rss_2.0Journal of Language and Cultural Education FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Language and Cultural Education of Language and Cultural Education Feed teachers’ attitudes towards artificial intelligence and its integration into EFL teaching and learning<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Even though artificial intelligence (AI) is no new occurrence, with its beginnings dating back to the 1950s, its use has gained popularity worldwide, especially in recent years, and its presence and importance has grown in many areas of human lives, including education. Surveys conducted internationally have found generally positive attitudes of university students towards artificial intelligence (AI) and its inclusion into various fields of research and study. However, only few research probes have been conducted among students of philology and future language teachers. No such research has been conducted among university students or pre-service EFL teachers in Central Europe. This paper aims to fill this gap in educational research knowledge, as knowing teachers’ and teacher students’ attitudes towards AI can be a key factor in the success or failure of applying AI in education. Therefore, the aim of the study is to determine the level of knowledge and dominant attitudes towards AI in general, AI in learning/teaching EFL and the inclusion of AI in the teacher training curriculum among pre-service EFL teachers in Slovakia.</p> <p>To collect data from the respondents, a cross-sectional survey in the form of a KAP questionnaire was conducted in November-December 2022. 137 pre-service English language teachers responded to a pre-tested online questionnaire consisting of 19 closed-ended (5-point Likert scale) items and one open-ended question.</p> <p>Slovak EFL pre-service teachers were equally interested (38.67%) and uninterested (39.42%) in the ongoing discussion about AI in education. Overall, they self-reported having no (61.31%) or unsatisfactory (21.17%) understanding of the basic computational principles of AI. On the other hand, they were significantly more satisfied with their knowledge of AI-based applications for EFL teaching, which they considered adequate (35.04%). Nevertheless, almost half of the students (45.25%) rated their knowledge as inadequate. It was therefore encouraging to learn that 64.24% of the respondents agreed that AI education should be included in their university curriculum and had predominantly positive expectations of AI and its application in education. 63.50% of them agreed with the statement that AI will improve education in general (compared to only 18.98% who disagreed). They shared a predominantly positive attitude towards the incorporation of AI into EFL and showed their optimistic expectations regarding the impact of AI on teaching and learning English as a foreign language. Slovak EFL pre-service teachers did not express any concerns about the future of their profession. However, a majority of them (53.28%) agreed that EFL teachers might lose some of their skills when using AI in their practice and a significant number (42.33%) feared that AI would make EFL teaching less personal. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted internationally.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of professional education focusing on the teaching of the Slovak Language as a Foreign Language in the context of emigration processes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Society in Slovakia is currently determined by upheavals that are linked to global events. Slovak education is most significantly affected by the war in Ukraine. It is connected with the emigration of foreigners to our territory and the subsequent inclusion of pupils with a different language in primary and secondary schools. Based on this extraordinary situation, there is a need to respond to it flexibly and efficiently. Appropriate management mechanisms based on the principles of school management and educational technology are required with a focus on ensuring adequate preparation of Slovak language teachers for teaching pupils whose mother tongue is other than Slovak. Effective tools for solving the situation has not been created by the Slovak education system. The fulfillment of this challenge is the necessary implementation of an analysis of the high-quality educational needs of teachers and the subsequent implementation of its results for the creation of a suitable educational platform, either as part of undergraduate training or further professional education of teaching staff.</p> <p>The presented study is therefore focused on the description of the theoretical foundations of the term professional education of Slovak language and literature teachers with an emphasis on the teaching of the Slovak language as a foreign language. The results of empirical research identifying and analyzing the educational needs of the concerned teaching staff through adequate research methods are included. At the end of the scientific study, the key determinants of the creation of specific educational programs intended for the education of pupils with a mother tongue other than Slovak will be presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in selected contemporary Amharic novel<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article aims to analyse the representation of melancholy and to find out the causes and effects of melancholy in the characters in the selected Amharic novels (with reference to the novel Yäqənat Zār (“Zār of Jealousy”). It employs the intrinsic psychoanalytic theory of literature specifically theory of mourning and melancholy. This study is sought with interpretative paradigm, a qualitative approach and descriptive research design to reveal the issue of the novel. The object of the study is novel by Sisay Nigusu Yäqənat Zār (“Zār of Jealousy). It describes how someone (Literary characters in the novel) developed melancholia after the loss of someone loved. The findings of the study indicate that the major characters experienced melancholy, as evidenced by their altered behaviour, alignment, self-blame, death wishes, and paralysis. It was also discovered that the reason behind her melancholy was the unexpected passing of her partner, as well as the loss of his wife and family, respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in the context