rss_2.0Journal of Horticultural Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Horticultural Researchhttps://sciendo.com/journal/JOHRhttps://www.sciendo.comJournal of Horticultural Research Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/605812adb15e73048ebbb6bf/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/JOHR140216Searching for Suitable Cultivation System of Swiss Chard ( subsp. (L.) W.D.J.Koch) in the Tropical Lowlandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2023-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Swiss chard as a leafy vegetable (<italic>Beta vulgaris</italic> subsp. <italic>cicla</italic> (L.) W.D.J.Koch) is rarely cultivated in the tropical climate zone because this plant has not been recognized by local farmers. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of three cultivation systems, i.e., conventional, floating, and bottom-wet culture systems on three Swiss chard cultivars with different petiole colors, i.e., ‘Red Ruby’, ‘Yellow Canary’, and ‘Pink Passion’. The best result was obtained if the Swiss chard was cultivated using the floating system since the water was continuously available by the capillarity force through the bottom hole of the pots, as indicated by the highest number of leaves, total fresh weight, leaf blade dry weight, and petiole dry weight. Fresh weight amongst the three cultivars cultivated in each system did not show a significant difference. ‘Yellow Canary’ produced a larger petiole and heavier fresh weight of individual leaves, but a lesser number of leaves per plant. The leaf area estimation model using the leaf length × width as the predictor, and the zero-intercept linear regression was accurate for all Swiss chard cultivars, as the coefficient of determination was considerably high in ‘Red Ruby’ (0.981), ‘Pink Passion’ (0.976), and ‘Yellow Canary’ (0.982), respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2023-00222023-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of Maturity Stages, Shrink-Wrap Packaging and Storage Temperature on Shelf Life and Quality of Pineapple ( (L.) Merr.) Fruit ‘Mauritius’https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2023-0021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Pineapple is widely grown in tropical countries, and the fruits are well-known for their unique flavor. The ideal stage of maturity, optimum storage temperature, congenial relative humidity, and adequate type of packaging are critical factors that determine the shelf life and quality of pineapple fruits. Therefore, this investigation was carried out to determine the effect of maturity stage and shrink-wrap packaging, along with ambient and low-temperature storage in order to determine the impact of these factors on extending the shelf life and quality of pineapple fruits. The results revealed that fruits with 75% yellow tubercles at the harvesting stored under ambient temperature had a shelf life of just 7 days compared to the fruits having 25% yellow tubercles subjected to shrink-wrap packaging, followed by low-temperature storage, which had a shelf life of 49 days. The findings of this study conclusively proved that harvesting pineapple fruits with 25% of yellow tubercles, followed by shrink-wrap packaging in 25 μ polyolefin film and subsequent storage in a cool chamber at 12–13 °C and 85% relative humidity can prolong the shelf life and will also maintain the quality of pineapple fruits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2023-00212023-01-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Indicator Candidate Traits for Autonomous Fruit Set Ability Under High Temperatures in https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>“Autonomous fruit set” refers to self-pollination and fruit set without pollen vectors such as vibration or insects. Autonomous fruit set under high-temperature stress is an important breeding goal as climate change can reduce fruit yields in <italic>Capsicum</italic>. We screened <italic>Capsicum</italic> cultivars for autonomous fruit set ability in a greenhouse environment and investigated pollen germination, viability, pollen grains number, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), style length, anther cone length, and anthesis stage under high temperatures in order to identify indicator traits for screening more genotypes with autonomous fruit set ability. The fruit set of the ‘Takanotsume’ (57.7 ± 20.6%) and ‘Goshiki Kyokko’ (52.2 ± 14.2%) cultivars (both <italic>C. annuum</italic>) were higher than those of other cultivars. Correlation analysis showed that pollen germination had the highest correlation with fruit set in <italic>C. annuum</italic> cultivars (r = 0.63). These results indicate that ‘Takanotsume’ and ‘Goshiki Kyokko’ are useful cultivars for novel breeding programs focusing on autonomous fruit sets under high temperatures, and pollen germination in <italic>C. annuum</italic> was a convincing candidate for an indicator trait of autonomous fruit set ability under high temperatures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-00172023-01-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Vermicompost and Rice Husk Biochar Interaction Ameliorates Nutrient Uptake and Yield of Green Lettuce Under Soilless Culturehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Various kinds of substrates have been widely used for vegetables grown in soilless culture systems. The use of biochar is getting a lot of attention. However, the ideal proportion of biochar in the substrates combined with the use of vermicompost for high yields has not been thoroughly studied. This study aimed to examine in the pot experiment the effect of a combination of rice husk biochar (15% and 30%) and vermicompost (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 g per pot) in growing substrate on nutrient uptake and yield of green lettuce. The other components of the substrates were cocopeat and sand. The results showed that the 30% of rice husk biochar in the growing substrate resulted in a significantly higher uptake of N, P, and K in leaves compared to lower biochar content with an average increase of 52%, 67%, and 117%, respectively. Maximum total fresh weight of marketable yield was obtained with 30% of biochar and 250 g per pot vermicompost in the substrate.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-00182022-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Grafting Compatibility, Scion Growth, and Fusarium Wilt Disease Incidence of Intraspecific Grafted Tomatohttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The tomato (<italic>Solanum lycopersicum</italic> L.) is one of the most important vegetables grown globally. However, the production of tomatoes is restricted by <italic>Fusarium oxysporum</italic> f. sp. <italic>lycopersici</italic> (Fol). This study aims to investigate the ability of Fol-resistant tomato genotypes to be a rootstock for the susceptible cultivar. In this study, a tomato cultivar was grafted on rootstocks of the same species (intraspecific), and grafting compatibility, peroxidase gene expression, and fusarium wilt disease incidence of tomato scion was evaluated. A Fol-susceptible tomato ‘Sidathip 3’ (SDT3) was grafted onto four different Fol-resistant tomato genotypes and compared with self-grafted cultivar/cultivar and rootstock/rootstock. The survival rate of all grafted plants was 100% at 20 days after grafting (DAG) without significant differences in incompatibility evaluated at 42 days after grafting. The expression of the peroxidase gene (<italic>Solyc02g084800.2</italic>) using the qPCR technique was compared in self-grafted rootstock LE472/LE472 and SDT3/LE472. The expression level was three times higher in heterografted plants than in self-grafted ones at 15 DAG, indicating graft incompatibility. The rootstocks did not affect the height of the plant, the number of branches, the size of the fruit, or the yield of SDT3 scion. All intraspecific heterografted plants significantly controlled Fol when evaluated 60 days after inoculation. These results showed the usefulness of intraspecific grafting by using the proper rootstock genotypes to increase pathogen resistance in addition to stimulating growth and fruit yield.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-00202022-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Mineral Nutrients, Physiological Disorders, Postharvest Water Loss, and PR Gene Expression in Bell Pepper ( L.) Fruit under Shade Netshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Shade nets can be an effective technology for producing bell pepper (<italic>Capsicum annuum</italic> L.) under hot climatic conditions. However, the effects of shading on fruit quality are still unclear. The objectives were to evaluate the effects of shade level on fruit mineral nutrient content, physiological disorders, and postharvest water loss. Trials were conducted in the spring–summer of 2016, 2017, and 2018 in Tifton, Georgia, USA, following a randomized complete block design with five shade levels: 0% (open field), 30%, 47%, 63%, and 80%. Shading increased the bell pepper fruit dimensions (length, diameter, and weight) in 2016 and mineral nutrient content in 2017. Fruit sunscald incidence decreased with increasing shade level, while blossom-end rot showed inconsistent responses. Postharvest fruit water loss and transpiration rates were highest in fruits from the unshaded treatment in 2016; there were no differences in fruit water loss among the shade levels. <italic>NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED 1</italic> (<italic>NPR1</italic>) and <italic>PATHOGENESIS-RELATED 1</italic> (<italic>PR1</italic>) genes expressed more than 1.5-fold and 10-fold, respectively, at 47% shade level compared to 80%, though not significantly. Therefore, plants grown under shading had fruit with greater size, increased mineral nutrient content, and reduced sunscald incidence compared with the unshaded control.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-00192023-01-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Site-Directed Mutagenesis – A Chance to Meet Environmental Challenges and Provide Healthy Food for People or an Unacceptable Hazard to Humans, Animals, and the Environment. Consequences of the European Court of Justice Judgment in Case C-528/16https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the EU's strategic goals is to reduce the environmental and climate footprint of the EU food system and strengthen its resilience, while ensuring food security for European citizens. Thus, the EU Farm to Fork strategy, which is one of the central pillars of the European Green Deal, set ambitious targets for 2030 to reduce pesticide use in agriculture by 50% and fertilizers use by 20%, with a concomitant 50% reduction of nutrient leakage to surface and groundwater. Additionally, it is recommended that at least 25% of the EU agricultural land shall be kept under organic farming. These goals are far-reaching, but several recent studies indicate that implementing them without significant progress in research and innovation (R &amp; I) may result in a yield decrease by up to 30%, depending on the crop, and an increase in the price of agricultural commodities by up to 18%. Especially affected would be horticulture due to its high dependence on plant protection against pests and diseases. Therefore, the studies recommend accelerating plant breeding in order to produce new plant cultivars genetically resistant to pests and diseases and better equipped to cope with abiotic stresses like limited nutrition and water deficit. The progress in classical plant breeding is a lengthy process. It is especially slow in the case of woody species, like most fruit plants, due to their long juvenile periods and limited genetic variance. Recent advances in functional genomics, bioinformatics, and molecular methods provided tools that speed up the breeding process significantly. Several site-directed mutation technologies allow modifying a specific gene at a predefined site, by deletion or insertion of single or multiple nucleotides, without affecting off-target genes. Several valuable cultivars have been bred so far using these methods, and a large number of others are under trials. However, their release will be severely impeded by the decision of the Court of Justice of the European Union, dated 25 July 2018, that the release of organisms obtained by site-specific mutations, as opposed to organisms obtained by induced random mutation, is controlled by Directive 2001/18/EC2 on genetically modified organisms. This paper reviews the new generation breeding techniques, especially site-directed mutagenesis, and their benefits as well as potential hazards to consumers and the environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-00122022-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Research Progress on Calcium Ion in Gametophytic Self-Incompatibilityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Calcium ions are involved in plant self-incompatibility response as important signaling substances in cells. In the sporophytic self-incompatibility response, Ca<sup>2+</sup> enters the stigma papilla cells and plays a key role in inhibiting incompatible pollen tube growth. In the gametophytic self-incompatibility reaction of Papaveraceae, the female determinants in the style (<italic>PrsS</italic>) and the male determinants in the pollen (<italic>PrpS</italic>) recognize each other, promote extracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx into the incompatible pollen tube, destroy the calcium ion gradient at the tip of the pollen tube, and inhibit the pollen tube growth. In the S-RNase-based Rosaceae game-tophytic self-incompatibility response, it is still unclear how the S-RNase interacts with the male determinant and how the S-RNase specifically degrades the RNA in the pollen tube. Therefore, we reviewed the research progress on the role of Ca<sup>2+</sup> in self-incompatibility and, based on our research results, proposed a role model of Ca<sup>2+</sup> as a signal substance in the gametophyte self-incompatibility response in Rosaceae.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-00162022-11-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Butterfly Pests (Lepidoptera) Occurring on Vegetable Crops in Polandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There are over 2,240 butterfly species of Lepidoptera belonging to 17 families recorded in Poland. Of those, 63 phytophagous species have been noted in vegetable agrocenoses at a level of pest status. They constitute 18% of all harmful entomofauna found on vegetable crops. The species described in this paper are common on all vegetable crops growing in Poland, and all parts of plants. The most abundant pests found on aerial parts of crops include the silver Y moth (<italic>Autographa gamma</italic>), which causes damage to 20 species of vegetables, and species belonging to the genera <italic>Mamestra</italic>, <italic>Lacanobia</italic> and <italic>Anarta</italic>, which feed on more than 10 vegetable species. Of the polyphagous leaf roller moths (Tortricidae), the most numerous are the species belonging to the genus <italic>Cnephasia</italic>. Periodically, they pose a significant threat, among others for beetroot, pea, cucumber, and lettuce. The diamondback moth (<italic>Plutella xylostella</italic>) and the cabbage butterfly (<italic>Pieris rapae</italic>) are dominant butterfly pests on brassica vegetables. A component of harmful entomofauna on onion crops is leek moth (<italic>Acrolepiopsis assectella</italic>), a species permanently dominant on onion vegetables in Poland since 1930s. The species of the family Depressariidae cause the greatest damage on the generative organs of seed crops, mainly of dill, carrot and parsley. Underground parts of vegetable crops are damaged by cut-worms (Noctuidae), which belong to the group of soil-borne pests. Among more than 60 species belonging to this family, nine cause the greatest damage to vegetable crops. The turnip moth (<italic>Agrotis segetum</italic>), as a dominant species in recent years, accounted for about 80% of cutworms damaging vegetable crops, and prefers onion, leek, carrot, parsley, celery and corn. Although the European corn borer (<italic>Ostrinia nubilalis</italic>) is considered a polyphagous species, it forms the most abundant populations on maize out of all other crops.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-00112022-10-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Photoperiod and Temperature on the Life Table Parameters of Onion Thrips () Lineageshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the effect of photoperiod and temperature on the bionomics of the three <italic>Thrips tabaci</italic> lineages (L1 and L2 – leek-associated, and T – tobacco-associated). The experiment was performed in the laboratory under the following conditions: 23 °C 16L/8D and 8L/16D, and 15 °C under 8L/16D. Reproductive diapause was detected in the T lineage at 23 °C and 8L/16D, but not in the L1 and L2 lineages, while all three lineages diapaused at 15 °C and 8L/16D. Adult longevity of L1, L2, and T lineages were 29.51, 25.69, and 29.76, respectively, at 23 °C under 16L/8D; 30.9, 28.52, and 38.06, respectively, at 23 °C under 8L/16D; and 48.9, 34.22, and 76.89 days, respectively, at 15 °C. Mean fecundity of L1, L2, and T lineages were 89.30, 80.31, 86.76, respectively, at 23 °C under 16L/8D; 40.14, 46.94, and 39.34, respectively, at 23 °C under 8L/16D; and 7.0, 13.85, and 17.87, respectively, at 15 °C. The difference in responses to photoperiod and temperature could be a factor to cause a sympatric population variation of the different <italic>T. tabaci</italic> lineages under the same environmental condition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-00152022-10-15T00:00:00.000+00:001-Methylcyclopropene Maintains Firmness and Peel Color and Reduces Decay Area of Artificially Wounded Fruits in Mature Japanese Pear ( Nakai ‘Shizukisui’)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Recently, there has been an increasing need to prolong the quality of matured fruits to promote the distribution of fresh fruits to consumers and processing facilities. Studies have shown that 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene, can maintain the firmness and quality of several fruits for a long duration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of 1-MCP treatment on the firmness, rind color, and decay rate of the Japanese pear ‘Shizukisui’. Results showed that 1-MCP treatment alone and 1-MCP treatment after precooling significantly maintained the firmness of mature fruits compared with untreated fruits. However, the presence or absence of ethylene addition did not significantly affect fruit firmness; moreover, 1-MCP treatment after precooling tended to reduce moisture loss in immature fruits. Regarding the peel color of the fruits, 1-MCP treatment alone and 1-MCP after precooling treatment increased the L*, b*, and C* values of mature fruits but reduced the values in immature fruits. Compared with the control group, the 1-MCP treatment caused a decrease in the decay area of wounded ‘Shizukisui’ and ‘Kosui’ fruits and decreased the decay rate of wounded ‘Kosui’. Overall, this study showed that 1-MCP treatment maintained the firmness and peel color of Japanese pear and reduced its decay rate.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-00142022-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Modeling and Analysis of Root Branching Plasticity Based on Parrondo's Gamehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For different kinds of plants, the distribution of lateral roots is highly plastic in different growth environments. In particular, the branching distance of the roots plays a decisive role in the formation of the root system architecture. In many root-system architecture models, constant branching distances of different branching orders usually are used to simulate the dynamics of a root system architecture. However, little is known about the formation of lateral roots, and branching distances for different branching orders are variable in the actual root system. The resource allocation model for predicting the lateral root distribution in individual plants has been established based on Parrondo's game. The root branching data predicted by the model is compared with the actual root branching data. The results show that the proposed method can cause serious changes in the spacing and distribution of lateral root formation. A parameter called development window can be used to override interbranch distance in the root-system architecture models.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-00132022-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Plant Parasitic Nematodes on in Polandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Short-rotation woody plants of the genus <italic>Paulownia</italic> are attracting more and more attention as trees that produce biomass and reduce the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. However, plants growing in monoculture affect the properties and condition of the soil. One of the effects of changes in the soil environment is the growing population of plant parasitic nematodes (PPN). The article presents information about the PPN inhabiting the root zone of the <italic>Paulownia tomentosa</italic> plantation in Poland. In this study, the frequency and density of nematode populations in samples from seven plantations in Poland were determined. The extracted nematodes were identified at the species level on the basis of the male and female morphological characteristics according to several available identification resources. A total of 20 nematode species were identified, of which 9 were classified as accessory and 11 as occasional. Among them, <italic>Trichodorus viruliferus</italic> and <italic>Longidorus attenuatus</italic> belonging to the group of viral messengers were identified.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-00102022-07-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of Environmental Stresses on the Growth of Rosette Leaveshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Plant growth is constantly affected by biotic and abiotic stresses, which are especially expressed in plant leaves. Therefore, leaf phenotype is considered to be an important indicator of phenotypic plasticity in plants. The effects of various growth environmental factors on the final size of <italic>Arabidopsis thaliana</italic> rosette leaves and the number of leaves were analyzed in orthogonal tests using image analysis, and growth curves were estimated statistically. Finally, the optimum growth environment for <italic>A. thaliana</italic> Col-0 was determined. In this study, temperature, humidity, and light intensity were chosen as factors and studied at the three levels each (temperature: 22 °C, 25 °C, 28 °C; humidity: 50%, 65%, 80%; light intensity: 92 μmol·m<sup>−2</sup>·s<sup>−1</sup>; 184 μmol·m<sup>−2</sup>·s<sup>−1</sup>; 278 μmol·m<sup>−2</sup>·s<sup>−1</sup>). The results showed that light intensity was a major factor in the final leaf size, whereas for the number of plant leaves the most important was temperature. According to the major and minor order of environmental factors, the following scheme appeared to be optimal for <italic>A. thaliana</italic> growth: temperature 22 °C, humidity 50%, illumination intensity 184 μmol·m<sup>−2</sup>·s<sup>−1</sup>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-00082022-07-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Plant and Human Pathogenic Bacteria Exchanging their Primary Host Environmentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Adaptation of plant and human pathogenic bacteria to niches of existence differing from their original ones is a sophisticated mechanism for survival. Research indicates that certain plant bacterial pathogens are capable of causing disease in humans, and some human bacterial pathogens can inhabit the plant environment and cause disease in plants. The infection of humans by plant bacteria may occur at direct physical contact with diseased plants and/or via the respiratory tract in mainly immunocompromised or otherwise stressed individuals. Indirect transmitters of plant and human microbes can be wind, rain, dust, insects, and animals. Human pathogenic bacteria may contaminate the soil and irrigation water, colonize the rhizosphere, more rarely also the phyllosphere, and can survive as epiphytes. Thus, the plant environment may become a reservoir of human pathogens. A source of foodborne human pathogenic bacteria can be unprocessed or unwashed fruits and vegetables. Especially during the last decade, the processes underlying the cross-kingdom performance of pathogenic bacteria are intensively researched. However, in reality, the risk for human health at infections by plant bacteria and by human bacterial pathogens surviving in the plant environment is still underestimated. The goal of the current review is to increase the interest in these issues in agricultural and general environments. Some basic strategies for infection and symptoms of diseases caused by the microorganisms under consideration are described. The potency of certain plant bacterial pathogens to surpass barriers towards humans and the interaction of human bacterial pathogens with the plant environment are addressed and the existing information is critically discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-00092022-07-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Seed Germination of Raspberry ( L.) Depending on the Age of Seeds and Hybridization Partnershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Research was carried out on the germination of seeds obtained from crossings between the cultivars of red raspberry (<italic>Rubus idaeus</italic> L.) ‘Sokolica’, ‘Willamette’, ‘Veten’, ‘Canby’ and ‘Glen Ample’ depending on the age of the seeds. The crossings were performed in the winter–spring of 2015–2018 in a heated greenhouse. The obtained seeds were stored dry in paper bags at a temperature of 4–5 °C. In January 2019, seeds were scarified and then cold stratified for 50 days and seeded in pots in a greenhouse. The seedling emergence was assessed 60 days after sowing. The seeds produced in 2015 had the lowest germination percentage (14% on average for all combinations of crosses), while the seeds produced in 2018 had a germination rate of 44.9%. Significant differences were also observed in the emergence of seedlings from different combinations. On average, the fewest seedlings were obtained from the combination ‘Glen Ample’ × ‘Willamette’ and the most from ‘Sokolica’ × ‘Willamette’.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-00072022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Shelf-Life Prediction of Citrus Lemon Using a Multivariate Accelerated Shelf-Life Testing (MASLT) Approachhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The shelf life of agricultural products is characterized by several quality parameters simultaneously. Estimating the shelf life using the multivariate accelerated shelf-life testing (MASLT) approach is expected to provide a more accurate shelf-life prediction. This research aims to examine the effect of temperature storage on lemon fruit quality and predict their shelf life with the MASLT approach. A total of 21 lemons for each treatment (storage temperatures) were washed and stored at 25, 35, and 45 °C. Changes in the quality of lemons were observed every day for 7 days, including moisture content, weight loss, firmness, total soluble solids, and color. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to simplify many experimental lemon quality parameters to form a new coordinate system with maximum variance through linear transformation to form a new coordinate system with maximum variance. The results showed that 91.3% of the variance of all observational data could be explained by the first principal component (PC<sub>1</sub>). Multivariate kinetics of quality parameter changes following a zero-order reaction. The plot of ln k<sub>m</sub> against 1/T shows a multivariate activation energy value (E<sub>a</sub>) of 62.99 kJ·mol<sup>−1</sup> with a pre-exponential factor (k<sub>0</sub>) of 3.87 × 10<sup>10</sup> PC<sub>1</sub> score per day. The reaction acceleration factor (Q<sub>10</sub>) based on storage temperatures of 35 °C and 45 °C is 2.17. The results of the predicted shelf life at cold temperatures (10 °C) and room temperature (25 °C) were 60.0 days and 18.8 days, respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-00052022-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Ability of Three Species for Effective use of Giant Grass Composthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Pennisetum sinese</italic> is a giant grass with a fast-growing and high rooting rate, high sugar, protein content, and high biomass yield, which causes it to be an efficient and economic energy crop of high productivity, application in phytoremediation, and fodder production. The composting system of this grass that is adapted to the simplest formulation is easy and economically feasible in small farms for cultivating oyster mushrooms. In this study, giant grass compost was employed as a substrate for cultivating three <italic>Pleurotus</italic> species: <italic>P. florida</italic>, <italic>P. pulmonarius</italic>, and <italic>P. ostreatus</italic> to assess their enzyme activities, growth, and yields. Lignin peroxidase (LiP) was the most active enzyme in each species, while other enzymes were differently expressed between species and developmental phases. The average mass of fruiting bodies formed on the giant grass compost was 173.4 g, 166.5 g, and 152.2 g. The biological effectivity was 82.6%, 78.6%, and 72.5% for <italic>P. pulmonarius</italic>, <italic>P. ostreatus</italic>, and <italic>P. florida</italic>, respectively. The obtained results indicate the usefulness of giant grass compost for the cultivation of the three studied <italic>Pleurotus</italic> species.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-00062022-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00The Improvement of Tomato Shelf Life using Chitosan and Starfruit Leaf Extract as Edible Coatingshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to the high degree of perishability and vulnerability to spoilage, tomatoes have limited marketability, which leads to extensive postharvest losses. The edible coatings are generally used to extend the shelf life of fruits and vegetables; therefore, this study investigated the use of chitosan and starfruit leaf extract (SFLE) in the composition of edible coatings for tomato fruit. Firmness, total titratable acidity, reducing sugar content and microbial load were measured every 5 days for 25 days. The results showed that the addition of SLFE to chitosan did not enhance the antimicrobial effect or firmness over the effects made by a separate use of chitosan and SFLE. Both components improved the shelf life of tomato fruits compared to untreated tomatoes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-00042022-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Occurrence of Associated with Wood Rotting of Olive Trees in Iranhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In summer 2021 (June–July), disease symptoms on trunks and shoots were observed in olive groves in the Tarom Sofla region, Qazvin province, Iran. The symptoms were light-pink discoloration and surface depression in the external layers of the wood. As the disease progressed, brown streaks of tissue appeared on the longitudinal sections of the wood. The identification of fungus was made based on PCR amplification of the rDNA-ITS region with the universal fungal primers ITS5 and ITS4. BLAST searches revealed 99.52% identity to <italic>Stereum hirsutum</italic>. Several species of basidiomycetes are known to live on wood as saprobionts or parasites. On olive trees, they cause white rot symptoms. Although they are not directly responsible for tree mortality; however, they can lead to structural deterioration of woody tissues. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of <italic>S. hirsutum</italic> associated with wood rotting of olive trees in the world.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-00032022-06-11T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1