rss_2.0Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics of Hydrology and Hydromechanics Feed review of the satellite remote sensing techniques for assessment of runoff and sediment in soil erosion<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Soil erosion monitoring is essential for the ecological evaluation and dynamic monitoring of land resources via remote sensing technology. In this paper, we provide new insights into the existing problems and development directions of traditional models, which are supported by new technologies. An important role is played by remote sensing information acquisition technology in the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of soil erosion, and the data and technical support provided are systematically reviewed. We provide a detailed overview of the research progress associated with empirical statistical models and physically driven process models of soil erosion, and the limitations of their application are also summarized. The preliminary integration of remote sensing data sources with high spatial and temporal resolution and new technologies for soil erosion monitoring enables the high-precision quantitative estimation of sediment transport trajectories, the watershed river network density, and the terrain slope, enhancing the accuracy of erosion factor identification, such as spectral feature recognition from erosion information, gully erosion feature extraction, and vegetation coverage estimation. However, the current erosion models, driven by algorithms and models, are not comprehensive enough, particularly in terms of the spatial feature extraction of erosion information, and there are limitations in the applicability and accurate estimation of such models.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of shear stress distribution in compound channel with smooth converging floodplains<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Climate change can have a profound impact on river flooding, leading to increased frequency and severity of floods. To mitigate these effects, it is crucial to focus on enhancing early warning systems and bolstering infrastructure resilience through improved forecasting. This proactive approach enables communities to better plan for and respond to flood events, thereby minimizing the adverse consequences of climate change on river floods. During river flooding, the channels often take on a compound nature, with varying geometries along the flow length. This complexity arises from construction and agricultural activities along the floodplains, resulting in converging, diverging, or skewed compound channels. Modelling the flow in these channels requires consideration of additional momentum transfer factors. In this study, machine learning techniques, including Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), and Support Vector Machines (SVM), were employed. The focus was on a compound channel with converging floodplains, predicting the shear force carried by the floodplains in terms of non-dimensional flow and hydraulic parameters. The findings indicate that the proposed ANN model outperformed GEP, SVM, and other established approaches in accurately predicting floodplain shear force. This research underscores the efficacy of utilizing machine learning techniques in the examination of river hydraulics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue over thin-plate weirs with a triangular notch – influence of the relative width of approach channel with a rectangular cross-section<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article deals with the determination of the influence of the relative width of an approach channel with a rectangular cross-section on the discharge of clean water flowing over thin-plated weirs with a triangular notch and zero height of the weir above the bottom of the approach channel. To evaluate the influence, the Kindsvater-Shen equation was modified by introducing the basic effective discharge coefficient and the coefficient of the relative width of the approach channel. The coefficient of the relative width of the approach channel was determined based on the evaluation of data from three extensive experimental research investigations. It is valid for the entire possible range of relative widths of the approach channel and for the range of notch angles from 5.25° to 91.17°. The relative error of discharge determination is approximately up to ±2% over the entire range of discharges used in the conducted experimental research. The evaluation made it possible to determine the boundary distinguishing the partially contracted weirs from the fully contracted weirs in terms of impact on discharge.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of meteorological factors on the moisture content of fine forest fuels: responses of fire danger class to different microclimates on the example of European beech ( L.) stands<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to the increased number of forest fires, a detailed examination and knowledge of the effects of the microclimatic conditions of forests is currently significant. The study carried out in Arboretum Borova hora (Slovak Republik), investigates the influence of meteorological factors (air temperature, relative humidity), the value of the Angström index, and the danger class of the Angström index on the moisture content of fine fuel at the edge of a beech forest stand, but also in its interior. We tested three working hypotheses: a) meteorological conditions differ significantly between the edge and the interior of the beech forest, b) the moisture content of fine fuel is higher in the beech forest interior than at the forest edge, c) the Angström index fire danger class is higher at the edge of the beech forest than in its interior. We created a calibration curve that was also used to measure the humidity of beech leaves with the help of the ME 2000 hygrometer. Our results show that edge beech stands are significantly more susceptible to fires, lower air humidity and fine fuel moisture content, and higher air temperatures than forest interiors. From our point of view, the microclimate is considered the main factor that explains the difference between the vegetation structure of the forest edge and the forest interior.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue resistance of emergent rigid vegetation in steady flow<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Enhanced understanding of flow resistance in open channels with emergent vegetation is essential for flood management and river ecosystem restoration. The presence of vegetation can significantly alter bed resistance, leading to a challenge in accurately predicting flow discharge, water levels, sediment transport, and bed deformation. Previous studies on vegetated flows have focused on vegetation resistance, on which the impact of vegetation has been ignored or poorly estimated. This study proposes a new analytical model, built upon the momentum conservation law, to predict flow resistance to vegetated zones in a plain bed without bed forms, explicitly quantifying bed resistance and vegetation resistance in a corollary manner. The proposed model is benchmarked against five typical sets of laboratory experiments. It is demonstrated that the present model using a modified logarithmic velocity distribution performs best, whereas that assuming a uniform velocity profile considerably overestimates the vegetation resistance and neglects the effect of vegetation on bed resistance. The ratio of bed resistance to the total resistance is shown to range between 5% and 40%, and it decreases with increasing vegetation density and decreases with water depth. Therefore, bed resistance cannot be ignored when modelling shallow water flow with sparsely distributed vegetation. It is also revealed that vegetation arrangements significantly affect flow resistance, and therefore a model incorporating the effect of vegetation arrangement performs better. Overall, the present model facilitates a viable and promising tool for quantifying flow resistance in emergent vegetated channels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of land use enclave distribution on discharge in a small catchment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>According to many authors, hydrological modelling is one of the fundamental techniques for determining the impacts of various environmental changes on the quantitative characteristics of the aquatic environment. This study examines the effects of landscape changes induced by the need to respond to climate change and the natural urban development of the rural setting on the discharge from the small catchment. The SWAT model was applied to a small catchment of Kopaninsky Stream in the traditional agricultural part of the Czech Republic. According to the results, the most effective approach for reducing the consequences of hydrological extremes in the catchment and retaining more water in the landscape is the properly spaced placement of grassland and forest enclaves in the developing urban structure. In practice, each land use category’s overall percentage of representation is less significant than its relative arrangement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue infiltration in a layered soil measured in the laboratory with the mini-disk infiltrometer<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Layered soils can consist of a thin little permeable upper layer over a more permeable subsoil. There are not many experimental data on the influence of this upper layer on infiltration. The mini-disk infiltrometer set at a pressure head of –3 cm was used to compare infiltration of nearly 40 mm of water in homogeneous loam and clay soil columns with that in columns made by a thin layer (1 and 3 cm) of clay soil over the loam soil. For each run, the Horton infiltration model was fitted to the data and the soil sorptivity was also estimated by considering the complete infiltration run. For the two layered soils, the estimates of initial infiltration rate and decay constant were similar but a thicker upper layer induced 2.4 times smaller final infiltration rates. Depending on the infiltration parameter and the thickness of the upper layer, the layered soils were characterized by 2.2–6.3 times smaller values than the loam soil and 2.2–6.6 higher values than the clay soil. Sorptivity did not differ between the homogeneous clay soil and the layered soil with a thick upper layer and a thin layer was enough to induce a decrease of this hydrodynamic parameter by 2.5 times as compared with that of the homogeneous loam soil. Even a thin upper layer influences appreciably infiltration and hydrodynamic parameters. Layering effects vary with the thickness of the upper layer and the considered parameter. The applied experimental methodology could be used with other soils and soil combinations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue flow characteristics over rough permeable and impermeable gravel-bed stream- an experimental study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study aims to presents flow heterogeneity over rough permeable and impermeable gravel-bed stream. The rough permeable stream is prepared by laying multiple layers of gravel, whereas its impermeable counterpart is presented by a resin-casted gravel-bed. In general, a common approach can be found in literature to mimic an impermeable bed by laying single layer of gravels, therefore some results are compared with single layer gravel-bed stream keeping the hydraulic conditions same. An acoustic Doppler velocimeter was used for flow measurements whereas; double averaging (DA) methodology was adopted for data analysis. The larger flow penetration depth and intense flow mixing in permeable gravel-bed infer sufficient impetus for organized flow turbulence and damping of DA Reynolds shear stresses whereas; the wall-blocking in resin-casted gravel-bed prevents fluid infiltration which leads to follow the linear stress profile away from the crest level. The damping of DA Reynolds shear stress (RSS) is compensated by enhanced DA form-induced shear stress (FISS). The results are further analysed under the light of the energy budget to characterize the mass-momentum exchange as it penetrates the subsurface layers. The energy budget indicates negative pressure energy diffusion rates corroborating gain in turbulence production in the permeable gravel-bed stream.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of riverbed aggradation on groundwater regime in a lowland area<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, the influence of riverbed silting on the groundwater regime in a lowland area was investigated. The study area is situated at the Rye Island (Žitný Ostrov) in Slovakia, along the Gabčíkovo – Topoľníky canal, which is part of the drainage-irrigation canal system constructed in this locality. The Rye Island is an area with very low slope (0.25 10<sup>–4</sup>) and good climatic conditions for aquatic vegetation, therefore the canals are influenced by intensive silting processes. The spatial and temporal patterns of surface water – groundwater exchange are significantly influenced by the thickness of riverbed sediments and their permeability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the thickness and hydraulic conductivity of bed sediments in the Gabčíkovo – Topoľníky canal and to examine their influence on the groundwater – surface water interaction in the area. The hydraulic conductivity of the sediments was assessed from undisturbed samples by the falling head method. The obtained data were used for numerical simulations of groundwater heads by the TRIWACO model for different drainage and infiltration resistance conditions in the area of interest. The results of this study can support the planning of canal maintenance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue hydrological regime of a semi-arid coastal wetland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Coastal wetlands are transitional ecosystems between land and sea. Participants of citizen science programs have detected frequent floods in wetlands, as well as small pools that appear and then disappear. Considering that it is not clear whether their main hydrologic drivers are of marine or continental origin, we studied the El Culebrón wetland located in the Chilean semi-arid zone. El Culebrón is strongly influenced by extreme rain events. This wetland also experiences seasonal changes in its water stage (WS). A high mean sea level agreed with 41% of the WS rises. High intensity storm surges coincided with 53% of WS peaks. A small tsunami in 2022 impacted the WS, and another very intense tsunami flooded it in 2015. An apparent diurnal cycle in the WS was discarded due to an instrumental artifact. The combination of the aforementioned factors provided an explanation for 91% of the WS rises. The probable and novel mechanism for sea level and storm surge influence on WS is the formation of a sand barrier between the coastal lagoon and the sea. As a whole, El Culebrón receives varied influences from both the sea and the mainland, but it seems to be more dependent on freshwater sources.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue sensitivity of BILAN and GR2M models to climate conditions in the Gambia River Basin<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigates the performance of two lumped hydrological models, BILAN and GR2M, in simulating runoff across six catchments in the Gambia River Basin (Senegal) over a 30-year period employing a 7-year sliding window under different climatic conditions. The results revealed differences in overall performance and variable sensitivity of the models to hydrological conditions and calibration period lengths, stemming from their different structure and complexity. In particular, the BILAN model, which is based on a more complex set of parameters, showed better overall results in simulating dry conditions, while the GR2M model had superior performance in wet conditions. The study emphasized the importance of the length of the calibration period on model performance and on the reduction of uncertainty in the results. Extended calibration periods for both models narrowed the range of the Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE) values and reduced the loss of performance during the parameter transfer from calibration to validation. For the BILAN model, a longer calibration period also significantly reduced the variability of performance metric values. Conversely, for the GR2M model, the variability rate did not decrease with the length of the calibration periods. Testing both models under variable conditions underscored the crucial role of comprehending model structure, hydrological sensitivity, and calibration strategy effects on simulation accuracy and uncertainty for reliable results.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue analysis of oscillatory wind wave parameters in fetch-limited deep-water conditions at a small reservoir and their prediction: Case Study of the Hulín Reservoir in the Czech Republic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The dams and banks of small water reservoirs face significant erosion from wind-generated oscillatory waves. Proper design of structure height is crucial to protect such banks against erosion, considering the maximum characteristics of wind waves. Long-term measurements at the Hulín reservoir revealed that the wave spectrum aligns best with the Bretschneider type. This spectrum serves as a basis for simulating oscillatory waves and their impact on shore protection structure design. Empirical models were evaluated using wind and wave data from Hulín reservoir in the Czech Republic. The measured wind speeds attained a maximum of 8 m/s, and wave heights reached up to 15 cm. The Bretschneider (SMB) empirical formula provided the most accurate estimation of wave height (<italic>H</italic><sub>m</sub><sub>0</sub>), with an average underestimate of RMSE = 0.038 m. On the other hand, Wilson revisited (WIL rev.) performed less effectively, with an average RMSE = 0.304 m. For wave period (<italic>T</italic>) estimation, Bretschneider (SMB) yielded the best results, with an average RMSE = 0.062 s. Conversely, Wilson revisited (WIL rev.) showed poorer performance, with an average underestimate of RMSE = 2.196 s. The discrepancy between the empirical formulas and measured values, particularly in underestimating <italic>H</italic><sub>m</sub><sub>0</sub>, can be attributed to inaccurate determination of fetch length and wind speed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue 1-dimensional-two-layer transient drift-flux model for hydraulic transport pipelines: modelling and experiments of bed layer erosion and density wave amplification<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hydraulic transport pipelines in the dredging, mining and deep sea mining are designed using steady-state methods. However, these methods cannot predict density wave formation. Density waves form a risk for pipeline blockages, therefore there is a need to understand and preferably be able to model the process. The density waves studied in this research are caused by a stationary sediment deposit in the pipeline. This article explores the development of a new transient design model, based on 1-dimensional-two-layer Driftflux CFD. The two layers model the exchange of sediment between the turbulent suspension, and a stationary bed layer, and can therefore model density wave amplification. An empirical erosion-sedimentation closure relationship is applied to model the sediment exchange between the two layers, and is calibrated using experiments. The final model is also validated against a second experiment, specifically for density wave amplification. The experiments and the model show good agreement on the erosion of a stationary bed layer and the growth rate of a density wave and the amplitude of the density wave.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue moisture regime in lowland forests – quantity and availability of water<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Water is one of the key ecological factors that has a great impact to development and productivity of lowland species such as <italic>Quercus robur</italic>. This paper deals with water regime influence to site conditions of these species and how actually changeable soil moisture affects <italic>Q. robur</italic>. Studied area includes a protective embankment built on the river bank in order to eliminate flooding effect, which means that all needs for water these associations provide from rainfalls and groundwater. Water regime was monitored during two critical years (extremely dry and extremely wet) on four soil types – Planosol, Fluvisol and Gleysol that belong to hydromorphic (three experimental plots) and Chernozem which belongs to automorphic soils (three experimental plots), respectively. It was studied the distribution of rainfalls and groundwater during the growing seasons and how it affects total and available water amount in the soil. The main focus should be given to available water, because it is located in capillary pores and plants can utilize it. Bearing in mind rainfalls makes just 15–20% of the total water amount in the soil it is much more significant to evaluate its proportion in available water. Based on obtained results, we can deduce that much more suitable site conditions for <italic>Q. robur</italic> are present on hydromorphic soils due to much greater proportion of groundwater.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue investigation of scour downstream of a type A trapezoidal piano key weir under free and submerged flow conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper, the scour downstream of a trapezoidal Piano key weir (PKW) is investigated under free and submerged flow conditions. For this purpose, an experimental model was used in a laboratory channel with a length of 10 m, width of 0.75 m, and height of 0.8 m at various discharges and tailwater depths. The results showed an increase and decrease in the maximum scour depth with an increase in the discharge and submergence ratio, respectively. In addition, increasing the particle Froude number enhanced the geometric features of the scour hole downstream of the PKW. The rate of bed changes slowed down over time. The average values of maximum scour depth, the distance of the maximum scour depth from the weir toe, maximum scour hole length and weir toe scour depth increased in the free flow compared to the submerged flow. The scour hole volume and scour hole area in the submerged flow were less compared to the free flow. The average maximum level of the sedimentary ridge in the free flow is less than the submerged flow. New equations for calculating the geometric characteristics of the scour hole downstream of the trapezoidal PKW are presented with acceptable accuracy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue analysis of discharge coefficient predicted for rectangular side weir using machine learning methods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study used three machine learning models, including Least Square Support Vector Regression (LSSVR) and two non-parametric models, namely, Quantile Regression Forest (QRF) and Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), to quantify uncertainty and precisely predict the side weir discharge coefficient (Cd) in rectangular channels. So, 15 input structures were examined to develop the models. The results revealed that the machine learning models used in the study offered better accuracy compared to the classical equations. While the LSSVR and QRF models provided a good prediction performance, the GPR slightly outperformed them. The best input structure that was developed included all four dimensionless parameters. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify the effective parameters. To evaluate the uncertainty in the predictions, the LSSVR, QRF, and GPR were used to generate prediction intervals (PI), which quantify the uncertainty coupled with point prediction. Among the implemented models, the GPR and LSSVR models provided more reliable results based on PI width and the percentage of observed data covered by PI. According to point prediction and uncertainty analysis, it was concluded that the GPR model had a lower uncertainty and could be successfully used to predict Cd.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and prediction of water temperature in a water transfer channel during winter periods using a new approach based on the wavelet noise reduction-deep learning method<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In winter, the water transfer channel of the Middle Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MR-StNWTP) in China always encounters ice problems. The preciously simulation and prediction of water temperature is essential for analyzing the ice condition, which is important for the safety control of the water transfer channel in winter. Due to the difference of specific heat between water and air, when the air temperature rises and falls dramatically, the range of change of water temperature is relatively small and has a lag, which often affects the accuracy of simulation and prediction of water temperature based on air temperature. In the present study, a new approach for simulating and predicting water temperature in water transfer channels in winter has been proposed. By coupling the neural network theory to equations describing water temperature, a model has been developed for predicting water temperature. The temperature data of prototype observations in winter are preprocessed through the wavelet decomposition and noise reduction. Then, the wavelet soft threshold denoising method is used to eliminate the fluctuation of certain temperature data of prototype observations, and the corresponding water temperature is calculated afterward. Compared to calculation results using both general neural network and multiple regression approaches, the calculation results using the proposed model agree well with those of prototype measurements and can effectively improve the accuracy of prediction of water temperature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue alterations in moisture-dependent repellency of water-repellent forest soils: A laboratory approach with Japanese Andosols<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Soil water repellency (SWR) is a phenomenon that prevents the spontaneous wetting of numerous forest soils. It is a moisture-dependent characteristic, which disappears when soil moisture reaches near saturation. The heat generated during forest fires affects soil characteristics including SWR. The possibility of heat influencing moisture-dependent repellency (MDR) is not well understood. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different heating temperatures (H<sub>T</sub>) and exposure durations (E<sub>D</sub>) on MDR using water-repellent Japanese Cedar (CED) and Japanese Cypress (CYP) forest soils. Soil samples collected from 0–5 cm depth were exposed to heat separately at 50, 100, and 150 °C (<italic>H</italic><sub>T</sub>) for 1 h and 2 h durations (<italic>E</italic><sub>D</sub>). The MDR of heated and non-heated soils was determined using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test in a drying process. During the drying process of the tested soils, SWR appeared and then increased with drying to reach an extreme level (WDPT ≥3600 s) that persisted for a range of decreasing moisture contents, and declined to be non-repellent again (WDPT = 0 s). The critical moisture content at which soils become water-repellent with drying (CMC), the highest and the lowest moisture contents when soils showed maximum SWR (HMC<sub>max</sub> and LMCmax, respectively), and the integrated area below the MDR curve (S<sub>WR</sub>) decreased with increasing H<sub>T</sub> in both CED and CYP soils. The moisture content at which soils become non-repellent again during drying, MCNR, was independent of the type of soil and heat treatment. The range of moisture contents between HMC<sub>max</sub> and LMCmax, where soils show maximum SWR during drying, decreased with increasing HT, from 50 to 150 °C in CED and from 100–150 °C in CYP. The SWR showed strong positive linear correlations with CMC and HMC<sub>max</sub>. The heat generated during wildfires can alter the MDR and all the related repellency parameters of water-repellent forest soils. SWR prevails over a narrower range of moisture contents in heated soil compared with non-heated soils. Further investigations with higher temperature levels using different soil types would be important for a comprehensive understanding of the heat impacts on MDR.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue investigation of dam break flow over erodible beds with diverse substrate level variations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the influence of substrate level difference and material composition on dam break wave evolution over two different erodible beds. Utilizing the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method, we tracked free surface advection and reproduced wave evolution using experimental data from the literature. For model validation, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis encompassed mesh resolution, turbulence simulation methods, and bed load transport equations. The implementation of Large Eddy Simulation (LES), non-equilibrium sediment flux, and van Rijn’s (1984) bed load formula yielded higher accuracy compared to alternative approaches. The findings emphasize the significant effect of substrate level difference and material composition on dam break morphodynamic characteristics. Decreasing substrate level disparity led to reduced flow velocity, wavefront progression, free surface height, substrate erosion, and other pertinent parameters. Initial air entrapment proved substantial at the wavefront, illustrating pronounced air-water interaction along the bottom interface. The Shields parameter experienced a one-third reduction as substrate level difference quadrupled, with the highest near-bed concentration observed at the wavefront. This research provides fresh insights into the complex interplay of factors governing dam break wave propagation and morphological changes, advancing our comprehension of this intricate phenomenon.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue morphology dependent transpiration reduction function of for landfill cover restoration<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Changes in hydrological processes and water resources required to sustain vegetation for ecological restoration of landfill covers and post mining sites in arid environments pose challenges in the context of extended droughts. Knowledge of actual threshold and wilting suction values based on tree morphological feature or plant age is essential for understanding the variation of root water uptake with drought stress and numerically predict the pore water pressure profile in root zone. The objective of this study is to quantify the transpiration reduction function (TRF; in terms of stomatal conductance (SC) and xylem sap flow (SF)) of <italic>Schefflera arboricola,</italic> considering the effects of tree morphology. Continuous drought condition was applied on the plant quantified with leaf area index (LAI) values at 0.5, 2 and 3.5, wherein each LAI represent tree age. The soil matric suction (ψ) and volumetric water content were measured by embedded sensors in the root zone. Based on the TRF obtained from SC values, a unique threshold suction (<italic>ψ</italic><sub>NTR</sub><sup>t</sup>) ranging from 30 to 50 kPa was identified. Beyond this <italic>ψ</italic><sub>NTR</sub><sup>t</sup>, measured leaf abscisic acid concentration increased up to 35 ng/mL, indicating the start of water stress avoidance mechanism. It is evident that <italic>ψ</italic><sub>NTR</sub><sup>t</sup> is independent of tree morphological parameter- leaf area to root length ratio (LA/RL). On the contrary, a threshold suction (<italic>ψ</italic><sub>SAP</sub><sup>t</sup>), depending on LA/RL ratio, can be determined, indicating the start of xylem cavitation. This <italic>ψ</italic><sub>SAP</sub><sup>t</sup> values ranging from 80 to 500 kPa depending on the LA/RL value, imply that the plant could significantly resist xylem embolization at higher LA/RL. In contrast, the plant with low LA/RL values have less tolerance of drought stress and hence low survivability. The results from this research study can be vital for devising and predicting plant available water in water scarce arid environments by a flux-based approach which is dependent on the tree age.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue