Forest was 45 % from 1991 to 2017, at a deforestation rate of 2.3 % per year. The largest loss of forest (42.7 %) occurred from 2000 to 2017. From 1991 to 2000, the number of patches of Inter-Andean Dry Forest increased by 194 % but decreased by 64 % in 2017. Over the entire study period, the major change in the landscape was the conversion of the Inter-Andean Dry Forest to agriculture (36.7 %), which was related to important changes in the spatial patterns of this ecosystem. Inter-Andean Dry Forest loss and fragmentation were associated with the extensification of agricultural land-use. The Rio Chota watershed is a landscape increasingly transformed by human processes. This study provides baseline information on landscape structure and composition. This information could help make management decisions for the Inter-Andean Dry Forest in specific landscape areas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-00202024-01-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Consumer Perception of the Circular Economy as the Most Visible Environmental Pillar of Corporate Social Responsibilityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The world today is on the verge of exhausting its primary resources. In this situation the circular economy is undoubtedly a means of eliminating the shortage of raw materials faced by the Czech Republic and the whole of Europe. The development of the circular economy requires a change in how it is perceived by businesses as well as consumers. This paper is devoted to the perception and relationship between consumers and the circular economy. The potential offered by consumer behaviour as regards involvement in the circular economy lies in repairing, recycling and using products for other purposes, instead of discarding them in a landfill and then buying a new product. However, one fundamental prerequisite for this is that consumers decide to engage in the circular economy, a decision that can be motivated by economic conditions or personal incentives based on their own attitude to the environment. Two-level research was carried out in order to determine how the circular economy is perceived by consumers, where the qualitative method was first used to identify the concepts that consumers perceive as constituting the circular economy. The concepts were used to compile an original definition of the circular economy from the perspective of consumers. The concepts were subjected to quantitative data collection, identifying the importance of the concepts ascertained. The subsequent statistical evaluation served to detect differences in the perception of the importance of the identified concepts depending on consumer behaviour. The research shows that if consumers are aware of the importance of the circular economy, they themselves behave in a socially responsible manner. The assessment was intended to reveal differences in responses depending on the following demographic characteristics: age, gender, education and place of residence. It was apparent that only the respondents’ education is statistically significant, with consumers with a higher education assigning greater importance to the circular economy and thus being more likely to get involved in this concept.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-00182024-01-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Hydric Erosion Mapping Enhancement in Korifla Sub-Watershed (Central Morocco)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years quantitative and qualitative methods integration has become common in investigating and modeling hydric erosion. The present study focuses on using a synergistic approach of the Erosion Potential Model (EPM) and Priority Actions Program/Regional Activity Centre (PAP/RAC) in order to model the potential erosion in the Korifla Sub-watershed, Central Morocco. The combination of remotely sensed data and the EPM parameters demonstrated that the amount of soil estimated loss in the study area is between 0.001 m<sup>3</sup>/km<sup>2</sup>/y and 68.26 m<sup>3</sup>/km<sup>2</sup>/y. Furthermore, AUC (Area Under Curve) was computed to validate the EPM modeling results by implementing 162 high erosion sites, the AUC value indicates good mapping results (0.76). The PAP/RAC model shows that in the entire study area, the zones of very high and high erosion represent respectively 10.31 % and 14.53 %, whereas the equivalent of these zones by EPM represents 6.31 % and 9.52 %. The distribution of high-erosion areas correlates well with that of moderate to steep slopes, principally in forest and agricultural lands within the study area. However, the employed methods in this study successfully simulated erosion quantitatively as well as qualitatively. The findings of this study imply that hydric erosion can threaten ecological sustainability and agricultural production in several parts of the Korifla sub-watershed. Consequently, the present study results offer valuable insights for planning efficient erosion control strategies as well as redirecting soil and slope management. To sum up, the findings of this research have important implications for implementing efficient erosion control measures in north-western central Morocco, semi-arid area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-00172024-01-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Status of Native Tree Diversity in Relation to Land-Use in the Merhabete District, Ethiopiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Most studies undertaken on native fodder and fruit species have focused on planting preferences and socioeconomic importance. The focus has been less on diversity aspects. This study aimed to make a comparative investigation on the status of native fodder and fruit tree /shrub diversity and their management in three land types in Merhabete district, North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia. A total of 127 households were randomly selected for interviews on management practices and threats to the targeted species. Furthermore, 90 sampling plots representing three land use types were used for vegetation data collection. Altogether, a total of 34 tree /shrub species were recorded from three land use types in the study area. Out of the 34 tree/shrub species identified, 31 (91.2 %) species were native fodder and fruit tree/shrub species, and the remaining 3 (8.8 %) were exotic tree/shrub species. The mean tree/shrubdiversity, species richness, and species density were significantly higher in the remnant natural forest than in homegarden and parkland (p≤0.05). Likewise, the highest tree basal area was recorded in remnant natural forest, followed by homegarden and parklands. The common management practices for native fodder and fruit species were pollarding, thinning, pruning, lopping, and fencing. Based on the findings, it is concluded that species diversities and stem numbers were lower in parkland than in other land-use types. Therefore, it is recommended that planting native fodder and fruit tree/shrub species on parkland is essential to enhance the conservation and domestication process of the targeted species.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-00142024-01-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Structure and Regeneration Status of Woody Seed Oil Species in Northern Botswanahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Concerns about energy security and environmental risks have sparked interest in edible and non-edible seed oils as potential renewable feedstocks for biodiesel production. A study was conducted to investigate the population structure and regeneration status of woody seed oil species in the districts of Chobe and Ngamiland. The population structure and regeneration condition of woody seed oil species were studied in 20 × 20 m (400 m<sup>2</sup>) quadrats spaced 50 m apart along a parallel line transect. Data on the identity of all woody species, the number of all live individuals, and the diameter at breast height (DBH) of individuals with DBH &gt; 2 cm of each woody species were collected in each quadrat. The diversity (<italic>Hʹ</italic>) and evenness (<italic>Jʹ</italic>) of woody seed oil species were 1.53, 1.42 and 0.71, and 0.85, 0.73 and 0.51 in Parakarungu, Seronga and Shorobe, respectively. <italic>Ximenia caffra</italic> was the dominant woody seed oil plant in Shorobe and Seronga, and exhibited an inverted <italic>J</italic>-shaped curve with continuous diameter classes distribution. <italic>Trichilia emetica</italic> was only found in Parakarungu, where it was the second dominant species and demonstrated excellent recruitment and regeneration. In Shorobe and Seronga, <italic>Croton megalobotrys</italic> was the second most dominant species. It had low recruitment, which was most likely due to herbivory and predation on seeds and seedlings. The least prevalent species (<italic>Sclerocarya birrea, Schinziophyton rautanenii</italic> and <italic>Guibourtia coleosperma</italic>) had no representation in the intermediate diameter-classes, which might be attributed to the selective removal in these diameter-classes. The examination of the population structure of woody seed oil species indicated variations in patterns of diameter-class distribution, indicating differences in the population dynamics of the species across the study areas. The least dominant species experienced hindered recruitment and regeneration due to herbivory and anthropogenic influences.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-00162024-01-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the Variability in Land Surface Temperature due to Land Use/Land Cover Change for a Sustainable Urban Planninghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In modern days, a sustainable urban planning system requires a balance of vegetation, water, and settlement. The proportions of these surface features directly influence the land surface temperature (LST) in an urban area. LST primarily depends on the emittance of land use/land cover (LULC) categories. In an urban area, changes in LULC categories as well as local warming are the prime regulators of LST change. The study analyses the LULC change and its impact on LST in Imphal City, India. Landsat satellite data for the summer season and winter seasons for 1991, 2001, 2011, and 2021 have been used in this study. Results show that the mean LST of the study area increased at &gt;1% rate/decade. The green area and water area decreased the LST values whereas the built-up area and fallow lands increased the LST values. The study indicates the consequences of proper land conversion to regulate the LST change. Moreover, the influence of population on LST is also determined. The continuous rising trend of population is a positive factor of increasing LST. The study may help the town and country planners to generate sustainable urban land.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-00152024-01-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluating the Effects of Real Estate Development in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria: Emphasizing Changes in Land Use/Land Cover (LULC)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Analysis of the impacts of real estate development on biodiversity within the confines of Imo State, Nigeria, was the main objective of this study. The investigation included a look at how land use and land cover (LULC) changed between 2017 and 2022. The study made use of Sentinel-2 image with a spatial resolution of 10 m. The research team used supervised classification algorithms to classify the imagery, which were then compared to find changes in land use and land cover (LULC). The following categories apply to the land use and land cover (LULC) of the study area: In 2017, trees accounted for 58.84 % of the total land surface and covered the most land, covering an area of 315.05 km<sup>2</sup>. The amount of developed land, or 30.23 % of the total land area, was assessed to be 161.84 km<sup>2</sup>. Approximately 61.91 % of the entire land surface in 2018, or 331.47 km<sup>2</sup>, was covered by arboreal vegetation, which dominated the landscape. Comparatively, urbanised regions made up 177.41 km<sup>2</sup>, or 33.14 % of the total land area. With trees making up 59.434 % or 318.22 km<sup>2</sup> of the total land area in 2019, trees were found to be the most prevalent kind of land cover. Concurrently, built-up areas accounted for 34.30 % of the land, or 183.66 km<sup>2</sup>. The LULC map for 2020 showed a comparable pattern, with trees covering 58.46 % (equivalent to 313.02 km<sup>2</sup>) of the total land area and built-up areas covering 34.71 % (equivalent to 185.88 km<sup>2</sup>). According to the research, the impact of real estate development on the environment is primarily negative, resulting in habitat depletion, ecosystem fragmentation, and the introduction of pollutants. The researchers advised using sustainable development practises to mitigate the aforementioned negative effects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-00122023-10-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Arid Rangeland Degradation and Its Driving Forces in Southern Hodna, Algeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Algerian steppes frequently experience droughts and significant anthropogenic activities than harm its natural resources, endangering the fragile arid ecosystem’s balance. Hence, an analysis of steppe degradation can be instrumental in initiating remedial measures in the region. This study aims to assess the level of rangeland degradation in the southern Hodna region, a crucial component of the steppe landscape, and analyse the factors driving this degradation. The methodology employed a supervised classification technique, using multi-temporal remote sensing imagery from 1987 to 2016 to analyse land cover distribution. Furthermore, land cover dynamics were combined with carefully selected climatic and anthropogenic data, which were then subjected to canonical correspondece analysis to identify the primary drivers of rangeland degradation. The results reveal a sustained change in land cover dynamics, with a no table 48.65 % reduction in the rangeland class. Simultaneously, there has been a continuous expansion in sand dunes, rangeland degradation, and agriculture classes. It is worth noting that canonical correspondence analysis reveals stronger associations between rangeland degradation and anthropogenic factors than climatic factors. Finally, the study offers crucial insights into rangeland degradation in southern Hodna, aiding policymakers and land managers in developing sustainable development strategies for the region.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-00132023-10-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment and monitoring of fires caused by the War in Ukraine on Landscape scalehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article assesses the changes in the state of Ukraine’s natural environment, namely due to the fire on its territories as a result of military operations. Remote sensing can be considered as a decision support tool for landscape management, remote sensing plays a vital operational tool in the affected areas to assess the consequences, as well as to make appropriate decisions to protect the environment and support environmental recovery programs in these areas.</p> <p>This paper presented applying of remote sensing methods to assess large fires caused by military events in Ukraine war using the VIIRS spectroradiometer (375 m) on board the NASA/NOAA Suomi NPP satellite and NOAA-20 satellites, as well as NASA’s Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) resource. The paper presents examples of the use of remote sensing to detect changes in territories affected by military operations, and provided estimates of the total number of fires in 2022. Authors proposed a methodology for obtaining daily data on the localization of fires in the territories of active hostilities, in particular in 15 regions of Ukraine that are closest to the front line. Results of this paper indicated the VIIRS spectroradiometer and the FIRM’s resource as an effective tool for monitoring fires and assessing changes in the environment caused by them as a result of military operations in Ukraine.</p> <p>The possibility of using satellite imagery for operational fire monitoring has been proven, which, in combination with traditional ground-based data, can play a crucial role in protecting civilians and providing evidence of environmental violations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-00112023-10-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Analyzing spatial and geometrical patterns of Tiruchirappalli and Tier-urban centers using Spatial Metricshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Understanding spatial and geometrical patterns of urbanization is crucial in tackling associated problems. As urbanization progresses through various stages of development, it reflects different forms, patterns, and interactions based on its physical and functional aspects. Spatial metrics is a well-acclaimed technique for quantifying urban morphological characteristics. The current study was conducted for Tiruchirappalli and six tier-urban centers located within a 40-kilometers radius to comprehend the comparative growth and spatial patterns. The urban centers are divided into eight zones based on direction for more precise quantification. The study employed Landsat 5 and 8 satellite images to classify land use/cover for the periods 1996, 2008, and 2020. FRAGSTAT is the software application used to analyze spatial metrics, at patch, class, and landscape levels. The study generated a significant amount of data about spatial and geometric patterns of growth. Area, edge, and aggregation metrics indicated that zones in Manachanallur, Manapparai, Musiri, Thiruverumbur, and Thuraiyur had protrusive urban growth during the study period. Transport networks have been the instrumental factor for such growth. Diversity metrics revealed Tiruchirappalli and Thiruverumbur have abundant patches of various classes in many of their zones since they retain patches like open, vegetation, and water bodies extensively. Shape metrics across all urban centers during the period 1996-2008 were more irregular in shape; it has become significantly smooth during 2008-2020 due to infill developments on the fringe areas. The period 1996-2008 recorded a huge transition of open areas into built-ups, attributing to infill development, especially inside the urban centers; similarly, during the period 2008-2020, edge expansion has been recorded widely across the urban centers. The current study is a significant contribution to urban research in understanding relative spatial and geometric patterns of urbanization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-00102023-10-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Zonal Concept: Landscape Level Parameters and Applicationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Zonal concept is a traditional approach in land assessment. Although its principles have been known for over a hundred years, they have not yet been thoroughly evaluated using modern analytical approaches. Assessing the empirically established parameters for characterising a zonal site, establishing threshold values of significant environmental factors, along with assessing the applicability of the zonal concept, were the goals of this study. The data analysed were obtained from the robust and objective Czech National Forest Inventory database. Regression, indirect ordination, hierarchical clustering and spatial analyses of geo-information systems were used. The study revealed seven crucial environmental factors: Slope, Slope Height, Terrain Surface Texture, Negative Openness, Multi-Resolution Index of Valley Bottom Flatness, Soil Type and Soil Subtype. A graphical model of zonal/azonal sites was constructed based on calculated threshold values of the factors. This methodic approach introduces significant geomorphological information that are otherwise problematically detectable in field mapping. We suggest it is possible to use the zonal concept as a base layer for general landscape assessment. Zonal site classification can become a part of a precise land management practice, consisting of valuable empiricism of traditional landscape ecological classifications enriched by modelling in disturbance ecology and prediction of climate change effects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-00092023-10-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Mapping and yield prediction of castor bean () using Sentinel-2A satellite image in a semi-arid region of indiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Castor bean (<italic>Ricinus communis</italic>) indigenous to the southeastern Mediterranean basin, eastern Africa and India is a crop having various industrial and medicinal applications. It is helpful in crop rotation and replenishing the soil nutrients due to less water consumption. The current study explores the utility of Sentinel-2A satellite image for mapping and yield prediction of castor beans. Several classification methods viz. migrating means clustering, maximum likelihood classifier, support vector machine and artificial neural network are used for the classification and mapping of different landscape categories. The overall classification accuracy was achieved to be highest for artificial neural network (85.81 %) subsequently support vector machine (80.12 %), maximum likelihood classifier (74.23 %) and migrating means clustering (73.03 %). The yield prediction is performed using Sentinel-2A-derived indices namely Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Enhanced Vegetation Index-2. Further, the cumulative values of these two indices are investigated for castor bean yield prediction using linear regression from July 2017 to April 2018 in different seasons (pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter). The regression model provided (adj R2=0.75) value using EVI-2 compared to (adj R2=0.55) using NDVI for yield prediction of <italic>Ricinus communis</italic> crop in the winter season. The methodology adopted in this study can serve as an effective tool to map and predict the productivity of <italic>Ricinus communis</italic>. The adopted methodology may also be extended to a wider spatial level and for other significant crops grown in semi-arid regions of world.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2023-00082023-10-06T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1