rss_2.0Journal of Military Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Military Studies of Military Studies 's Cover Eurasian security system: a preliminary framework for understanding the emerging Sino–Russian relationship<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>After the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Sino–Russian relations have rapidly become a hotly debated topic within the fields of strategic studies and international relations. In this article, we propose a preliminary theoretical model for analysing the Russian–Chinese relation as a <italic>complex security system</italic>. By security system, we mean a system consisting of two or more elements (states) with shared and interdependent security concerns and interests. From the shared understandings of security of the elements, the system emerges with its emergent attributes and properties. After providing its theoretical and conceptual framework based on recent ideas in complex system theories, the article narrates how the Eurasian security system began to develop after the restructuring of global and Eurasian security architectures following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. During the following decades, China and Russia developed mutually homogenous sets of perceived security threats and interests, and later in the post 2014-era, these interests converged to establish the Eurasian security system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Interoperable, adaptable, information exchange in NATO coalition operations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper summarises our work on policy-enabled inter-network routing for mobile networks and adapting information services to available networking resources in tactical networks. The work shows promise; both the policy routing and adaptive service infrastructure were part of successful interoperability trials in the Coalition Warrior Interoperability eXercise (CWIX) in 2021. This paper highlights our findings, how our work can support interoperability in NATO, and represents an enabler for future coalition operations. Although promising, the work involves research and concept development, and so, we anticipate its timeframe for seeing actual operational use as likely 3–5 years from now, typically targeting future developments within Federated Mission Networking (FMN). In our work, we have shown that we can build a federated mobile network by using a reactive routing protocol that supports policy routing in a network overlay for use in a coalition. Further, we have shown that we can leverage network-level information at the application level, through a so-called cross-layer optimization (CLO) approach. The CLO approach leverages a well-defined format, and we found that this format promotes interoperability and can be used in a multi-national setting. Since our work is experimental, we have also identified some shortcomings for future work.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Military organisations and emerging technologies – How do unmanned systems find a role in future navies?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fewer qualified platforms and reduced personnel within the navy are the reality for many nations, although operational requirements might have remained the same or increased over time. At the same time, research is advancing in unmanned and autonomous systems, which have also found application in military use. Therefore, navies need to develop approaches for effective technological transformation. To fulfil this need, this study aims to identify and describe the relevant research from different disciplines and their respective relation to the design of future navies. The study commences with a literature review related to knowledge support for understanding how emerging technologies, such as maritime autonomous systems (MAS), find their place in a military organisation. The findings suggest that the armed forces should be categorised as a sociotechnical system, built of systems-of-systems that together enable capability, and that it is as a capability enforcer that the overall system should be developed. This highlights the importance of structural and organisational changes in making the best use of the technology, as well as in making the sociotechnical system as efficient as possible. Therefore, the armed forces need to be learning organisations, exercising joint planning, where there is room for knowledge sharing and flexibility within the organisation despite different hierarchical layers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Supporting military maintenance and repair with additive manufacturing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of the study is to explore whether Additive Manufacturing (AM) can support the military maintenance and repair of combat troops at isolated tactical level maintenance sites. The study also sought an explanation as to how AM could be organised in military logistics. The subject was approached from a systemic perspective. A system dynamics modelling was used as an impact assessment method. When selecting the parameters used in the model, the 3D printing data of the spare parts printed on the MTLB armoured personnel carrier (APC) were utilised. With simulation, we identified several key nodes for replacing or enhancing conventional military logistics with an AM added supply chain. As a result of the study, it was identified that by adding metal AM to the mechanised battalion organic maintenance and repair at the field level, it can produce spare parts whose use will improve APC recovery in the event of failure. We found that the relatively slow production speed of AM is the most influential factor in the use of the method. This study introduces a new perspective on reviewing the potential of AM in military logistics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00A legal review of sieges in modern war<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper examines the relationship between Western military doctrine, international law, and the impact of sieges in war. This paper examines three case studies – the battles of Mosul (2016–2017), the Second Battle of Donetsk Airport (2014–2015), and Ghouta – to analyze the effect of international law on the conduct of sieges and how that impacts the attacker, the besieged, and the innocent bystanders. In the end, we find that Western military doctrine is inadequate to address siege situations, which in turn can result in mishandling siege situations from an international law standpoint. Additionally, we find that international law, as well as applied law, provides the actors therein sufficient leeway to create the conditions for the siege to continue to be used well into the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Unifying loyalty: a grounded theory about tactical officers’ challenges when leading licensed medical personnel in combat zones<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives</title> <p>The aim was to explore the tactical officers’ (TOs) main concerns when leading licensed medical personnel (LMP) in combat zones and how they resolved them.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>A classic grounded theory was chosen in order to develop a theory, which explained and conceptualized the TOs behaviors. Ten individual interviews and five informal conversations were conducted with TOs with various ranks, experienced in leading LMPs on military operations in Afghanistan, Mali and/or Aden (outside the coast of Somalia).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The theory unifying loyalty explains how TOs handle the challenges when leading LMP. To create loyalty TOs use four strategies: executing orders, clearing out roles, marking limits and clarifying rules and laws. These strategies can be used by two leadership styles, hierarchical and democratic.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>In order to fulfill the military duties it is essential to unify LMP in the unit, which is a challenge since LMP experience dual loyalty. The main goal for TOs is to ensure and maintain stability and do the military duties when being in combat zones and that requires using both leadership styles, depending on what the conditions in combat zones requires.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Advanced education for NCMs’ professional career development: a conclusive experience?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this article is to present the results of a research which assessed whether the Knowledge Acquisition Programme and the Non-Commissioned Member Executive Professional Development Programme contributed to the Non-Commissioned Members’ effectiveness as senior leaders in the Profession of Arms within the Canadian Armed Forces. Thirty-seven Programme graduates from 2006 to 2015 received a questionnaire containing seven closed-ended general information questions and twelve open-ended programme/course specific questions. Seventeen graduates responded to the questionnaire. Manual coding was used to identify main themes and sub-themes. The research findings determined that both Programmes contributed to the effectiveness of senior leaders in the Profession of Arms within the Canadian Armed Forces. However, some caveats were expressed, and recommendations brought forward to enhance the Programme and to improve its future deliveries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Introduction to the Special Issue on Military Sociology: Distinctions and dynamics between military and civilian spheres no to military service – obligation, killing and inequality as experienced problems in conscription-based military in Finland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>While studying citizen-soldiers, their dual identity as a soldier and a civilian have been highlighted. A citizen-soldier’s role is linked to citizenship and its obligation. The dual identity or critical voices of conscription or reserve forces have neither been recognized in research nor been debated publicly in Finland. The aim of this article is to analyse the reasons why some conscripts raise critical voices concerning their relationship with conscription and their role as reservists. The study is based on the interviews of 38 non-military service men and 33 men who resigned from the reserve in 2017. The data was analysed using content analysis. According to the results, the main problems with regard to conscription and armed defence, among the conscripts, relate to inequality of the conscription system, obligation to serve and lack of discretion. For individual conscripts as citizen-soldiers, the problem of killing has special weight when they reflect upon their own role in the possible act of war. Conscripts and their expertise could be used more extensively in a wider range of security-related issues than in armed defence alone.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Warrior and peacekeeper role identities: associations with self-esteem, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article focuses on military role identity by assessing the relations between demographic variables and warrior and peacekeeper role identities and by examining the potential influence of these role identities on self-esteem, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in a cross-national sample. A questionnaire was distributed to military members in four participating countries: Belgium, Estonia, Canada and the Netherlands (<italic>n</italic> = 831). The findings show that demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, marital status and unit) are related to military role identity, and that military role identity predicts self-esteem, organizational commitment and OCB. In particular, multiple regression analyses demonstrate that peacekeeper role identity predicts self-esteem, organizational commitment and OCB, whereas warrior role identity only predicts organizational commitment and OCB, and further, that peacekeeper role identity is a stronger predictor of the outcome variables measured. The theoretical and practical implications, including providing commanders with information to assess their units’ mindsets, and mechanisms to improve self-esteem, commitment, OCB, are discussed. Finally, the limitations of this study and its potential for future research are described.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Boots on the streets: a “policization” of the armed forces as the new normal?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article analyses how the boundaries of postmodern military organizations are changing and how these evolutions affect their relations with the civilian society. The case of the Belgian Defence and the deployment of its military personnel in the streets are used as a case study to illustrate this transformation. Since January 2015, in response to the imminent terrorist threat in Belgium, military units have been deployed in support of the police to monitor sensitive areas, guard buildings and patrol the streets. The article analyses, first, how the population reacted to these new “proximity” roles and, second, the impact of these homeland deployments on the expeditionary readiness of the Belgian Defence and its capacity to carry out its primary missions.</p><p>The empirical analyses are, based on several quantitative and qualitative surveys, carried out among the Belgian population and the personnel of the Belgian Defence. In particular, the impact of the evolution of the public’s support over time on the blurring of the traditional roles of the military and the use of the military for internal security tasks is analysed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Integrated defence workforces: Challenges and enablers of military–civilian personnel collaboration<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Defence organisations are unique in that they comprise integrated military and civilian personnel working in partnership with each other (e.g., in headquarters, on bases, on missions, in academic settings). Many defence civilians are supervised by military supervisors and managers, while others are themselves responsible for managing military personnel. At the same time, despite often high levels of partnership and integration, military and civilian personnel are governed by very different personnel management systems, and have distinct cultures. These factors can affect the nature and quality of the collaboration and influence personnel outcomes and organisational effectiveness. Indeed, defence organisations are increasingly recognizing the importance of optimizing integration between their military and civilian workforces, with many adopting organisational terms implying that the military and civilian workforces form a cohesive whole: the <italic>Defence Team</italic> (Canada), the <italic>Whole Force Concept</italic> (United Kingdom), <italic>One Defence Team</italic> (Sweden), and <italic>Total Defence Workforce</italic> (New Zealand).</p><p>This paper presents results from the Military–Civilian Personnel Survey (MCPS), which was administered in 11 nations as part of a NATO Research Task Group on the topic of military-civilian personnel collaboration and integration (NATO STO HFM RTG-226). This survey was the first systematic examination of large samples of military and civilian respondents, and the first to examine military–civilian relations from the perspective of both military and civilian personnel. The results presented here are based on three open-ended questions included in the survey, which asked respondents to identify 1) the most important factors for establishing and maintaining positive military-civilian personnel work culture and relations, 2) the challenges of working in a military-civilian environment, and 3) the main advantages of working in a military-civilian environment. Results of 5 nations, including Canada, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, and the United Kingdom (<italic>n</italic> =1,513 military respondents and <italic>n</italic> = 2,099 defence civilians) are presented. Results indicate that mixed military-civilian work environments present both unique challenges and advantages, and identified the factors considered to be important for enhancing integration and collaboration between military and civilian personnel. Given that many cross-national patterns emerged, these findings provide useful insights for enhancing military and civilian personnel integration and collaboration across nations.</p><p>*Adapted from the material first reported in Goldenberg, I. &amp; Febbraro, A.R. (2018; in publication). <italic>Civilian and Military Personnel Integration and Collaboration in Defence Organizations</italic>. NATO Science and Technology Organization Technical Report - STO-TR-HFM-226. DOI 10.14339/STO-TR-HFM-226. ISBN: ISBN 978-92-837-2092-8.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Predicting army cadets’ performance: The role of character strengths, GPA and GMA<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this study was to examine how well a set of 12 character strengths (Leadership, Integrity, Open-Mindedness, Bravery, Teamwork, Persistence, Social Intelligence, Love of Learning, Fairness, Self-Regulation, Perspective and Creativity) will predict academic performance (AP) and military performance (MP), compared to high school grade point average (GPA) and general mental ability (GMA). The study sample comprised 123 army cadets of two cohorts from the three-year bachelor's degree programme at the Norwegian Military Academy (NMA). GPA predicted AP (<italic>r</italic> = 0.32, <italic>p</italic> ≤ 0.05), but not MP (<italic>r</italic> = 0.14, <italic>n.s.</italic>), while GMA correlated significantly with neither AP nor MP. All 12 character strengths correlated significantly with MP (<italic>r</italic>s ranging from 0.27 to 0.65), and all except for Fairness correlated significantly with AP (<italic>rs</italic> ranging from 0.18 to 0.58). An average score of the 12 character strengths showed incremental validity beyond GMA and GPA in predicting both AP and MP. Our results suggest that character strengths should be considered when selecting and training army cadets.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Siting military base camps through an MCDA framework<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The process used to determine site suitability for military base camps lacks a formal framework for reducing relative risks to soldier safety and maximise mission effectiveness. Presently, military personnel responsible for determining site suitability of a base camp must assess large amounts of geographic, socioeconomic and logistical data, without a decision analysis framework to aid in the process. By adopting a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework to determine site suitability of base camps, battlespace commanders can make better, more defensible decisions. This paper surveys US Army officers with recent base camp experience to develop a set of initial criteria and weights relevant to base camp site selection. The developed decision framework is demonstrated using an MCDA methodology in an illustrative example to compare alternative base camp locations within a designated Area of Interest (AoI). Leveraging the site ranking output and/or criteria weights resulting from the methodology provides decision-making support that can be used in the field when time, resources and data may not be readily available.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00An examination of authentic leadership as an individual and social factor of resilience<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Resilient qualities, which derive from protective factors, enable an individual to balance exposure to vulnerabilities in military service and throughout life. Protective factors arise from within an individual, from social factors, and from an individual's environment. Research on social factors, such as strong leadership and peer relationships, continues to emerge and significantly relate to resilience. Of specific interest to organisations is how perceptions of leadership contribute to resilience as an individual and social protective factor. Knowing more about how soldiers perceive themselves on authentic leadership and resilience would better help researchers and practitioners understand the contribution of leadership on perceived resilience. The current study examined the perception of authentic leadership in self and first-line leaders with resilience in a population of 179 soldiers (<italic>N</italic> = 179; <italic>M</italic> = 26.86 years, <italic>SD</italic> = 6.42). The results noted a significant correlation between the perception of authentic leadership in oneself and resilience (<italic>r</italic> = 0.506, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001). A subsequent analysis examining the perception of authentic leadership in one's first-line leader and subordinate resilience was also significant (<italic>r</italic> = 0.394, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001), supporting previous findings. These results demonstrate that perceptions of leadership matter as an individual and social factor in military personnel.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Nuclear warfare beyond counterforce<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A counterforce attack intends to disable an opponent's nuclear arsenal to limit potential damage from that adversary. We postulate a future when hardening and deeply burying fixed sites, transition to mobile strategic systems, and improved defences make executing a counterforce strategy against an adversary's nuclear forces extremely difficult. Additionally, our postulated future has multiple nations possessing nuclear weapons. Consequently, each country needs to consider multiple actors when addressing the question of how to deter a potential adversary's nuclear attack. We examine six nuclear targeting alternatives and consider how to deter them. These strategies include nuclear demonstration, conventional military targets, and attacks consisting of communications/electronics, economic, infrastructure, and population centers that a nation might consider striking with nuclear weapons. Since these alternative strikes require only a few nuclear weapons, executing one of them would not significantly shift the balance of nuclear forces. The attacking country's remaining nuclear forces may inhibit the attacked country or its allies from responding. How can nations deter these limited nuclear attacks? Potentially, threatening economic counter-strikes seems to be the best alternative. How might escalation be controlled in the event of a limited attack? Other instruments of power, such as political or economic, might be employed to bolster deterrence against these types of nuclear strikes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Greece as a frontline state in the historical longue durée<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Greece as a state in South-eastern Europe and the Mediterranean has perceived itself as a frontline state, especially after it became a NATO member in 1952 along with Turkey. The two states formed the south-eastern flank of NATO and along with Iran constituted the Greece, Turkey, Iran (GTI) Corridor, part of Rimland. Greece’s strategic value stemmed from its frontline position in relation to the Eastern Bloc. After the dissolution of the Eastern Bloc, Greece has reinvented itself as a frontline state, this time in the Mediterranean Sea. We use the historical notion of longue durée and loci of Classical Geopolitics, such as Heartland and Rimland, to assess Greece’s strategic value in the long period. We also propose an additional spatial unity, the New Rimland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Military thoracic gunshot wounds: A systematic review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A systematic review of the literature was carried out using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method to investigate the frequency of military thoracic gunshot wounds (GSWs) and deaths in combat theatres since World War Two (WW2). An electronic database search of World of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed and Microsoft Academic was conducted using the keywords ‘combat, casualties, thorax, gunshot, and military’ to identify peer-reviewed journals and conference papers on the topic. Twenty-three sources relevant to this review were identified and covered multiple theatres of operation. While there is a downward trend in the frequency of thoracic GSWs and fatalities likely due to the improvement of body armour, the improvement in medical treatment and increased frequency of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), the review shows that the advancement has not removed the likelihood of thoracic GSWs, which still accounted for approximately 15% of all thoracic injuries in the most recent combat theatres. The systematic review identifies that GSWs of the thorax continue to be a risk in military theatres and therefore, medical personnel should be aware of the frequency and severity of thoracic GSWs and should be prepared to treat these life-threatening injuries, as timely intervention is essential.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Siting military base camps through an MCDA framework<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The process used to determine site suitability for military base camps lacks a formal framework for reducing relative risks to soldier safety and maximise mission effectiveness. Presently, military personnel responsible for determining site suitability of a base camp must assess large amounts of geographic, socioeconomic and logistical data, without a decision analysis framework to aid in the process. By adopting a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework to determine site suitability of base camps, battlespace commanders can make better, more defensible decisions. This paper surveys US Army officers with recent base camp experience to develop a set of initial criteria and weights relevant to base camp site selection. The developed decision framework is demonstrated using an MCDA methodology in an illustrative example to compare alternative base camp locations within a designated Area of Interest (AoI). Leveraging the site ranking output and/or criteria weights resulting from the methodology provides decision-making support that can be used in the field when time, resources and data may not be readily available.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Omnipotent, omniscient and omnipresent commanders: The impact of a cultural paradigm derived from a secularised Christianity on the philosophy of infocentric warfare<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article examines how a religious cultural paradigm deriving from the Humanism of the West affects the modern art and science of War. It was in the framework of a religified Humanism, in which man ‘stole’ God’s capabilities and properties, that the worldview of man-god was created. This worldview permeated the development of military strategy, thereby facilitating its transformation in the worldview of a commander-god; this is the same worldview which today threatens to reach extremes, assisted by technological evolution allowing the development of robust C4ISR networks<fn id="j_jms-2021-0005_fn_001" symbol="1"><p>Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance. The acronym today is C5ISR, with the addition of Combat Systems.</p></fn> interconnected with precision guided munitions (PGMs) of various configurations. The article then examines the influence of Western intellectualism, which is a basic element of Western Christianity, over the development of modern theories and perceptions on military strategy and the risks that can arise for future Western armies from this impact. As an antidote to this influence, the article suggests a new perception on military strategy which emphasises adaptability and flexibility and is based on a cultural paradigm from the Orthodox Christian Faith.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1