rss_2.0Journal of Landscape Ecology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Landscape Ecology of Landscape Ecology Feed Years of Growth of Woody Plants in a Biocorridor Established on Agricultural Land: Case Study From Vracov (Czech Republic)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the 1970s and 1980s, the concept of ecological networks was developed in the Czech Republic. The first biocorridors were established on arable land in the beginning of the 1990s. One of them was the Vracov biocorridor. This paper deals with the growth and development of trees on two permanent research plots in the period from 1993–2021. In the biocorridor, repeated inventories of woody plants and monitoring of biometrical parameters of trees and shrubs were carried out. The number of woody plants has been decreasing as the level of stand canopy has increased. Moreover, mean heights and diameters of skeleton (<italic>Quercus robur</italic>, <italic>Tilia cordata</italic>) and filling (<italic>Acer campestre</italic>, <italic>Prunus avium</italic>) trees and shrubs (<italic>Cornus sanguinea</italic>, <italic>Ligustrum ovalifolium</italic>) were compared. Under the given conditions, the growth of these tree species can be positively evaluated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Use of Remote Sensing Data for Investigation of Environmental Consequences of Russia-Ukraine War<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The usage of remote sensing data for tracking or monitoring war conflicts is a reality nowadays. The Russian invasion in Ukraine seriously impacted on the environment of the attacked country in all areas: air, soil, water, flora and fauna. The war has created a massive increase in air pollution in some regions of Ukraine, and might have effect in neighbouring countries. The Russian attack has caused many fires at places such as oil depots, industrial complexes, equipment and ammunition stockpiles, the forests, and residential areas. In addition to this, many bridges, hydraulic and other structures located over and near the water bodies were destroyed. These events were analysed in this paper by using publicly available remote sensing data: NOAA-2, Suomi NPP, Aqua and Terra satellites, Sentinel and Landsat satellites, as well as from other sources open to public. We assume that the use of remote sensing data is an excellent tool to monitor effects of military conflicts on environment. The conducted research with proposed method can serve as a good scientific practice that should be implemented for monitoring of the harm to nature caused by wars.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Review of Land Cover Information using H/A/Α Polarimetric Decomposition of Dual Pol Sar Data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Information related to land use and land cover is an inevitable prerequisite for formulating any decision making for land information system. The easiest and most effective way to gather such information is via using Earth observation satellites supported by ground data. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), due to its additional unique intrinsic characteristics is favoured over the optical systems for procuring land information. An innovative and effective technique for land feature detection is the use of polarimetric capabilities of SAR. Generally applicable for quad polarized data, this study investigates the polarimetric capabilities of a dual polarized data obtained from ALOS PALSAR, which is not a general notion. The approach applied in the study shows accurate results for detection of land features using polarimetric decomposition of dual polarized ALOS PALSAR data over an area of Munger in the state of Bihar, India. Twelve distinct land cover features are identified in the study area using this approach. The polarimetric products are also investigated for deriving the biomass information for the vegetation cover in the study area. The relation between in-situ biomass generated from floral species-specific volumetric equations and SAR polarimetric products showed a moderate correlation of 0.56 with RMSE=29.13 t/ha and data agreement of 0.62 based on exponential regression model for predicting biomass. The decomposition parameters revealed more evidences for forest structure and feature identification rather than biomass information. The method adopted in the study can be well utilized for land resource information and mapping; hence, natural and man-made resource monitoring and management.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Variation of the Maiac Aerosol Optical Depth in Underexplored Urbanized Area of National Capital Region, India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aerosol monitoring is the emerging application field of satellite remote sensing. As a satellite-based indicator of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) can aid in assessing the crucial effects of aerosols on the global environment. Among various satellite-based aerosol product, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 6 (C6), Multiangle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) aerosol product (1 km resolution) has still untapped potential in Indian regions. Considering the importance of regional validation of such high-resolution aerosol product, the present study attempts to fill this gap by validating MAIAC aerosol estimates (AODMAIAC) in highly polluted districts (Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Gautam Budh Nagar, Gurugram) of National Capital Region (NCR) with heavy aerosol loading using limited AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) observations obtained from AERONET sites at Amity University (AU) and Gual Pahari (GP). Such evaluation of satellite-retrieved aerosol product with ground data confirms its practicality based on retrieval errors (Expected Error (EE) values (EE = 0.05 + 15 %*AOD) (EE: 78.85 % at AU, 73.58 % at GP), root mean square error (RMSE) values (RMSE: 0.15 at AU, 0.24 at GP), and correlation coefficient (R) values (R: 0.86 at AU, 0.73 at GP). The seasonal variation in AOD over the study area from 2010-2019 reveals increasing trend of AOD in the monsoon and post-monsoon season due to natural and anthropogenic factors. In addition to contributing to a holistic assessment of MAIAC aerosol estimates as a recent, high-resolution aerosol product, present results provide a basis for further research into NCR aerosols.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Seasonal Investigation on Land Surface Temperature and Spectral Indices in Imphal City, India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study focused on investigating the seasonal and spatiotemporal relationship between the relationships of LST with four spectral indices (MNDWI, NDBaI, NDBI, and NDVI) in and around Manipur City of India using eight cloud-free Landsat data from the summer and winter seasons for 1991, 2001, 2011, and 2021. These spectral indices respond differently to the change of LST in an urban landscape. Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient was the basis of the correlation analysis. The study finds that LST builds a moderate negative relationship with NDVI (R = -0.42) and MNDWI (R = -0.42), a moderate positive relationship with NDBaI (R=0.48), and NDBI (R = 0.61). The relationship is more stable in the winter season (CV = 7.31, 7.04, 10.45, and 28.71 for MNDWI, NDBaI, NDBI, and NDVI, respectively) than in summer (CV = 44.46, 36.09, 23.67, and 29.71 for MNDWI, NDBaI, NDBI, and NDVI, respectively). The strength of the relationship is gradually increasing in the winter season while there is no such effect noticed on the trend in the summer season. The LST-NDBI relationship is the most consistent (CV = 18.19), while the LST-NDVI relationship is the most variable (CV = 30.37).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Urban Expansion and Identification of Sprawl Through Delineation of Urban Core Boundary<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cities are spatially expanding rapidly, leading to urban sprawl. This study aims to understand the nature of the urban expansion of Chennai city, located on India’s southeastern coast, by determining the urban growth pattern and identifying the urban sprawl areas. The urban growth pattern and sprawl areas between 1998 and 2019 are identified using remote sensing data through the delineation of the Urban Core Boundary (UCB). The urban areas were extracted from the Land Use Land Cover (LULC) classification using combined classification technique to delineate the UCB. All the findings were validated using ground truth information. LULC classification performed with an accuracy of more than 90 % for urban land cover revealed an increase in urban cover by 71.77% from 1998 to 2009 and</p> <p>36.91 % from 2009 to 2019. The delineated UCB’s peripheral distance was measured from the city centre in an anticlockwise direction from 0˚ to 360˚ at every 10˚ interval. It is observed that the urban core boundary expanded to a maximum of 16.02 km along 240˚ and</p> <p>11.93 km along 220˚ from the city centre, and the lands in the vicinity of the National Highway (NH 32), which is situated between these sectors, experienced maximum urban development. The study also pinpointed the sprawl areas during the study period, revealing that the urban sprawl occurs along the highways, around designated special economic zones, and industrial corridors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Communication Based on Local Wisdom in Forest Conservation: A Study on Sentajo Forbidden Forest, Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to explore environmental communication based on local wisdom in conserving forests in the Kenegerian Sentajo, Riau Province, Indonesia. This study uses a qualitative approach with an interactive model. Researchers interact and are directly involved in many community activities. The results indicate that environmental communication in forest conservation is based on the local wisdom of the community by using the term <italic>Rimbo Larangan</italic>. The main communicators and actors are the customary holders, the <italic>datuk penghulu</italic> and the <italic>ninik-mamak</italic> (elders) as the highest institutional holders of Kenegerian Sentajo customs. This institution is more powerful than formal government institutions. These traditional stakeholders play an important role in spreading the message to maintain the existence of forbidden forest (<italic>Rimbo Larangan</italic>). In addition, the community’s desire to maintain customary values has given rise to attitudes and behaviors of people who are aware and care about forest sustainability. This is supported by Islamic values which have encouraged public awareness to have morals or responsibility towards the environment. Some beliefs, storytelling, and myths also reinforce this rule which makes people afraid to break it. The research findings can be used by the community in improving practices of communicating, managing, making rules and redesigning forest for conservation areas that are managed based on indigenous peoples.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Dynamics of Human Impact on Landscapes of Vitosha Mountain (SW Bulgaria)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents a study of the historical dynamics of human impact on the landscapes of Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria. Information about the main historical and present-day anthropogenic impacts on landscapes was obtained from a various data sources and field research. These impacts include hunting, agriculture, grazing, logging, charcoal production, iron production, gold mining, stone quarry, reforestation, recreation. Five historical phases of anthropogenic impact on landscapes are recognized in our analysis: the Prehistoric phase, the Antiquity phase, the Mediaeval phase, the Ottoman phase and the Modern phase. The greatest anthropogenic impact was during the Ottoman phase, when the intensive agricultural and mining (iron and gold) activities contributed to a great landscape transformation and degradation. The functional purposes on the territory of Vitosha have undergone a radical change since 1934. The human impact on landscapes has gradually decreased and economic use gave way to conservation and recreation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Assessment of Woody Plant Diversity and the Associated Threats in Afromontane Forest of Ambericho, Southern Ethiopia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Mountainous ecosystems provide social, economic, and environmental services at different scales. Nonetheless, currently, they have been exposed to environmental degradation risks. This study was conducted to investigate woody plant species diversity and threats to the study forest. Systematic sampling was employed to collect vegetation data from fifty 400 m<sup>2</sup> sample plots along five transect lines. Vegetation and the environmental variables were recorded from each plot. Eighty randomly sampled households were selected for socioeconomic data. Descriptive statistics and ranking exercises were employed. The vegetation classification was performed using the R program version 2.15.2. The species diversity, richness, and evenness were computed. The result showed that five plant communities were recognized. A total of 99 woody plants belonging to 87 genera and 50 families were identified, of which 13 % were endemic. The total basal area of the study forest was 3.40 m2ha<sup>-1</sup>, and the forest was characterized by a bell-shaped population structure identified by poor regeneration and recruitment. With increasing altitude, there was a significant decrease in human impacts, grazing, and the number of plant species. About 90 % of the informants disclosed deforestation as the major threat to forest cover change, whereas 84 % of them recommended forest restoration as a tangible measure. There was a high deforestation rate of the selected woody species (e.g., <italic>Arundinaria alpina</italic>) and high expansion of agriculture at the fringes of the forest. This requires promoting forest land rehabilitation activities, nature tourism, establishing partnerships with communities on the forest management, consolidating village-level institutions and developing livelihood alternatives for communities at the local governments and the community level to restore the degraded forest.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Connectivity of Naturally Valuable Habitats in the Jeseníky Protected Landscape Area<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper focuses on evaluating the functional connectivity of naturally valuable habitats within the territory of the Jeseníky Protected Landscape Area (PLA). Analysis of functional connectivity was carried out for individual zones of classified nature preservation. The methodological approach that is applied is based on determining indicators for expressing the degree of the natural character of individual landscape segments (Nd), the distance to naturally valuable habitats (Dn), and a composite index Distance to Nature (D2N). The results for the individual zones and the PLA as a whole are mutually compared and consequently confronted with values for the territory of the entire Czech Republic. All three research questions, i.e. whether naturally valuable habitats prevail in the most valuable area in the first protected zone of the Jeseníky PLA, whether the distance to naturally valuable habitats in the first zone of the Jeseníky PLA is the shortest, and whether the territory of the Jeseníky PLA is better functionally interlinked when compared with the remaining territory of the Czech Republic (CR), were answered positively. The results highlight the need to assess the connectivity of natural habitats in the least protected zones of other PLAs in the Czech Republic and EU, to decide whether planning measures to support the ecological network are necessary.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Effects on Ground Water Levels Due to Conversion of Rural to Urban Landscapes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Greater NOIDA evolved from 1991 with 101 villages to 2020 with 293 villages. This is an ideal case of rural to urban transformation in the immediate past. This transformation led to a decrease in recharging natural surfaces and an increase in impermeable surfaces. Along with the reduction in recharge areas, an increase in population has necessitated more and more extraction of groundwater resulting in an imbalance of water extraction and recharge. The result is depletion of groundwater levels in this area. The area is part of the wide Indo-Gangetic alluvium with sand, silt and clay layers resting on quartzite’s of Delhi Super Group. Geomorphological map prepared using digital elevation models of the area shows older and younger alluvial plains and active flood plains of the river Hindan. Time series analysis of key land use land cover classes shows that recharge areas were reduced from 77 % to 30 % from 2005 to 2019 and impervious surfaces have increased from 19 % to 65 % for the same period. Aquifers of the area are both phreatic and semi-confined. The aquifer parameters estimated through step drawdown test and long duration aquifer performance test indicates that the average coefficient of transmissivity of the area is 1752 m<sup>2</sup>/day and the average coefficient of storage is 4.84 x 10-4. Discharge of the wells shows a yield of 8 to 16 lps for a drawdown of 3 to 6 m. An attempt has been made to know the behaviour of groundwater levels during the same period as that of land use land cover. The results indicate a 74 % depletion in groundwater levels with an average annual depletion of 21 %. An interrelationship between urban growth and groundwater levels has been established in this study. This analysis indicates that as agriculture declined water levels also depleted and have a positive correlation of 0.852. On the contrary, as the built-up increased water level has depleted hence have a negative relationship with a correlation coefficient of -0.851. To make it a sustainable resource, these overexploited aquifers need careful participatory management by communities, Scientists, and policymakers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Woody Species Diversity and Population Structure Along Disturbance Gradient in Babile Elephant Sanctuary, Ethiopia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study was conducted at Babile Elephant Sanctuary (BES), to identify and document the list of woody species, and to analyze the diversity, richness, evenness, and population structural status of woody species. The diversity of plant species and population structure of woody species were analyzed from 60 quadrats, each with 20 m x 20 m for trees and 5 m x 5 m for shrubs and climbers, using systematic sampling methods with three levels of disturbances regime, namely, low disturbed (LD), moderately disturbed (MD) and heavily disturbed (HD) sites. Vegetation parameters such as diameter at breast height (DBH), richness, evenness, and density of woody species were recorded. Shannon Weiner Diversity Index was used to analysis vegetation diversity and evenness. A total of 61 woody species were identified in the study area that falls within 29 families and 38 genera of which 50.8 % were shrubs, 39.3 % were trees and the rest 9.83 % were climbers. Fabaceae was represented by the highest number of species (14 species = 22.90). The highest plant species richness was recorded from the low disturbed sites, followed by moderately disturbed and heavily disturbed sites respectively. The population density of vegetation was significantly higher in the MD site, followed by the LD site. The total basal area of LD, MD, and HD were 27.2, 19.8, and 11.2 m<sup>2</sup>/ha, respectively. LD site had significantly (P= 0.04) highest Shannon’s diversity index value (3.21) than the others two disturbance levels. This result suggests that the consequence of human-induced disturbance on woody species diversity and population structure appeared to be negative depending on the type and intensities of the disturbances.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Land Use/Land Cover Change on Soil Retention Service: A Case of Agricultural-Urbanized Landscape in Northern Iran<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Globally, urbanization changes land use/land cover (LULC) and alters ecosystem functions and services. Soil retention (SR) is a critical ecological service that is strongly related to LULC change. The topic of this study is assessment of LULC change on soil retention service (SRS) in a fragile seminatural-urbanized landscape of the Jajrood basin in Northern Tehran, Iran, from 2000 to 2020. To achieve the goal, the LULC maps and the other relevant datasets were imported into the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs tool (InVEST) using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Calibration and validation were performed using Goodness-of-fit test for observational and modeled data. The results revealed that LULC change had both negative and positive effects on SR. The built-up area increased dramatically by about 133 percent, while the rangeland shrunk by approximately 5 % during the twenty-year, leading to an increase in soil erosion and reducing SR. On the other hand, the agricultural and gardening activities expanded by 41 %, which caused an increment in SR. Due to the outgrowth of man-made areas compared to the other land uses, the overall SR decreased by about 17,000 tons. Moreover, the result indicated that slope, elevation, and land management factors, respectively, had the highest correlation with SRS. The finding of this research can provide insight to land use planners to protect the areas with high soil erosion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue English Life in Landscape: Watching Landscape Research Over Half a Century<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>From a largely autobiographical perspective, the development of the European concept of landscape is considered through the last fifty years, focussed on the gap between the environmental idea which has progressively become more ecological, so the landscape idea has become much more cultural. When they work together, there can be outstanding results, as demonstrated in the European Landscape Award. However, what seemed to be an unsteady progress towards a common understanding of cultural landscape can still receive dramatic shocks. The Pandemic is one such shock which has just begun to be absorbed into landscape thinking, and now the cosy concept of national and regional landscape identities is shattered yet again, by invasion, immigration and displacement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Mapping of Soil Water Erosion Risks in the Srou Basin (Middle Atlas, Morocco) Using the EPM Model, GIS and Magnetic Susceptibility<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Oued Srou watershed located in the Middle Atlas Mountain of Morocco has been a subject of serious soil erosion problems due to the combination of natural factors and anthropic activities. Therefore, soil erosion hazard assessment and mapping can be handy to initiate remedial measures in the area. In this study, the improved Erosion Potential Model (EPM) integrated with GIS and remote sensing techniques is employed to map and assess the vulnerability of the Oued Srou watershed to the water erosion phenomenon and its impact on the silting of the Ahmed El Hansali dam. The results of the EPM model showed that the maximum annual soil loss rates were in the range of 5-652 m<sup>3</sup>/km<sup>2</sup>/year, with an average of 49 m<sup>3</sup>/km<sup>2</sup>/year. The delivery coefficient ratio showed that about 34433 t/year of the sediments reach the outlet of the watershed. The correlation analysis between all erosion factors revealed the following order of their importance in the water erosion control: soil sensitivity to erosion, soil protection, slope, erosive state, temperature, and rainfall. The magnetic susceptibility provided results on the evolution of soils; it showed that the most degraded soils had a high erosion rate. Generally, the stable soils not eroded showed an upward increase of magnetic susceptibility values in soil profiles; the evolution of magnetic susceptibility of degraded soils is disturbed. The magnetic susceptibility has also made it possible to highlight the source zones of sediments that reach the outlet of the watershed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Sensitivity of Diverse Tropical Biomes to Precipitation Consistent with the Expected Carbon Dioxide Fertilization Effect<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Global environmental changes have implications for the terrestrial ecosystem functioning, but disentangling individual effects remains elusive. The impact of vegetation responses to increasing atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> concentrations is particularly poorly understood. As the atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> concentration increases, the CO<sub>2</sub> acts as a fertilizer for plant growth. An increase in atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> reduces the amount of water needed to produce an equivalent amount of biomass due to closing or a narrowing of the stomata that reduces the amount of water that is transpired by plants. To study the impacts of climate change and CO<sub>2</sub> fertilization on plant growth, we analyzed the growing season sensitivity of plant growth to climatic forcing from alpine to semi-desert eco-climatic zones of Ethiopia for various plant functional types over the period of 1982–2011. Growing season 3<sup>rd</sup> generation Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (NDVI) was used as a proxy of plant growth, while mean growing season precipitation (prec), temperature (temp), and solar radiation (sr) as the climate forcing. The sensitivities of plant growth are calculated as a partial correlation, and a derivative of NDVI with respect to prec, temp and sr for earliest and recent 15-year periods of the satellite records, and using a moving window of 15-year. Our results show increasing trends of plant growth that are not explained by any climate variables. We also find that an equivalent increase in prec leads to a larger increase in NDVI since the 1980s. This result implies a given amount of prec has sustained greater amounts of plant foliage materials over time due to decreasing transpiration with increasing CO<sub>2</sub> concentration as expected from the CO<sub>2</sub> fertilization effect on water use efficiency and plant growth. Increasing trends of growth in shallow-rooted vegetation tend to be associated with woody vegetation encroachment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Green Space Planning and Development in Urban Cities Using Geospatial Technology: A Case Study of Noida<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Urban planning, with special attention to green space development, offers a relatively simple and low-cost solution to the impacts of climate change and urbanization faced by urban centres. The present work examines the spatial variability of availability of adequate sites for the development of urban green amenities in Noida city. Multi-criteria assessment of potential locations has been accomplished using Analytical Hierarchical Process coupled with geospatial technology. Urban land use, physiographic factors (slope and elevation), accessibility (proximity to roads), and presence of grey, green and blue amenities (Normalised Difference Built-up Index, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index and proximity to water bodies, respectively) are the seven key criteria used to derive the final green space suitability map. A total of 46.47 % of the land was found to be in the category of highly and moderately suitable for greening the city, highlighting the potential of developing different forms of green spaces in the area. Such holistic city scale analysis of availability of potential sites for green space development can be utilised by the city administrators and urban planners for future land use planning and improving the distribution and spatial connectivity of the green spaces in the city with the common goals of better health, a cleaner environment, and climate change mitigation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Look Into the History of Landscape Research in Czechia. Landscape in Natural and Social Sciences, Attempts at an Interdisciplinary Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Self-reflection is important for every scientific discipline and the study of landscape is no exception. Indeed, landscape is connected in some way to both the natural and social sciences, as well as the and humanities as see in art and architecture.</p> <p>This review analyses the development of landscape research by scientific institutions in the contemporary Czech Republic. It is an attempt to provide a thematic and historical review of its often very complicated development. The study is organized thematically and a chronological order is used for each topic. The topics covered are: The cultural formation of the “Phenomenon of the Czech landscape”; The formation of the approach to landscape in natural sciences; “Phenomenon of the Czech landscape” in architecture; Landscape in institutionalized form in the Academy of Sciences; Landscape outside the Academy of Sciences, and; “Phenomenon of the Czech landscape” in social sciences.</p> <p>Archived documents from the former Institute of Landscape Ecology of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the primary thematic studies of individual authors and secondary studies reflecting the development of the field itself were used for the development of this thematic and historical review. These sources were refined where possible through guided semi-structured interviews with eyewitnesses and written correspondence.</p> <p>The results show two strong centres of landscape ecology: Institute of Landscape Ecology of the former Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (ČSAV) in Prague formed out of its forerunners in 1971 which is associated with the name of Emil Hadač and relocated to České Budějovice, where it ceased to exist in 2010. Another centre is set up in Brno at the Geographical Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences in Brno at the Mendel University of Brno (Antonín Buček, Jan Lacina).</p> <p>The cultural character and intertwining natural and cultural components of the landscape play an important role in understanding the specific aspects of the scientific study of landscape in our country. This was the basis of the initial scientific reflections of the forerunners of landscape ecology in biological sciences (Bohumil Němec, Julius Stoklasa), in nature conservation (Jan Svatopluk Procházka) and in architecture (Karel Honzík, Ladislav Žák). This interdisciplinary character of landscape research persists in many institutions and organizations to this day, including the Czech branch of the International Association for Landscape Ecology IALE - CZ.</p> <p>It is a great paradox of our time that landscape and landscape ecology has ceased to be institutionally represented in the structure of the Czech Academy of Sciences. In conclusion, we ask the question about the reasons for this development and whether landscape research can be restored in the structure of the Academy of Sciences of The Czech Republic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Review on Climate Change Impacts on Forest Ecosystem Services in the Mediterranean Basin<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Mediterranean Basin covers more than 2 million square kilometres and is surrounded by three continents: Africa, Asia and Europe. The Basin that is rich in biodiversity has tilted towards warmer and drier conditions over the last decades. The emerging climatic conditions particularly the increase in the number of climate extremes are bringing new threats and risks that will exacerbate existing pressures. The present study thoroughly reviewed the recent scientific literature and synthesized existing body of knowledge on the impacts (direct and indirect) of climate change on forest ecosystem services in the Mediterranean Basin. Despite many uncertainties about climate change in the Basin, there appears to be a consensus among a number of studies that climate change is having and will continue to have mostly negative impacts on the Mediterranean forest ecosystem services (wood and non-wood forest products, water resources, carbon storage and recreation and tourism) with possible substantial impacts in the future. Further, evidence is mounting that climate-induced natural disturbances (fires, insect pests, and pathogenic diseases) are becoming frequent and severe. The Mediterranean plants are known for their resilience to natural disturbances. However, the novel climatic conditions may exceed their resilience and alter the ecosystem services. Therefore, there is the need to mitigate the challenges posed by climate change and adapt forest management practices to impending changes to sustain the forest ecosystem services.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Local Knowledge About Land Use Relevant to Landscape Planning in a Case Study Area in Lowland Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Public perception and knowledge of land use changes, and preferences for future landscape development, can contribute to planning processes at different levels from the local to the national. Participatory processes and use of local knowledge are necessary for precise planning purposes and management of public affairs. This paper analyses the results of sociological research with regard to landscape development in Nová Vieska village in the Podunajská nížina lowland in Slovakia. The survey aimed to analyse the answers of local inhabitants and key stakeholders in the field of perception of land-use changes and their causes and biodiversity changes since 1990, as well as expectations of future land use and the driving forces of rural development. Local inhabitants were more likely to perceive changes in the productive parts of the study area (the decline of orchards and gardens, overgrowth of meadows and pastures, etc.), while key stakeholders perceived a broader range of changes in land use. According to the local inhabitants, the disintegration of cooperative farms was the main cause of the land use changes, and unsettled land ownership is the biggest obstacle to development of agricultural production. Key stakeholders cited economic, environmental (climate change) and social causes (ageing of population, change of life style, etc.) as the most important factors in land use change and they also perceived them as the most important obstacles for agricultural development. Local inhabitants (as well as key stakeholders) wished for an increase of the proportion of managed meadows and pastures, gardens, orchards, wetlands and non-forest vegetation, but they expect the opposite trend. The results confirmed that public knowledge of landscape development could provide substantial useful information for future development planning.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue