rss_2.0Journal of Mother and Child FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Mother and Child of Mother and Child 's Cover risks to pregnant obstetrics and gynaecology trainees and physicians: Is it time to think about this?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The proportion of women in the workforce has been steadily increasing worldwide. Women now constitute approximately 75% of the global health workforce and almost 90% in nursing and midwifery professions. The present times have witnessed a dramatic gender shift in the speciality of obstetrics and gynaecology. Women now comprise a significant proportion of practicing obstetrics and gynaecology specialists all over the world. In 2018, more than 80% of resident doctors and nearly 60% of physicians in the speciality were female, far exceeding any other surgical speciality. Most resident doctors and a significant proportion of practising physicians in obstetrics and gynaecology are in the reproductive age group. They will become pregnant at some point in their training program or career. The present review focuses on all work-related exposure risks for pregnant obstetrics and gynaecology professionals. It discusses the risks of infectious diseases, radiation, stress, violence against doctors, and even peer support (or lack of it) that can have deleterious effects on the health of pregnant physicians and the health of their unborn foetuses.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00The effect of integrating midwifery counselling with a spiritual content on improving the antenatal quality of life: a randomized controlled trial<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00003_s_010"> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Poor antenatal quality of life (QoL) is associated with adverse outcomes.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00003_s_011"> <title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>This study was performed to examine the effect of integrating midwifery counseling with spiritual content to improve the antenatal quality of life.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00003_s_012"> <title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>This randomised controlled trial was performed on 60 first-time pregnant women who were referred to two childbirth preparation centers in Zanjan city, Iran, in 2019. The counselling was conducted in eight sessions. The QoL SF-36 questionnaire was completed right before and two months after the intervention. Data were analysed using the chi-square test, independent <italic>t</italic>-test, and paired-samples <italic>t</italic>-test. The level of significance was <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00003_s_013"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>After intervention based on an independent <italic>t</italic>-test the total score of QoL was significantly greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (<italic>p</italic> = 0.001). After the intervention, the mean scores of four domains of QoL (Role-Physical, General Health, Vitality, Role-Emotional, and Mental Health) were significantly higher than the control group (<italic>p</italic> = 0.001). Whilst in terms of Physical Functioning, Bodily Pain and Social Functioning domains were not statistically significant (<italic>p</italic> &gt; 0.05).</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00003_s_014"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Integrating midwifery counseling with spiritual content had a positive impact on improving the psychological aspect of quality of life more than the physical and social aspects. It can be used by providers for planning antenatal care programs.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Suspicions regarding the genetic inheritance of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in patients with down syndrome<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at markedly increased risk for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). DS is caused by trisomy of chromosome 21 affecting approximately 1 in 732 newborns in the USA. ALL is the most common cancer in children and constitutes approximately 25% of cancer diagnoses among children under the age of 15. Different protocols for treatment and management of paediatric ALL are available; however, DS children with ALL (DS-ALL) have increased risk of therapy-related toxicity compared to those without DS. Herein, we summarize the available literature on inherited predisposition for ALL, and possibilities for molecular therapy and treatment for DS-ALL patients.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Umbilical cord arterial blood lactate dehydrogenase and pH as predictors of perinatal outcome in high-risk term pregnancies: a cohort study<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00004_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Birth asphyxia is a common cause of perinatal morbidity, mortality.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00004_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>To compare the efficacy of umbilical cord arterial blood lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pH as predictors of neonatal outcome in high-risk term pregnancies using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00004_s_010"> <title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>Present retrospective cohort study was conducted in the rural tertiary centre of Northern India over two years (January 2017–December 2018). Neonates delivered to 300 term (≥37 – ≤42 weeks) high-risk antenatal women were enrolled after fulfilling inclusion criteria. Immediately after delivery of a newborn by any mode, the segment of the umbilical cord (10 cm) was double clamped, cut, and arterial blood samples were taken for LDH and pH and were compared with neonatal outcome. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 22.0 software.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00004_s_011"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>For all 300 neonates mean ± SD values of cord blood LDH and pH were 545.19 ± 391.93 U/L and 7.13 ± 0.15, respectively. High cord blood lactate and low pH values were significantly associated with adverse neonatal outcomes including neonatal resuscitation, NICU admission, complications and early neonatal deaths (p=0.000). The sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value of cord blood LDH in the prediction of neonatal death was 100.00%, 53.17%, 100%, and pH was 93.75%, 53.17%, 99.34%, respectively.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00004_s_012"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Cord blood lactate and pH help in the early prediction of neonatal outcomes, but cord blood lactate is a better predictor.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Validity and reliability of the Greek version of Pregnancy Outcome Questionnaire (POQ)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00001_s_016"> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>During the last decades a considerable increase in biological and psychosocial approaches have occurred so as to enhance the study of prenatal period. This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of the Greek version of Pregnancy Outcome Questionnaire (POQ) in assessing pregnancy-related stress.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00001_s_017"> <title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>The study group consisted of 135 first-time expectant women with good knowledge of the Greek language, low-risk pregnancies and a gestational age of ≥24 weeks. Questionnaires containing the POQ scale questions in addition to other questions and scaleswere distributed in printed and digital format at private gynecological clinics. The collected data were analysed using the SPSS software.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00001_s_018"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The POQ scale score showed satisfactory reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.8), while the factor analysis showed a major factor with an eigenvalue of 4.17 and an overall interpreted factor variance of 41%. The sample showed moderate intensity values on the scale. We observed that pregnancy-related characteristics affected the scale, while no significant correlations with demographic variables were recorded.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00001_s_019"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The results of the reliability and factor analyses evaluating the scale structure indicated that the tool performed well in Greek, had a compact structure with satisfying reliability, and is suitable for use in the Greek pregnant population. However, additional research is warranted to investigate the effect of various additional factors on the scale.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Pulse oximetry as a screening test for congenital heart disease in newborns<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-21-00033_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Congenital heart disease (CHD) can be fatal if not diagnosed at the early phases of life. Available diagnostic tools for screening critical CHD are mostly invasive and costly.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-21-00033_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Aim</title> <p>The current study aimed to validate the use of pulse oximetry as a non-invasive and cost-effective tool to screen critical CHD.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-21-00033_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>This observational study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching institute. A total of 1,082 asymptomatic term neonates (aged 2–24 h) were screened by pulse oximetry and clinical examination for the detection of critical CHD. Neonates with abnormal pulse oximetry and clinical examination findings were subjected to confirm the presence of CHD.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-21-00033_s_010"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The incidence of critical CHD in asymptomatic newborns was found to be 0.5% (5/1000 live births). Echocardiography confirmed five cases of critical CHD. Pulse oximetry alone could detect 80%, and clinical examination alone could detect 60% of the CHD cases, while combining both methods gave 100% detection rate.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-21-00033_s_011"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Pulse oximetry is a simple, cost-effective, and reliable tool to diagnose critical CHD. In majority of the newborns who have not undergone fetal echocardiography, the underlying critical CHD can be missed, and in such cases, pulse oximetry screening offers an effective way to minimise the undiagnosed discharge risk.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00The child-to-family education program regarding self-medication: a theory-based interventional study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00009_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Background and objective</title> <p>Self-medication is considered one of the largest social, economic, and health problems in developing communities, including Iran. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a child to family communication approach to self-medication based on the Health Belief Model [HBM].</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00009_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>This study is a quasi-experimental study that was conducted on 124 students in the fourth grade and their mothers in the intervention and control groups in Isfahan city, Iran. Using multi-stage simple random sampling, two primary schools were selected from each group, and then one class was selected from each primary school. Students in the intervention group attended the educational sessions. Then, the students were required to transfer their education to their families. The impact of education on mothers was evaluated two months after the last session. Data were collected before and after the intervention with a researcher-created questionnaire based on the HBM and were analysed using the SPSS 17 software package, with chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, and Wilcoxon tests.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00009_s_010"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Before training, there was not a significant difference in the mean scores of the HBM constructs in terms of the demographic characteristics between the two groups. After the educational intervention, the mean of knowledge and HBM constructs were increased significantly, and the mean of perceived barriers decreased significantly in the experimental group [<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.001].</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00009_s_011"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>According to the present study, the child-to-family education based on the HBM was effective. It is suggested that educational interventions based on the HBM be designed and implemented to decrease self-medication in Iranian families.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Advantages of Side-Lying Position. A Comparative Study of Positioning During Bottle-Feeding in Preterm Infants (≤34 Weeks GA)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212504.d-22-00008_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>The quality and safety of bottle-feeding in premature infants can be improved by optimal positioning. This study analysed the advantages of side-lying position (SLP) and semielevated position (SEP) during bottle-feeding in premature infants.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212504.d-22-00008_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>A total of 42 neonates (n=42) born ≤34 weeks of gestational age were included in the study. Four feeding sessions—two in SLP and two in SEP— were analysed for each newborn. The level of saturation (SpO<sub>2</sub>) and heart rate, which are the parameters assessing the physiological stability, were measured in the studied newborns. The other factors that were examined to determine the quality of feeding included the total time of decline of SpO<sub>2</sub> to ≤85%, level of the newborn’s alertness measured using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, and the frequency of choking episodes. The proportion of milk consumed (volume of milk consumed relative to the volume expected) and the feeding duration as well as the total time of feeding session were recorded.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212504.d-22-00008_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>SLP was safer in terms of the frequency of choking episodes. Choking episodes were more frequently observed with feeding in SEP (<italic>p</italic>&lt;0.001). Moreover, the proportion of milk consumed by infants was statistically significantly higher in SLP (<italic>p</italic>&lt;0.046) compared to SEP. No significant differences in the other tested parameters were noted in infants fed in SLP and infants fed in SEP.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212504.d-22-00008_s_009"><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>This study demonstrated that SLP is effective in reducing the number of choking episodes during feeding. The proportion of milk consumed was better when the neonates were fed in SLP.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Perception and Practice of Breastfeeding in Public in Poland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212504.d-21-00020_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>The aim of the study was to get to know polish women’s opinions and experiences regarding breastfeeding in public.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212504.d-21-00020_s_009"><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>A one-time 11-question survey aimed at women during lactation or breastfeeding in the past who completed a paper questionnaire or online questionnaire on the website (<ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href=""></ext-link> The study was conducted electronically from 1 September 2019 to 31 March 2020 in Maternity and Neonatal Departments, primary health-care clinics in various Polish cities. Data from 700 questionnaires were statistically analysed with the use of Pearson’s chi-squared test of independency or Fisher’s exacts test when applicable (small cell counts).</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212504.d-21-00020_s_010"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>90% of the surveyed women expressed the opinion that it should be possible to breastfeed in public, and 78% of women have had such an experience. Most often it was their own cars, a room for a mother and child, a hall or just a place available when there was a need to feed the child (e.g., a bench, cafe, toilet). About 10% of women faced criticism while breastfeeding in a public place, and 8.6% of women have never breastfed the child out of the house due to the lack of proper place and conditions, embarrassment and no sympathy from other people.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212504.d-21-00020_s_011"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Taking into account the benefits of long-term breastfeeding and the comfort of breastfeeding women, their children and the environment, it is necessary to create dedicated places for breastfeeding in public places.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of Respiratory Distress Syndrome amongst Preterm Twins (28-34 Weeks) Born within and after Two Weeks of Completion of Single Antenatal Corticosteroid Course: a Bidirectional Cohort Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="jmotherandchild.20212504.d-21-00s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>The literature on neonatal outcomes in preterm twins delivered before 34 weeks but within and after 14 days of a single initial steroid course is limited.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212504.d-21-00s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>This bidirectional (226 prospective and 42 retrospectives) cohort study was performed at a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India. We compared the respiratory distress syndrome and neonatal death amongst preterm twins from 28 to 34 weeks born &lt; 14 days (Group A, n=268) and after 14 days (Group B, n=268) of completion of a single course of antenatal steroids. We used multivariable regression analysis (log-binomial model) to adjust for confounding variables. We generated a propensity-matched score with probit regression to analyse outcomes (respiratory distress and neonatal deaths).</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212504.d-21-00s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The two groups had significant differences in the distribution of birthweight, gestation period and mode of delivery. On adjusted analysis, the period of gestation below 33 weeks and weight below 1.5 kg had the maximum influence on respiratory and other morbidities, and weight less than 1 kg on neonatal death. [adjusted relative risk (ARR) 26.06, (95%CI=2.37-285.5), p=0.008]. On propensity scoring after matching all these variables, we found an [ARR of 2.0 (95% CI: 1.03-3.88), P=0.017] for neonatal death after 14 days of steroid injection. The ARR for respiratory distress syndrome was 1.13 in those born after 14 days of steroids, though it did not reach statistical significance.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212504.d-21-00s_010"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>On propensity scoring, the steroid-delivery interval more than 14 days was associated with a significantly increased risk (ARR of 2) of neonatal death.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00A cultural syndicate of society and NGOs challenges to deter child labour manipulation in Addis Ababa<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to investigate the existing trends of child labour abuse in Addis Ababa, as well as to examine the sociocultural barriers that impede nongovernmental organizations. This study involves two domestic NGOs (FHIDO and SCFDS) working on child issues. The study used a qualitative approach with 25 participants in in-depth interviews, one focus-group discussion, and six key informants to collect or acquire a full grasp of the issue and to address the study's stated objectives. The finding of this study revealed some psychometric reasons for the children to be engaged in hazardous work activities, including their family background (dynamics), poverty, and self-actualisation arising from contributions to the well-being of the family. Concerning gender-selective norms as a problem, the chosen two organizations are facing a significant task in putting an end to child labour exploitation in the region owing to social gender preference. The cultural and social expectations of men and women make the issue ubiquitous in their communities. Based on the findings of this study, the Winrock International (2008) approach of CIRCLE experience with an awareness-raising plan is recommended.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-07T00:00:00.000+00:00A Secondary Analysis of Maternal Ultra-Processed Food Intake in Women with Overweight or Obesity and Associations with Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Body Composition Outcomes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212504.d-21-00025_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>This study is an observational secondary analysis of the Lifestyle Intervention for Two (LIFT) randomised controlled trial data. There is a paucity of data related to mechanisms of health effects and dietary intake of ultra-processed foods (UPF). Earlier studies demonstrate associations between greater UPF intake and weight gain. The purpose of the study was to describe associations among maternal UPF intake with gestational weight gain (GWG) and neonatal body composition.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212504.d-21-00025_s_010"> <title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>Women with overweight or obesity (n=156) and offspring (n=126) with complete energy intake, anthropometrics and body composition measures were selected. Maternal weights and diet recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24) were measured at weeks 14 and 35 gestational age (GA). Body composition was assessed by infant quantitative magnetic resonance (infant-QMR) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) at birth. Dependent variables were GWG and neonatal fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean mass at birth; covariates were dietary, socioeconomic and biological. Stepwise linear regressions were used to test associations.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212504.d-21-00025_s_011"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Highest quartile of percentage of energy intake from UPF (PEI-UPF) was not significantly correlated with maternal GWG (p=0.215), infant QMR fat (p=0.816) and lean mass (p=0.423) or ADP fat (p=0.482) or fat-free mass (p=0.835).</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212504.d-21-00025_s_012"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>While no significant associations with UPF were observed in this smaller size cohort, further investigations would be justified in larger cohorts on the relationships of maternal UPF intake and GWG and offspring outcomes. Clinical Trial NCT01616147</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Expectations for engagement in community issues as perceived by young people<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212503SI.d-21-00024_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Involvement in constructive activities is an important but rarely empirically studied developmental asset.</p></sec><sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212503SI.d-21-00024_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Objective</title><p>The aim of the study is to assess the intentions of Polish youth to undertake prosocial activities after graduating from high school, and the selected determinants of these intentions.</p></sec><sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212503SI.d-21-00024_s_009"><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title><p>Anonymous surveys were conducted in 213 schools within the last round of the HBSC (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children) survey in 2018. The nationwide representative sample included 4,972 students aged 11.1–18.5 (mean age 15.4 ± 1.73). The main dependent variable was the Expectations for Engagement in Community Issues Index (EECII), built on the basis of 3 questions and ranged 0–12 points. Its relationship with 10 demographic and socio-economic variables was studied.</p></sec><sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212503SI.d-21-00024_s_010"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The mean EECII score was 5.59 (SD = 2.65). Seven factors and three significant two-way interactions were indicated in the general linear model. The strongest correlation was found to be between the EECII level and recognised personal values, current participation in youth groups, and the level of social ties in the neighbourhood. Girls achieve higher EECII levels than boys. However, factors such as family social position and attitudes towards school modify the gender differences. Higher family social position measured on subjective scale increases the tendency to plan prosocial activities in the group coming from low affluence families.</p></sec><sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212503SI.d-21-00024_s_011"><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>Polish youth have an average inclination towards prosocial activities. When planning activities aimed at strengthening the involvement of young people, it is worth considering the specificity of various demographic and social groups.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the basic psychological needs satisfaction in active commuting to and from school (BPNS-ACS) scale in Polish students<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jmotherandchild.2021.2503SI.d-21-00030_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>To promote active commuting to and from school, it is pertinent to understand the motivational factors that influence the choice of this form of transportation.</p></sec><sec id="j_jmotherandchild.2021.2503SI.d-21-00030_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Objective</title><p>Translation, cultural adaptation and analysis of the factor structure as well as psychometric properties of the Basic Psychological Needs and Satisfaction in Active Commuting to and from School (BPNS-ACS) scale among Polish students and examination of the distribution of the scale scores according to gender, mode of commuting to and from school and the frequency of using bicycle for this purpose.</p></sec><sec id="j_jmotherandchild.2021.2503SI.d-21-00030_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title><p>Data from 475 Polish students aged 11–18, including 53.9% of girls were analysed. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Polish version of the BPNS-ACS, U Mann-Whitney and Kruskal Wallis H tests were performed.</p></sec><sec id="j_jmotherandchild.2021.2503SI.d-21-00030_s_009"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The BPNS-ACS consists of 12 items forming three dimensions: autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction. The scale has acceptable psychometric properties: χ2(51)=195.424 (p ˂ 0.001); χ2/df=3.832; CFI=0.944, TLI=0.927, RMSEA=0.077 (90%CI 0.066-0.089), AIC=249.424, BIC=361.833, GFI=0.937, AGFI=0.904. BPNC-ACS scores on factors corresponding to the three basic psychological needs differ based on gender, mode of commuting to and from school and the frequency of cycling to or from school.</p></sec><sec id="j_jmotherandchild.2021.2503SI.d-21-00030_s_010"><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>Further exploration of the function of basic psychological needs in active commuting to and from school among Polish adolescents may be conducted using an adapted version of the BPNS-ACS scale.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Positive youth development in adolescence factors do young people define as determinants of their well-being? findings from the improve the youth project<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jmotherandchild.2021.2503SI.d-21-00031_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>The UN has recognised well-being as a main goal of The Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016–2030).</p></sec><sec id="j_jmotherandchild.2021.2503SI.d-21-00031_s_009"><title style='display:none'>Objective</title><p>The aim was to identify the areas of mental health that are the most significant to teenagers.</p></sec><sec id="j_jmotherandchild.2021.2503SI.d-21-00031_s_010"><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title><p>The mixed-method approach was applied. Quantitative research included adolescents aged 11–15 years (6,026 in Portugal; 4,545 in Poland). HBSC study results (2013/2014) were analysed in terms of the following variables: self-rated health, life satisfaction (Cantril Ladder, KIDSCREEN-10 Index), and psychosomatic complaints (SCL scale). Focus workshops took place in 2018, with 72 teenagers aged 14 to 16.</p></sec><sec id="j_jmotherandchild.2021.2503SI.d-21-00031_s_011"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>16.6% of the Polish participants and 12.7% of the Portuguese participants were concerned about their health. Polish participants were less satisfied with their life [KIDSCREEN score: 25.48 for Poland (SD=6.39), and 29.96 (SD=6.03) for Portugal]. Both nations associated mental health (MH) with the family setting and relationships with friends. An additional association among Portuguese teenagers involved social issues, whereas Polish adolescents were more focussed on relationships with various people in their environment, as well as on experiencing issues at school and in the family.</p></sec><sec id="j_jmotherandchild.2021.2503SI.d-21-00031_s_012"><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>Adolescent MH is determined by stress, environmental pressure and high expectations. The viewpoints of adolescents are the most valuable source of knowledge for specialists, researchers and youth institutions, who can benefit greatly from taking advantage of this resource.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Adolescent risk behaviours and family settings in Bulgaria: An evidence-based approach to effective family support policies<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jmotherandchild-20212503SI.d-21-00013_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>The paper focuses on Bulgarian adolescents’ behaviours that put their health at risk and their relationship to family-related characteristics: structure of family and material status, family support, communication with parents, parental monitoring and school-related parental support. It also discusses intervention programs with a focus on parent support gradient.</p></sec><sec id="j_jmotherandchild-20212503SI.d-21-00013_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title><p>The analysis is based on the Bulgarian sample of Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey, the 2018 round. Logistic regression models of current cigarette smoking, regular alcohol consumption, sexual debut and current cannabis use are applied. Main national programs on adolescent health and the parental involvement component in them are also discussed.</p></sec><sec id="j_jmotherandchild-20212503SI.d-21-00013_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The statistical analyses reveal significant gender and age differences in Bulgarian adolescents’ health risk behaviours. Girls have significantly higher odds of smoking and are less likely to report an early start of sexual life. Odds of cigarette smoking and regular alcohol consumption increase with age. Children living with one parent have significantly higher odds of smoking, regular alcohol consumption and current cannabis use. Interactions between FAS and family support reveal that students who report low family support, regardless of the material status of the family, have significantly higher odds of health risk behaviours.</p></sec><sec id="j_jmotherandchild-20212503SI.d-21-00013_s_009"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>The main contribution of the analysis reveals the alleviating effect of family support on socio-economic inequalities between families. An evidence-based approach delineating a preventive potential of family support on Bulgarian adolescents’ health risk behaviours despite the level of family affluence provides solid arguments for increasing national family support programs.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Maternal and neonatal outcomes among women with and without severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 infection: A retrospective analytical study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212502.d-21-00021_s_015"> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Corona virus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the novel corona virus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS Cov-2). Physiological changes occurring during pregnancy can have a positive or negative effect on the disease progression. The objective of the study was to evaluate the maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19 compared to pregnant women without COVID-19 and to determine its influence on the healthcare system.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212502.d-21-00021_s_016"> <title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title> <p>This was a retrospective analytical study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Odisha, India, over 3 months, from 1 September 2020 until 30 November 2020. Results were compared in both groups.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212502.d-21-00021_s_017"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Three hundred and three (303) women delivered, out of whom 92 were COVID-19 positive. Incidence of COVID-19 positivity was 30.3% with 93.47% asymptomatic patients. The majority of the patients were 26–35years of age. Average gestational age at delivery for both groups was 37–40 weeks. COVID-19 positivity was seen more in primigravidas than in multigravidas. Comorbidities such as GDM/type 2 DM, PIH, PROM, APH and jaundice were similar in both groups and statistically non-significant, whereas association of anaemia and hypothyroidism were statistically significant (p&lt;0.05) in the positive group. A single maternal death was reported in the positive group. There was an increase in Caesarean section (p=0.002) with higher incidence of preterm births and lowbirth weights in the positive group. Only 3 babies tested positive for COVID-19, so vertical transmission probability was low. Overall, all babies were healthy and the majority of women were discharged without any complications.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20212502.d-21-00021_s_018"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>There was no significant effect of the infection on maternal and fetal outcomes, but further studies and long-term follow-up is needed to look for any delayed effects on the babies and mothers.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Post-COVID adolescent public health trends in prevention