rss_2.0Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics of Hydrology and Hydromechanics 's Cover impact of treated wastewater and biosolids from the municipal wastewater treatment plant on water and carbon dioxide effluxes from soils<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of products from a municipal wastewater treatment plant on the H<sub>2</sub>O and CO<sub>2</sub> effluxes from two soils. The net H<sub>2</sub>O and CO<sub>2</sub> effluxes were measured at the surface of nine beds with two different soils (Cambisol and Arenosol) and two crops (maize or vegetables). Soils in some beds were amended with stabilized sewage sludge (bed with Cambisol and maize) or composted sewage sludge (two beds with Cambisol and both crops) or were irrigated with treated wastewater (two beds with Cambisol and both crops, and one bed with Arenosol and vegetable). Remaining beds were irrigated with tap water (two beds with Cambisol and both crops, and one bed with Arenosol and vegetable). While stabilized and composted sewage sludge positively affected the CO<sub>2</sub> emission, the effect of treated wastewater was not confirmed. Different treatments had negligible effect on the water efflux, which was mainly affected by the plant canopy that influence the temperature of the soil surface. Statistical analyses showed that trends of the CO<sub>2</sub> efflux with respect to various scenarios measured on different days changed during the season. No significant correlations were found between the average H<sub>2</sub>O and CO<sub>2</sub> effluxes and measured soil properties.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The effects of satellite soil moisture data on the parametrization of topsoil and root zone soil moisture in a conceptual hydrological model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In a previous study, the topsoil and root zone ASCAT satellite soil moisture data were implemented into three multi-objective calibration approaches of the TUW hydrological model in 209 Austrian catchments. This paper examines the model parametrization in those catchments, which in the validation of the dual-layer conceptual semi-distributed model showed improvement in the runoff simulation efficiency compared to the single objective runoff calibration. The runoff simulation efficiency of the three multi-objective approaches was separately considered. Inferences about the specific location and the physiographic properties of the catchments where the inclusion of ASCAT data proved beneficial were made. Improvements were primarily observed in the watersheds with lower slopes (median of the catchment slope less than 15 per cent) and a higher proportion of farming land use (median of the proportion of agricultural land above 20 per cent), as well as in catchments where the runoff is not significantly influenced by snowmelt and glacier runoff. Changes in the mean and variability of the field capacity parameter FC of the soil moisture regime were analysed. The values of FC decreased by 20 per cent on average. Consequently, the catchments’ water balance closure generally improved by the increase in catchment evapotranspiration during the validation period. Improvements in model efficiency could be attributed to better runoff simulation in the spring and autumn month. The findings refine recommendations regarding when hydrological modelling could consider satellite soil moisture data added to runoff signatures in calibration useful.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Long-term soil water content dynamics under different land uses in a small agricultural catchment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Longer term monitoring of soil water content at a catchment scale is a key to understanding its dynamics, which can assist stakeholders in decision making processes, such as land use change or irrigation programs. Soil water monitoring in agriculturally dominated catchments can help in developing soil water retention measurements, for assessment of land use change, or adaptation of specific land management systems to climate change. The present study was carried out in the Pannonian region (Upper-Balaton, Hungary) on Cambisols and Calcisols between 2015 and 2021. Soil water content (SWC) dynamics were investigated under different land use types (vineyard, grassland, and forest) at three depths (15, 40, and 70 cm). The meteorological data show a continuous decrease in cumulative precipitation over time during the study with an average of 26% decrease observed between 2016 and 2020, while average air temperatures were similar for all the studied years. Corresponding to the lower precipitation amounts, a clear decrease in the average SWC was observed at all the land use sites, with 13.4%, 37.7%, and 29.3% lower average SWC for the grassland, forest, and vineyard sites, respectively, from 2016 to 2020 (measured at the 15 cm depth of the soil). Significant differences in SWC were observed between the annual and seasonal numbers within a given land use (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05). The lowest average SWC was observed at the grassland (11.7%) and the highest at the vineyard (28.3%). The data showed an increasing average soil temperature, with an average 6.3% higher value in 2020 compared to 2016. The grassland showed the highest (11.3 °C) and the forest soil the lowest (9.7 °C) average soil temperatures during the monitoring period. The grassland had the highest number of days with the SWC below the wilting point, while the forest had the highest number of days with the SWC optimal for the plants.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00How various mulch materials can affect the soil hydro-physical properties<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An application of different mulch materials may lead to changes in soil properties. Our previous study, focused on the impact of various mulches during the 4-year period, showed that the change in some properties can be very rapid (e.g., soil pH), but in other cases such as hydraulic properties, the changes can be gradual. To find out, whether the extension of the mulching period will further affect the studied soil properties, the experiment continued for another 2 years. Differences between values of organic carbon content (C<sub>ox</sub>), soil physical quality (<italic>S</italic><sub>inf</sub>), gravitational water (GW) and readily available water (RAW) of soils not covered by any mulch and under various mulches (bark chips; wood chips; wheat straw; Agrotex EKO+ decomposable matting; polypropylene fabric covered bark chips; crushed stone) were much larger than those observed in our previous study. On the other hand, the opposite trend was observed for the water stable aggregates (WSA) index or soil pH. Differences between additionally measured hydraulic conductivities at the pressure head of −2 cm and repellency index (RI) were mostly insignificant. Results indicated that organic mulches can either positively (e.g., increase WSA index and C<sub>ox</sub>, and decrease GW) or negatively (e.g., decrease <italic>S</italic><sub>inf</sub> and RAW, and increase RI) affect soil properties.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of reconfiguration on the flow downstream of a flexible foliated plant<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper explores the impacts of reconfiguration and leaf morphology on the flow downstream of a flexible foliated plant. 3D acoustic Doppler velocimetry and particle image velocimetry were used to experimentally investigate the hydrodynamic interaction between a foliated plant and the flow, testing two plants with different leaves morphology under different bulk flow velocities. The model vegetation was representative of riparian vegetation species in terms of plants hydrodynamic behavior and leaf to stem area ratio. To explore the effects of the seasonal variability of vegetation on the flow structure, leafless conditions were tested. Reconfiguration resulted in a decrease of the frontal projected area of the plants up to the 80% relative to the undeformed value. Such changes in plant frontal area markedly affected the spatial distributions of mean velocity and turbulence intensities, altering the local exchanges of momentum. At increasing reconfiguration, the different plant morphology influenced the mean and turbulent wake width. The leafless stem exhibited a rigid behavior, with the flow in the wake being comparable to that downstream of a rigid cylinder. The study revealed that the flexibility-induced reconfiguration of plants can markedly affect the local distribution of flow properties in the wake, potentially affecting transport processes at the scale of the plant and its subparts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The soil moisture regime and groundwater recharge in aged forests in the Sand Ridge region of Hungary after a decline in the groundwater level: an experimental case study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The decline in groundwater levels is a cause of concern in many regions of the world, including the Sand Ridge of Hungary. The causes of the regional depletion range from rising air temperatures, changes in precipitation, domestic and agricultural groundwater use and past amelioration and recent afforestation, including the effects of drilling for crude oil exploration. The relations between the decline, the soil water regime and groundwater recharge under existing aged forests remained unclear thus far. Based on our monitoring of groundwater and soil moisture we aim to clarify this interplay in a new experimental site on the hilltop of the Sand Ridge. We compared three land-uses: a 41-year-old black locust (<italic>Robinia Pseudoacacia</italic>) offshoot forest, an 83-year-old first generation black pine (<italic>Pinus nigra</italic>) forest, and a grassland control site. The observed differences in the soil moisture profiles and dynamics were connected to the use of water by the given type of vegetation. We indicated a connection between the disruption of the groundwater recharge and the loss of contact of the rooting system of the forests with the deepening of the unconfined aquifer. Even if the aged forests could locally contribute to the decline, we conclude that the decline at the hilltop site that may be more strongly driven by other regional factors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Applied methodology based on HEC-HMS for reservoir filling estimation due to soil erosion<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Authors propose a beneficial methodology for hydrological planning in their study. Prospective evaluations of the basins’ net capacity can be done using the technique presented. The HEC-HMS (Hydrologic Modelling System) software can be used to estimate in a basin, the sediment emitted. For a certain precipitation, this methodology allows estimating, within a certain range, the gradual blockage of a reservoir, and even a projected date for total blockage. This has some applications to adopt corrective measures that prevent or delay the planned blockage deadlines. The model is of the semi-distributed type, estimating the generation and emission of sediments by sub-basins. The integration of different return periods in HEC-HMS with a semi-distributed model by sub-basins and the application of a mathematical model are the differentiating element of this research. The novelty of this work is to allow prognosing the reservoir sedimentation rate of basins in a local and regional scale with a medium and large temporary framework. The developed methodology allows public institutions to take decisions concerning hydrological planning. It has been applied to the case of “Charco Redondo” reservoir, in Cádiz, Andalusia, in southern Spain. Applying the methodology to this case, an average soil degradation of the reservoir basin has been estimated. Therefore, it is verified that in 50 years the reservoir is expected to lose 8.4% of its capacity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of microplastics on silty loam soil properties and radish growth<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Microplastics (particles of plastics &lt;5 mm) affect the physical, biological and hydrological properties of agricultural soil, as well as crop growth. We investigated the effect of the addition of three microplastics (high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polystyrene (PS)) at a concentration of 5% (w/w) to a silty loam soil on selected soil properties and growth of radish (<italic>Raphanus sativus</italic> L. var. sativus). Changes in the soil properties and radish growth in three microplastic treatments were compared with the control. Soil properties (bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, sorptivity, water repellency) were estimated for each treatment at the beginning and at the end of the radish growing period (GP). The bulk density was significantly lower in the HDPE and PVC treatments compared to the control within the measurement at the beginning of the GP and in all microplastic treatments compared to the control at the end of the GP. The values of hydraulic conductivity and water sorptivity did not show significant differences between any treatments within the measurement at the beginning of GP, but they were significantly higher in the HDPE treatment compared to the control at the end of the GP.</p> <p>The growth of radish was characterized by the plant biomass and effective quantum yield of Photosystem II (Y (II)). We did not find a statistically significant difference in the total biomass of radish between any of the experimental treatments, maybe due to used concentration of microplastics. The mean value of Y (II) was significantly higher in all microplastic treatments compared to control only within the last measurement at the end of the GP. A statistically significant change of Y(II) in all microplastic treatments may indicate functional shift in soil properties; however, the measured values of the soil characteristics have not shown the significant changes (except for the bulk density values in all microplastic treatments and hydraulic conductivity together with sorptivity in HDPE treatment within the measurement at the end of GP).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00A new small-scale experimental device for testing backward erosion piping<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Backward erosion piping is driven by seepage forces acting on the soil grains at the downstream end of the seepage path. A new device for the laboratory testing of backward erosion progression was developed and tested. The device consists of a plexiglass prism at which the seepage path has been predefined. The prism was equipped with an inflow consisting of gravel separated from tested sand by a strainer. The hydraulic gradient along the seepage pipe was observed by a set of piezometers and pressure cells, and the seepage discharge was measured volumetrically. The transported sediment was trapped in a vertical cone located downstream from the device. The progression of the seepage path, the piezometric heads and the trapped material was observed by two synchronous cameras. 15 trial tests have been carried out to date, and from these, the interim results are presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Calibration of an Arduino-based low-cost capacitive soil moisture sensor for smart agriculture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Agriculture faces several challenges to use the available resources in a more environmentally sustainable manner. One of the most significant is to develop sustainable water management. The modern Internet of Things (IoT) techniques with real-time data collection and visualisation can play an important role in monitoring the readily available moisture in the soil. An automated Arduino-based low-cost capacitive soil moisture sensor has been calibrated and developed for data acquisition. A sensor- and soil-specific calibration was performed for the soil moisture sensors (SKU:SEN0193 - DFROBOT, Shanghai, China). A Repeatability and Reproducibility study was conducted by range of mean methods on clay loam, sandy loam and silt loam soil textures. The calibration process was based on the data provided by the capacitive sensors and the continuously and parallelly measured soil moisture content by the thermogravimetric method. It can be stated that the response of the sensors to changes in soil moisture differs from each other, which was also greatly influenced by different soil textures. Therefore, the calibration according to soil texture was required to ensure adequate measurement accuracy. After the calibration, it was found that a polynomial calibration function (R<sup>2</sup> ≥ 0.89) was the most appropriate way for modelling the behaviour of the sensors at different soil textures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Estimation of hydrodynamic properties of a sandy-loam soil by two analysis methods of single-ring infiltration data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Beerkan infiltration runs could provide an incomplete description of infiltration with reference to either the near steady-state or the transient stages. In particular, the process could still be in the transient stage at the end of the run or some transient infiltration data might be loss. The Wu1 method and the BEST-steady algorithm can be applied to derive soil hydrodynamic parameters even under these circumstances. Therefore, a soil dataset could be developed using two different data analysis methods. The hypothesis that the Wu1 method and BEST-steady yield similar predictions of the soil parameters when they are applied to the same infiltration curve was tested in this investigation. For a sandy-loam soil, BEST-steady yielded higher saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, <italic>Ks</italic>, microscopic pore radius, λ<italic>m</italic>, and depth of the wetting front at the end of the run, <italic>dwf</italic>, and lower macroscopic capillary length, λ<italic>c</italic>, as compared with the Wu1 method. Two corresponding means differed by 1.2–1.4 times, depending on the variable, and the differences appeared overall from moderate to relatively appreciable, that is neither too high nor negligible in any circumstance, according to some literature suggestions. Two estimates of <italic>Ks</italic> were similar (difference by &lt; 25%) when the gravity-driven vertical flow and the lateral capillary components represented the 71–89% of total infiltration. In conclusion, the two methods of data analysis do not generally yield the same predictions of soil hydrodynamic parameters when they are applied to the same infiltration curve. However, it seems possible to establish what are the conditions making the two methods similar.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Analytical and numerical investigation of mechanical energy balance and energy loss of three-dimensional steady turbulent flows in open-channels<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Study about the mechanical energy balance and the energy loss of 3-D turbulent flows in open-channels has its own complexities. The governing equation of the mechanical energy in turbulent flows has been previously known and includes turbulence parameters that their calculations or measurements are not easy. In this study, a form of the total mechanical energy equation that leads to a number of significant physical insights is analytically investigated, from which analytical relationships for the energy loss estimation in 3-D turbulent flows are defined. The effect of different turbulence parameters is reflected on the new relationships and analyzed by equalizations replacing unknown correlations with closure approximations using the numerical turbulence simulation. In order to investigate the application of the analytical relationships, numerical simulations are performed by using OpenFOAM software to solve the Navier-Stokes equations with the RSM turbulence model in open-channels with different geometries. Then, the contribution of the turbulence parameters to the total mechanical energy balance is evaluated in uniform and nonuniform turbulent flows and their difference is analyzed, that leads to identify the parameters affecting the friction and local losses. The results demonstrate that the magnitudes of the turbulent diffusion, the work done by the viscous stresses pertaining to the mean motion and the viscous diffusion of the turbulence energy are substantially smaller than the other terms of the total energy equation for turbulent flows in open-channels with different geometries, while the effect of the variations of the turbulence kinetic energy and the work done by the turbulence stresses, that has not been considered in the previous mechanical energy equations, is more important in complex flows. From a practical viewpoint, in order to study the details of the total mechanical energy balance and the energy loss in 3-D turbulent flows with the presence of the secondary currents, the proposed method can be useful.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Experimental investigation of hydrophobic bentonite effects on reducing evaporation from water surfaces<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, due to the occurrence of water shortage and drought problems, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, new methods to reduce evaporation from the surface of dam reservoirs, lakes, and other water-free surfaces are investigated. This study aimed to use hydrophobic bentonite to reduce water evaporation from water surfaces, on a laboratory scale, and field conditions for the first time. Bentonite initially became hydrophobic by stearic acid (SA). Under such conditions, hydrophobic bentonite floats on the surface of water and forms a thin coating layer. The produced hydrophobic bentonite had a contact angle of 150°, indicating its superhydrophobicity. Evaporation reduction was measured under laboratory and field conditions and it was compared to hexadecanol as the reference material. The results demonstrated that the hydrophobic bentonite efficiency under laboratory conditions was similar to that of hexadecanol and prevented water evaporation by 36%. However, under field conditions, hydrophobic bentonite and hexadecanol efficiencies were 40% and 23% to reduce evaporation for 30 days, respectively. In terms of stability, hexadecanol needed to be re-injected after three days, while hydrophobic bentonite was stable and remained on the surface for more than 100 days under laboratory conditions and for more than 15 days under field conditions without needing re-injection. This coverage with method can be used to reduce evaporation from lakes, tanks, and reservoirs of small dams.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Field-scale assessment of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of residual soils in southeastern Brazil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Field tests were carried out to estimate effective unsaturated soil hydraulic properties of layered residual soils in Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Data of this type are important for understanding the initiation of rainstorm-induced soil landslides, which often occur in the state of Rio de Janeiro as well as other areas having similar geologic settings and climate conditions. Tests were carried out using a simplified field approach, referred to as the Monitored Infiltration Test, which requires only a tensiometer to measure pressure heads below the wetting front, triggered by flow from a Mariotte bottle which maintains a constant pressure at the top edge of the soil profile. The data can then be analyzed by numerical inversion using the HYDRUS-2D software package. The test is relatively fast since no steady-state flow conditions are needed, and versatile since the test can be carried out quickly on steep slopes with the help of a manual auger. Soil water retention and the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity functions were obtained for a range of young, mature and saprolitic residual soils. The effective hydraulic properties of the distinct residual soil layers can be quite large, reflecting a need to provide a careful analysis of field-scale hydraulic heterogeneity in geotechnical analyses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Sand dune vegetation-biocrust interaction as a source of spatial heterogeneity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Vegetation and biocrust play crucial roles in dune stability and mobility, and their interaction can lead to bistability, temporal oscillations, and hysteresis. We studied a two-dimensional (2D) mathematical model of vegetation and biogenic crust cover dynamics on sand dunes. Under a certain parameter range, the space-independent version of the model exhibited the bi-stability of an oscillatory state and a steady state, and we studied the 2D dynamics of the model under these parameters. The patterns developed by the 2D model showed a high degree of spatial heterogeneity and complexity depending on the initial conditions and on the state type across the front. The results suggest that spatial heterogeneity and complexity can evolve from the intrinsic dynamics between vegetation and biocrust, even without natural geodiversity and spatiotemporal climate fluctuations. In the real world, these two types of intrinsic and extrinsic heterogeneity processes interact such that it is difficult to distinguish between them.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Performance analysis of rectangular SIT (sediment invert trap) for stormwater drainage system<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Deposition of solid particles in the stormwater sewers reduces the discharging capacity, causing inundation. A sediment invert trap (SIT) is an option that can be installed at the bottom of the stormwater sewer drain to intercept the flowing solid particles. In the present study performance of rectangular SIT were analyzed experimentally and computationally. Variation of particle trapping efficiency of rectangular SIT fitted at the bottom of the open channel flume has been studied under the interpretation of invert trap depth, flow depth, particle size, particle shape, and slot width. To predict the flow field and trap efficiency of a rectangular invert trap, 2D-VOF-DPM-CFD modelling has been carried out using ANSYS Fluent 2020 R1 software. For velocity field determination, the volume of fluid (VOF) model was used along with realizable <italic>k-є</italic> turbulence model. To predict particle trap efficiency, stochastic discrete phase model (DPM) was utilized. From experimental study and CFD modeling, it has been found that the particle trap efficiency of rectangular invert trap varied with change in the depth of invert trap, sediment size, shape factor, depth of flow and slot width. Consideration of particle shape in terms of shape factor in the modeling of solid-phase through DPM validated the CFD predicted results with those obtained experimentally with mean absolute percent error (MAPE) of 2.68%, 3.99% and 6.6% for sewer solid size ranges SS1, SS2, and SS3 respectively at all flow depths for both slot widths considered in this study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00The spatial and temporal variability of hydrological drought in the Polish Carpathians<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to evaluate the climate and geographic factors controlling the hydrological drought of the rivers located in the Upper Vistula catchment in the Polish Carpathians. Drought was identified based on the daily flow (based on water stage measered once a day at 6 UTC) series dating from between 1975 and 2019 at 49 gauging cross-sections. Four physico-geographical regions were identified in the Polish Carpathians and spatial variabilities of the basic drought characteristics were developed within these regions. Such spatial distributions were treated as maps indicating drought hazard areas in the region. In addition, an analysis was undertaken to study the seasonality of the start and end times of the drought (all in the multi-annual period), the longest duration of droughts, the droughts of the highest volume in multi-annual period, as well as the number of drought days. Multi-annual variability of the number of drought days was also analysed.</p> <p>The results suggest that droughts in the Polish Carpathians are events characteristic of summer and autumn, whereas in the Tatra Mountains and the Podhale region - of autumn and winter. The greatest hazard of a prolonged and high-volume drought occurs in the Podhale region and the Tatra Mountains, while the lowest hazard is observed in the Bieszczady Mountains and the eastern part of the studied area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of carbonated water injection on the pore system of a carbonate rock (coquina)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>CO<sub>2</sub> injection is a well-known Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technique that has been used for years to improve oil extraction from carbonate rock and other oil reservoirs. Optimal functioning of CO<sub>2</sub> injection requires a thorough understanding of how this method affects the petrophysical properties of the rocks. We evaluated pore-scale changes in these properties, notably porosity and absolute permeability, following injection of CO<sub>2</sub>-saturated water in two coquina outcrop samples from the Morro do Chaves Formation in Brazil. The coquinas are close analogues of Pre-salt oil reservoirs off the coast of southern Brazil. The effects of carbonated water injection were evaluated using a series of experimental and numerical steps before and after coreflooding: cleaning, basic petrophysics, microtomography (microCT) imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses, and pore network modeling (PNM). Our study was motivated by an earlier experiment which did not show the development of a wormhole in the center of the sample, with a concomitant increase in permeability of the coquina as often noted in the literature. We instead observed a substantial decrease in the absolute permeability (between 71 and 77%), but with little effect on the porosity and no wormhole formation. While all tests were carried out on both samples, here we present a comprehensive analysis for one of the samples to illustrate changes at the pore network level. Different techniques were used for the pore-scale analyses, including pore network modeling using PoreStudio, and software developed by the authors to enable a statistical analysis of the pore network. Results provided much insight in how injected carbonated water affects the pore network of carbonate rocks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Correlation between climate and flood indices in Northwestern Italy at different temporal scales<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The occurrence of river floods is strongly related to specific climatic conditions that favor extreme precipitation events leading to catchment saturation. Although the impact of precipitation and temperature patterns on river flows is a well discussed topic in hydrology, few studies have focused on the relationship between peak discharges and standard Climate Change Indices (ETCCDI) of precipitation and temperature, widely used in climate research. It is of interest to evaluate whether these indices are relevant for characterizing and predicting floods in the Alpine area. In this study, a correlation analysis of the ETCCDI indices annual time series and annual maximum flows is presented for the Piedmont Region, in North-Western Italy. Spearman’s rank correlation is used to determine which ETCCDI indices are temporally correlated with maximum discharges, allowing to hypothesize which climate drivers better explain the interannual variability of floods. Moreover, the influence of climate (decadal) variability on the tendency of annual maximum discharges is examined by spatially correlating temporal trends of climate indices with temporal trends of the discharge series in the last twenty years, calculated using the Theil-Sen slope estimator. Results highlight that, while extreme precipitation indices are highly correlated with extreme discharges at the annual timescale, with different indices that are consistent with catchment size, the decadal tendencies of extreme discharges may be better explained by the decadal tendencies of the total annual precipitation over the study area. This suggests that future projections of the annual precipitation available from climate models simulations, whose reliability is higher compared to precipitation extremes, may be used as covariates for non-stationary flood frequency analysis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Adaptive stochastic management of the storage function for a large, open reservoir using learned fuzzy models<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The design and evaluation of algorithms for adaptive stochastic control of the reservoir function of a water reservoir using an artificial intelligence method (learned fuzzy model) are described in this article. This procedure was tested on the Vranov reservoir (Czech Republic). Stochastic model results were compared with the results of deterministic management obtained using the method of classical optimisation (differential evolution). The models used for controlling of reservoir outflow used single quantile from flow duration curve values or combinations of quantile values from flow duration curve for determination of controlled outflow. Both methods were also tested on forecast data from real series (100% forecast). Finally, the results of the dispatcher graph, adaptive deterministic control and adaptive stochastic control were compared. Achieved results of adaptive stochastic management were better than results provided by dispatcher graph and provide inspiration for continuing research in the field.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1