of journalistic and literary texts<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Feuilleton is a hybrid genre. This genre is important for both literature and journalism because it has literary and journalistic characteristics. There are different opinions about the genre characteristics of feuilleton. So, in studies, it is sometimes characterized only as a journalistic genre. Although some of the studies pay attention to its literary peculiarities, they do not mention its journalistic peculiarities. There are also studies that examine the genre in both literary and journalistic contexts, and such a complex approach is of great importance to the analysis of the genre. Based on the ideas about the hybridity of the genre, our opinion on this matter is that when examining the feuilleton, it is important to thoroughly study it, taking into account the fact that it is a hybrid genre. When conducting research, all features should be studied, no feature should be left out of the study. The artistic colors of feuilleton are distinguished by their realistic and sharp lines. Here, the events are given in all their reality. This is one of the points that form the basis of journalistic works. In this article, the feuilleton genre is examined in the context of literary-journalistic genre; the history of feuilleton, its main features, and its literary and journalistic aspects are studied.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue negotiations as a teaching tool in the ESP classroom<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Courses of English for Specific Purposes are offered by many universities, yet the potential these courses have to enhance learning in the students´ field of study is sometimes neglected. This article describes one effective method, focusing on the use of simulated negotiations as a teaching tool in the ESP course for political scientists. Simulated negotiations have been used in teaching of political science, international relations, diplomacy and related fields for many years but so far, their use outside political science courses has not been described. Relying on personal experience, we not only outline the steps needed to run a successful simulation in the ESP classroom, but also look at the benefits simulated negotiations bring both within and outside the ESP course. Participant feedback shows that apart from developing English language proficiency, simulated negotiations in ESP classes also enhance the students´ understanding of topics and issues from the field of political science. Another perceived benefit is the development and cultivation of transferrable / soft skills. Closer cooperation between language centres and individual university departments may lead to such modifications of the ESP syllabus that will complement both the ESP course and specialised courses from the students´ field of study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Ibaloi Ba’diw: Defining Conventions through Formalistic and Sociolinguistic Standpoints<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study generally determined the literary conventions in contemporary Ibaloi ba’diw as a genre. It aimed to draw the figurative language and theme reflected in the ba’diw text; and, classify valuable insights contained by the select ba’diw pieces by occasion. It employed a qualitative approach to research specifically the text analysis method highlighting formalistic and sociolinguistic approaches in literary criticism. The pieces were found to be replete with the following figurative language: character, symbolism, connotation, repetition, personification, apostrophe, and family-name wording. Themes considered the occasion where these are chanted. Alongside these are valuable insights on “adivay” or social gathering, high regard for elders and the spirit of the dead, sacredness of marriage and family life, and the group’s daily activities. It is recommended that audio-visual documentation on the ba’diw may be designed purposely for information, persuasion, and entertainment; studies to determine the foreign influence on Ibaloi ba’diw in pursuit of discovering the Ibaloi poetics may be conducted; a center on Ibaloi language may be established; and, further research like ways of documenting oral literature, in general, may be further explored.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue mega-metaphor DEATH AS A LIVING BEING in 16th-17th century Latin mourning poetry of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article analyses anthropomorphic characteristics of death, specifically the mega-metaphor DEATH IS A LIVING BEING, manifested in the 16th-17th Century Latin mourning poetry by Vilnius Academy students. Employing the Metaphor Identification Procedure (MIP) method, the study systematically identifies and analyzes the conceptual metaphors within these works. Focusing on the anthropomorphic attributes of death, the research reveals that death was personified as a CAPTURER, GRIM REAPER, ENEMY, ANCIENT MYTHICAL FIGURE in the poetic tradition of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. This analysis provides insights into the conceptualization of mortality during the late Renaissance and Baroque periods, unraveling the complex interplay between life, death, and human emotions. Additionally, the article serves as a methodological exemplar, demonstrating the application of MIP in historical literary texts and cataloging valuable resources for scholars and those interested in the mourning poetry of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue on education through multilingual language policy in South African schools<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Even though multilingual education has been in existence for a long time, the new era has brought another contestation around this educational substitute. Multilingual education which is often realized through multilingual language policy seems to be the best way to prepare future generations to participate in constructing democratic societies in and intercultural world. South Africa is no exception to this development. The language policy and governance in the schooling system of South Africa cannot be seen in isolation from that of the rest of the African continent and the world. This article disinters the extent to which the bodies responsible for the governing of schools in South Africa can formulate and implement language policies that serve the demographic language interest of societies that they serve. This article contextualizes the rights-based approach through fostering a deeper understanding of how different participants and role players in the education system can form the links between rights and participation with a view to bringing about change in language policy formulation and implementation in schools.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of moral education by teachers of foreign languages<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Teaching a foreign language is often associated with the development of communicative competence, interpersonal and social development, but also with the development of intercultural competence, aesthetic sensitivity, etc., as when learning a second language, the topics of literature, geographical and cultural differences with respect to the language and culture of the countries speaking the language are discussed. FL is the subject which can provide pupils with the greatest scope for developing the various components of education, as is documented by a review of the literature and teaching methods used abroad to teach a FL. A total of 342 teachers from Slovakia participated in the survey, 55 of them FL teachers. In our research, we focused on three areas, namely, 1) finding out the conditions for implementing moral education in primary school, 2) finding out whether foreign language teachers implement the moral component of education depending on their own moral setting, and 3) academic dishonesty in the context of assessing dishonest practices in pupils and academic dishonesty in teachers during their studies. Teachers participated in the research voluntarily and could refuse to complete the last section. 1) The results show that, FL teachers (N = 55) rate the need for moral education as the most important, but they are mostly concerned with intellectual (M = 4.09), physical (M = 3.56) and environmental education (M = 3.47) in the application of the different components of education. For better application of moral education, they would need adequate and quality training (67.3%) and methodological materials (78.2%). 2) it was found that teachers consider themselves as the basis of moral behaviour (M = 4.7) and at the same time, explicit rules set by them are important for them (M=3.75). Teachers do not trust in the moral behaviour of children and society (M = 2.25), which was also reflected in the fact that the treatment of moral topics is mainly done by the method of explanation (85.5%) and the method of example (80%). 3) Teachers rated the factor of gaining one’s own advantage (M = 4.27) significantly more negatively (N2 = 45; Z = -5.225; p = 0.0001) than the factor of cooperating with others (M = 3.24). On the other hand, FL teachers (N3 = 44) reported their academic dishonesty in terms of occurrence most frequently as a form of cooperation (M = 2.68). Relatively, they defined getting unearned benefits with external help (M = 2.16) or in a utilitarian manner (M = 1.72). We discuss ways to help develop moral education and support teachers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and AI-powered tools for pronunciation training<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Artificial intelligence (AI) is taking over many spheres of human life, including language pedagogy. While some areas need to find their ground with AI and resolve ethical issues arising from its use, other spheres of education, such as pronunciation, may benefit from the system’s ability to communicate with learners and provide them with implicit feedback while carrying out different communication tasks. This technical advancement of AI then opens doors for further educational opportunities that have not existed in the past. The study aims to explore the existing use of AI-powered tools in foreign language pronunciation training by meta-analysis of 15 research papers benefiting from using AI and AI-powered tools (mobile and web applications, chatbots, intelligent virtual assistants) and provide suggestions for their future applications in educational practice. The research results also indicate that this field of study is still underrepresented in language pedagogy. The existing experience with AI-powered tools confirms a relatively good experience in developing intelligibility, increasing motivation and addressing the speaking anxiety of foreign language learners in formal and informal learning settings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue during COVID-19 pandemic at a Saudi university: impact on assessment methods and course learning outcomes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The deployment of e-assessments has been so frequent in educational institutions worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is worth questioning the efficacy of this newly adopted evaluation method. The study aims to determine how far this testing effectively achieves the Course Learning Outcomes. It also tries to explore the extent of difference between the online assessment method from the pre-pandemic testing methods stated in the course specification. Another aim of the study is to check the acceptance of e-tests by the learners. This study employs a quantitative approach encompassing a Likert-type online questionnaire to gather the response of 70 faculty members at the university in Saudi Arabia. The primary result of this study is that e-assessment succeeds in attaining Course Learning Outcomes to a great extent. Though these newly adopted tests shifted away from the stated measurement methods in the course specification, the learners accepted them enthusiastically. It was discovered in the study that if educational institutes have well-structured e-learning infrastructures and regularly use these setups competently, they confront minor complexities to switching to online ones and achieve Course Learning Outcomes applying e-assessment systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue do Lithuanian EFL students learn vocabulary?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Vocabulary is an essential part of any language. The study discussed in this article intended to explore how Lithuanian EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students studying English at Vytautas Magnus University in Kaunas, Lithuania, learn English vocabulary. To achieve the set aim, the following research questions were raised to answer: 1) Which vocabulary learning strategies (VLS) do the students use the most while studying English as a foreign language? 2) Which VLS do the students use the least while studying English as a foreign language? The study was carried out in 2023 using 31 open and closed questions in an online questionnaire that the students were asked to voluntarily fill in. The questions were based on the earlier done literature review distinguishing cognitive, social, and metacognitive vocabulary learning strategies. The students were not familiarised with the terminology of the strategies, but it was hoped that the described strategies in the given questions would also serve as useful information that the students could use while learning vocabulary in the future (if they had never used them before). As the study was both quantitative and qualitative, the latter data was processed using thematic grouping, content and descriptive analysis. The findings reveal interesting vocabulary learning preferences. Some of the VLS are used incidentally and occasionally (e.g., paraphrasing and placing words in sentences) while some others intentionally and frequently (e.g., guessing from the context or oral and written repetition).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to identities: Japanese graduate teaching assistants as language teachers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study explores Japanese student teachers’ identity construction and transition with focuses on contexts both inside and outside the classroom in the online environment during the COVID-19 pandemic. By integrating language teacher identities as a complex and dynamic entirety rather than detached pieces, this qualitative research study utilizes both narrative inquiry and positioning analysis to examine four Japanese student teacher identities through both discursive construction in discourse and momentary behavior in talk-in-interaction. The data collected from the surveys, class observations, interviews and weekly meetings revealed four aspects of Japanese student teacher identities: (1) beliefs on foreign language education in and beyond the classroom, (2) self-perceptions of not only language teachers but also future supporters and life helpers, (3) perceptions of teaching Japanese live-online during the COVID-19 pandemic and (4) beliefs on successful language teaching relying on bidirectional cooperation of both teachers and students. The article concludes with a discussion about how the possible directions for future research in terms of the contextual narrative exploration in languages other than English and the integration of both narrative inquiry and positioning analysis methods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and subversion in Medieval allegories: “Reynard the Fox” and the Maqamat al-Hamadhani<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>“Reynard the Fox” and the <italic>Maqamat al-Hamadhani</italic> demonstrate the emergence of satire and subversion as important themes in medieval allegories. The authors of both texts utilized the trickster-protagonist to portray dualism in society—especially right versus wrong. In both stories, the trickster figures have two roles: as protagonists and as villains. Both medieval allegories criticize the hypocrisy of their societies, in which mediocrity was praised and excellence was ignored. “Reynard the Fox” and the <italic>Maqamat al-Hamadhani</italic> are forms of constructive social criticism that readers desperately need today. An analysis of “Reynard the Fox” and the <italic>Maqamat al-Hamadhani</italic> contributes to a deeper understanding of the historical and cultural contexts in which these works emerged, as well as of the literary techniques employed to convey their satirical messages. Hopefully, this article will enrich the study of medieval literature by providing valuable insights into the role of satire and subversion in allegorical narratives.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue trends in German language teaching: Analysis of pupils’ knowledge, its comparison, and attitudes towards the German language<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper, the authors discuss specific methods and innovative trends in education. They analyse the conditions for effective teaching and focus on modern teaching practices. The primary method of foreign language education consists mainly of a communicative approach with a dominant orientation on cultural aspects. The authors are not only concerned with linguistic competences but also point out how they can be achieved. In the research part, they set as their primary goal the observation of the use of illustrative means in German language teaching in terms of the changes that can be brought about by teachers themselves through the simplest possible intervention - in our case, by pictures, under which one can imagine materials ranging from the most concrete to the more abstract representations of reality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’ interests in discussion topics in culture learning class<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Culture study is highly interdisciplinary, and thus a culture learning class in an educational institution often deals with many different cultural aspects. Accordingly, on different cultural topics to discuss in the class, it cannot be helped that students exhibit different degrees of interest on each topic. The current paper reports research on what kind of topics interest students based on gender and country of origin. The survey results showed great variation among students. Asian and female students relatively prefer less serious topics while male and European students tend to prefer serious and controversial topics to discuss with peers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue teacher stress during COVID-19 pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The rapid change in education in March 2020, triggered by the pandemic, prompted an equally swift response from stakeholders, managers, teachers, and, not least, pupils. Struggling with physical, technological, and methodological problems, teachers also had to contend with the social isolation of their pupils, as well as the emotional, technical, and learning challenges faced by the pupils, all of which, of course, had an impact on their own mental and physical well-being. The aim of the study is to investigate the extent to which the ability to use online tools influences the stress teachers faced during a pandemic, similar to the effect of school and government management support on stress intensity. The sample for this study comprised 72 male and female participants between the ages of 24 and 54 years. Convenient sampling was employed to collect data. The questionnaire with binary, Likert scale, and open-ended questions was administered to the sample. Correlation tests and t-tests were used to analyze the data in this study. The research revealed a statistically significant medium negative correlation between the intensity of stress and the ability to use digital tools, as well as a similar correlation between stress and the perceived support from the government. The results indicate that teachers’ ability to use online tools significantly improved during the pandemic. However, it also highlights the urgent need for changes in teacher training education to equip pre-service teachers with 21st-century skills.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue study programs in the digital age: A comprehensive analysis of Moodle integration and utilization<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Learning Management System (LMS) Moodle (Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) is used by educators and institutions around the world and is an effective solution for creating and delivering engaging online courses. Moodle has also gained popularity in universities across Slovakia which have adopted it as their preferred Learning Management System for managing and providing e-learning content. The use of Moodle courses in university education in Slovakia has several benefits, including increased access to education for students, improved engagement and interaction between students and instructors, and greater flexibility for students in terms of when and where they can complete coursework. The paper aims to investigate the integration of this learning/content management system in the area of philology (linguistics/applied linguistics, translation, culture, literature, didactics) by analysing Moodle courses offered by the Department of English Language and Literature at Trnava University’s Faculty of Education. The study analyses existing Moodle courses from multiple perspectives to identify digital service advancements in philological study programs, including teacher and non-teacher training programs. The study examines various features of Moodle courses, including the number of courses offered, the subjects covered, course structure, learning materials employed, methods of assessment and feedback, communication and collaboration tools utilised, and integration of online and multimedia resources. The paper presents the essential findings and provides insights into the current situation. Identifying gaps in the existing state and suggesting areas for further research, aims to advance understanding in the field.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue EFL learners’ perceptions of communicative language teaching and learning<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper attempts to explore Slovak EFL learners’ perceptions of the fundamental principles of communicative approach, which has been employed as the primary way of teaching foreign languages for the past five decades. Research participants were formed by 111 Slovak university EFL leaners – teacher trainees (n = 111), who were asked to demonstrate their level of agreement to the statements concerning communicative language teaching by responding to a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire. The calculated means indicate that overall, the research participants are in agreement with the selected principles of CLT as they agreed with 16 out of the 18 chosen statements. However, they appear to be neutral about two aspects of CLT, the use of native language at EFL lessons and discovering and investigating grammatical rules by learners themselves. Arising out of the research results, the conclusions are drawn, and pedagogical implications are discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue teachers’ beliefs and practices in teaching the speaking skills: the case of secondary schools in Bale Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>To enhance learners’ speaking proficiency, teachers’ beliefs and classroom actions have crucial impacts in EFL classes. This study was conducted to investigate EFL teachers’ beliefs and practices in teaching speaking skills at secondary schools in Ethiopia. The study adopted descriptive and correlational research designs in which the data were collected through quantitative and qualitative methods. Sixty-four EFL teachers from some selected secondary schools were taken as a source of data. Data were collected using questionnaires, classroom observation, and semi-structured interviews. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics: frequency, percentage, and mean. Two-tailed Pearson correlation was also used to show the relationship between teachers’ beliefs and their classroom practices. Qualitative data were analyzed in a verbal and narrative description. The findings from the teachers’ responses indicated that teachers have in general positive beliefs towards teaching the speaking skills communicatively. However, classroom observation results revealed that EFL teachers’ practices of teaching speaking skills contradict what they believe to be. The overall result indicated that teachers were not teaching the speaking skills as per language teaching theories, methods, and mainly to their stated beliefs. The study also showed a moderate positive relationship between teachers’ beliefs and practices regarding teaching speaking skills. Based on the result, it was recommended that the Ethiopian Ministry of Education should offer in-service professional development programs that focus on classroom teaching of speaking skills to teachers. EFL teachers should also exert their maximum effort to put their beliefs of teaching speaking skills into practice by overcoming unfavorable conditions inside and outside the classroom environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue