rss_2.0Journal of Veterinary Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Veterinary Research of Veterinary Research Feed identification of TEM and CTX-M genes in multidrug-resistant found in milk samples from dairy cattle farms in Tulungagung, Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p><italic>Escherichia coli</italic> is an opportunistic bacteria that can grow easily, produce toxins, and resist antibiotics. The phenomenon of <italic>E. coli</italic> developing multidrug resistance is currently the subject of extensive research. The objective of this study was to molecularly identify <italic>bla</italic>TEM and <italic>bla</italic>CTX-M genes in multidrug-resistant <italic>E. coli</italic> found in milk samples from dairy cattle farms in Tulungagung, Indonesia.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>One hundred and ten milk samples were collected from 45 dairy cattle farms in Tulungagung, Indonesia. Indole, methyl red, Voges–Proskauer and in citrate tests and triple iron sugar agar tests were used to identify <italic>E. coli</italic>. Multidrug resistance was determined in isolates through antibiotic sensitivity tests using tetracycline, streptomycin, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol and aztreonam. Extended-spectrum beta lactamase enzyme production was confirmed by double-disc synergy test (DDST). Molecular identification was performed to confirm the <italic>bla</italic>TEM and <italic>bla</italic>CTX-M genes.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>One hundred and one (91.82%) <italic>E. coli</italic> strains were isolated from the samples. The antibiotic sensitivity test showed four (3.96%) multidrug-resistant (MDR) and one (0.99%) ESBL-positive <italic>E. coli</italic> by DDST confirmation. There were three (77.78%) <italic>bla</italic>TEM genes and one (0.99%) <italic>bla</italic>CTX-M gene discovered in the MDR <italic>E. coli</italic> isolates using PCR for molecular identification.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The findings of the <italic>bla</italic>TEM and <italic>bla</italic>CTX-M genes encoding ESBL <italic>E. coli</italic> in dairy cattle milk in Tulungagung, Indonesia is concerning and argues for prompt action to stop the emergence of antibiotic resistance which has an impact on public health.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and topography of the coronary ostia in the dog<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>The purpose of this study was to perform a morphometric examination of the coronary ostia, including their location in the area of the aortic sinuses, and to describe variations in ostia structure in the domestic dog.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The study was conducted on the hearts of 91 pedigree dogs of both sexes, aged 1 to 18 years (median 9 years), with a body weight from 1.2 to 65 kg (median 20.7 kg). Morphometric examinations of the coronary ostia were performed in the studied individuals, and the location of the structures in relation to the intercommissural lines was determined.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Three types of location of the coronary ostia were distinguished, <italic>i.e</italic>. below the intercommissural line (type I), on the intercommissural line (type II), and above the intercommissural line (type III). In the studied dogs, the most common location of the ostia was type I – found in the left coronary artery of 74/91 dogs (81%) and in the right coronary artery of 42/91 dogs (46%). Morphological variations were shown in 36/91 dogs (40%) in the structure of the coronary ostia, including the presence of accessory ostia. The most common variation was the presence of an accessory ostium near the ostium of the right coronary artery, which was found in 28/91 dogs (31%).</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The results may be useful in developing standards for procedures to replace the whole or part of the aortic valve and repair the coronary artery.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of using mussels () to predict rotavirus contamination in Albania<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Rotaviruses are non-enveloped viruses that each consist of 11 double-stranded RNA molecules. These viruses are able to persist in the environment, and therefore play a fundamental role in the epidemiology of gastroenteritis and severe diarrhoea in children worldwide. While mussels have been primarily used as indicators of chemical pollution, they can also be used to monitor viral contamination. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the <italic>Mytilus galloprovincialis</italic> mussel can also be used to detect microbial contamination, owing to its tendency to naturally concentrate viruses and other pathogens.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>A total of 102 <italic>Mytilus galloprovincialis</italic> mussel samples from Albania were collected over a three-year period: 37 samples off the Cape of Stillo in 2015, 39 samples from Butrinti Lake in 2019 and 26 samples from Butrinti Lake in 2021.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The presence of rotavirus in the Cape of Stillo samples in 2015 was noted in 47% of samples from site 1, 33% from site 2, and 52% from site 3. In Butrinti Lake the percentage of infected individuals in 2019 was 33% from site 1, 41% from site 2, and 33% from site 3, whereas in 2021, it was 50% from site 1, 19% from site 2, and 0% from site 3. In total the percentage of infected individuals off the Cape of Stillo in 2015 was 44%, in Butrinti Lake in 2019 it was 36%, and in Butrinti Lake in 2021 it was 23 %.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>These results indicate the presence of rotavirus in the shellfish specimens tested, and further analysis is needed to assess the potential health risks associated with consuming these shellfish. This study also indicates that mussels can be used in marine virological surveillance programmes.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of automatic methods MALDI-TOF, VITEK2 and manual methods for the identification of intestinal microbial communities on the example of samples from alpacas ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Universally, in microbiological diagnostics the detection of live bacteria is essential. Rapid identification of pathogens enables appropriate remedial measures to be taken. The identification of many bacteria simultaneously facilitates the determination of the characteristics of the accompanying microbiota and/or the microbiological complexity of a given environment.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The effectiveness of the VITEK2 Compact automated microbial identification system and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), analytical profile index (API) and Remel RapID tests were compared in identification of bacteria isolated from the alpaca gastrointestinal tract.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Most isolates were Gram-positive, such as <italic>Bacillus cereus, Bacillus flexus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus</italic> and <italic>Bacillus subtilis; Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus hirae</italic> and <italic>Enterococcus casseliflavus; Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus equorum</italic>, <italic>Staphylococcus lentus</italic>, <italic>Staphylococcus pseudintermedius</italic> and <italic>Staphylococcus sciuri</italic>; <italic>Paenibacillus amylolyticus</italic>; <italic>Cellulosimicrobium cellulans</italic>; <italic>Leuconostoc mesenteroides</italic>; <italic>Clostridium perfringens</italic>; <italic>Corynebacterium stationis</italic>, <italic>Corynebacterium xerosis</italic>, and <italic>Corynebacterium diphtheriae</italic> (the last only isolated manually by API Coryne and the VITEK2 system and <italic>Corynebacteria</italic> (CBC) card). <italic>Corynebacterium diphtheriae</italic> was misidentified by MALDI-TOF MS as <italic>Candida lipolytica</italic> (currently <italic>Yarrowia lipolytica</italic>). Gram-positive and Gram-variable <italic>Micrococcus luteus</italic> were also isolated. Gram-negative <italic>Enterobacter cloacae</italic>, <italic>Enterobacter gergoviae</italic>, <italic>Enterobacter hormaechei</italic> and <italic>Enterobacter ludwigii</italic>; <italic>E. coli</italic>; <italic>Klebsiella pneumoniae</italic> subsp. <italic>pneumoniae</italic>; <italic>Citrobacter braakii</italic> and <italic>Citrobacter freundii</italic>; <italic>Serratia liquefaciens</italic>, <italic>Serratia odorifera</italic> and <italic>Serratia marcescens</italic>; <italic>Morganella morganii</italic> subsp. <italic>morganii</italic>; <italic>Providencia alcalifaciens</italic>; <italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</italic>; <italic>Stenotrophomonas maltophilia</italic>; <italic>Moraxella osloensis</italic>; and <italic>Ochrobactrum intermedium</italic> were also found. The yeasts <italic>Candida albicans, Candida haemulonii</italic> and <italic>Candida ciferrii</italic> were also present.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>MALDI-TOF MS enabled the identification of pathogens and opportunistic pathogens from the alpaca gut which may represent a high risk to human and animal health.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of carp edema virus in organs of infected juvenile common carp<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>The disease caused by carp edema virus (CEV) manifests with lethargy as a primary sign; this observation in koi in Japan gained the disease the name koi sleepy disease (KSD). In the years following the discovery of the virus in Japan, KSD cases have been noted in the UK in koi and common carp. Conducting research in order to expand knowledge of the processes of distribution of CEV in infected fish organs will be helpful for eradication and diagnostic purposes.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Carp edema virus–affected fish with clinical signs of KSD were experimentally cohabited with common carp fry (30 fish). Three fish were euthanised by bath in a 0.5 g L<sup>−1</sup> tricaine solution at one week intervals (7, 14, 21 and 28 days post cohabitation). Tissue samples from the brain, gills, spleen, kidney, intestines and skin were collected, and the total DNA was extracted and tested by real-time PCR.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>By the seventh day post infection, CEV DNA was most often found in the skin, gills and brain and less frequently in the kidney and intestines. In many of the common carp fry, CEV DNA could typically be found in several organs of each individual fish, although it was only found in one sample of spleen tissue.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>In this experimental study the pathogenesis of the CEV infection process was shown, the high infectivity of CEV was confirmed and the best organs were determined for sampling in CEV-infection experimentation. The real-time PCR method used in our cohabitation experiments was shown to be useful at the clinical and asymptomatic stage of virus infection.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue resistance of serogroups IIa and IVb from food and food-production environments in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p><italic>Listeria monocytogenes</italic> is an important foodborne pathogen responsible for human listeriosis, which is a disease with high hospitalisation and mortality rates. The bacteria are usually susceptible to most antibacterial substances, but resistance to some of them has been recently observed. The present study introduces the evidence on the emergence of antibiotic resistance among <italic>L. monocytogenes</italic> strains isolated from food and food-production environments in Poland.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>A total of 283 <italic>L. monocytogenes</italic> isolates classified into serogroups IIa and IVb which had been recovered from food and food production environments were tested with 17 antimicrobials. These included those that are recommended for treatment of severe listeriosis cases in humans. A multiplex PCR was used to identify serogroups, and a microbroth dilution method was applied for the determination of antibiotic resistance among the isolates tested.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Only 34 (12.0%) strains were susceptible to all the antimicrobials used in the study. The remaining 249 (88.0%) strains displayed different instances of resistance to the antimicrobials tested, from insusceptibility to one (112 strains; 39.6%) to resistance to four antibacterial substances (6 strains; 2.1%). Among them, there were 38 strains (13.4%) with multiresistance patterns.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Polish food and its processing environments may be a potential source of antimicrobial-resistant <italic>L. monocytogenes</italic>, which may pose a potential health risk to consumers in the country.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue initial characterisation of the Unfolded Protein Response pathway in haematopoietic canine cancer cell lines – a necessary step for the future development of new therapies in dogs with neoplasia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>New and more effective therapies for canine cancer patients are urgently required and this necessitates advanced experimental research. Dogs are good models for studies in comparative oncology; however, canine cancer cell biology research is currently limited by low availability of validated antibody reagents and techniques. This study characterises the expression of key components of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in a panel of haematopoietic canine cancer cell lines using commercially available antibodies, and validates the methods used to study this pathway.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The CLBL-1 canine lymphoma cell line and the GL-1 canine leukaemia cell line sourced externally and two counterparts established in house (CNK-89 and CLB70) were used as models of different lymphoma and leukaemia canine cell lines for the study. The human U2OS cell line served as the control. Antibodies were selected for identifying UPR proteins according to known canine cell reactivity and canine–murine and canine–human homology. Endoplasmic reticulum stress was induced with thapsigargin and MG132 in the cell lines. Etoposide was used to induce DNA damage in the cells. The techniques used for this validation analysis were RNA sequencing to observe the expression of UPR components in canine cell lines, Western blot to observe changes of protein expression levels after inducing ER stress in the cells, and flow cytometry in order to study cell death.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Substantial variations in both the basic expression and agonist-induced activation of the UPR pathway were observed in canine cancer cell lines, although the biological significance of these differences requires further investigation.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>These findings will be a starting point for future studies on cancer biology in dogs. They will also contribute to developing novel anticancer therapies for canine patients and may provide new insights into human oncology.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue carcasses as an underestimated source of antimicrobial resistant<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Campylobacteriosis is the most common human foodborne bacterial infection worldwide and is caused by bacteria of the <italic>Camplylobacter</italic> genus. The main source of these bacteria is poultry, but other food-producing animals such as pigs are also responsible for human infections. An increasing number of strains with resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides were recently noted. The aim of the study was to investigate <italic>Campylobacter</italic> contamination of porcine carcasses and determine the antimicrobial resistance of the obtained isolates.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>A total of 534 swabs from carcasses of pigs slaughtered in Poland during 2019–2022 were tested for <italic>Campylobacter</italic> spp.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p><italic>Campylobacter</italic> was detected in 164 (30.7%) carcasses; among them 149 (90.8%) were classified as <italic>C. coli</italic> and the remaining 15 (9.2%) samples were <italic>C. jejuni</italic>-positive. Because a low number of <italic>C. jejuni</italic> isolates were identified, only the <italic>C. coli</italic> isolates were subjected to antimicrobial resistance analysis. The majority of these isolates were resistant to streptomycin (94.0%), ciprofloxacin (65.8%) and tetracycline (65.1%). A total of 94 (63.1%) strains displayed antimicrobial multiresistance patterns and were mainly resistant to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and tetracyclines (74; 49.7% of the isolates tested).</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The obtained results showed that pig carcasses may be contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant <italic>C. coli</italic>.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and the risk of occurrence of benign and malignant canine skin tumours in Poland – a five-year retrospective study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>The aim of the study was to compile data on the frequency and distribution of canine skin tumours and determine the risk of these being malignant as opposed to benign. This determination proceeded from tumour histogenesis and gave consideration to the dog’s breed, sex, age and the anatomical location of tumours.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>This retrospective five-year epidemiological study included 3,139 canine skin tumours collected in Poland. A univariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Microscopic analysis showed a significant predominance of benign tumours (65.02%) as well as mesenchymal and melanocytic tumours (59.57%). The most frequently diagnosed were mast cell tumours, accounting for 13.79% of all skin tumours, and other common tumour types were lipomas (6.40%), haemangiopericytomas (5.96%) and malignant melanomas (4.65%). The risk of malignant <italic>versus</italic> benign tumours was 1.212 times higher in the female than in the male dogs. A higher risk of development of malignant epithelial tumours was found in boxers (OR 4.091), German shepherds (OR 4.085) and flat-coated retrievers (OR 43.596). A higher risk of development of malignant mesenchymal tumours was found in golden retrievers (OR 4.693), boxers (OR 2.342), bulldogs (OR 3.469) and Maltese (OR 2.757).</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The results may serve as a reference point for further studies of the complex biology of canine skin tumours.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the examination of different types of hive samples be a non-invasive method for detection and quantification of viruses in honey bee ( L.) colonies?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Honey bee viruses have been shown to negatively affect the vigour and longevity of European honey bees (<italic>Apis mellifera</italic> L). In the present work, beehive materials were tested for their potential to serve as non-invasive samples for honey bee virus detection.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Honey, pollen, hive debris, hive grid smears and forager honey bees were collected from 24 hives at four locations in the Czech Republic. Deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), sacbrood virus (SBV) and black queen cell virus (BQCV) were detected using a reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative RT-PCR and the results for bees and alternative materials compared.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>All forager bee samples contained DWV, BQCV and SBV and 54.2% had ABPV. When comparing beehive materials to bees, the most promising results were obtained from honey and pollen samples, with BQCV and SBV detected in all honey samples and ABPV in 12.5%. Detection of SBV was achieved in 91.6% of pollen samples, detection of BQCV in 87.5% and detection of DWW in 75%. The results for debris and smears were less consistent with the viral profile of the forager samples.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The best candidate materials for honey bee virus detection in a non-invasive technique are honey and pollen.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue validation of liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry multi-mycotoxin determination in animal feed – method transfer from the reference laboratory to regional laboratories<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>The results are presented of the inter-laboratory validation of a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of eight mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, ochratoxin A, toxin T-2, toxin HT-2 and zearalenone) in animal feeds.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>This study was an essential part of the method’s transfer from the National Reference Laboratory to six regional laboratories in Poland working in the official survey of mycotoxins in feed. The laboratories received a batch of standard solutions, blank samples and quality control materials on which to perform analysis with one procedure and different liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry conditions.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The validation results show good precision (reproducibility coefficient of variation 3.7–20.5%) and accuracy of the method (recovery 89–120% and trueness 94–103%) and sufficient skills of the laboratory personnel.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The study is an example of the successful transfer of the method among laboratories.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effects of N-acetyl-l-cysteine against penconazole-triggered hepatorenal toxicity in adult rats<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Penconazole (PEN) is a widely applied triazole fungicide. This study sought to define the efficacy of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) in mitigating PEN-triggered hepatorenal toxicity in rats.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Twenty-eight adult male albino Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: a normal control (NC), a PEN group, a NAC group and a PEN+NAC group. Administration of PEN (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) every 2 days) and NAC (150 mg/kg b.w., daily) took place <italic>via</italic> oral gavage for 10 days.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Effective amelioration by NAC of PEN-induced liver and kidney dysfunction was indicated by a significant reduction in the circulating liver and kidney markers (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, urea and creatinine). Attenuation of PEN-induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney tissues was evident in a significant reduction in malondialdehyde and enhanced total antioxidant capacity. Moreover, NAC significantly reduced the histopathological alterations and the expression of tumour necrosis factor α in liver and kidney tissue. Furthermore, NAC maintained the messenger RNA levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), haem oxygenase 1, and Kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein 1 and prevented nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) protein upregulation caused by PEN.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>N-acetyl-1-cysteine protected against PEN-induced hepatorenal oxidative damage and inflammatory response <italic>via</italic> activation of Nrf2 and inhibition of NF-κB pathways.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the haematological profile of pregnant Polish Holstein-Friesian black-and-white cattle in the early stage<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Cattle health and welfare are monitored <italic>via</italic> the analysis of the haematological profile, and it shows cattle’s ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, pregnancy and lactation; profile changes also indicate reproductive disorders. The literature lacks reports of the examination of the haematological profile in cows up to the 50<sup>th</sup> day of pregnancy (dop). Therefore, this research examined that in cows up to this pregnancy stage.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>A total of 101 Polish Holstein-Friesian black-and-white cows were divided into groups. The control groups consisted of non-pregnant heifers (group C00) and non-pregnant cows (group C0), and the experimental groups were pregnant heifers (group T1 at dop ≤ 28 and group T2 at dop ≥ 29–dop &lt; 45) and pregnant cows (group T3 at dop ≥ 29–dop ≤ 50). In addition, the T3 group was divided into cows pregnant for up 45 dop and cows between 45 and 50 dop. Blood samples were collected in March and April 2021 from each animal and analysed. A transrectal ultrasound examination was performed to detect and confirm pregnancy.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.01) between the group of cows at dop &lt; 45 dop and those at dop ≥ 45–dop ≤ 50 dop were noted in granulocyte percentage (GRA%), white and red blood cell counts (WBC/RBC), platelets (PLT), platelet distribution width (PDW), haematocrit (HCT) and lymphocyte percentage (LYM%). No statistically significant differences were found in the mean corpuscular haemoglobin, monocytes (MON), monocyte percentage (MON%), mean platelet volume (MPV), thrombocrit or red blood cell distribution width (RDW). Similar statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.01) emerged between the groups of heifers in PLT, GRA, RBC, lymphocytes, LYM% and HCT, and no significant differences were found between MPV, MON, MON% or RDW.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Examining the haematological profile in high-yielding cattle is vital in maintaining herd profitability and high reproduction, which depend on the quick diagnosis of disorders facilitated by haematology. This study analysed the haematology profile of dairy cattle at dop ≤ 50 for the first time, indicating changes in lymphocyte levels, which suggests that the animals experienced direct stress during the study.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Actiphage in combination with IS qPCR as a diagnostic tool for rapid determination of paratuberculosis infection status in small ruminant herds<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p><italic>Mycobacterium avium</italic> subsp. <italic>paratuberculosis</italic> (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic infectious intestinal disease occurring in domestic and wild ruminants. Early diagnosis of infected herds enabling timely adoption of control measures is tremendously important in view of the fact that the disease has a significant economic impact on farmers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of rapid detection of viable MAP on small ruminant farms based on environmental sample examination using a novel phage-based test named Actiphage.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>A total of 9 fresh and 28 frozen (8 or 11 years at -70°C) environmental samples originating from paratuberculosis-affected farms were analysed for the presence of MAP by four different diagnostic methods: Actiphage combined with real-time PCR targeting insertion sequence <italic>900</italic> (IS<italic>900</italic> qPCR), conventional phage amplification assay, culture (frozen samples only), and direct <italic>ĪS900</italic> qPCR.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Viable MAP was detected in one fresh environmental sample using Actiphage–IS<italic>900</italic> qPCR. None of the frozen samples tested positive using this diagnostic approach, which was consistent with the results of culture examination also providing information on viability.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>This study describes other possible and innovative uses of phage-based methods in paratuberculosis control strategies. The Actiphage-qPCR was found to be less laborious than culture and provided results within six hours, suggesting that it may be a valuable tool for rapid initial determination of the infectious status of farmed animals based on environmental sample examination.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of caesium-137 in food of animal origin in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Radioactive contamination of the environment is one of the greatest threats after a nuclear accident due to released radionuclides. From a radiotoxicological point of view, the most important radionuclide is caesium-137. Formed mainly during nuclear explosions, caesium-137 can persist in the soil for many years, from where it constantly enters the food chain. One of the elements of ensuring food safety is the monitoring of its radioactive contamination, mainly with radioactive caesium isotopes. The aim of the study was to determine the content of caesium-137 in food of animal origin.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>A total of 1,416 muscle samples from cattle, sheep, pigs, game and fish, as well as chicken eggs and dairy products were examined using gamma-ray spectrometry.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Caesium-137 activities ranged from below the minimum detectable activity concentration (MDC) to over 4,000 Bq/kg wet weight (w.w.). Most often, the values did not exceed the MDC or were in a range below 100 Bq/kg. The exception was the muscle tissue of game animals, especially wild boar, where a significant activity of caesium-137 was recorded, the highest of which was 4,136.8 ± 238 Bq/kg w.w. Committed effective doses determined for each matrix ranged from 0.01 to 0.83 µSv/kg, with the highest value determined for wild boar.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The calculated exposure doses with values well below the accepted low radiation dose (100 mSv) did not indicate any significant amounts of ionising radiation from the food consumed.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of SNP markers for canine mammary gland tumours in females based on a genome-wide association study – preliminary results<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>The development of genetic research over recent decades has enabled the discovery of new genetic markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This, as well as the full sequencing of the dog genome, has enabled genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to be used in the search for genetic causes of canine mammary tumours (CMTs).</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Genotypic data containing 175,000 SNPs, which had been obtained using the Illumina CanineHD BeadChip microarray technique, were available for analysis in this study. The data concerned 118 bitches, including 36 animals with CMT, representing various breeds and age groups. Statistical analysis was performed in two steps: quality control of genotyping data and genome-wide association analysis based on dominant, recessive, overdominant, codominant, and log-additive models with the single SNP effects.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>A total of 40 different SNPs significantly associated with CMT appearance were detected. Moreover, twelve SNPs showed statistical significance in more than one model. Of all the significant SNPs, two, namely <italic>BICF2G630136001</italic> in the overdominant model and <italic>TIGRP2P107898_rs9044787</italic> in the log-additive model, reached the 5<sup>−8</sup> significance level. The other SNPs were significant to a 1<sup>−5</sup> level.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>In the group of SNPs indicated as significant in the GWAS analysis, several transpired to be localised within genes that may play an important role in CMT.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue response to 1.0 and 0.5 mL doses of an inactivated bacterial vaccine against bovine respiratory disease in young Holstein calves: a field trial<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Early vaccination of cattle with an inactivated commercial bacterial vaccine against bovine respiratory disease has been reported to increase antibody production and can alleviate the disease. However, its dosage has been little investigated in young Holstein calves. This study addresses the need to establish guide values for vaccine dosage in these animals.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Healthy calves received an inactivated vaccine for <italic>Histophilus somni</italic>, <italic>Pasteurella multocida</italic> and <italic>Mannheimia haemolytica</italic> intramuscularly at the ages of 1 and 4 weeks. Administered vaccine doses were 1.0 mL for the primary and booster vaccinations (1.0 + 1.0 group), 0.5 mL for the primary and 1.0 mL for the booster vaccination (0.5 + 1.0 group), or 0.5 mL for both vaccinations (0.5 + 0.5 group).</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Differences in the vaccine responses between the 1.0 + 1.0 group and 0.5 + 1.0 group were minor. However, the number of calves with a positive vaccine response to <italic>H. somni</italic> in the 0.5 + 0.5 group was less than half of that in the 1.0 + 1.0 and 0.5 + 1.0 groups. In logistic regression analysis, although the booster vaccination dose was positively correlated with seropositivity for <italic>H. somni</italic>, the primary vaccination dose was not correlated with vaccine response. The number of calves with positive vaccine responses to <italic>M. haemolytica</italic> was low even after booster vaccination regardless of the dose.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The dose of 0.5 mL can be used for primary vaccinations in newborn Holstein calves, but 1.0 mL may be required for booster vaccinations.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue molecular detection of on pig farms in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Prior to the 2000s, swine dysentery was considered to be caused only by <italic>Brachyspira hyodysenteriae</italic> with contributing commensal intestinal anaerobes. Nowadays, it is known that the disease is caused by three strongly beta-haemolytic species of the anaerobic spirochaetal genus <italic>Brachyspira, i.e. B. hyodysenteriae</italic> and newly emerged <italic>B. hampsonii</italic> and <italic>B. suanatina.</italic></p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The present investigation was carried out in November 2022 on nine Polish high-performing finisher pig farms. At every location one fresh pooled faecal sample was collected from 40 randomly selected pigs of between 60 and 110 kg live weight. Nucleic acid extracted from each pooled faecal sample was analysed by an in-house multiplex PCR for <italic>Brachyspira</italic> spp<italic>.</italic>, which is capable of confirming the <italic>Brachyspira</italic> genus and detecting and differentiating <italic>Brachyspira</italic> species.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>From a total of nine samples examined, the genetic material of <italic>B. suanatina</italic> was detected in seven. Non-pathogenic/questionably pathogenic <italic>Brachyspira</italic> spp. were found in six samples.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of <italic>B. suanatina</italic> in pigs outside Scandinavia, Germany and the United Kingdom. Our research not only provides valuable epidemiological data on <italic>B. suanatina</italic> infection in Europe but also highlights both the importance of modern laboratory diagnostics and the need for thorough investigation across regions, including retrospective studies.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue sequence features of H1N1 swine influenza A viruses detected on commercial swine farms in Serbia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Swine influenza A viruses (swIAVs) are characterised by high mutation rates and zoonotic and pandemic potential. In order to draw conclusions about virulence in swine and pathogenicity to humans, we examined the existence of molecular markers and accessory proteins, cross-reactivity with vaccine strains, and resistance to antiviral drugs in five strains of H1N1 swIAVs.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Amino acid (AA) sequences of five previously genetically characterised swIAVs were analysed in MEGA 7.0 software and the Influenza Research Database.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Amino acid analysis revealed three virus strains with 590S/591R polymorphism and T271A substitution within basic polymerase 2 (PB2) AA chains, which cause enhanced virus replication in mammalian cells. The other two strains possessed D701N and R251K substitutions within PB2 and synthesised PB1-F2 protein, which are the factors of increased polymerase activity and virulence in swine. All strains synthesised PB1-N40, PA-N155, PA-N182, and PA-X proteins responsible for enhanced replication in mammalian cells and downregulation of the immune response of the host. Mutations detected within haemagglutinin antigenic sites imply the antigenic drift of the five analysed viruses in relation to the vaccine strains. All viruses show susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors and baloxavir marboxil, which is important in situations of incidental human infections.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The detection of virulence markers and accessory proteins in the analysed viruses suggests their higher propensity for replication in mammalian cells, increased virulence, and potential for transmission to humans, and implies compromised efficacy of influenza vaccines.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and antimicrobial properties of an extract rich in proteins obtained from<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Bioactive proteins and peptides generated from fruit, vegetables, meat or fish have great potential as functional food or substitutes for antibiotics. In recent years it has also been demonstrated that the fungus kingdom could be a source of these compounds. The study investigated the bioactivity of an extract of the lignicolous fungus <italic>Trametes versicolor</italic> and its hydrolysate.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The fungus was collected in a mixed forest in October, extracted and hydrolysed. To inspect the protein and peptide profiles before and after hydrolysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation–time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis was performed. To evaluate the antioxidant properties of the preparations, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH<sup>•</sup>) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS<sup>•+</sup>) radical scavenging assays were used. The activity of the fungus extract and hydrolysate against <italic>Aeromonas veronii</italic>, <italic>Bacillus cereus</italic>, <italic>Enterococcus faecalis</italic>, <italic>Enterococcus faecium</italic>, <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>, <italic>Klebsiella pneumoniae</italic>, <italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</italic>, <italic>Salmonella</italic> Typhimurium, <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic>, <italic>Staphylococcus epidermidis</italic>, <italic>Streptococcus agalactiae</italic>, <italic>Streptococcus dysgalactiae</italic>, and <italic>Streptococcus uberis</italic> was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The extract and its hydrolysate showed almost 100% ABTS<sup>•+</sup> and DPPH<sup>•</sup> radical scavenging with a low half maximal inhibitory concentration. The water extract and hydrolysate of <italic>T. versicolor</italic> exhibited antimicrobial activity against two <italic>S. aureus</italic> strains, <italic>E. coli</italic>, <italic>P. aeruginosa</italic> and <italic>Salmonella</italic> Typhimurium.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>These results provide compelling evidence that the analysed fungus extract and its hydrolysate hold promise with their antibacterial and antioxidant properties.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue