rss_2.0Journal of Horticultural Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Horticultural Research of Horticultural Research Feed Trends and Advancements in the Biopreservation of Fruits<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fruits are natural, healthy, economically feasible, ready to eat, and provide essential nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, making them a fascinating food. Deterioration of fruits during transportation can cause food security concerns and financial losses. Globally, about 45% of horticultural crops are spoiled and wasted for numerous reasons, such as environmental contamination during growth, harvesting under unsuitable conditions, and improper storage, handling, and display. There are three groups of factors affecting the spoilage of food: physical, chemical, and microbial, which damage the size, color, taste, and texture of fruits. Conventional methods of preserving food products comprise chemical preservation, freezing, drying, and pasteurization, which can result in the loss of nutrients and the addition of unwanted chemicals produced during processing. Therefore, “green” technology is required to preserve fresh produce, which protects and enhances nutritional value in equal measure. This review will present emerging trends and advancements in the biopreservation of fruits, such as lactic acid bacteria, essential oils, herbal extracts, nanoparticles, microcapsules, edible films and coatings, bacteriocins, and bacteriophages. These biopreservative techniques should be easy, inexpensive, eco-friendly, and generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the World Health Organization (WHO).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Fruit Production in India: An Econometric Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Forecasting is valuable to countries because it enables them to make informed business decisions and develop data-driven strategies. Fruit production offers promising economic opportunities to reduce rural poverty and unemployment in developing countries and is a crucial component of farm diversification strategies. After vegetables, fruits are the most affordable source of essential vitamins and minerals for human health. India's fruit production strategies should be developed based on accurate predictions and the best forecasting models. This study focused on the forecasting behavior of production of apples, bananas, grapes, mangoes, guavas, and pineapples in India using data from 1961 to 2015 (modelling set) and 2016–2020 (predicting set). Two unit root tests were used, the <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_johr-2023-0005_ref_018">Ng–Perron (2001)</xref> test, and the Dickey–Fuller test with bootstrapping critical values depending on the <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_johr-2023-0005_ref_019">Park (2003)</xref> technique. The results show that all variables are stationary at first differences. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and exponential smoothing (ETS) models were used and compared based on goodness of fit. The results indicated that the ETS model was the best in all the cases, as the predictions using ETS had the smallest errors and deviations between forecasting and actual values. This result was confirmed using three tests: Diebold–Mariano, Giacomini–White, and Clark–West. According to the best models, forecasts for production during 2021–2027 were obtained. In terms of production, an increase is expected for apples, bananas, grapes, mangoes, mangosteens, guavas, and pineapples in India during this period. The current outcomes of the forecasts could enable policymakers to create an enabling environment for farmers, exporters, and other stakeholders, leading to stable markets and enhanced economic growth. Policymakers can use the insights from forecasting to design strategies that ensure a diverse and nutritious fruit supply for the population. This can include initiatives like promoting small-scale farming, improving postharvest storage and processing facilities, and establishing effective distribution networks to reach vulnerable communities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Storage Ability of Broccoli after 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study evaluated the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment on broccoli quality and storage ability. Broccoli ‘Parthenon’ was treated the day after harvest with 1.0 or 3.0 cm<sup>3</sup>·m<sup>−3</sup> 1-MCP. The treatment was performed at 5 °C for 20 h, and then the plant material was stored at 0–1 °C for 30 or 60 d. After 30 d of refrigerated storage, broccoli was transferred to conditions simulating retail (15 °C) for 6 d. During 30 d of storage, the broccoli crowns maintained excellent quality. The fleshy stalks were slightly inferior due to the darkening of the leaf scar areas. After 60 d, there was a marked reduction in broccoli quality. Still, the positive effect of 1-MCP treatment on broccoli was observed as inhibiting the senescence of the remaining petiole fragments. During shelf life after 30 days of cold storage, broccoli treated with 1-MCP retained better quality of the crowns and fleshy stems, evident after six days of shelf life evaluation. The study did not find that 1-MCP treatment inhibited the respiration rate of broccoli, or ethylene production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Methods to Manage Silverleaf Whitefly [ Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)] in Zucchini ( L.)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Whiteflies are the most detrimental insect pest for cucurbit crops in Georgia, USA. Plant growth and yield are severely reduced due to whitefly feeding and, more importantly, many plant viruses they vector. Chemical management of whiteflies has been ineffective. An integrated pest management (IPM) strategy is needed to reduce whitefly numbers to an acceptable level in cucurbit crops in Georgia. This study evaluated the impact of plastic mulch color, exclusionary row covers, particle clay, and organic insecticidal solutions (soap and neem oil) on plant growth, fruit yield, and whitefly index (WFindex) in zucchini squash (<italic>Cucurbita pepo</italic> L). The study was conducted during the fall of 2019 and 2020. Particle clay applications reduced zucchini foliar temperatures and WFindex and increased zucchini fruit yields. Black plastic mulch reduced fruit yield due to increased root zone temperature and did not impact whitefly numbers. Neem oil and soap decreased the WFindex but inconsistently affected fruit yield and quality. Our findings indicate that neem oil, soap, and particle clay may be part of an IPM program for whiteflies. However, further evaluations are needed in large plots and commercial fields to confirm the preliminary results of this study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Composition of Persimmon Fruit ( L.) Bred in Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study of the fruit quality of five Ukrainian persimmon cultivars ‘Pamiat Cherniaeva’ (“Memory of Cherniaev”), ‘Chuchupaka’, ‘Sosnivska’, ‘Bozhyi Dar’ (“God's gift”), and ‘Dar Sofiivky’ (“Gift of Sofiivka”) showed that their fresh mass varies from 48.4 g (‘Chuchupaka’) to 113.2 g (‘Pamiat Cherniaeva’). ‘Pamiat Cherniaeva’ and ‘Dar Sofiivky’ produced the largest fruits. ‘Dar Sofiivky’, ‘Sosnivska’, and ‘Chuchupaka’ fruits had the highest dry matter content. The highest sweetness level expressed in the sugar-acid index was in the ‘Dar Sofiivky’ fruits, the lowest in ‘Pamiat Cherniaeva’. This cultivar also had the lowest amount of total pectins and polyphenols. All evaluated parameters varied considerably between cultivars.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Extract Produced Using Ripe Fruits of Wild Genotype of Hayata in Okinawa<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Shikuwasa (<italic>Citrus depressa</italic> Hayata) is known as Taiwan tangerine. Various local cultivars are grown, among which the most famous is the ‘Kugani’, which is considered a breeding cultivar. The fruits of this cultivar are used for various purposes (juices, jams, vinegar, etc.) and as a fruit for consumption. The local landrace Ishikunibu is considered wild and is not cultivated on a larger scale because it is dwarf and tastes sour even when harvested in February. This article showed the results of experiments that aimed to show that Ishikunibu fruits are suitable as an addition to the cultivation of these fruits for producing vinegar extract. The results indicate that the vinegar extract of Ishikunibu has properties similar to that of ‘Kugani’. Such vinegar extracts using Ishikunibu have more ascorbic acid (115.2 μg·L<sup>−1</sup> vs. 38.9 μg·L<sup>−1</sup>) and titratable acidity than that of ‘Kugani’. The other quality parameters of such produced vinegar extracts did not differ significantly. The sensory evaluation of vinegar extracts showed no differences in aroma, green smell, and general flavor but vinegar extract of Ishikunibu tasted less bitter. Therefore, Ishikunibu, the wild genotype of shikuwasa, is deemed useful in producing vinegar extracts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for Suitable Cultivation System of Swiss Chard ( subsp. (L.) W.D.J.Koch) in the Tropical Lowland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Swiss chard as a leafy vegetable (<italic>Beta vulgaris</italic> subsp. <italic>cicla</italic> (L.) W.D.J.Koch) is rarely cultivated in the tropical climate zone because this plant has not been recognized by local farmers. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of three cultivation systems, i.e., conventional, floating, and bottom-wet culture systems on three Swiss chard cultivars with different petiole colors, i.e., ‘Red Ruby’, ‘Yellow Canary’, and ‘Pink Passion’. The best result was obtained if the Swiss chard was cultivated using the floating system since the water was continuously available by the capillarity force through the bottom hole of the pots, as indicated by the highest number of leaves, total fresh weight, leaf blade dry weight, and petiole dry weight. Fresh weight amongst the three cultivars cultivated in each system did not show a significant difference. ‘Yellow Canary’ produced a larger petiole and heavier fresh weight of individual leaves, but a lesser number of leaves per plant. The leaf area estimation model using the leaf length × width as the predictor, and the zero-intercept linear regression was accurate for all Swiss chard cultivars, as the coefficient of determination was considerably high in ‘Red Ruby’ (0.981), ‘Pink Passion’ (0.976), and ‘Yellow Canary’ (0.982), respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Maturity Stages, Shrink-Wrap Packaging and Storage Temperature on Shelf Life and Quality of Pineapple ( (L.) Merr.) Fruit ‘Mauritius’<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Pineapple is widely grown in tropical countries, and the fruits are well-known for their unique flavor. The ideal stage of maturity, optimum storage temperature, congenial relative humidity, and adequate type of packaging are critical factors that determine the shelf life and quality of pineapple fruits. Therefore, this investigation was carried out to determine the effect of maturity stage and shrink-wrap packaging, along with ambient and low-temperature storage in order to determine the impact of these factors on extending the shelf life and quality of pineapple fruits. The results revealed that fruits with 75% yellow tubercles at the harvesting stored under ambient temperature had a shelf life of just 7 days compared to the fruits having 25% yellow tubercles subjected to shrink-wrap packaging, followed by low-temperature storage, which had a shelf life of 49 days. The findings of this study conclusively proved that harvesting pineapple fruits with 25% of yellow tubercles, followed by shrink-wrap packaging in 25 μ polyolefin film and subsequent storage in a cool chamber at 12–13 °C and 85% relative humidity can prolong the shelf life and will also maintain the quality of pineapple fruits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Compatibility, Scion Growth, and Fusarium Wilt Disease Incidence of Intraspecific Grafted Tomato<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The tomato (<italic>Solanum lycopersicum</italic> L.) is one of the most important vegetables grown globally. However, the production of tomatoes is restricted by <italic>Fusarium oxysporum</italic> f. sp. <italic>lycopersici</italic> (Fol). This study aims to investigate the ability of Fol-resistant tomato genotypes to be a rootstock for the susceptible cultivar. In this study, a tomato cultivar was grafted on rootstocks of the same species (intraspecific), and grafting compatibility, peroxidase gene expression, and fusarium wilt disease incidence of tomato scion was evaluated. A Fol-susceptible tomato ‘Sidathip 3’ (SDT3) was grafted onto four different Fol-resistant tomato genotypes and compared with self-grafted cultivar/cultivar and rootstock/rootstock. The survival rate of all grafted plants was 100% at 20 days after grafting (DAG) without significant differences in incompatibility evaluated at 42 days after grafting. The expression of the peroxidase gene (<italic>Solyc02g084800.2</italic>) using the qPCR technique was compared in self-grafted rootstock LE472/LE472 and SDT3/LE472. The expression level was three times higher in heterografted plants than in self-grafted ones at 15 DAG, indicating graft incompatibility. The rootstocks did not affect the height of the plant, the number of branches, the size of the fruit, or the yield of SDT3 scion. All intraspecific heterografted plants significantly controlled Fol when evaluated 60 days after inoculation. These results showed the usefulness of intraspecific grafting by using the proper rootstock genotypes to increase pathogen resistance in addition to stimulating growth and fruit yield.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Progress on Calcium Ion in Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Calcium ions are involved in plant self-incompatibility response as important signaling substances in cells. In the sporophytic self-incompatibility response, Ca<sup>2+</sup> enters the stigma papilla cells and plays a key role in inhibiting incompatible pollen tube growth. In the gametophytic self-incompatibility reaction of Papaveraceae, the female determinants in the style (<italic>PrsS</italic>) and the male determinants in the pollen (<italic>PrpS</italic>) recognize each other, promote extracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx into the incompatible pollen tube, destroy the calcium ion gradient at the tip of the pollen tube, and inhibit the pollen tube growth. In the S-RNase-based Rosaceae game-tophytic self-incompatibility response, it is still unclear how the S-RNase interacts with the male determinant and how the S-RNase specifically degrades the RNA in the pollen tube. Therefore, we reviewed the research progress on the role of Ca<sup>2+</sup> in self-incompatibility and, based on our research results, proposed a role model of Ca<sup>2+</sup> as a signal substance in the gametophyte self-incompatibility response in Rosaceae.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Pests (Lepidoptera) Occurring on Vegetable Crops in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There are over 2,240 butterfly species of Lepidoptera belonging to 17 families recorded in Poland. Of those, 63 phytophagous species have been noted in vegetable agrocenoses at a level of pest status. They constitute 18% of all harmful entomofauna found on vegetable crops. The species described in this paper are common on all vegetable crops growing in Poland, and all parts of plants. The most abundant pests found on aerial parts of crops include the silver Y moth (<italic>Autographa gamma</italic>), which causes damage to 20 species of vegetables, and species belonging to the genera <italic>Mamestra</italic>, <italic>Lacanobia</italic> and <italic>Anarta</italic>, which feed on more than 10 vegetable species. Of the polyphagous leaf roller moths (Tortricidae), the most numerous are the species belonging to the genus <italic>Cnephasia</italic>. Periodically, they pose a significant threat, among others for beetroot, pea, cucumber, and lettuce. The diamondback moth (<italic>Plutella xylostella</italic>) and the cabbage butterfly (<italic>Pieris rapae</italic>) are dominant butterfly pests on brassica vegetables. A component of harmful entomofauna on onion crops is leek moth (<italic>Acrolepiopsis assectella</italic>), a species permanently dominant on onion vegetables in Poland since 1930s. The species of the family Depressariidae cause the greatest damage on the generative organs of seed crops, mainly of dill, carrot and parsley. Underground parts of vegetable crops are damaged by cut-worms (Noctuidae), which belong to the group of soil-borne pests. Among more than 60 species belonging to this family, nine cause the greatest damage to vegetable crops. The turnip moth (<italic>Agrotis segetum</italic>), as a dominant species in recent years, accounted for about 80% of cutworms damaging vegetable crops, and prefers onion, leek, carrot, parsley, celery and corn. Although the European corn borer (<italic>Ostrinia nubilalis</italic>) is considered a polyphagous species, it forms the most abundant populations on maize out of all other crops.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Mutagenesis – A Chance to Meet Environmental Challenges and Provide Healthy Food for People or an Unacceptable Hazard to Humans, Animals, and the Environment. Consequences of the European Court of Justice Judgment in Case C-528/16<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the EU's strategic goals is to reduce the environmental and climate footprint of the EU food system and strengthen its resilience, while ensuring food security for European citizens. Thus, the EU Farm to Fork strategy, which is one of the central pillars of the European Green Deal, set ambitious targets for 2030 to reduce pesticide use in agriculture by 50% and fertilizers use by 20%, with a concomitant 50% reduction of nutrient leakage to surface and groundwater. Additionally, it is recommended that at least 25% of the EU agricultural land shall be kept under organic farming. These goals are far-reaching, but several recent studies indicate that implementing them without significant progress in research and innovation (R &amp; I) may result in a yield decrease by up to 30%, depending on the crop, and an increase in the price of agricultural commodities by up to 18%. Especially affected would be horticulture due to its high dependence on plant protection against pests and diseases. Therefore, the studies recommend accelerating plant breeding in order to produce new plant cultivars genetically resistant to pests and diseases and better equipped to cope with abiotic stresses like limited nutrition and water deficit. The progress in classical plant breeding is a lengthy process. It is especially slow in the case of woody species, like most fruit plants, due to their long juvenile periods and limited genetic variance. Recent advances in functional genomics, bioinformatics, and molecular methods provided tools that speed up the breeding process significantly. Several site-directed mutation technologies allow modifying a specific gene at a predefined site, by deletion or insertion of single or multiple nucleotides, without affecting off-target genes. Several valuable cultivars have been bred so far using these methods, and a large number of others are under trials. However, their release will be severely impeded by the decision of the Court of Justice of the European Union, dated 25 July 2018, that the release of organisms obtained by site-specific mutations, as opposed to organisms obtained by induced random mutation, is controlled by Directive 2001/18/EC2 on genetically modified organisms. This paper reviews the new generation breeding techniques, especially site-directed mutagenesis, and their benefits as well as potential hazards to consumers and the environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Photoperiod and Temperature on the Life Table Parameters of Onion Thrips () Lineages<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the effect of photoperiod and temperature on the bionomics of the three <italic>Thrips tabaci</italic> lineages (L1 and L2 – leek-associated, and T – tobacco-associated). The experiment was performed in the laboratory under the following conditions: 23 °C 16L/8D and 8L/16D, and 15 °C under 8L/16D. Reproductive diapause was detected in the T lineage at 23 °C and 8L/16D, but not in the L1 and L2 lineages, while all three lineages diapaused at 15 °C and 8L/16D. Adult longevity of L1, L2, and T lineages were 29.51, 25.69, and 29.76, respectively, at 23 °C under 16L/8D; 30.9, 28.52, and 38.06, respectively, at 23 °C under 8L/16D; and 48.9, 34.22, and 76.89 days, respectively, at 15 °C. Mean fecundity of L1, L2, and T lineages were 89.30, 80.31, 86.76, respectively, at 23 °C under 16L/8D; 40.14, 46.94, and 39.34, respectively, at 23 °C under 8L/16D; and 7.0, 13.85, and 17.87, respectively, at 15 °C. The difference in responses to photoperiod and temperature could be a factor to cause a sympatric population variation of the different <italic>T. tabaci</italic> lineages under the same environmental condition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Rice Husk Biochar Interaction Ameliorates Nutrient Uptake and Yield of Green Lettuce Under Soilless Culture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Various kinds of substrates have been widely used for vegetables grown in soilless culture systems. The use of biochar is getting a lot of attention. However, the ideal proportion of biochar in the substrates combined with the use of vermicompost for high yields has not been thoroughly studied. This study aimed to examine in the pot experiment the effect of a combination of rice husk biochar (15% and 30%) and vermicompost (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 g per pot) in growing substrate on nutrient uptake and yield of green lettuce. The other components of the substrates were cocopeat and sand. The results showed that the 30% of rice husk biochar in the growing substrate resulted in a significantly higher uptake of N, P, and K in leaves compared to lower biochar content with an average increase of 52%, 67%, and 117%, respectively. Maximum total fresh weight of marketable yield was obtained with 30% of biochar and 250 g per pot vermicompost in the substrate.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Nutrients, Physiological Disorders, Postharvest Water Loss, and PR Gene Expression in Bell Pepper ( L.) Fruit under Shade Nets<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Shade nets can be an effective technology for producing bell pepper (<italic>Capsicum annuum</italic> L.) under hot climatic conditions. However, the effects of shading on fruit quality are still unclear. The objectives were to evaluate the effects of shade level on fruit mineral nutrient content, physiological disorders, and postharvest water loss. Trials were conducted in the spring–summer of 2016, 2017, and 2018 in Tifton, Georgia, USA, following a randomized complete block design with five shade levels: 0% (open field), 30%, 47%, 63%, and 80%. Shading increased the bell pepper fruit dimensions (length, diameter, and weight) in 2016 and mineral nutrient content in 2017. Fruit sunscald incidence decreased with increasing shade level, while blossom-end rot showed inconsistent responses. Postharvest fruit water loss and transpiration rates were highest in fruits from the unshaded treatment in 2016; there were no differences in fruit water loss among the shade levels. <italic>NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED 1</italic> (<italic>NPR1</italic>) and <italic>PATHOGENESIS-RELATED 1</italic> (<italic>PR1</italic>) genes expressed more than 1.5-fold and 10-fold, respectively, at 47% shade level compared to 80%, though not significantly. Therefore, plants grown under shading had fruit with greater size, increased mineral nutrient content, and reduced sunscald incidence compared with the unshaded control.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Analysis of Root Branching Plasticity Based on Parrondo's Game<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For different kinds of plants, the distribution of lateral roots is highly plastic in different growth environments. In particular, the branching distance of the roots plays a decisive role in the formation of the root system architecture. In many root-system architecture models, constant branching distances of different branching orders usually are used to simulate the dynamics of a root system architecture. However, little is known about the formation of lateral roots, and branching distances for different branching orders are variable in the actual root system. The resource allocation model for predicting the lateral root distribution in individual plants has been established based on Parrondo's game. The root branching data predicted by the model is compared with the actual root branching data. The results show that the proposed method can cause serious changes in the spacing and distribution of lateral root formation. A parameter called development window can be used to override interbranch distance in the root-system architecture models.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Candidate Traits for Autonomous Fruit Set Ability Under High Temperatures in<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>“Autonomous fruit set” refers to self-pollination and fruit set without pollen vectors such as vibration or insects. Autonomous fruit set under high-temperature stress is an important breeding goal as climate change can reduce fruit yields in <italic>Capsicum</italic>. We screened <italic>Capsicum</italic> cultivars for autonomous fruit set ability in a greenhouse environment and investigated pollen germination, viability, pollen grains number, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), style length, anther cone length, and anthesis stage under high temperatures in order to identify indicator traits for screening more genotypes with autonomous fruit set ability. The fruit set of the ‘Takanotsume’ (57.7 ± 20.6%) and ‘Goshiki Kyokko’ (52.2 ± 14.2%) cultivars (both <italic>C. annuum</italic>) were higher than those of other cultivars. Correlation analysis showed that pollen germination had the highest correlation with fruit set in <italic>C. annuum</italic> cultivars (r = 0.63). These results indicate that ‘Takanotsume’ and ‘Goshiki Kyokko’ are useful cultivars for novel breeding programs focusing on autonomous fruit sets under high temperatures, and pollen germination in <italic>C. annuum</italic> was a convincing candidate for an indicator trait of autonomous fruit set ability under high temperatures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Maintains Firmness and Peel Color and Reduces Decay Area of Artificially Wounded Fruits in Mature Japanese Pear ( Nakai ‘Shizukisui’)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Recently, there has been an increasing need to prolong the quality of matured fruits to promote the distribution of fresh fruits to consumers and processing facilities. Studies have shown that 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene, can maintain the firmness and quality of several fruits for a long duration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of 1-MCP treatment on the firmness, rind color, and decay rate of the Japanese pear ‘Shizukisui’. Results showed that 1-MCP treatment alone and 1-MCP treatment after precooling significantly maintained the firmness of mature fruits compared with untreated fruits. However, the presence or absence of ethylene addition did not significantly affect fruit firmness; moreover, 1-MCP treatment after precooling tended to reduce moisture loss in immature fruits. Regarding the peel color of the fruits, 1-MCP treatment alone and 1-MCP after precooling treatment increased the L*, b*, and C* values of mature fruits but reduced the values in immature fruits. Compared with the control group, the 1-MCP treatment caused a decrease in the decay area of wounded ‘Shizukisui’ and ‘Kosui’ fruits and decreased the decay rate of wounded ‘Kosui’. Overall, this study showed that 1-MCP treatment maintained the firmness and peel color of Japanese pear and reduced its decay rate.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Three Species for Effective use of Giant Grass Compost<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Pennisetum sinese</italic> is a giant grass with a fast-growing and high rooting rate, high sugar, protein content, and high biomass yield, which causes it to be an efficient and economic energy crop of high productivity, application in phytoremediation, and fodder production. The composting system of this grass that is adapted to the simplest formulation is easy and economically feasible in small farms for cultivating oyster mushrooms. In this study, giant grass compost was employed as a substrate for cultivating three <italic>Pleurotus</italic> species: <italic>P. florida</italic>, <italic>P. pulmonarius</italic>, and <italic>P. ostreatus</italic> to assess their enzyme activities, growth, and yields. Lignin peroxidase (LiP) was the most active enzyme in each species, while other enzymes were differently expressed between species and developmental phases. The average mass of fruiting bodies formed on the giant grass compost was 173.4 g, 166.5 g, and 152.2 g. The biological effectivity was 82.6%, 78.6%, and 72.5% for <italic>P. pulmonarius</italic>, <italic>P. ostreatus</italic>, and <italic>P. florida</italic>, respectively. The obtained results indicate the usefulness of giant grass compost for the cultivation of the three studied <italic>Pleurotus</italic> species.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Prediction of Citrus Lemon Using a Multivariate Accelerated Shelf-Life Testing (MASLT) Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The shelf life of agricultural products is characterized by several quality parameters simultaneously. Estimating the shelf life using the multivariate accelerated shelf-life testing (MASLT) approach is expected to provide a more accurate shelf-life prediction. This research aims to examine the effect of temperature storage on lemon fruit quality and predict their shelf life with the MASLT approach. A total of 21 lemons for each treatment (storage temperatures) were washed and stored at 25, 35, and 45 °C. Changes in the quality of lemons were observed every day for 7 days, including moisture content, weight loss, firmness, total soluble solids, and color. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to simplify many experimental lemon quality parameters to form a new coordinate system with maximum variance through linear transformation to form a new coordinate system with maximum variance. The results showed that 91.3% of the variance of all observational data could be explained by the first principal component (PC<sub>1</sub>). Multivariate kinetics of quality parameter changes following a zero-order reaction. The plot of ln k<sub>m</sub> against 1/T shows a multivariate activation energy value (E<sub>a</sub>) of 62.99 kJ·mol<sup>−1</sup> with a pre-exponential factor (k<sub>0</sub>) of 3.87 × 10<sup>10</sup> PC<sub>1</sub> score per day. The reaction acceleration factor (Q<sub>10</sub>) based on storage temperatures of 35 °C and 45 °C is 2.17. The results of the predicted shelf life at cold temperatures (10 °C) and room temperature (25 °C) were 60.0 days and 18.8 days, respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue