rss_2.0Journal of Veterinary Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Veterinary Research of Veterinary Research 's Cover serological monitoring a fit-for-purpose tool to assess the epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in the sylvatic species of European bison () in Poland?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0038_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Bovine tuberculosis is one of the most dangerous zoonotic diseases. Despite the near-complete elimination of the disease from cattle breeding in Poland achieved in 2009, its re-emergence is now observed. Globally, the number of human cases is underestimated and the importance of free-living animals as reservoirs of tuberculosis is growing. As a species highly susceptible to <italic>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</italic> complex infection, the European bison (Bison bonasus) has a role in the transmission of the disease in Poland. The purpose of the investigation was to assess the epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Polish European bison serologically.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0038_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>A total of 460 serum samples were collected from 436 European bison from 15 out of 26 national populations between 2013 and 2020. An <italic>M. bovis</italic> ELISA was used, and its sensitivity and specificity were assessed with an eyelid tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA).</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0038_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p><italic>Mycobacterium bovis</italic> antibodies were detected in nine serum samples. The presence of antibodies was found in two animals from the Białowieża Forest (1.2% of the population), and one each from the Borecka Forest (2.4%) and the Warsaw Zoo (14.3%). One European bison among the 14 sampled (7.1%) from Smardzewice was positive on five occasions. Other samples from Smardzewice and the Bieszczady Mountains, where tuberculosis had previously been reported, were negative.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0038_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>ELISA testing is an effective, easy and cost-efficient tool for monitoring of tuberculosis-naïve populations. Serological testing in tuberculosis control programmes can significantly improve the detection of infected herds. Antibody ELISAs may supplement TST and IGRA, but cannot replace them.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Laboratory experience with the microscopic method for the detection of insects in poultry feeds<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0040_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>The use of insects and their processed animal proteins (PAPs) for animal nutrition creates the need for research into methods useful for routine surveillance for their presence. The aim of this study was to evaluate a modified microscopic method for the detection of particles of insects in poultry feed.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0040_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>A total of 90 samples including PAP of insects (<italic>Hermetia illucens</italic> and <italic>Tenebrio molitor</italic>), poultry feeds produced with different levels (0–27%) of insect PAP content, and other poultry feeds spiked with insect PAP at 1% were investigated using a modified microscopic method with a double sedimentation protocol.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0040_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Characteristic features of insects including cuticulae, muscles, bristles and tracheoles were determined in the microscopic images obtained. In all spiked samples, characteristic fragments of insects were detected. The fragments of muscle and tracheoles only indicated the presence of material from members of the insect class but could not facilitate identification of organisms to species level.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0040_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The results obtained with this double sedimentation protocol for the isolation of insect PAP from feed for poultry have shown that the method can be used in routine analysis.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Expression of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) gp51 protein in blood and milk cells of cows with leukosis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0035_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is the retroviral causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, the most common neoplastic disease of cattle and a serious problem worldwide. Its diagnosis is commonly by tests for antibodies recognising the p24 capsid protein and structural glycoprotein (gp) 51. With flow cytometry recently having come to veterinary immunology, applications for it may now include BLV. The study determined BLV gp51 expression in blood and milk lymphocytes of naturally infected cows by flow cytometry.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0035_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Nineteen Polish Black and White Lowland breed cows aged 4–9 years and naturally infected with BLV and ten uninfected counterparts had blood and milk sampled and cultured. The immunological status of the animals was confirmed with ELISA and PCR. Dual-colour flow cytometry analysis was performed with specific monoclonal antibodies for lymphocyte cluster of differentiation (CD) markers and gp51 viral envelope protein and conjugates labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate or phycoerythrin. Bovine leukaemia virus gp51 was confirmed in lymphocytes by immunofluorescence with anti-gp51 monoclonal antibodies.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0035_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The gp51 antigen was detected in blood and milk lymphocytes of infected cows, but the percentage of cells expressing it in milk was much lower than in blood. A depleted number of CD4+ lymphocytes, an augmented number of CD8+ lymphocytes, a lower ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ and a proliferation of CD19+ immunoglobulin M+ cells were also found.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0035_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>These proliferated cells were immature, gave no sign of a tendency to differentiation and were characterised by prolonged vitality.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Two centrifugal flotation techniques for counting gastrointestinal parasite eggs and oocysts in alpaca faeces<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0039_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>The alpaca (<italic>Vicugna pacos</italic>) is a camelid native to South America, but the species has wide distribution outside its natural habitat and is found in various countries on other continents, Poland being one in Europe. Parasitic infections affect the productivity and health of alpacas. The aim of the study was to estimate the parasite loads in alpacas kept in Poland with the use of two direct centrifugal flotation methods.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0039_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>A total of 248 faecal samples from alpacas from 12 provinces in Poland were examined for parasite eggs and oocysts with a modified Willis method (WM), and 59 samples were examined simultaneously with WM and a modified Stoll method (SM).</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0039_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The WM detected eggs of Trichostrongylidae, and the SM oocysts of <italic>Eimeria</italic> spp. as the respective most prevalent parasite material. The eggs of <italic>Nematodirus</italic> sp., <italic>Nematodirus battus</italic>, <italic>Aonchotheca</italic> sp., and <italic>Trichuris</italic> sp. were detected in lower numbers in both methods. Oocysts of <italic>E. macusaniensis</italic> and eggs of <italic>Moniezia</italic> sp. were the rarest in WM, the former also being so in SM; eggs of <italic>Moniezia</italic> were absent in SM. The prevalence of <italic>Eimeria</italic> spp. was significantly higher as detected by SM than as detected by WM; however, the prevalence of eggs of <italic>Nematodirus</italic> spp. and trichostrongyles was significantly higher as detected by WM than as detected by SM.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0039_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>WM is more accurate at detecting heavy gastro-intestinal nematode eggs, including those of trichostrongyles and <italic>Nematodirus</italic>, whereas SM is more accurate at detecting smaller coccidia from the genus <italic>Eimeria</italic>.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Simultaneous determination of pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in honey by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0032_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and tropane alkaloids (TAs) are natural contaminants of honey and respectively hepatoxic and neurotoxic compounds. Because honey is a popular constituent of the human diet, it is relevant to warrant the safety of the product. For that reason, a method for simultaneous determination of PAs and TAs in honey based on liquid chromatography– mass spectrometry was developed.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0032_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The analytical protocol used sulphuric acid extraction and solid-phase extraction purification. The developed procedure was subjected to validation in terms of linearity, selectivity, repeatability, reproducibility, limits of quantification and determination, matrix effect and uncertainty. A total of 29 honey samples were analysed for the determination of PAs and TAs.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0032_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>All the evaluated validation parameters fulfilled the requirements of European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. At least one of the monitored alkaloids was determined in 52% of the samples. Among the most abundant alkaloids were echimidine, intermedine and lycopsamine. The total PA concentrations ranged from 2.2 to 147.0 μg kg<sup>−1</sup>. Contrastingly, none of the monitored TAs was detected in the analysed samples. An assessment of the dietary exposure to PAs from the consumption of the contaminated honeys showed that three of them would pose a risk to consumers, especially if they were children.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0032_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>A sensitive method suitable for simultaneous determination of PAs and TAs in honey was developed and validated. The analysis of 29 honey samples for PAs and TAs revealed that honey destined for retail could pose a risk to consumers.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Clinicopathological analysis of expression of enhancer of zeste homologue 2 in canine mammary carcinoma<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0033_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) is the human homologue of <italic>Drosophila zeste</italic> gene enhancer. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of EZH2 in canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) and its relationship with clinicopathological features.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0033_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The expression of EZH2 mRNA and protein in 53 CMC tissue and 8 normal mammary gland tissue samples was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining assay, respectively. The relationship between EZH2 protein expression and clinicopathological features was analysed by χ2 test to further explore the clinical significance of EZH2 in CMCs.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0033_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Compared with normal mammary gland tissues, EZH2 mRNA expressions were significantly increased in CMC tissues (P &lt; 0.01). Moreover, normal mammary glands did not express the EZH2 protein but carcinomic glands did, and expression increased in CMCs with high histological grades, especially in histological grade II (P &lt; 0.05). However, EZH2 expression was not related to age, tumour size, or metastasis (P &gt; 0.05). The expression of EZH2 in one type of CMC was not significantly different from the expression in any other type (P &gt; 0.05).</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0033_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>EZH2 is highly expressed in CMCs, indicating that it can be used as a molecular marker for early diagnosis, prognosis, or therapy of CMCs.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of bisphenol A and bisphenol F on porcine uterus contractility<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0031_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Bisphenols, as endocrine disruptors, may cause a wide range of health problems in humans, but so far, not all of them have been confirmed in animals, including pigs. Since animals are also exposed to bisphenols, we hypothesised that these substances may have an effect on uterine contractility in pigs. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the most-used bisphenol, bisphenol A (BPA), and a selected analogue, bisphenol F (BPF), on the contractile activity of the pig uterus.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0031_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The investigation utilised smooth muscles from immature pigs (n = 6), cyclic pigs on days 12–14 of the oestrous cycle (n = 6) or early pregnant pigs on days 12–16 of pregnancy (n = 6). Strips of the myometrium were exposed to BPA and BPF at concentrations of 10<sup>−13</sup>–10<sup>−1</sup> M. Smooth muscle contractility was determined with equipment for measuring isometric contractions.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0031_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>BPA caused a significant decrease in contraction amplitude, and frequency and in myometrial tension in all groups examined. BPF caused a decrease in the amplitude and frequency of contractions in all groups and in myometrial tension in the early pregnant group.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0031_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The obtained results indicate that both BPA and BPF relaxed the porcine myometrium, but these changes, especially in the amplitude and frequency of contractions, were more evident after BPF treatment. The extent of relaxation is dependent on the physiological status of the animals.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Protective effects of fermentation extract against ochratoxin A-induced nephrotoxicity and immunotoxicity in broiler chickens<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0030_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin notably produced by <italic>Aspergillus</italic> and <italic>Penicillium</italic> spp. <italic>Bacillus subtilis</italic> fermentation extract (BSFE) contains specific enzymes which hydrolyse OTA. This study evaluated the efficiency of BSFE in ameliorating the immunotoxic and nephrotoxic effects of OTA in broiler chickens.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0030_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Day-old broiler chicks were divided equally into four groups of ten: control, OTA (0.5 mg/kg feed), BSFE product (1 mL/L water) and OTA + BSFE at the same concentrations. The chicks were vaccinated against avian influenza, Newcastle disease, and infectious bronchitis, and lymphoproliferation was induced in all birds by phytohaemagglutinin-P (PHA-P). Serum samples were taken before sacrifice and organ tissue samples were taken after, in which renal function biomarkers were assayed and the presence of OTA residue was evaluated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Protein markers of apoptosis were determined by qPCR, and tissue lesions were examined histopathologically.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0030_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Exposure to OTA significantly decreased the antibody response to the vaccines and the lymphoproliferative response to PHA-P, and significantly elevated the renal function indicators: serum urea, uric acid and creatinine. It also induced oxidative stress (reduced catalase activity and glutathione concentration), lipid peroxidation (increased malondialdehyde content), apoptosis (increased <italic>Bax</italic> and <italic>Caspase-3</italic> and decreased <italic>Bcl-2</italic> gene levels) and pathological lesions in kidney, bursa of Fabricius, spleen and thymus tissue. Residues of OTA were detected in the serum and tissue. BSFE mitigated most of these toxic effects.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0030_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>BSFE counters OTA-induced immunotoxicity and nephrotoxicity because of its content of carboxypeptidase and protease enzymes.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Serum concentrations of immunoglobulins and cortisol around parturition in clinically healthy sows and sows with postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0034_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>This study aimed to determine the profile of immunoglobulins and cortisol concentrations in serum around the periparturient period in sows suffering from postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) and in healthy sows.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0034_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>A total of 45 sows with lactation impairment (Group PDS) and 58 clinically healthy sows with a physiological peripartum period (Group H) were subjected to a serological test (ELISA) for measurement of serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, and IgA) and cortisol concentration.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0034_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The serum contents of IgG, IgM and IgA had highly similar profiles in PDS-affected sows and healthy ones. A significantly higher concentration of IgG at 28 and 14 days ante partum compared to days 3 and 7 post partum was only observed in Group H. The mean cortisol content remained at a highly similar level throughout the entire experiment in both groups.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0034_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The results of the study indicate that lactation impairment such as PDS did not influence the immunoglobulin or cortisol concentration in sow serum.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-05T00:00:00.000+00:00First report of the presence of enterotoxin gene in coagulase-negative staphylococci recovered from meat of snails ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0029_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>It has been suggested that coagulase-negative staphylococci can serve as reservoirs of virulence genes for other bacteria. This study assessed the presence of such genes in selected isolates recovered from meat of the giant African snail (<italic>Achatina achatina</italic>).</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0029_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Virulence genes were detected using a polymerase chain reaction targeting specific primers. Two representative isolates were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0029_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The results showed that the staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene (<italic>sea</italic>) was present in five out of the eight isolates studied. The isolates expressed resistance mainly to three antibiotics: chloramphenicol, norfloxacin and cloxacillin in descending order of incidence. Most importantly, the <italic>Staphylococcus sciuri</italic> isolate NEDU 181, in addition to being resistant to the three aforementioned antibiotics, also harboured the <italic>sea</italic> gene.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0029_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of toxigenic and antibiotic-resistant coagulase-negative <italic>Staphylococcu</italic>s spp. in commercially-available fresh snail meat. With staphylococcal enterotoxin A known to survive cooking temperature, this presents a food safety concern.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of carvacrol in chicken tissues<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0028_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Carvacrol is an essential oil derived from oregano that is used as a natural additive to improve the efficiency of livestock nutrition. Residues of natural additives such as carvacrol should be monitored in food of animal origin to ensure consumer safety. The aim of this study was to appraise the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) approach coupled with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry as a means of carvacrol analysis in chicken tissue.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0028_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>A 5 ± 0.05 g portion of plasma, lung, muscle and liver was mixed for 15 min with 5 mL of 1-butanol and 20 mL of water, then centrifuged. A 0.5 mL volume from the top layer was transferred, then 60 mg of octadecylsilane sorbent, 30 mg of primary and secondary amine and 200 mg of MgSO<sub>4</sub> were added. The extract was mixed and centrifuged. The top layer was filtered and then transferred to an autosampler vial for analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0028_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The limit of detection was calculated at 0.06 μg g<sup>−1</sup> and the limit of quantification was 0.2 μg g<sup>−1</sup>, with relative standard deviation repeatability and reproducibility below &lt;20%.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0028_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The validation results showed that this method could be a good alternative to determination of carvacrol by gas chromatography and is suitable for carvacrol analysis in different matrices.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Potential biomarkers for chronic seasonal heat stress in Kagoshima Berkshire pigs reared in the subtropical region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0024_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Potential biomarkers for chronic seasonal heat stress in Kagoshima Berkshire pigs reared in the subtropical region were investigated by comparing the biomarker changes in the summer (a period of chronic heat stress) and winter (a thermoneutral period) seasons.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0024_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Pigs were allocated to summer- and winter-finishing cohorts, 12 each. The evaluations included assessment of carcass traits and internal organs’ normality carried out at the time of slaughter, and measurement of biomarkers in whole blood: derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential as markers of oxidative stress, and serum amyloid A and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio as markers of acute and chronic inflammation, respectively.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0024_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The summer-finished pigs reared under subtropical field conditions showed lower carcass quality than the winter-finished pigs, indicating a potential adverse effect of summer temperatures on the swine industry. Marginal changes were observed in d-ROMs and the A/G ratio between the summer- and winter-finishing cohorts.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0024_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The results demonstrate that d-ROMs and the A/G ratio could be used as sensitive markers for heat stress under field conditions.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Establishment of a new canine inflammatory mammary carcinoma cell line and analysis of its cystine-glutamate transporter subunit expression<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0023_s_019"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC) is a rare disease with a poor prognosis and one affecting dogs. Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) is a subtype of malignant breast cancer in humans with a high degree of malignancy and a similarly poor prognosis. Since the clinical symptoms and prognoses of both are similar, canine IMC has been considered as a model of human IBC. In this study, we newly established a stable IMC-derived cell line from a patient at the Yamaguchi University Animal Medical Center in Japan.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0023_s_020"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The patient was a female toy poodle presenting with an inflamed mammary gland, which was diagnosed as IMC. The cell line was established from a tissue biopsy. Surface antigen marker (CD24 and CD44) expression was determined. Cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) expression was determined by Western blotting, flow cytometry and fluorescence immunostaining, and sulfasalazine was administered to ascertain if it suppressed xCT expression. Stem cell marker (Nanog, Sox2, Myc and Klf4) expression and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity were also investigated.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0023_s_021"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The cultured cells showed xCT, and its suppression showed downregulation of stem cell markers and ALDH activity. Stable cell proliferation was verified.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0023_s_022"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>A new canine IMC-derived cell line was established. In the future, we aim to study the effect of xCT on the maintenance of cancer stem cell properties in canine tumours, and propose a new therapeutic method for the treatment of canine IMC by targeting xCT.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of oxidative status on the occurrence of haemolactia in dairy cows after calving<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0025_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Dairy cows may infrequently give milk tinged with blood after calving, which is a condition termed haemolactia. Economic losses for dairy farmers are caused by cases of haemolactia because of the condemnation of such milk, potential contamination of good bulk tank milk with haemolactic milk, and need for veterinarian intervention. This study was performed to elucidate the oxidative status of dairy cows with haemolactia during the peripartum period.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0025_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Plasma glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase concentrations along with serum vitamin A, C and E concentrations were determined as indices of oxidative stress. The sampled dairy cows comprised two haemolactic (n = 11 and n = 6) and two non-haemolactic (n = 11 and n = 6) groups.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0025_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>On the first day when haemolactia was identified in colostrum (at mean 2.1 days after parturition), a significantly increased concentration of plasma MDA was noted in the haemolactic group. During the prepartum period, low levels of serum vitamin E were continuously observed from prepartum week 4 to the parturition day but only in the haemolactic group.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0025_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>These results demonstrate that continuous low levels of serum vitamin E in the prepartum period may play a pivotal role as a requisite factor in the onset of haemolactia after calving.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Animal botulism in Poland – laboratory and epidemiological investigations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0026_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>The aim of the study was to present cases of botulism in animals found in Poland in 2019–2021. The analytical laboratory diagnosis and difficulties that occurred in the interpretation of the results are described.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0026_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>From 2019 to 2021, samples of serum, intestinal content, liver, spleen, kidney, faeces, wet feed, dry feed, ensilage, water and mixed samples of internal organs associated with 10 suspected animal botulism cases were sent to the National Veterinary Research Institute. Samples were analysed using a mouse bioassay and culture methods in combination with <italic>ntnh</italic> and <italic>bont</italic> gene detection.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0026_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Among the ten putative botulism cases, only four (40%) were confirmed in the laboratory on the basis of the detection of botulinum toxin (BoNT) or the <italic>ntnh</italic> or <italic>bont</italic> genes. The remaining six (60%) were determined as probable despite observable characteristic clinical signs.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0026_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The diagnosis of botulism in animals is a very difficult task, made so by the heterogeneity of <italic>Clostridium botulinum</italic> strains and possible loss of toxinogenicity during laboratory processing or the potential degradation of toxins. Laboratory diagnosis is a complex and problematic process which should utilise different prescribed methods for specific types of sample.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Determination of veterinary drug residues, mycotoxins, and pesticide residues in bovine milk by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation –tandem mass spectrometry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0027_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Multi-class and multi-residue analyses are very complex procedures because of the physico-chemical properties of veterinary drug residues and other contaminants. The purpose of the study was to develop an analytical method for the sensitive determination of 69 analytes in bovine milk by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation–tandem mass spectrometry.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0027_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Antimicrobial, anabolic hormone, lactone, β-agonist, mycotoxin and pesticide residues were analysed in 120 raw milk samples from different dairy farms in North Macedonia. Stable isotopically labelled internal standards were used to facilitate effective quantification of the analytes.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0027_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The linear regression coefficients were higher than 0.99, the limits of detection ranged from 0.0036 to 47.94 μg/L, and the limits of quantification ranged from 0.053 to 59.43 μg/L. The decision limit values ranged from 0.062 to 211.32 μg/L and the detection capability from 0.080 to 233.71 μg/L. Average recoveries of the analytes spiked in raw milk were in the range of 70.83% to 109%, intra-day coefficient of variation (CV) values from 2.41% to 22.29%, and inter-day CV values from 3.48% to 23.91%. The method was successfully applied in the testing of bovine milk samples. In five samples residues were detected. They were sulfadimethoxine (in two samples), enrofloxacin, tetracycline and oxytetracycline and were at concentrations below the EU maximum residue limit.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0027_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The method is useful for routine testing for this group of chemical hazards in bovine milk.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Preliminary study on gene regulation and its pathways in Chinese Holstein cows with clinical mastitis caused by<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0022_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Clinical mastitis (CM) is one of the most common diseases of dairy cows globally, has a complex aetiology and recurs easily. <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> is a frequently isolated pathogen responsible for bovine mastitis and remains difficult to eradicate.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0022_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>To characterise the transcriptional profiles of dairy cows infected by <italic>S. aureus</italic>, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of peripheral blood leukocytes in lactating Chinese Holstein dairy cows with CM and did the same with healthy cows’ samples as controls.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0022_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>A total of 4,286 genes were detected in the CM cases infected with <italic>S. aureus</italic> which were differentially expressed compared to the controls, 3,085 of which were upregulated, the remainder being downregulated. Notably, we observed that some differentially expressed genes (DEGs) had strong protein–protein interaction. Of these, six downregulated DEGs (<italic>AKR1C4</italic>, <italic>PTGS2</italic>, <italic>HNMT</italic>, <italic>EPHX2</italic>, <italic>CMBL</italic>, and <italic>IDH1</italic>) were involved in the metabolic pathway, while eight upregulated DEGs (<italic>VWF</italic>, <italic>GP9</italic>, <italic>MYLK</italic>, <italic>GP6</italic>, <italic>F2RL3</italic>, <italic>ITGB3</italic>, <italic>GP5</italic>, and <italic>PRKG1</italic>) were associated with the platelet activation pathway.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0022_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The transcriptome dataset of CM cases would be a valuable resource for clinical guidance on anti-inflammatory medication and for deeper understanding of the biological processes of CM response to <italic>S. aureus</italic> infection, and it would enable us to identify specific genes for diagnostic markers and possibly for targeted therapy.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Nephrin and podocin mRNA detection in urine sediment of dogs with chronic kidney disease: preliminary observations<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0019_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may have alterations in the glomerular filtration barrier, including podocyte loss. Detection of podocyte mRNA in urine could be useful for assessing podocyturia in dogs with kidney disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of nephrin mRNA (<italic>NPHS1</italic>) and podocin mRNA (<italic>NPHS2</italic>) in urine sediments of dogs with naturally occurring CKD and healthy dogs.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0019_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Twenty-four dogs, 14 with CKD and 10 as healthy controls, underwent clinical evaluation. The dogs with CKD were divided into two groups, according to the International Renal Interest Society criteria: stage 1 or 2 CKD (n = 5) and stage 3 or 4 CKD (n = 9). Urine was collected by catheterisation or free catch and RNA isolation from the urine sediments was optimised using glycogen as a co-precipitant. Detection of <italic>NPHS1</italic> and <italic>NPHS2</italic> in the sediment samples was performed using quantitative real-time PCR.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0019_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Both types of mRNA were detected in samples from all groups, but the percentages of detection were higher in the group of dogs with stage 1 or 2 CKD and lower in the group of dogs with stage 3 or 4 disease.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0019_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Physiological podocyturia was observed in healthy dogs, and the results suggest differential podocyturia in dogs with CKD, according to the stage of the disease, <italic>i.e</italic>. an increase in podocyturia in dogs at stage 1 or 2 and a reduction in podocyturia in dogs at stage 3 or 4.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Antimicrobial resistance of species isolated from wild mammals in Aragón, Spain<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0020_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Antimicrobial resistance is currently one of the major public health threats. In order to prevent its spread, the WHO, OIE and FAO have formed an alliance to promote the study of antibiotic resistance evolution in human, animal and environmental bacteria posing a public health threat; however, the studies performed in wild animals are scarce so far. The main objective of this study was to assess the antibiotic resistance of <italic>Enterococcus</italic> spp. isolated from wild mammals in Aragón, Spain.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0020_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Rectal samples were collected from 103 wild mammals – 70 hunt prey and 33 rescued animals. Isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation–time of flight mass spectrometry and susceptibility tests to 10 antibiotics were also carried out. Statistical analysis was performed (P ≤ 0.05).</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0020_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>A total of 126 isolates of seven different <italic>Enterococcus</italic> species were recovered. Among them, <italic>E faecalis</italic> (37.60%), <italic>E. casseliflavus</italic> (20.63%) and <italic>E. faecium</italic> (17.46%) were the most prevalent. The antibiotics quinupristin-dalfopristin and ciprofloxacin most frequently lost efficacy against the isolates. Multi-drug resistance was more prevalent in enterococci isolated from the rescued mammals.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0020_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>This study found resistance widely distributed among enterococci isolated from the studied mammals. This points to the need for additional study of its genetic determinants and investigation of the sources and measures to avoid contributory environmental contamination.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Molecular characteristics and genetic diversity of from sheep in Xinjiang, China<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0018_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p><italic>Fasciola hepatica</italic> is a trematode infecting ruminants worldwide and occasionally affecting other animal species, including humans. It causes significant economic losses. Geographic distribution and patterns of infection must be considered before control and management measures are developed for this parasite. DNA molecular markers are useful for the identification of flukes and elucidation of their genetic evolution. Therefore, the population structure of <italic>F. hepatica</italic> was studied using this method in sheep in Xinjiang, China.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0018_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The molecular characteristics, genetic relationships within the population and dispersal patterns of <italic>F. hepatica</italic> isolates were analysed based on the <italic>cox1</italic> and <italic>nad1</italic> genes. The population structure of <italic>F. hepatica</italic> from three regions of Xinjiang was explored and a neutrality test was conducted.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0018_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The <italic>cox1</italic> and <italic>nad1</italic> genes have 21 and 42 variable sites, respectively, which can be classified into 34 and 33 haplotypes. Median-joining network and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that there was no significant variation in <italic>F. hepatica</italic> isolates between the three geographical regions. Analysis of variance revealed that the genetic variation of <italic>F. hepatica</italic> was mainly present within the populations. The neutrality test indicated that the populations were relatively stable but the Hami population may have undergone short-term expansion.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0018_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>This study revealed for the first time the molecular characteristics, genetic diversity and dispersal patterns of <italic>F. hepatica</italic> isolates from sheep in Xinjiang, thus providing new insights into the genetic variation and haplotype diversity of <italic>F. hepatica</italic> from indigenous sheep.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1