rss_2.0Journal of Intercultural Management FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Intercultural Management of Intercultural Management 's Cover on the Efficiency of Design Thinking and Lean Startup<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> In this article, the methods used to simplify the business modelling and founding of new companies are presented and critically reflected. Furthermore, it is discussed to what extent a specific method is advantageous, disadvantageous, applicable, not applicable, or even contradictory.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> The theoretical analysis is underpinned by a qualitative interview study asking company founders about applying the methods mentioned above. The work is based on scientific papers and books and is complemented by the data originating from a specially designed study.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> The results conclude that business model founding instruments provide strategic guidelines favouring entrepreneurs, yet they turn out to be minor in its real-life significance as numerous factors rooted in different fields of expertise play in.</p> <p><bold>Value Added:</bold> The added value of this paper is in the elaboration of efficiency bringing and risk-minimizing components of the methods, respectively. Accordingly, managers and entrepreneurs of all industries are intended to be equipped with sufficient information content that eases the decision for or against one of the methods as realistic expectations considering the application are likely to emerge.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> The limitations of this study are rooted in the chosen qualitative research since every interviewee is a subject to their individual perception.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Generational Differences in the Labour Market – Three Confounded Effects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> Many research claim that Millennials value work ethic much lower and leisure time much higher than older generations. Most of them are based on cross-sectional analyses of data collected at one time. This design confounds the COHORT effect (born in the same time period and thus exposed to the same cultural forces during their formative socialization period) and biological AGE, and it makes it impossible to separate them. Our goal is to demonstrate how to empirically separate the confounded effects of APC (biological AGE – PERIOD of measurement – COHORT) in a simple way.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> Three generations (Baby Boomers, X-ers and Millennials) from the representative Polish samples of the World Value Survey, were cross-sectionally compared, and a cross-lagged comparison was made between BB in 2005 vs X in 2020, and between X in 2005 and Millennials in 2020.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> It was shown that significant cross-sectional differences in attitudes toward work between the 3 generation (with the highest score for Baby Boom-ers and the lowest for Millennials) cannot be explained by age differences. Over the period of 15 years, the importance of leisure time has increased for all generations (PERIOD effect).</p> <p><bold>Value Added:</bold> The paper highlights significant methodological problem: the confounding effect of APC in most generational findings. It promotes the idea of using nationally representative samples from publicly available data like World Value Survey, instead of collecting convenience samples.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> Greater methodological rigour in generational studies is recommended, as their results can create/support stereotypes that tend to generate individual expectations (e.g. every Millennial is computer literate or lazy), ignoring the fact that intra-generational variability is very high.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The Nexus between Uncertainty Avoidance Culture and Risk-taking Behaviour in Entrepreneurial Firms’ Decision Making<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Purpose:</bold> The concerted effect of national culture and risk-taking behaviour of individuals on decision-making has not been given much attention in the literature. This paper, thus, attempts to investigate how the two variables, separately and jointly, affect the decision-making of firms.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> The review pursues systematic literature review methodology. The keywords constituted in a series of search queries include risk-taking, or risk-taking behaviour, risk taking propensity, risk aversion, uncertainty avoidance, uncertainty avoidance national culture, fear of unknown or future, and uncertainty avoidance culture and risk-taking. The review of the studies addresses more than thirty-five countries over the years 1975–2021.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> The review result re-boosts the existing negative relationship between a high uncertainty avoidance culture and risk-taking behaviour. When the level of risk-taking is increased, the effect of uncertainty avoidance culture gets decreased, which thereof helps to reduce resistance to change in firms. The latter institutes a greater fear of failure, lower level of ambition, and less tolerance for ambiguity that result in low risk-taking appetite. Their concurrent effect is realized in various decision-making contexts including firms’ entry and investment decisions, customer buying decisions, self – versus group decisions, and policy decisions.</p> <p><bold>Value Added:</bold> As a result, firms may need to consider the risk-taking behaviour and uncertainty avoidance culture of employees for certain jobs, consumers for marketing, managers for an international assignment in risky positions, and of individual countries for business expansion. The study claims to have added significant value to the practical and theoretical discourse of uncertainty avoidance national culture and risk-taking behaviour in business decision-making scenarios.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00A New Perspective for Marketing: The Impact of Social Media on Customer Experience<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of social media on customer experience and how companies can use social media to enhance the experience of customers.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> Literature synthesis method was followed to trace out and analyse the data. The EBSCO Discovery of Science and Google Scholar databases were used to find the articles. Over thirty articles were produced from the total (190) search query results after applying limiters, deleting duplicates, and enforcing non-business settings.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> Social media has a considerable impact on customer experience due to its widespread and easy access by customers. It enabled companies to classify customers, get a lot of information about them, and get very fast feedback about their impressions related to their product or services. Social media may have a positive or negative impact on customer experience, so the role of management is important to manage these media in a way that will benefit the company and support it to achieve its objectives.</p> <p><bold>Value Added:</bold> This article provides a clear picture on exploring the impact of social media on customer experience. The results of the research can be used to guide companies on how to use social media to enhance the experience of customers.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> Companies should smartly manage social media and employ qualified staff to improve the customer’s experience and avoid the side effects that this type of media may have on customer experience. In addition, customer experience should be a strategic goal because it helps the company meet its overall goals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The Business Process of Small and Medium Portuguese Family Businesses: A Reindustrialization Case Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> To understand, through a concrete case study, the management process of small and medium-sized Portuguese family businesses in the face of the phenomenon of reindustrialization in Europe. In this case study we show how a company can react to the process by adopting a new management model, despite the factory being almost inactive for several years. The final idea is to demonstrate that this is a new reindustrialization movement, which does not perform in the same way as in the past.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> Considering that we want an innovative and continuously learning organization, we intend to develop from a theoretical point of view the European Foundation for Quality model (EFQM) and then apply the improvement and management actions in each one of its aspects in order to promote and evaluate permanent and continuous improvement. For this proposal we use the change and organizational development method.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> Leadership is a topic with particular importance in this process of transformation, and in this case in particular, through changes in the shareholder body, generational changes and especially by the inclusion of the professional management team, for the improvement of the key performance indicators, including the EFQM score.</p> <p><bold>Value Added:</bold> The implementation of a management model will lead management to a leadership style conducive to value creation and results in terms of quality, and human and financial capital based on effective organizational performance.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> Phased implementation, with the creation and development of pilot areas, is particularly beneficial to an organization’s culture, and also for engaging people via the cascading communication process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative Research of Central and Eastern European Startup Researches Based on Artificial Intelligence-Based Natural Language Processing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> In our study, we analyze Central and Eastern European (CEE) scientific papers published in peer-reviewed scientific journals between 2015 and 2021. We examine what category systems and methods are used in Central and Eastern European start-up researches in the recent years.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> Our used methodology was structured literature review analysis and artificial intelligence-based natural language processing which is one of the most evolving methodological directions in economics and social sciences at present but it is very rarely used in review analysis of startup research.</p> <p><bold>Value Added:</bold> The NLP method has not been widely used for the analysis of the startup literature. Furthermore, our study is the first which analyzes CEE startups research with NLP technique.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> Based on our results, it can be stated that CEE startup researches follow the big global startup research narratives. However, a specific conceptual network is also emerging which contains several shifts of emphasis compared to the directions of global research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Internal Corporate Social Responsibility Preferences of Young Job Seekers with Regard to Sustainable HRM: Are These CSR Preferences Related to Their Personal Value Orientations?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> In order to increase corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities with organizations, the support of employees in times of climate change is crucial: employees with CSR awareness of sustainability and their subsequent extra-role work behavior are an asset to an organization. Sustainable HRM promotes sustainable employee behavior. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between personal values orientations and internal CSR preferences which increase subsequent sustainable employee behavior fostered by sustainable HRM practices. Specifically, our central research question here examines the extent to which personal value orientations predicts internal CSR preferences towards sustainable employee behavior. In this paper, we look at this issue from the perspective of young, highly qualified job seekers who have to face issues of sustainability.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> We conducted an integrative literature review of empirical studies on internal CSR and sustainable HRM. In addition, we reviewed the application and relationship of Schwartz’s personal values framework and employees’ internal CSR preferences.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> The findings conclude that the relationship between personal value orientations of employees and their preferences in the focus of the company’s internal CSR is heterogeneous, as positive vs. negative paths between personal values and internal CSR preferences were identified. Further, different scales for internal CSR dimensions were applied.</p> <p><bold>Value Added:</bold> Based on previous studies we develop an integrative internal CSR framework (with employee vs. organizational dimensions) that could be applied in organizations to measure their internal CSR maturity level and be supported by the specific, sustainable HRM practices discussed.</p> <p>In addition, we dealt with the question of how the connection between the personal value orientations of potential candidates or employees and their internal CSR preferences can be proven in field research.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> Based on recent heterogeneous study results, we identify five research gaps and propose research design ideas for future research. Practical implications are also discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Resources, Intangible Assets, Competencies, Capabilities and Algerian SMEs’ Performance: Strategy as Mediator<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The object of this study is to empirically examine Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) performance through the prism of strategic management theory.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> We apply Resource-Based-View into our research to explain the relationship of a firm’s performance with Resource factors and firm strategy. Fifty Algerian SMEs from the northwest region are targeted and PLS statistical analysis is applied to produce valid results.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> Results show a direct positive relationship between firm strategy and resource factors with a firm’s performance. A direct positive relationship of resource factors with firm strategy is also recorded. However, the mediator role of the strategy is rejected.</p> <p><bold>Value Added:</bold> Research on Algerian SMEs’ performance has intensified in recent years, but few empirical studies have explored the influence of environmental, resource, and strategy factors related to performance.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> The study makes a compelling case for strengthening government intervention alongside national Algerian SMEs, particularly those belonging to the industrial sector. It is an intervention that will specifically target the improvement, or even the simplification of the tax or quasi-tax system, banks’ credit standards flexibility (financial resources), and above all, substantive managerial support that could allow our SMEs to manage their resources better and acquire and develop new ones to provide higher performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00School Leadership: A Narrative Review of Literature<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of empirical studies on school leadership across the globe and then specifically for public high schools in Vietnam. There are very few studies done on the leadership of school leaders in Vietnamese public schools and how leadership can affect the school’s overall performance. Hence this review aims to address this gap and provide a review of leadership practices, the effect of school leadership which might enhance the leadership at public high schools in Vietnam</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> Narrative systematic review was conducted by identifying the papers published in educational journals were analyzed using different databases and based on the main findings of those papers, the review of the literature was written.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> The review suggested that there are differences in the leadership styles practiced in Vietnam as compared to the rest of the world. The leaders in Vietnamese schools do not have full autonomy to make the decisions and MOET (Ministry of Education and Training) plays a significant role in making decisions.</p> <p><bold>Value added:</bold> This review of literature has aimed to fill the gap regarding the educational leadership system in the Vietnamese high school context whereas very limited studies have focused on this and how leadership can impact school performance in general.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> This review can prove to be an effective document for government authorities in Vietnam and other worldwide schools where the leaders might not be given the full autonomy to make the decisions and hence might have an effect on teachers and students’ satisfaction levels in the schools. Hence, it is important to provide some autonomy to leaders at least at micro-level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Entrepreneurial Desire for Outmigration: A Validated Measure<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The objective of this study was to understand the personal and inter- personal pressures entrepreneurial individuals feel to pursue opportunities out- side their home country.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> Entrepreneurs in Mexico were given a survey regarding personal and interpersonal pressures to out migrate.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> Exploratory factor analysis showed three valid factors for outmigration: personal preference, social pressure, and perception of opportunities.</p> <p><bold>Value Added:</bold> The instrument developed offers an overall Outmigration Tendency (OT) score which can provide valuable insight into why entrepreneurs choose to emigrate. This appears to be the first instrument to measure outmigration pressure and to be validated internationally.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> The tendency score resulting from the survey can help researchers and policy makers understand the likelihood of a worker leaving his/her country to seek work opportunities elsewhere.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Trends and Future of Corporate Entrepreneurship in Indonesia in the Post-Pandemic Era by Using Descriptive Quantitative and Cross-sectional Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> The main driving objective of this research is focused on revealing entrepreneurship trends that businesses can utilize to remain competitive in the market and grow toward achieving their goals in Indonesia. Also, this research explains the entrepreneurship future, what to do, and how to offset the prevalent challenges.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> The best method of research used in this study is the descriptive quantitative and cross-sectional study based on the available trends which are believed to occur in the future. The methodologies used in this research give it more accuracy on how to achieve all the set targets. Secondary sources of data enable the researcher to acquire the skills through which they will be used as the bridge recognizing the trends available in the realm of entrepreneurship. The data was collected from the BPS-Indonesian Central Statistics Agency.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> This study reveals the significant factors that can be used to sustain corporate entrepreneurship in the post-pandemic era. Utilizing the descriptive quantitative and cross-sectional study in the research, the study collected the relevant information on entrepreneurship and how the future trends will affect the need for the advancement in technology, therefore creating more job opportunities.</p> <p><bold>Limitation:</bold> The main limitation to this research was finding substantive information that suits the identified time frame with relevant data. The research requires the incorporation of various studies and surveys. Moreover, some of the entrepreneurship publications relevant to be used in this study were not written in English. Also, this study used mapping of reviews, which have some weaknesses since some of them are limited to time.</p> <p><bold>Value Added and Recommendations:</bold> This research significantly contributes to essential areas in business in Indonesia since there are scarce studies like this regarding entrepreneurship in the post-pandemic era. The research has indicated that it is necessary to treat entrepreneurship education as a priority by policymakers, governments, and educators.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Performance Evaluation in the Inter-Institutional Collaboration Context of Hybrid Smart Cities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The smart city is defined as a mix of urban strategies aimed at optimizing and innovating public services. Current cities are hybrid and affected by complex systems with inter-institutional collaboration. This study aims to understand which variables are most present and important according to the literature review and comparative analysis of two case studies.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> The authors have chosen the emerging smart city of Turin and Lugano to conduct a cross-analysis based on the matrix proposed by Yin (2017). This research is characterized as a holistic study of multiple cases.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> The research was carried out thanks to results produced by literature and emerging from the analysis of realities exposed, to assess the performance of projects and urban sustainability. A set of 71 indicators has been designed to assess the impacts of a smart city. 5 Indicators are related to management performance, 18 to governance and 48 to reporting.</p> <p><bold>Value Added:</bold> This research aims to implement the theory of information reporting by providing guidelines for indicators in inter-institutional, cross-sectoral and multi-level contexts maximising smart factors in cities and meeting stakeholder needs in a hybrid organization.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> Future research is recommended to confirm the relevant indicators for stakeholders associated with communication methods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Expectations Towards International Study Visits – Preliminary Research Findings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The objective of this paper is to present the preliminary research findings concerning the expectations towards international study visits undertaken by university students hailing from different higher education institutions around Europe on the canvas of internationalization as a concept.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> The research was carried out on a group of 440 students from 5 European countries. The study covered the population of students of faculties whose graduates are preparing to work in business. The basic research tool was a questionnaire with dominating closed questions and the possibility for respondents to indicate more than one answer. The answers of the respondents were measured using a five-point Likert scale with a variable description of the minimum and maximum point value. When analyzing the data, descriptive statistics were used. The Kruskal Wallis test was used to determine whether there was a significant difference in mean ranks across attribute ratings.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> The results highlight significant common features of students’ expectations towards international mobility programs: personal development orientation, interest in contact with employers and professional environment, willingness to try themselves in new challenges by developing creative and communication skills in an international environment.</p> <p>Value Added: This article is an important voice on the impact of mobility programs on the competencies development of future graduates. The final results of the research can be used to improve the mobility and educational programs offered by universities which equip their students with major skills, knowledge and attitudes in the future workplace.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> The highest-valued components of international study visits do not fully reflect the expectations of employers, and the study of the reasons for these discrepancies, as well as reflection on how to minimize them in the process of academic teaching, remain a significant challenge for the practice of building competencies sought in the labour market.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Tourism, Hospitality and COVID-19: Business Challenges and Transformations; the Case of Destination and Resort Planning, Development, and Policy Framework<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> This paper aims at restoring tourism and hospitality economic sectors following the negative impacts of the COVID-19. It addresses how behaviour changes can impact the global economy and the relationship between the COVID-19 and the economic development of a country as well as the policy measures to restore the global economy. The findings from this research will be useful to the tourism and hospitality sectors of the global economies. The recommendations from the study are helpful in decision-making when restoring the global economy.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> To pursue its aim, the study uses Strength Weakness Opportunities Threats (SWOT Analysis). This method helps determine the strategic factors that will ensure the global economy's restoration during the COVID-19 period. Additionally, an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method helps prioritize the strategic factors to provide the most effective is used.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> The research findings indicate that the knowledge that people adapt is constant. Since abrupt changes in behaviour among individuals in the global context is a challenge, the report observes the need to adjust to the new action, especially when adapting to new geographical locations. The tourism sector, for instance, suffers majorly. Notably, most countries are on an economic standstill; this is attributable to the increasing financial crisis because of bans on international travel. Further, the research reflects the pandemic's emergency, especially in the economic, political, and socio-cultural sectors. Concerning the relationship between the pandemic and the global economy, the research observes a backpedalling characterized by low growth in the global gross domestic product (GDP), a significant determinant of economic development in many countries. Economic research indicates poorly productive economies, reduced consumption of locally manufactured goods, and employment losses.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> The report recommends developing new mechanisms and policy measures besides behavioural changes to restore the global economy. However, variations, complications, and modifications characterize these measures. Additionally, the research's proposed strategies acknowledge that the economy's tourism and hospitality sectors require reinstation from income employment, social inclusion, and socio-economic solidarity. Reinstation is also mandatory in cultural exchange and peaceful coexistence.</p> <p><bold>Value-added:</bold> The results indicate that COVID-19 will break down the tourism sector's economic development structure; hence, strategic initiatives will be vital in achieving the economy's sustainable tourism and hospitality sectors. The inclusion of production and consumption is related to the current global economy due to the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00The Influence of Culture on Collaborative Learning Practices in Higher Education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> This study systematically identifies the various pertinent cultural dimensions and the group processes involved in collaborative peer learning before empirically exploring their associations among a sample of university students.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> Twenty statements encompassing various cultural dimensions that could possibly influence students’ preferences towards collaborative peer learning practices were incorporated into a survey. The data were collected from 147 multicultural students studying applied sciences in Finland. Chi-squared test of independence was used to test the association between the cultural dimension scores for students and their stated preferences for collaborative learning practices.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> A major finding of this study is that learners from diverse cultural backgrounds have differing modes of engaging in the eight separate collaborative learning processes. The findings clearly reveal that students from cultures that are hierarchical, collectivist, less bound by rules, and traditional are less likely to have any prior familiarity with peer-learning methods. It seems relatively clear that the power distance and collectivism dimensions have the greatest impact on shaping the preferences of students for collaborative peer-learning methods.</p> <p><bold>Value Added:</bold> Very few studies have looked at how the cultural backgrounds of students can influence their use of, and preferences towards, collaborative peerlearning methods. This study identifies key processes in collaborative learning practices, which are shaped by culture as communication, decision-making, leadership, evaluation, trust building, the expression of disagreement, scheduling, and persuasion within a peer group.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> This study found that Hofstede’s framework might be too constraining when understanding how culture shapes a student’s preferences towards collaborative peer learning in the educational context. It would be even more fruitful to develop an altogether endogenous framework that is more suitable for exploring the influence of culture on learning and education. Such a model should identify the various dimensions of culture beyond those of national identity and consider how they jointly influence attitudes towards collaborative learning rather than considering them in isolation. This model should also take a more dynamic approach towards both culture and learning.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Generational Diversity among Teachers in the Workplace: Implications for Teacher Relationships, Identity and Development<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> This contribution aims to introduce a conceptual framework on generational diversity of teachers in order to analyze and understand its influence on the processes and results of professional interaction in schools.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> In this conceptual piece, first, the relevance of generational diversity among teachers in their workplace is examined and justified, emphasizing the increasing aging of teaching staff. Next, generational diversity is explored by analyzing the concept of generation and the attributes used to distinguishing generations (particularly, age). Furthermore, evidence is considered regarding the impact on the construction of teacher relationships, paying particular attention to the context of collaborative relationships between teachers belonging to different generations and its effects on teacher learning and identity.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> Conclusions are drawn as to the potentialities of intergenerational learning.</p> <p><bold>Value added:</bold> Despite representing a clear challenge for the educational organizations, generational diversity and intergenerational collaboration among teachers and school leaders have been scarcely studied so far.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> Conclusions are drawn as to the potentialities of intergenerational learning and implications for professional induction and collegial professional development are presented as well.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Does Polish Post-Communist Cultural Burden Influence the Perception of Creative Identities?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> Post-communist countries, affected by decades of one of the most repressive political systems, are perceived as a particular area of gaps in social capital. These gaps influence the whole spectrum of behaviors of individuals, groups, and society. Countries that changed their political system start a journey of external (economic, social) and internal (personal, interpersonal, group) changes. The post-communist burden determines human behavior, so leaders and managers should pay attention to these consequences. The research deals with the differences in perception of creative identities (a creator, artist, manager, entrepreneur, and leader) by Polish society compared to other countries without communist history.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> Quantitative research (n = 160) in the form of a survey among people from Poland and other countries. Verification of hypotheses by chisquare test of independence used (SPSS, MS Excel). Next, a qualitative analysis of discrepancies was undertaken (NVivo).</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> There are no statistical differences in the perception of creative identities of a creator, artist, manager, entrepreneur, and leader between citizens of Poland and citizens of other countries. The additional qualitative analysis exposed that differences in perception of the creative identities between investigated societies might have necessary consequences while managing or leading groups (and organizations) dominated by creative individuals. These differences are shown in detail, and links between our research results and the literature are built.</p> <p><bold>Value Added:</bold> It looks like a post-communist burden in current Poland has a minimal impact on the perception of creative individuals. Thus, it can be said that communism disappears from the social capital during one generation (ca. 30 years).</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> Further research exploring the perception of creative identities by different analogical groups of compared societies would be valuable.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00The Role of Virtual Experiences in Increasing Knowledge, Motivation, Independence and Cultural Capital from Disadvantaged Pupils in England<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> To investigate the impact of virtual learning experiences (VLEs) in school amongst disadvantaged 9 to 11-year-olds: specifically, do virtual experiences increase their knowledge, motivation and independence in learning about a topic, and does this increase their cultural capital.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> Participants explored virtual experiences on countries around the world, with the number of facts learnt before and after recorded. Questionnaires were also completed to record views of virtual experiences.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> Findings suggest virtual experiences were successful in teaching participants new information, and increased their independence and motivation to engage with learning, and thus could be successful in increasing cultural capital. Significance difference testing revealed that disadvantaged pupils recorded fewer facts than non-disadvantaged pupils, and therefore virtual experiences were not sufficient to close this disadvantage gap.</p> <p><bold>Value Added:</bold> The value of virtual experiences being woven into curriculums is discussed as a platform for teaching cultural knowledge. Recommendations: Virtual learning experiences should be considered a core resource for teachers when planning and should be embedded into the curriculum to enhance learning experiences for disadvantaged pupils. Further research should continue to explore the use of VLEs in Primary schools, and the impact of VLEs on cultural capital.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00 – the Use of Storytelling in Consultancy Leadership to Influence Behaviour Changes Post 2020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The authors of this chapter were inspired by the parallels they saw between education and management consultancy in terms of the behavioural change, and the methods used to achieve this. They seek to explore these parallels in particular the use of storytelling.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> The chapter first unpicks the notion of storytelling and goes on to examine the idea of behavioural change and the connection between the two. It goes deeper by rooting this in adult transformational learning. This is then linked to some real-life examples (recruitment and consultancy) of storytelling and adult learning.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> The chapter considers some implications for the use of narrative for leaders moving forward into a post-pandemic world.</p> <p><bold>Value Added:</bold> Combining narrative with adult learning theory and comparing the world of business with education.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> It is our hope that examination of this intersection will provide lessons relevant to both the education and business professions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Tourist Accommodation Establishments during the Pandemic – Consequences and Aid Report on a Survey among Polish Micro-enterprises Offering Accommodation Services<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The key objective of the article was to seek the answer to the question how the limitations of the first COVID-19-related lockdown affected small businesses offering accommodation services and how the businesses fared during the unlocking period. The side objective of the paper was to identify the actions undertaken in said businesses aimed at providing safety for the guests as well as to show the expectations such businesses had when it came to government aid.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> In order to meet the objectives and to verify the working hypothesis, empirical research using the diagnostic survey method was conducted at the end of 2020. The article provides the results of the pilot survey carried out on a selected group of microbusinesses providing accommodation services. The link to the questionnaire was sent to 1000 entities, of which 47 completed it correctly.</p> <p><bold>Findings:</bold> The tourist industry is among those affected most by the COVID-10 pandemic. The research revealed that during the first lockdown, the closure of accommodation businesses had a relatively strong impact on the subjects of the research. The situation remained similar during the first months of lifting of the restrictions. The summer brought a slight recovery albeit not as big as was expected. Nevertheless, strong premises were found which supported the hypothesis saying that such subjects – due to their size-dependent nature – fared relatively well in all three sub-periods. For the most part, such entities re-started their operations in spring. In many of them, the level of employment remained unchanged despite the significant drop in their incomes – mainly resulting from a lower number of foreign visitors and - to a lesser extent – from lower prices. The struggle for customers forced the subjects to introduce various solutions aimed at providing safety, which proved a considerable financial and organisational burden.</p> <p><bold>Value added:</bold> The research is one of the first attempts in Poland to measure the impact of lockdown on the functioning of accommodation businesses and one of the few focusing on microbusinesses. The findings show to what extent the lockdown affected the operations of the entities in question, how the lifting of restrictions changed the situation in the summer, and what actions were taken to minimize the risk of infection.</p> <p><bold>Recommendations:</bold> The findings show that the analysed entities are able to function in sanitary regime and that they support solutions which will allow them to offer their services in as safe a way as possible. On the other hand, they expect strong support from the state including subsidies or exemptions. It is to be expected that the need for this form of aid will grow even stronger after further lockdowns.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1