rss_2.0Journal for Markets and Ethics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal for Markets and Ethics for Markets and Ethics Feed Management, Cooperatives, and Selfish-Individualism<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We analyze stakeholder management (STM) relative to cooperation and individualism within the fourth industrial revolution (FIR). STM is a recent corporate governance tool boosting cooperation and allowing representativeness of individualistic behaviors even in dialectical environments. Though forerunning it, cooperatives massively use STM now, while the FIR demands cooperation also at non-cooperative enterprises. We reach two main conclusions. Deeper orientation towards STM helps solve the shareholder management (SHM) crisis. Moreover, exemplifying the benefits of STM towards social and environmental goals, cooperatives can inspire also other companies aiming to reduce the negative externalities of SHM and profit from cooperation within the FIR.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue werden Ethik und ethisches unternehmerisches Handeln gegenüber den Stakeholdern kommuniziert? Eine Analyse der Geschäftsberichte der DAX30 Unternehmen<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Our content analysis of the reporting of the DAX30 companies shows that the focus is primarily on compliance, codes of conduct, company-specific sustainability, CSR and corporate citizenship programs. Ethics and sustainability departments are positioned close to the board of directors and company management, which emphasizes the strategic relevance from a company perspective. The results help to summarize and compare the communication between companies and their stakeholders in the context of ethics and to identify potential for improvement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue FAQs zur Wirtschaftsethik in Wie wollen wir warum wirtschaften? Wer soll wo handeln? Hat Franziskus Recht?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Pope Francis’ encyclical <italic>Fratelli tutti</italic> (2020) is also interesting from a business ethics perspective. In terms of a systematic analysis, it seems promising to distinguish three different perspectives that are well established in academic business ethics. The three perspectives can be operationalized using three corresponding questions. How do we want to do business and why? Who should act and where? Is Pope Francis right? Following these questions, the paper highlights the key aspects of Francis’ business ethics in FT and beyond and establishes some cross-references to the current, especially German-speaking discourse on business ethics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Platforms and Competition Policy: A Business-Ethical Assessment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The debate around ‘big tech’ and competition law and policy has gained traction over the past few years – not least because of the various ongoing antitrust investigations in China, Europe, and the U.S. This paper builds on the renewed interest in the topic and discusses the key characteristics of digital markets, the business models and strategies of major tech platforms such as Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google, and the corresponding antitrust issues. It does so by utilizing a distinct business ethics perspective, i.e., ordoliberalism. By doing so, the paper not only aims to enrich the current debate on big tech and antitrust; it also intends to illustrate the continuing relevance and importance of ‘German neoliberalism’ in the 21<sup>st</sup> century.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue an Unconditional Basic Income is Highly Problematic – General Considerations and Quantitative Implications for the Case of Germany<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The concept of an unconditional basic income is not new, but it is still the subject of much controversy. This paper looks at the quantitative effects of introducing an unconditional basic income, using Germany as an example. It examines the financial implications and other major problems of an unconditional livable income measure. The analysis shows that an unconditional basic income at the level generally called for by its proponents would require massive tax increases and thus a substantial redistribution of income from the middle and upper ends of the income scale downward.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Times of Crisis: The Net Basic Income Discussing the Case of Germany<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The measures taken to contain the Covid-19 pandemic have resulted in, among other things, massive loss of earnings. Many people are therefore increasingly experiencing an income crisis in addition to the acute health crisis. Permanent existential insecurity remains for too many despite the numerous aid packages. The principle of need-based assistance and the determination of need for the provision of aid are proving to be insufficient. In the current crisis, earned incomes are affected most of all due to the measures taken. This leads to an asymmetric distribution of the crisis-induced burdens and thus to an asymmetric distribution of risks and burdens between performance-related and non-performance-related income, which exacerbates the redistribution in favor of capital income. The model of net basic income (NBI) shows one way to come to a solution of these problems in the crisis. Every adult person in Germany receives a monthly unconditional basic income of e.g. 550 Euros (calculated in this approach) during the crisis period. This amount is supplemented by the suspension of rent, lease, repayment and interest obligations during this period of income loss. The amount of money paid to each person is the net share of the crisis basic income. The household savings from suspending rent, lease, principal, and interest payments is the gross. After the crisis, the NBI can be raised to a full participatory UBI as economic momentum increases. In step with this, rental, lease and capital services are to be paid again in full contract amount.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Wert der Arbeit: Theologische und sozialethische Überlegungen zum Bedingungslosen Grundeinkommen<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper I start from the biblical justification of the value and dignity of work (I), which is unique in the entire ancient world. At the same time, it leads to an overall biblical clarification of the image of man, so that man, who was expelled from paradise, is at the same time appreciated in his participation in the cultivation of the earth (I.1). The consequences for a Christian work ethic up to the Catholic Social Teaching (I.5) are explained, as is the decline of this understanding of work in the course of industrialisation and unleashed capitalism (I.4.). In the second part, the Unconditional Basic Income (II) is explicated in its multifactorial affinities, economically, legal-theoretically, socio-philosophically and in view of the global world situation. Finally (III), a summary is drawn that outlines alternative forms of the UBI in the world of work.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue zu: Sautter, Hermann: Verantwortlich wirtschaften: Die Ethik gesamtwirtschaftlicher Regelwerke und des unternehmerischen Handelns Carr’s Business Bluff: Opinions on the Ethics of Playing the Game<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article is a response to Albert Carr’s business bluff compared to a poker game article in the Harvard Business Review “<italic>Is Business Bluffing Ethical? The Ethics of Business are not Those of Society, but Rather Those of the Poker Game</italic>”. Opinions are given on the ethical dilemmas which are deemed legal and acceptable in the business world by Carr.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue postkeynesianische Ökonomik in der Finanzethik des katholischen Sozialethikers Bernhard Emunds – Diskussion aus einer angebotsorientierten Perspektive<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bernhard Emunds, a German Catholic social ethicist, is engaged in research into financial markets. This article introduces post-Keynesianism as his economic foundation, followed by a description of conclusions Emunds draws about the regulation of financial markets. Thereafter, implications of the post-Keynesian framework are contrasted with those of supply-side economics. The article finally appraises the suitability of post-Keynesianism as an economic foundation for Catholic social teaching.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Rawlsian perspective on the institutional limits of lobbying the European Commission<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the process of drafting European Union (EU) legislation and supervising its effective national implementation, the European Commission has to cooperate with lobbyists. This exchange involves the risk of arbitrary lobby influence on its decisions at the expense of other EU citizens. Against this backdrop, this article addresses the research question of which normative principles should constrain the Commission’s interaction with lobbyists. Based on the contractarian approach from Rawls’ Law of Peoples, it identifies eight criteria of a Rawlsian lobby consultation system for the Commission, which representatives of EU countries could accept from behind a Rawlsian veil of ignorance and in view of the fundamental interest of their people. These normative criteria can be supervised by independent institutions like the European Parliament and the European Court of Justice. They constitute a procedural approach to the political supervision of the Commission’s interaction with lobbyists that can be enforced without compromising its necessary institutional independence.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue der Not geboren oder sinnvolle Substitution? Chancen und Grenzen des Einsatzes von „Pflegerobotern“ in der stationären Altenpflege aus ethischer Sicht<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article deals with a differentiated examination of robotics and its evaluation in inpatient geriatric care. It examines the extent to which nursing robots fit into person-centered nursing work and possibly change it significantly. The advantages and new possibilities are shown, but also the dangers and problems from the point of view of different area ethics are pointed out. In the centre of the considerations are residents and employees as a benchmark for the ethical evaluation of robots in geriatric care.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Weisheit nach-denken. Wirtschaftsethische Orientierung am Standort Ingolstadt in der Tradition von Johannes Eck<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the late Middle Ages, the canonical prohibition of interest increasingly came into conflict with an ever more dynamic economic practice. The Ingolstadt based theology professor Johannes Eck is better known as Catholic opponent of Martin Luther; however, he also worked more strongly than his academic contemporaries against fundamentalist business ethics theories thereby actively searching public debate. Subsequently, he became forerunner and point of reference for academic theory, which is committed to the struggle of merchants and entrepreneurs to shape their forms of practice responsibly.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue ist „moralische Zeit“? Korreferat zu „Donalds Blacks Moralsoziologie“ von Ingo Pies für Moral – eine Replik Blacks Moralsoziologie<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article aims at introducing the sociology of morals by Donald Black to a broader German-speaking public. The reconstruction draws on graphical visualizations that help to follow the basic arguments and to understand the systematicity of Black’s line of thought. Furthermore, Black’s approach is illustrated by highlighting several propositions he derives. This article thus clarifies Black’s relevance for foundational research in ethics as well as for research in the field of business ethics.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue„Moralische Zeit“ Ein Kommentar zum Beitrag „Donald Blacks Moralsoziologie“ von Ingo Pies im Gesundheitswesen – ein wirtschaftsethisch vertretbarer Weg?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Die im Alter exponentiell zunehmenden Krankheitskosten sind Anlass dafür, in alternden Gesellschaften mit medizinisch-technischem Fortschritt und steigenden Gesundheitswünschen der Bevölkerung neben anderen Rationierungsformen auch über altersabhängige Begrenzungen von Gesundheitsleistungen nachzudenken. Zuteilungsbeschränkungen sind generell moralsensible Entscheidungen, da Gesundheit unabhängig vom Alter der Person ein besonderes Gut ist, um persönliche Lebenspläne umsetzen zu können; sie weist neben privaten auch öffentliche und meritorische Gutseigenschaften auf. In der Debatte um Altersrationierungen werden utilitaristische, kontraktualistische und neoaristotelische Rechtfertigungsversuche vertreten. Alle Ansätze scheitern in einer wertepluralistischen Gesellschaft letztlich daran, dass sie ohne Rückgriff auf spezifische Wertprämissen nicht auskommen. Für altersmäßige Rationierungen bei aufwändigen, lebensverlängernden Therapien der Intensivmedizin sprechen allerdings pragmatische Vorzüge, zumal die Option privater Zusatzabsicherung bestehen würde.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue als Anreiz für Kooperation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Might religion function as an incentive for cooperation? This article defends that religion is an incentive for cooperation from both an evolutionary perspective (based on game-theoretical models) and a philosophical perspective. Religion (defined as god-fearing behavior) can be described as evolutionary advantageous since one refrained from actions perceived as immoral and contrary to God’s will. Under the assumption that god-fearing behavior is equal to cooperative behavior, god-fearing behavior is a corrective for ethical failure. However, even today religion can function as a corrective for ethical failure: religion can dissolve the contrast between morality and self-interest by promoting one’s ability to see an intrinsic value in cooperative, moral behavior.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue durch Entwicklungszusammenarbeit? Eine ökonomische Analyse am Beispiel Afrikas<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The so-called “migration hump” describes the inverted U-shaped relationship between development and migration. In relatively poor countries, development leads to increasing migration, as the budget constraint of potential migrants loosens. By contrast, in relatively rich countries, this relationship is reversed because the incentive to migrate is negligibly small. We discuss the implications of this empirical finding for development cooperation with African countries and conclude that further development would rather increase than reduce migration. As a consequence, the capture of development policy by a restrictive migration policy is not expedient, as they follow different normative rationales, and hampers the effectiveness of development policy.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue