rss_2.0Journal of Horticultural Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Horticultural Research of Horticultural Research Feed and Validation of New Reference Genes for Normalization of Gene Expression in Flower and Berry Developmental Stages of Interspecific Grape Hybrid (L.) × (L.)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), normalizing target gene expression using a reference gene is an indispensable step to control the variability of RNA extraction yield, RNA integrity, reverse transcription efficiency, and PCR amplification. In the present study, we identified candidate reference genes with stable expression during grapes’ flowering and berry development stages. Ten genes, including <italic>ACT</italic>, <italic>CYP5</italic>, <italic>RLI</italic>, <italic>TUB</italic>, <italic>UBC</italic>, <italic>UBC17</italic>, <italic>UBC60</italic>, <italic>UFD1</italic>, <italic>VAG</italic>, and <italic>ZNF</italic> with relatively stable expression, were selected based on RNAseq data generated earlier in grape hybrid ‘ARI 516’. The expression of these candidate genes was tested at different stages of flowering and grape berry development. Five different algorithms such as RefFinder, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCq method were used to test the expression stability of candidate genes. A comprehensive ranking obtained by RefFinder showed that <italic>UBC17</italic>, <italic>RLI</italic>, and <italic>ZNF</italic> were the most stable reference genes during flower and berry development stages. <italic>UBC17</italic>, <italic>RLI</italic>, and <italic>ZNF</italic> were calibrators to normalize the expression of <italic>VvAGL11</italic> as a target gene to validate the worthiness of identified reference genes. The result demonstrated that newly identified reference genes could be successfully used to normalize the expression of the target gene accurately. These reference genes will provide more choices for selecting appropriate reference genes to normalize gene expression in grapes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Acid Spray Modulates Fruiting, Yield, Quality, and Shelf Life of Rambutan ( L.)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A lucrative and delicious nonclimacteric tropical fruit, rambutan, has disadvantages of inadequate fruiting, low yield, and inferior edibility at farm level that need to be addressed. Moreover, unstable tropical temperatures and humidity threaten poor fruit set and insufficient rambutan yields. Therefore, the study revealed the effectiveness of gibberellic acid (GA<sub>3</sub>) on fruit set and retention, fruit size and yield, shelf life, and postharvest properties of rambutan under these atmospheric conditions. GA<sub>3</sub> at concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm, apart from the control (without GA<sub>3</sub>), was applied to panicles twice in the early flowering and the early fruiting stages (thirty days after the first spraying). The results showed that maximum fruit set (223.2 per panicle), retention (13.2 per panicle, 5.9%), and yield (714.0 g per panicle) were obtained by GA<sub>3</sub> treatment at 300 ppm. In addition to increasing fruit size (54.1 g) and pulp weight (31.3 g), GA<sub>3</sub> at a dose of 300 ppm significantly reduced seed weight by 27.5% and increased the edible portion by 26.6% compared to the control. Notably, preharvest GA<sub>3</sub> treatment increased TSS content (19.0%), total sugar (4.5%), and shelf life (11.5 days), while it decreased titratable acidity (0.4%) of rambutan. GA<sub>3</sub> doses from 200 to 500 ppm had similar effects in terms of affecting the edible properties and shelf life of rambutan. However, fruit set, retention, and yield exhibited distinct dose-dependent responses, with 300 ppm being the best and 200 ppm consistent with the best, with some differences. Regression analysis showed a skewed curve explaining higher yield and better fruit quality at the medium GA<sub>3</sub> treatment level (250–350 ppm). In comparison, lower (&lt; 200 ppm) and higher (&gt; 400 ppm) doses resulted in worse results in most cases. Therefore, regulated use of GA<sub>3</sub> is necessary to improve rambutan yield and fruit quality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Biostimulants of Microbiological Origin on the Entomopathogenic and Plant Parasitic Nematodes from × Plantations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to evaluate the effect of biostimulants derived from <italic>Streptomyces avermitilis</italic> metabolites on entomopathogenic nematodes: <italic>Steinernema carpocapsae</italic>, <italic>Steinernema feltiae</italic>, and <italic>Heterorhabditis bacteriophora</italic>, obtained from the soil of several <italic>Miscanthus</italic> × <italic>giganteus</italic> plantations in 2020–2023. The nematodes were isolated, identified, and cultured using live insects (the greater wax moth <italic>Galleria mellonella</italic>). Three preparations containing biostimulants – Charkor, Stimpo, and Regoplant, were tested for compatibility with entomopathogenic and plant parasitic nematodes. Their effect on nematode survival was evaluated using the Petri dish test. The study showed that the effect of biostimulants on the survival of nematodes depended on the concentration of aversectin contained in the evaluated preparations. Stimpo and Regoplant had an adverse effect on plant parasitic nematodes. The highest <italic>G. mellonella</italic> mortality was observed at the higher dose of Charkor (0.4%), and the lowest at the lower dose of Regoplant (1.22%). The study showed that the virulence of the nematodes decreased after 48 hours of incubation in Regoplant and Stimpo solutions containing aversectin. The degree of interaction between nematodes depended on the nematode species, trophic preferences, and the concentration of active ingredients in the preparations. This conclusion is crucial for the selection of appropriate types of entomopathogenic nematodes and the application rate of plant parasitic nematodes in the assessment of their short- and long-term spread, persistence, and recycling in field conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Characteristics, Pathogenicity, and Molecular Identification of Causing Wet Bubble Disease of Edible Mushrooms<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research aimed to determine the phenotypic characteristic, pathogenicity and molecular characterization of <italic>Hypomyces perniciosus</italic> isolates responsible for wet bubble disease of the white button mushroom <italic>Agaricus bisporus</italic>. Phenotypic characteristics such as colony appearance, mycelium texture, and pigmentation were studied on four different agar media, i.e., potato dextrose agar (PDA), malt extract agar (MEA), Czapek-Dox yeast agar (CYA), and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), after eight days of incubation. Additionally, the growth rate of the tested isolates was studied depending on the pH of the medium. Fungal isolates showed the highest mycelial growth on MEA and SDA at pH 6.0. However, on CYA at pH 7.0, the mycelium exhibited the worst growth. Isolate identification and genetic relationship analysis were carried out using internal transcribed spacer region sequencing and the random amplified polymorphic DNA method. The research confirmed that all Polish isolates belong to the species <italic>H. perniciosus</italic>, and the genetic diversity is relatively low. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three subgroups of <italic>H. perniciosus</italic> isolates. The first group included three genetically distinct isolates with a similarity coefficient in the range of 0.76–0.85 to isolates CBS 815.73 and CBS 322.52. The second group was divided into two subgroups and included 16 isolates with a genetic similarity range of 0.91 to 1.0 to CBS 815.73 and CBS 322.52 isolates. Furthermore, the eight genetically similar isolates exhibited the greatest pathogenicity towards <italic>A. bisporus</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Air Temperature in Skierniewice, Poland, Over the Period 1923–2022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study aimed to determine the magnitude of changes in air temperature in Skierniewice, Poland, over the last 100 years, with particular emphasis on multi-year variability. The source material for the analyses were air temperature measurements from 1923 to 2022 obtained from the meteorological station in the Experimental Field of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences and the station in the Experimental Orchard of the National Institute of Horticultural Research. The study presents average annual, minimum, and maximum air temperatures along with an assessment of the trend of their multi-year variability. The features of changes in the average air temperature in Skierniewice presented in the study based on a 100-year series of meteorological measurements are characterized by high temporal variability with a clear upward trend. The average warming rate over 100 years was 0.17 °C per 10 years, but in the last 60 years it has already reached 0.38 °C per 10 years. In the case of the average annual air temperature since 1981, there has been a sequence of years warmer than average throughout the measurement period. The number of summer days (&gt;25 °C) and hot days, when the maximum temperature exceeds 30 °C, is also increasing. In the analyzed period, the decade 2013–2022 was the warmest.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Phenology of Shrub Roses as a Sensitive Indicator of Meteorological Variability in Central Europe<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Climate change and warming affect the development cycle of ornamental plants and, thus, their quality and ornamental value. The study aimed to investigate the flowering phenology of 37 cultivars of shrub roses in response to meteorological conditions based on eight years of observations. Based on 14,800 field records, we grouped shrub rose cultivars according to their dominant flowering stage as a sensitive indicator of variability in weather conditions. We also selected the rose cultivars that would retain the highest ornamental value even at increasing temperatures. The total flowering duration of the cultivars ranged from 31 to 115 days (mean 90.4 days) and was significantly positively correlated with temperature. Meteorological conditions significantly influenced individual flowering stages (FS) and a trend of changes concerning the long-term gradient was observed: the increase in temperature extended FS10 and shortened FS25, FS50, and FS75 but did not affect FS100. If the warming trend continues, the abundant flowering of roses may be shortened considerably. Rose cultivars with the longest flowering period at FS10 abundance may adapt better to rising temperatures, and, therefore may be more useful in landscape planning and management.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Use of Hydrogen Peroxide and Silver Nanoparticles in Horticulture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Both hydrogen peroxide and silver can oxidize organic and inorganic molecules, and this causes them to affect the metabolism of living organisms in many ways. The paper presents examples of the impact of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and silver on stimulating plant growth and development and increasing plants’ resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The most underlined proposal for application in horticulture is the control of microorganisms during cultivating and storing vegetables, fruits, and flowers, aiming to replace synthetic pesticides. Preparations containing H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, silver, or both components can be widely used in horticulture for plant protection, in the form of spraying and soaking seedlings, to protect them during the time of storage, for disinfecting tubers, bulbs, and rhizomes before planting, for fogging potatoes and root vegetables during storage, for quick healing of wounds on the roots and aboveground parts of plants, after cutting and in the case of frost damage and injuries caused by winds, for disinfecting seeds, and, as stimulants of plant development and inducers of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, their practical use depends on obtaining the legislator’s consent for their broader use in horticultural production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Molecular Characterization of Peach Latent Mosaic Viroid Isolates Infecting Stone Fruit Trees in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Field surveys were carried out to assess the incidence of peach latent mosaic viroid in nine orchards of stone fruit trees in four growing regions of Poland. Forty of 119 peaches, six of 37 apricots, five of eight nectarines and one of four plums trees tested positive by RT-PCR for this viroid. Most of the infected stone fruit trees did not show any symptoms. Leaf yellow mosaic was only noticed on ‘Maycrest’ peach and ‘Saturn’ nectarine trees, and additional symptoms of cracked fruits with corky sutures and enlarged pits were observed on one ‘Maycrest’ tree. One or two isolates from each orchard and each species of infected tree were selected, and together, 11 isolates of peach latent mosaic viroid were used for genetic analyses. The nucleotide sequence similarity of selected isolates found in Poland was 93.6–100%. They shared 82.0–98.8% similarity with the viroid strains from different hosts and geographical regions. The phylogenetic analysis led to the clustering of all isolates detected during this study in the most numerous represented subgroup II-A, composed of peach latent mosaic viroid strains originating from different geographic regions and host plants. Although Polish isolates were clustered in the same subgroup, some differed in length and nucleotide sequences. It was shown that the genetic variability of isolates found in Poland was unrelated to the regions of their origin. A positive signal was obtained in dot-blot hybridization of all analyzed 11 isolates.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Fresh-Cut Iceberg Lettuce to Fumigation with Botanical Essential Oils<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study was conducted on iceberg lettuce ‘Ice Wave F<sub>1</sub>’. The effect of prestorage treatment with seven essential oils (EOs) of rosemary, peppermint, basil, thyme, marjoram, lemon, and oregano on the quality of cut lettuce was evaluated. The lettuce was fumigated with EOs for two hours in airtight containers. Two concentrations of EOs were used: 16.7 μL·L<sup>−1</sup> and 33.3 μL·L<sup>−1</sup>. Fumigation with rosemary and thyme EOs lowered the browning of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce and thus the deterioration of its appearance during six days of storage. Lettuce fumigated with thyme EO scored relatively high in sensory quality and consumer acceptability. Lettuce fumigated with rosemary EO was characterized by high intensity of aroma and herbal flavor, significantly lowering its sensory rating. Marjoram EO at a dose of 16.7 μL·L<sup>−1</sup> resulted in the fastest browning of lettuce cut surface and relatively reduced the market value during storage. Other EOs had no significant effect on the quality of cut lettuce during shelf life. It was also found that fumigation did not change bacteria, fungi, and mold populations on fresh-cut iceberg lettuce during short-term storage. The results obtained in the study showed that fumigation with thyme oil at a concentration of 33.3 μL·L<sup>−1</sup> is most recommended for use in the storage of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce, but implementing these results into practice requires further research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Silver, Gold, and Platinum Nanoparticles on Selected Nematode Trophic Groups<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As trophic organisms, nematodes play an essential role in the soil environment: they mineralize nutrients into plant-available forms, are a food source for other soil organisms, and feed on pathogenic organisms and plant pests, therefore regulating populations of soil microorganisms. The plant-parasitic nematodes are important pests of crops. Nanoparticles (NP) are increasingly used in agriculture and other production sectors. They are present in the soil, not necessarily in trace amounts, and can affect various soil organisms, including nematodes. In this article, the effects of silver (Ag), gold (Au), and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles on the mortality and reproduction activity of selected nematode species from two trophic groups: entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) (<italic>Heterorhabditis bacteriophora</italic> and <italic>Steinernema feltiae</italic>) and plant parasitic nematodes (PPN) (<italic>Xiphinema diversicaudatum</italic>, <italic>Ditylenchus dipsaci</italic>, <italic>Heterodera schachtii</italic>) were studied under laboratory conditions. All nanoparticles decreased the nematode population to an extent depending on the nematode species, nanoparticle type, and exposure time. AgNP had the greatest nematicidal effect, except for AuNP, which reduced the population of <italic>H. schachtii</italic> the most. The greatest sensitivity to AgNP was observed in <italic>X. diversicaudatum</italic> (100% mortality), <italic>D. dipsaci</italic> (90% mortality), and 37 to 13% mortality in other species. Effect of AuNP and PtNP on entomopathogenic nematodes was comparable to the control, not treated with nanoparticles. AuNP and PtNP similarly influenced nematode mortality. However, the effect of nanoparticles on new generations of entomopathogenic nematodes developing in host larvae <italic>Galleria mellonella</italic> was inconclusive. All nanoparticles decreased the number of larvae of <italic>S. feltiae</italic> and increased the number of <italic>H. bacteriophora</italic> migrating outside the cadavers compared to the control.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Estimation Using Machine Learning Methods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study examined the performance of four machine learning algorithms (regression trees, boosted trees, random forests, and artificial neural networks) for estimating evapotranspiration (ET<sub>o</sub>) based on incomplete meteorological data. Meteorological variables (mean and maximum air temperature, average air humidity, average level of solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit, extraterrestrial solar radiation, and day number of the year) were used as input. The simulation used two calculation scenarios: data with and without average solar radiation. The performance of the different machine learning models was evaluated using the mean square error, root mean square error, coefficient of determination, and slope of regression forced through the origin between the measured and simulated ET<sub>o</sub>. The results demonstrated that the applied models were able to describe nonlinear relationships between weather parameters and evapotranspiration. The accuracy of evapotranspiration estimation depended on the type of input variables and the machine learning model used. The highest level of evapotranspiration prediction was obtained using the artificial neural networks model. Including solar radiation data in the calculations improved the quality of evapotranspiration prediction in all four models. In the absence of data on the actual solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface, it is advisable to supplement the input data with data on extraterrestrial solar radiation and the day number of the year. Such an approach can be helpful in areas and situations with limited access to meteorological data.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Nutrient Solution Concentration on Growth, Yield, and Fruit Quality of Tomato Grown Hydroponically in Single-Truss Production System<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The single-truss production system for tomatoes (<italic>Solanum lycopersicum</italic> L.) is a relatively new developed cultivation technology that guarantees high yields and high-quality fruit throughout the annual cycle. In this study, we examined the impact of electrical conductivity (EC) of nutrient solutions on the growth, yield, and fruit quality of tomatoes grown in a single-truss system in a hydroponic culture. Plants were supplied with nutrient solution at the following EC values: 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4 mS·cm<sup>−1</sup> in the spring and summer cycles, and at 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 mS·cm<sup>−1</sup> in the winter cycle. In the spring cycle, the EC of the nutrient solution increased in all treatments, particularly after pinching the main stem. Increased EC values of nutrient solutions were also recorded at the 1.2 and 1.4 EC in the summer cycle and the 1.4 and 1.6 EC in the winter cycle. The leaf number per plant did not differ between treatments in all production cycles. The largest leaf area was found at the 1.2 and 1.4 EC in the spring cycle and the 1.0 and 1.2 EC during the summer. During the winter cycle, no differences in leaf area between treatments were observed. In spring, plants at the 1.2 and 1.4 EC had the highest yields and largest fruits, while during the summer, plants at the 1.0 and 1.2 EC produced the most fruit. In winter, the highest yield was found at the 1.4 EC. The soluble solids concentration (SSC) of fruit was increased at the 1.4 EC both in the spring and summer cycles, while in the winter cycle, there was no difference between the treatments. Only fruit at the 1.4 EC in the summer cycle had an increased acidity. The findings indicate that under greenhouse conditions, tomato cultivation in a single-truss system can be successful if the plants are supplied with a nutrient solution at an EC value of 1.2–1.4 mS·cm<sup>−1</sup>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Control of Potato Bacterial Wilt () Using Selected Plant Extracts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current study evaluated the effect of methanol and water extracts of tobacco (<italic>Nicotiana tabacum</italic> L.), wild marigold (<italic>Tagetes minuta</italic> L.), and garlic (<italic>Allium sativum</italic> L.) at 50 mg·mL<sup>−1</sup> applied at different frequencies (weekly, biweekly, and monthly) on the control of potato bacterial wilt under field conditions (two growing seasons in 2021). Weekly and biweekly application of methanol extracts from tobacco and wild marigold showed higher efficacy of biological control of the pathogen (58% and 57%) on aerial parts of potato plants than monthly application (48%). In potato tubers, weekly and biweekly application of methanol extracts caused higher biological control efficacy (75.92% and 67.39%) than monthly application (52.49%). Weekly and biweekly application of methanol extracts of tobacco and wild marigold also reduced postharvest infection and postharvest yield losses caused by potato bacterial wilt during the storage period, among other treatments. These experiments conclude that weekly or biweekly application of methanol extract from tobacco and wild marigold at 50 mg·mL<sup>−1</sup> is a practical approach to control potato bacterial wilt in the field and storage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Pests Occurring on Vegetable Crops in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Poland, the share of Diptera in the species composition of the harmful entomofauna occurring on vegetable crops ranges from 20 to 25%. They occur on all vegetables grown in Poland (over 80 species and botanical varieties). Since the systematic registration of pests inhabiting crops in Poland in 1919, over 70 species of flies have been listed as pests of vegetable plants. Species from three families dominate in terms of population and numbers: Anthomyiidae with 12 species (<italic>Delia radicum</italic>, on early and late cultivars of cruciferous vegetables, mainly broccoli, cauliflower, white cabbage, kohlrabi, and radishes; <italic>Delia platura</italic> occurs annually on bean and cucumber; <italic>Delia antiqua</italic> on onion and garlic; and <italic>Pegomya hyoscyami</italic> on beetroot), Cecidomyiidae with 10 species (two species dominate, <italic>Contarinia nasturtii</italic> and <italic>Dasineura napi</italic>, on cruciferous vegetables), and Agromyzidae with 23 species (<italic>Liriomyza bryoniae</italic> on cucumbers, tomatoes, and peppers, and <italic>Phytomyza gymnostoma</italic> on leeks). Short-term, gradational occurrence of some dominant species was found, including <italic>Botanophila gnava</italic> (lettuce), <italic>Chamaepsila rosae</italic> (carrot, parsley), <italic>Delia platura</italic> (asparagus, bean), <italic>Delia radicum</italic> (broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, radishes, white cabbage), <italic>Phytomyza gymnostoma</italic> (leek), <italic>Oscinella frit</italic> (corn), and <italic>Suillia lurida</italic> (garlic). However, they did not affect the level of plant production in the following years of cultivation. Apart from phytophagous species, taxa with a different trophic structure are common. These are copro-, necro-, sapro-, and zoophagous species. The most numerous were flies from the Drosophilidae family (<italic>Drosophila busckii</italic>, <italic>Drosophila limbata</italic>, <italic>Scaptomyza pallida</italic>, Fanniidae (<italic>Fannia canicularis</italic>, <italic>Fannia scalaris</italic>), Heleomyzidae (<italic>Tephrochlamys tarsalis</italic>), and Muscidae (<italic>Muscina levida</italic>, <italic>Muscina stabulans</italic>, <italic>Phaonia trimaculata</italic>). Natural enemies of insects play an important role in vegetable agrocenoses. Species belonging to the order of Coleoptera beetles (Carabidae and Staphylinidae), Syrphidae, Tachinidae, and Muscidae, mainly <italic>Phaonia trimaculata</italic> larvae, play the most important role in reducing the number of Diptera. In addition, the number of phytophages is limited by other organisms, e.g., Diplopoda, Nematoda, Arachnida, and pathogens of viral, bacterial, and fungal origin.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Effect of Linn. Aqueous Extract on Burrowing Nematodes () and its Application to Control Toppling Disease on Cavendish Banana ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Radopholus similis</italic> (Cobb 1893) (Rhabditida, Pratylenchidae) is a common and destructive pest that causes significant yield losses in Cavendish bananas. The repeated use of synthetic pesticides to control this nematode has raised concerns about toxicity to users and the environment. An alternative approach to managing this harmful species involves the use of nontoxic plant-derived extracts that enhance protection against various biological constraints. In this study, aqueous extract from the leaves and stems of <italic>Eupatorium odoratum</italic> Linn. (EAEO) was used to control <italic>R</italic>. <italic>similis</italic> in banana roots under in vitro and on-plant conditions. Through direct contact and penetration experiments on roots, as well as on-plant trials, concentrations of 12500, 6250, 3120, 1560, and 780 mg DW·L<sup>−1</sup> EAEO were used to evaluate nematode mortality rates, infection levels in root segments (in vitro experiment), root infection, root necrosis index, shoot and root fresh weight, and growth parameters such as stem length, diameter, leaf number, and leaf surface area (on-plant experiment). The results showed that the nematode mortality rate due to EAEO ranged from 35.3% to 90.1%, which is statistically significant compared to the mortality rate in the control treatment (16%). Significant nematode inhibition was observed in banana roots infected with <italic>R. similis</italic> and exposed to EAEO for 48 h. There were no statistically significant differences in root infection, root necrosis, and plant fresh weight between plants treated with fenamiphos and EAEO. Maximum effectiveness was observed at the 12500 mg DW·L<sup>−1</sup> EAEO concentration. These findings provide valuable insights into the nematicidal metabolites of EAEO against <italic>R. similis</italic>. Thus, the potential of EAEO as a biocontrol agent against <italic>R. similis</italic> has been demonstrated. For future research, investigations will be extended to elucidate the mechanisms of action of the essential compounds in EAEO against nematodes, determine the optimal EAEO dosage for nematode control without harm to banana plants and the environment, assess the long-term effects of EAEO on banana plants and the environment, explore the ecological impact of EAEO use in agricultural ecosystems, study the effectiveness of EAEO on various plant species, and consider the development of commercial products or formulations based on EAEO.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Differences in Wet Damage of Broccoli ( L. var. ) Under Waterlogging Conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Broccoli is a typical wet-sensitive vegetable. Precipitation levels in Japan have been unusually high recently, so the wet tolerance of broccoli is of great interest to farmers. The purpose of this study is to gather basic information to help with broccoli cultivation in unusually wet conditions by investigating the varying responses of different cultivars to wet conditions. In two-year pot experiments, the early stage of broccoli growth was compared using on cultivars that exhibit unique characteristics in terms of tolerance to wet conditions, and differences in yield were also confirmed during the harvest season in a field experiment. Broccoli plants subjected to three days of waterlogging treatment exhibited wilting, yellowing and reduced biomass. Significant interactions between treatment and cultivar were also detected for biomass, water content, and photosynthetic ability. The ‘Shigemori’ cultivar showed less susceptibility to wet damage compared to the other cultivars. The trend could be observed in the head yield in the field experiment. The unique cultivars shown in this study may be helpful in broccoli cultivation and may be suitable for use as parent material in breeding. Furthermore, a short-term pot experiment can help evaluate broccoli wet tolerance during the early growth.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Postharvest Nutritional Quality and Antioxidant Enzymes in ‘Haribhanga’ Mango by Gel with Chitosan and Coconut Oil Coating During Ambient Storage<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Mango is a well-known tropical climacteric fruit that decays rapidly. Thus, a postharvest management strategy utilizing natural and biodegradable materials is necessary to minimize crop losses. The study evaluated the coating effects of <italic>A. vera</italic> gel with chitosan and coconut oil on postharvest features and mango shelf life throughout 15 days of storage at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C). Fruits were treated with the following six coatings: control (distilled water), 1.5% chitosan solution (CH) (w/v), <italic>Aloe vera</italic> gel (AV) (1 : 1, v/v), coconut oil (CO) (1 : 1, v/v), 1.5% chitosan solution + <italic>A. vera</italic> gel (CH + AV) (1 : 1, v/v), and coconut oil + <italic>A. vera</italic> gel (CO + AV) (1 : 1, v/v). The findings showed that the coating with <italic>A. vera</italic> gel and chitosan significantly decreased decay, weight loss, respiration rate, and ethylene production compared to control. This coating improved fruit quality indicators like acidity, total soluble solids, pH, fruit firmness, and ascorbic acid content. Additionally, the phenol content and antioxidant activity decreased slightly during storage, while the control fruits demonstrated a rapid decrease in phenol content and antioxidant activity. Coated fruits significantly reduced the activity of polyphenol oxidase, whereas control fruits had the lowest catalase and peroxidase activity throughout the storage period. Coated fruit skin showed higher L* and b* values than the control fruits throughout storage. These findings suggested that <italic>A. vera</italic> gel with chitosan coating might preserve bioactive components and postharvest ‘Haribhanga’ mango fruit quality under ambient storage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Effect of Dichlorvos and Ginger ( L.) On the Indian Meal Moth ( hübner) Feeding on Grains<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Synthetic and natural insecticides have successfully controlled the Indian meal moth (<italic>Plodia interpunctella</italic> Hübner). However, little is known about how Indian meal moth reacts in a stressed environment caused by synthetic and botanical insecticides. Therefore, this study compared the effects of dichlorvos (DDVP) and ginger (<italic>Zingiber officinale</italic> L.) rhizome extract oil on larval and adult mortality, hatchability and adult emergence, and on neurotransmitters and digestive enzymes of Indian meal moth under laboratory conditions of 75 ± 5% relative humidity and 25 ± 5 °C. The insects were exposed to different concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5% of dichlorvos and ginger extract oil for 96 h. Ginger rhizome extract oil caused 100% mortality in newly emerged adult Indian meal moths within 96 h at all concentrations. DDVP and ginger extract oil were ineffective against the third instar larval stage of the Indian meal moth, at varying concentrations that caused adult mortality. DDVP and ginger rhizome extract oil significantly affected digestive enzymes and acetylcholinesterase activities at lethal concentrations used in treatment. Protease activity was significantly increased in larvae exposed to extract oil than DDVP. Acetylcholinesterase activities in the adult insects exposed to maize grains treated with DDVP were higher than those exposed to maize treated with ginger extract oil. DDVP and the ginger extract oil have significant effects on the digestive enzymes. Nevertheless, ginger extract oil increased larval protease activity more than DDVP.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Active and Passive Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Vase Life and Quality of Narcissus ( L.) ‘Shahla’ Cut Flowers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The production of ornamental flowers in the horticultural sector is costly; therefore, finding treatments to reduce postharvest losses and extend the vase life of cut flower is essential in this industry. The influence of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality parameters of cut flowers of <italic>Narcissus tazetta</italic> L. ‘Shahla’ during storage was investigated. The following gas compositions were studied: atmospheric composition (control), vacuum + atmospheric composition, 40% CO<sub>2</sub> + 21% O<sub>2</sub>, 20% CO<sub>2</sub> + 10% O<sub>2</sub>, 40% CO<sub>2</sub> + 40% O<sub>2</sub>, and 0.03% CO<sub>2</sub> + 40% O<sub>2</sub>. All treatments showed better performance compared to the control. The results showed that 20% CO<sub>2</sub> + 10% O<sub>2</sub> most increased the water uptake and relative fresh weight of cut flowers, resulting in the highest level of carbohydrates, extending the appearance quality time and vase life of cut flowers by 60%. The most extended vase life was related to cut flowers stored at 20% CO<sub>2</sub> and 10% O<sub>2</sub> (15.8 days), while the passive-MAP and vacuum packaging did not differ significantly and showed the lowest vase life, 9.2 and 9.9 days, respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of a Preharvest Melatonin Application on Postharvest Chilling Injury in Basil ( L.)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Postharvest chilling injury is a physiological disorder detrimental to produce quality and shelf-life. Basil (<italic>Ocimum basilicum</italic> L.) is susceptible to postharvest chilling injury at temperatures below 12 °C, manifesting as leaf lesions and discoloration. Melatonin, a growth regulator, has reduced postharvest chilling injury severity in produce, but its effect on basil is unknown. Here, we evaluated the impact of an exogenous preharvest melatonin application at 400 μM on basil leaves stored at 3.5 °C for 12 days. Visual parameters, including objective color descriptors, chilling injury index, and damaged surface area, as well as biochemical (total soluble solids, malondialdehyde, and total polyphenol content) and physiological (electrolyte leakage and fresh weight loss) markers for cold stress, were assessed. Melatonin-treated leaves showed reduced symptoms (15–22%) relative to the untreated control after cold storage. The biochemical and physiological parameters displayed subtle changes between treatments after storage. However, melatonin induced alterations before storage (70–90%), suggesting it acted as a stressor.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue