rss_2.0Journal of Veterinary Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Veterinary Research of Veterinary Research Feed of the effect of polymorphisms within the gene on dairy performance parameters<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0018_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Antimicrobial peptides, including cathelicidins, play a significant role in farm animals, influencing animal welfare, immunity, and thus the quality of animal products.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0018_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The study used amplification-created restriction site and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism to analyse single nucleotide polymorphisms of the <italic>CATHL7</italic> gene encoding the BMAP-34 protein in cattle, at positions 2,383 <italic>G</italic> &gt; <italic>C</italic> and 2,468 <italic>G</italic> &gt; <italic>C</italic>. The material was collected from 279 Polish Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0018_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>There were statistically significant differences between milk performance parameters in cows with the <italic>CATHL7/Hha</italic>I and <italic>CATHL7/Hin</italic>fI genotypes. In the case of the <italic>CATHL7/Hha</italic>I polymorphism, the highest milk yield and protein and lactose content and the lowest somatic cell count in milk were observed for the <italic>CC</italic> genotype, while the fat content was the highest in milk from cows with the GG genotype. In the case of the <italic>CATHL7</italic>/<italic>Hin</italic>fI polymorphism, the highest protein and lactose content in milk was observed for the <italic>CC</italic> genotype.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0018_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The results were statistically significant, which suggests that the search for relationships can be continued, and that the results can be used to improve selection programmes supporting dairy farming.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of spp., spp., and in from southern Xinjiang, China<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0016_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Ticks are blood-sucking arthropods that have negative economic impacts and can spread a variety of diseases through their bites. There are few reports on soft ticks (Acari: Argasidae) and tick-borne pathogens in southern Xinjiang, China. This investigation supplements the available information for this region and is concerned with an argasid tick, apicomplexan parasites of the <italic>Babesia</italic> and <italic>Theileria</italic> genera and a bacterium of the <italic>Anaplasma</italic> genus.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0016_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>In this study, 330 soft ticks were collected from nine sampling sites in southern Xinjiang between 2020 and 2021. The ticks were identified according to their morphological characteristics and confirmed as <italic>Ornithodoros lahorensis</italic> using mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences. <italic>Babesia</italic> and <italic>Theileria</italic> were identified at the species level based on two fragments of the 18S rRNA gene, and one set of primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene was used to identify the <italic>Anaplasma</italic> genus.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0016_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Among the 330 samples, one <italic>Babesia</italic> species (<italic>Babesia</italic> sp.), two <italic>Theileria</italic> species (<italic>T. ovis</italic> and <italic>T. annulata</italic>), and one <italic>Anaplasma</italic> (<italic>A. ovis</italic>) species were detected.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0016_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>This study provides fundamental evidence for the occurrence of <italic>Babesia</italic>, <italic>Theileria</italic> and <italic>Anaplasma</italic> spp. in soft ticks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the detection of <italic>Babesia</italic> sp. and <italic>T. annulata</italic> in <italic>O. lahorensis</italic>. Therefore, the potential threat of soft ticks to livestock and humans should not be ignored.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of various diagnostic techniques for the detection of spp. and its molecular characterisation in farm animals in the United Arab Emirates<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0017_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p><italic>Blastocystis</italic> spp. is a common anaerobic intestinal parasite infecting humans and a diverse range of animals. The aim of the study was to compare different diagnostic methods for the detection of <italic>Blastocystis</italic> and survey the occurrence of its subtypes in farm animals, namely sheep, cows and camels, in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0017_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Ninety-seven faecal samples comprised of 69 from sheep, 12 from cows and 16 from camels were submitted to DNA extraction, PCR and sequencing. <italic>Blastocystis</italic> was screened for microscopically in 65 samples using direct wet-mount, modified acid-fast staining, trichrome staining and <italic>in vitro</italic> culture techniques.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0017_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Fifteen (15.5%) samples were positive by PCR, twelve of which were confirmed by sequencing. Using PCR as a comparison standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the direct wet-mount, modified acid-fast staining, trichrome staining and <italic>in vitro</italic> culture methods were 40.0% and 78.3%, 40.0% and 83.3%, 80.0% and 80.0%, and 80.0% and 76.7% respectively. Only culture and trichrome tests were significantly associated with PCR (odds ratio (OR) = 13.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35–127.4; P = 0.007 and OR = 16; 95% CI: 1.63–156.5; P = 0.003, respectively) with trichrome detecting more positive cases than <italic>in vitro</italic> culture. The subtype (ST)10 was the only one found in all 12 sequenced sheep isolates.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0017_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The study corroborated previous data indicating that sheep are the natural hosts for ST10. No zoonotic subtypes nor mixed-subtype colonisation were found. The report also confirmed the superiority of trichrome staining in detecting <italic>Blastocystis</italic> spp.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue communities of abomasal nematodes in cervids with a first report on in red deer<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0015_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Among large wild game in Poland, the most numerous cervids are red deer and roe deer. Although these species live free, they should be under veterinary supervision because they can transmit infectious agents and parasites to livestock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodiversity of the abomasal nematodes which parasitise cervids and present the visual and dimensional characteristics of their spicules.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0015_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Overall, 2,067 spicules of nematodes derived from nine red deer and five roe deer were measured and microphotographed in order to determine the species. The predominant <italic>Spiculopteragia boehmi</italic> was additionally confirmed molecularly by PCR. The spicule lengths of the most common species found in both hosts simultaneously were compared.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0015_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Fourteen species of abomasal nematode were identified. All examined animals but one were infected. The most prevalent parasites in both host species were <italic>S. boehmi</italic> and <italic>Ostertagia leptospicularis</italic>. The alien <italic>Ashworthius sidemi</italic> was found in both hosts, whereas <italic>Haemonchus contortus</italic> was identified only in red deer. <italic>Mazamastrongylus dagestanica</italic> was noted in red deer for the first time. A 262-base-pair nucleotide sequence of <italic>S. boehmi</italic> was obtained and deposited in GenBank. Significantly longer spicules were found in red deer-derived <italic>O. leptospicularis</italic> and <italic>S. boehmi</italic> and shorter structures were seen in <italic>A. sidemi</italic>.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0015_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The widespread exchange of abomasal nematodes between various ruminant species questions the relevance of their division into specialists and generalists.</p> </sec></abstract>ARTICLEtrue hexon protein as a new bovine adenovirus type 3 subunit vaccine candidate<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0014_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Bovine adenovirus (BAdV) type 3 causes respiratory and gastroenteric diseases of varying severity in cattle, particularly newborn calves. Trials have been conducted of a vaccination against the diseases caused by BAdV using both modified live-virus and inactivated-virus preparations in cattle, but no commercial BAdV-3 vaccine has yet reached the market. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new, safe, and effective vaccines against BAdV-3.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0014_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Recombinant hexon protein (rhexon) of BAdV-3 was expressed in the <italic>E. coli</italic> system to evaluate immune response in mice and goats. Antibody responses and cytokine levels were analysed and the effects of administrations of different amounts of recombinant protein compared. Long-term antibody production was evaluated by indirect ELISA, and the total immunoglobulin G secreted by goats and mice immunised with the purified rhexon protein was determined.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0014_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The immunised mice had a stronger antibody response than the control group at eight weeks post vaccination. The immunised groups also showed significantly higher (P ˂ 0.05) expression of interferon-γ, interleukin 2 (in mice), and interleukin 21 (in goats) at four weeks. Furthermore, vaccination with rhexon was able to induce long-term antibody production for at least 16 weeks in mice and goats.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0014_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The rhexon protein induced immune responses, especially long-term antibody production and T helper 1 cell cytokine production in mice and goats. The immunogenic properties of this protein make it a promising subunit vaccine antigen.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue small non-coding RNA contributes to the environmental adaptation and pathogenicity of<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0013_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p><italic>Listeria monocytogenes</italic> (LM) is an important food-borne pathogen, and the risk of its ingestion is a serious public health issue. The better its environmental adaptation mechanisms and pathogenicity are understood, the better the risk it poses can be countered. The regulatory role of the small non-coding RNA (sRNA) <italic>rli106</italic> in the environmental adaptation and pathogenicity of LM is still unclear and this study investigated that role through its biological function.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0013_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>An LM-<italic>Δrli106</italic> gene deletion strain and an LM-<italic>Δrli106/rli106</italic> gene complementation strain were constructed using the homologous recombination technique. Then, the adaptation of these strains to temperature, alkalinity, acidity, salinity, ethanol and oxidative stressors, their biofilm-forming ability and their pathogenicity in mice were investigated to show the regulatory roles of sRNA <italic>rli106</italic> in LM. The target gene of <italic>rli106</italic> was also predicted, and the interaction between it and <italic>rli106</italic> was verified by a two-plasmid co-expressing system based on <italic><ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href="http://E.coli">E.coli</ext-link></italic> and Western blot analysis.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0013_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The adaptation of LM-<italic>Δrli106</italic> to environmental stressors of pH 9, 5% NaCl and 8% NaCl, 3.8% ethanol and 5 mM H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> was significantly reduced when compared to the parental (LM EGD-e) and complementation strains. Also, the biofilm formation, cell adhesion, invasion, intracellular proliferation and pathogenicity of LM-<italic>Δrli106</italic> in mice were significantly reduced. The results of two-plasmid co-expression and Western blot showed that <italic>rli106</italic> can interact with the mRNA of the predicted <italic>DegU</italic> target gene.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0013_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The sRNA <italic>rli106</italic> may positively regulate the expression of the <italic>DegU</italic> gene in LM. This study sheds light on its regulatory roles in environmental adaptation and pathogenicity, providing new insights into the molecular mechanism of sRNA mediation in LM .</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue role of leukotriene B in cow metritis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0011_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Metritis is a common postpartum disease in dairy cows. As a mast cell (MC) mediator, leukotriene B<sub>4</sub> (LTB<sub>4</sub>) is the strongest phagocyte chemokine. It is important in inflammation for the recruitment of immune cells to resist infection. This study investigated the effect of LTB<sub>4</sub> in metritis.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0011_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Twenty Holstein cows 3 to 6 years old and at 6 to 10 days postpartum were selected, ten of which with postpartum metritis were the experimental group, and the other ten of which as healthy cows were the control group. The levels of LTB<sub>4</sub>, substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were measured by ELISA, the expression of LTB<sub>4</sub> receptor 2 (BLT2), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 mRNA was measured by qPCR, and collagens I and IV were detected by immunohistochemical staining.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0011_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Concentrations of SP and LTB<sub>4</sub> were significantly higher, but those of VIP were significantly lower in the experimental group than those in the control group. The expression of BLT2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA was significantly higher in the experimental group than that in the control group. The expression of collagen Ⅰ and collagen Ⅳ was significantly lower in the experimental group than that in the control group.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0011_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>In metritis, SP promotes the activation of MC and the synthesis and release of LTB<sub>4</sub>. Leukotriene B<sub>4</sub> chemotactic immune cells promote the high expression of collagenase, which accelerated the hydrolysis of collagen, while the inhibitory effect of VIP on MC was weakened. This may further aggravate the damage to uterine tissue.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and viral rodent-borne infections on poultry farms. An attempt at a systematic review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0012_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Rodents are quite common at livestock production sites. Their adaptability, high reproductive capacity and omnivorousness make them apt to become a source of disease transmission to humans and animals. Rodents can serve as mechanical vectors or active shedders of many bacteria and viruses, and their transmission can occur through direct contact, or indirectly through contaminated food and water or by the arthropods which parasitise infected rodents. This review paper summarises how rodents spread infectious diseases in poultry production.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0012_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The aim of this review was to use PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) principles to meta-analyse the available data on this topic. Three databases – PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus – and grey literature were searched for papers published from inception to July 2022 using the established keywords.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0012_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>An initial search identified 2,999 articles that met the criteria established by the keywords. This number remained after removing 597 articles that were repeated in some databases. The articles were searched for any mention of specific bacterial and viral pathogens.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0012_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The importance of rodents in the spread of bacterial diseases in poultry has been established, and the vast majority of such diseases involved <italic>Salmonella</italic>, <italic>Campylobacter</italic>, <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>, <italic>Staphylococcus</italic> (MRSA)<italic>, Pasteurella, Erysipelothrix</italic> or <italic>Yersinia</italic> infections. Rodents also play a role in the transmission of viruses such as avian influenza virus, avian paramyxovirus 1, avian gammacoronavirus or infectious bursal disease virus, but knowledge of these pathogens is very limited and requires further research to expand it.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and milk levels of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine herpesvirus-1 and -4, and circulation of different bovine herpesvirus-4 genotypes in dairy cattle with clinical mastitis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0010_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus (BoHV)-1 and -4 are important causes of respiratory diseases and reproductive disorders of dairy cattle worldwide.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0010_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Investigation of BVDV and BoHV-1 and -4 antibody levels in the serum and milk of dairy cattle in a group with clinical mastitis and a healthy group was undertaken using an indirect ELISA, and identification of the BoHV-4 genotypes in clinical mastitis cases was attempted by PCR and sequencing.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0010_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Antibodies specific to BVDV, BoHV-1 and BoHV-4 were detected in the serum and milk of all dairy cattle with clinical mastitis. The cut-off values for BVDV and BoHV-1 in the sera and milk were extremely high in both healthy and mastitic animals. However, BoHV-4 antibodies were detected only in the clinically mastitic cattle, and BoHV-4 levels were higher in milk than in sera among these animals. Genotypes I and II of BoHV-4 were detected in the milk samples of four seropositive cows with clinical mastitis from the same herd.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0010_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The results of this investigation demonstrate that clinical mastitis cases in the same herd may have aetiology in different BoHV-4 genotypes.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of uropathogenic in dog urine after consumption of food supplemented with cranberry ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0004_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p><italic>Escherichia coli</italic> is the most common pathogen isolated from the urine of dogs with urinary tract infections (UTIs). While there are many studies in humans investigating the potential for the prevention of UTIs by dietary consumption of cranberry, few analogous studies have been carried out in dogs.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0004_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Eight dogs, four male and four female, were successively fed two diets, first a control without cranberry, and then the second diet containing cranberry extracts. Naturally excreted urine was collected on the tenth day after the start of each diet for 24 h and used for bacterial growth. Madin-Darby canine kidney cell adherence by the uropathogenic <italic>E. coli</italic> G1473 strain expressing type 1 pili and positive for P pili and haemolysin gene markers was quantified after growth in urine samples.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0004_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Significant reductions in bacterial adherence to MDCK cells (from −16.5 to −73.4%, P &lt; 0.05) were observed in the four females but not in the males after consumption of the cranberry extracts compared to the same animals consuming the control diet.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0004_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Dietary supplementation with cranberry may provide some degree of protection to female dogs against adhesion of uropathogenic <italic>E. coli</italic> to urinary epithelial cells.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of tuberculosis biomarkers in paratuberculosis-infected cattle<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0007_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p><italic>Mycobacterium bovis</italic> and <italic>Mycobacterium avium</italic> subsp. <italic>paratuberculosis</italic>, respectively the causative agents of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and bovine paratuberculosis (PTB), share a high number of antigenic proteins. This characteristics makes the differential diagnosis of the diseases difficult. The interferon gamma (IFN-γ), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), interleukin 22 (IL-22) and thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) bovine genes have already been shown to be accurate transcriptional biomarkers of bTB. In order to improve the diagnosis of bTB and PTB, in the present study we evaluated the risk of false positivity of these bTB biomarkers in cattle with PTB.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0007_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The transcription of these genes was studied in 13 PTB-infected cattle, using <italic>Mycobacterium avium</italic> subsp. <italic>paratuberculosis</italic> (MAP)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0007_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Overall, the levels of IFN-γ, CXCL10, MMP9 and IL-22 transcripts in MAP-stimulated PBMC failed to differentiate animals with PTB from healthy animals. However, as bTB-afflicted cattle do, the MAP-infected group also displayed a lower level of THBS1 transcription than the non-infected animals.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0007_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The results of this study add new specificity attributes to the levels of transcription of IFN-γ, CXCL10, MMP9 and IL-22 as biomarkers for bTB.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue haematological and blood lactate changes in whippets training for lure coursing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0009_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Whippets are traditionally trained to compete in lure coursing. While in humans and horses, training is routinely monitored by special tests, this is not carried out in the training of whippets. The aim of this study was to check if laboratory tests designed for racehorses could be useful in monitoring whippets training for lure coursing.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0009_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Blood samples were taken from 14 whippets at several time points: before exercise (including warm-up), immediately after, 15 min after and 30 min after exercise sessions of straight 400 m runs (T) and coursing (C). Routine haematological values and lactate concentrations (LA) were measured.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0009_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>White blood cell count, red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit increased significantly in both types of exertion, and no differences between the types were observed. The LA measured immediately after the run were increased, but there was no significant difference between the types of session (T and C). After both types of activity, LA decreased within 30 min post run by 9–11 mmol/L. Lactate concentrations were significantly higher 30 min after the T sessions than after the C sessions.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0009_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The results confirmed that typical exercise-induced changes occurred in whippets training for lure coursing; however, the scale of changes was different to that in horses. The sampling scheme used in racehorses can be applied to whippets and can be useful as a laboratory tool for monitoring their training.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue between apoptosis and cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) in the course of GI.1a infection in rabbits<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0008_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p><italic>Lagovirus europaeus</italic> is a single-stranded RNA virus causing an acute fatal disease in wild and domestic rabbits around the world. Studies have shown that the pivotal process impacting the immune response against the disease is apoptosis, registered mainly in hepatocytes and in peripheral blood, together with an increased number of cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs). It is known that cytotoxic lymphocytes can induce target cells to undergo apoptosis on the pseudoreceptor pathway, such apoptosis having been found in several acute and chronic viral infections. The study aimed to assess the crosstalk between the apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes and CD8+ T lymphocytes (as CTLs) in rabbits infected with 6 <italic>Lagovirus europaeus</italic> GI.1a viruses.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0008_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Sixty rabbits of Polish hybrid breed comprising both sexes and weighing 3.2–4.2 kg were the experimental group, and an identical group was the control. Each of the six GI.1a <italic>Lagovirus europaeus</italic> viruses was inoculated into ten experimental rabbits. Control rabbits received glycerol as a placebo. Flow cytometric analysis was performed on blood from the study and control group animals for peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and CTL percentage determination.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0008_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The activation of apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes was recorded from 4 h post inoculation (p.i.) up to 36 h p.i. The percentage of CTLs in the total blood pool decreased from 8 to 36 h p.i. A negative correlation between apoptosis of lymphocytes and the number of CTLs was proven.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0008_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>This may be the first evidence of virus-induced CTL apoptosis in <italic>Lagovirus europaeus</italic> GI.1a infection.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue eradication of tuberculosis in wild boar () in the Bieszczady Mountains, southern Poland – an administrative perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0006_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Animal tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic disease caused by acid-fast bacteria belonging to the <italic>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</italic> complex (MTBC). Both animals and humans are susceptible to infection by the MTBC. Interspecies transmission is also possible, including to livestock and humans. In the years 1997–2013, many tuberculosis cases were recorded in European bison in the Bieszczady Mountains; more alarmingly, TB was also recorded in wild boar in the years 2013–2020.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0006_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>In the years 2013–2020, 104 wild boar from the Bieszczady Mountains were tested for TB through necropsy, mycobacterial culture, strain identification and spoligotyping.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0006_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The microbiological examination confirmed TB in 46 wild boar; these infections were identified as <italic>M. caprae</italic>, spoligotype SB2391.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0006_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Free-living European bison are at risk of TB infection from wild boar carrying <italic>M. caprae</italic>. This situation also poses a risk to local cattle. There is a need for further activities aimed at monitoring the disease, preventing further transmission, and minimising the risk to public health.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, synthesis, and evaluation of peptides derived from L1 protein against bovine papillomavirus-1/2 identified along Mexico’s cattle export route<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract </title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0003_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Bovine papillomatosis affects animal health and represents one of the greatest economic losses in the livestock sector. New control and prevention methods to protect the livestock industry from this disease are necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate a candidate peptide for antibody production against bovine papillomavirus (BPV).</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0003_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>A total of 64 cattle underwent wart excision among 5,485 cattle distributed over 2 to 4 farms per state and 12 farms in total in the four Mexican states of Tabasco, Chiapas, Veracruz, and Nuevo León. The prevalence of bovine papillomatosis per farm was calculated by wart visualisation. The warts were genotyped by PCR and sequenced, then a phylogenetic tree was built using MEGA X software. A synthetic peptide was designed in the ABCpred, Bepipred 2.0, Bepipred IDBT, Bepitope, LBtope, and MHC II predictor online server software’s based on the C-terminal region of the L1 protein. Mice antibody production was induced by subcutaneous immunisation with 50 μg of synthetic peptide and evaluated by indirect ELISA.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0003_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The prevalence of BPV was higher in Tabasco, Chiapas, and Veracruz. Bovine papillomaviruses 1 and 2 were found in all representative samples. A phylogenetic tree showed that Mexican sequences were located in exclusive clades yet were highly related to international ones. The peptide immunisation induced antibody titres of 1 : 10,000/1 : 1,000,000 against synthetic peptide and whole wart lysate (WWL), respectively.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0003_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Co-infections of BPV-1 and -2 were found in all four states. Immunisation of BALB/C mice with BPV-1/2–derived synthetic peptide based on the C-terminal region of the major viral capsid protein L1 induced the production of specific antibodies able to recognise BPV-1/2 viral particles from bovine WWL.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of selected immunological parameters in dairy cows with naturally occurring mycotoxicosis before and after the application of a mycotoxin deactivator<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0002_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Mycotoxins in dairy cows can cause many non-specific symptoms often resulting from immune system overreaction. The study assessed the concentration of selected cytokines and acute phase proteins (APP) in cows with natural mycotoxicosis before and after using a mycotoxin neutraliser. The cytokines were tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 10 (IL-10), and the APP were serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp).</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0002_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The research was carried out on an experimental group (Exp) of 10 herdmate Holstein-Friesian cows with mycotoxicosis. The control group (Con) was 10 healthy cows of the same breed from a different herd. Cows in the Exp group were administered the mycotoxin deactivator Mycofix for three months. Blood was drawn from Exp cows once before administering Mycofix and a second time after three months of its use. Blood was also drawn from Con cows at the same times. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, SAA and Hp were assessed using ELISA.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0002_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The concentrations of all cytokines and Hp in Exp cows were higher before treatment (P &lt; 0.001) than those in Con cows. After three months of administering Mycofix, the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly lower than their pre-treatment levels (P &lt; 0.001). The concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, and Hp were still significantly higher than those in the Con group (P &lt; 0.001). In cows with mycotoxicosis, simultaneous stimulation of antagonistic processes was noted: a pro-inflammatory process in the upregulation of TNF-α and IL-6, and an anti-inflammatory one in the upregulation of IL-10.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0002_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Despite the absorbent’s use and the resolution of clinical symptoms in Exp cows, high levels of IL-10 and Hp and IL-6 were maintained. Assessment of the level of cytokines and APP appears to be a useful and precise tool for the evaluation and application of the appropriate dose of the mycotoxin absorbent or the evaluation of its effectiveness.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue microbiological characteristics of gingival pockets in the periodontal diseases of dogs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0005_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Canine periodontitis results among other factors from a disturbed balance of dental plaque microflora and an inadequate host inflammatory response to a stimulus. This investigation sought to identify microorganisms associated with canine periodontitis.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0005_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Microbiological analysis was undertaken of gingival pockets in an experimental group of 36 dogs with periodontal diseases. Swabs were collected with the use of Pet Test (MIP Pharma, Berlin, Germany) from patients with gingival pockets deeper than 5 mm. Samples were aggregated and placed in separate shipping containers with the Pet Test kit.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0005_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Identification was made of the most common microorganisms, <italic>e.g</italic>. <italic>Porphyromonas gingivalis</italic>, <italic>Treponema denticola</italic> and <italic>Prevotella intermedia</italic>. The red complex constituted the largest proportion of all analysed organisms (84.26%). <italic>Capnocytophaga gingivalis</italic> was isolated from 33 dogs, <italic>Peptostreptococcus micros</italic> from 32 dogs, <italic>Fusobacterium nucleatum</italic> from 29 animals and <italic>P. intermedia</italic> from 20.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0005_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The highest percentage of pathogens was supplied by <italic>P. gingivalis</italic> (61%). It is thought that dogs acquire them by means of cross-species transmission. The inter-study variability of results may depend not only on the method of periopathogen detection, but also on environmental factors, host immune status or genetic background. Depending on the state of periodontal disease, patients show varied microbiological profiles of the gingival pockets.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of honey bee sperm structures following the use of various staining techniques<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0001_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Bees are currently artificially inseminated on a large scale for breeding and research purposes. The sperm of bees has a complex and varied structure, and determination of specific morphological defects in it is very difficult. Its comprehensive analysis by inspecting morphology and morphometry is an important tool for improving honey bee lines. The staining technique should interfere with the cells as little as possible while clearly showing the boundaries of the head and other elements. In this study, a comparative analysis of the morphometry of sperm was performed with various techniques for staining drone semen.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0001_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Semen was collected from 150 sexually mature Buckfast bee drones by artificially everting the copulatory organ. The morphology and morphometry of the sperm were assessed on slides prepared by three staining methods according to the protocols described online, using the Sperm Class Analyzer system. The lengths of the acrosome, nucleus, head in total, midpiece, tail without midpiece, tail with midpiece, and entire sperm were measured.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0001_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The most details of the drone sperm structure could be seen when stained with the eosin-nigrosin complex. This method made it possible to identify all structures and revealed the uneven distribution of sperm proteins in different parts of the tail. With the Sperm Stain method fewer details of the sperm structure were recognisable, and the fewest were with SpermBlue.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2023-0001_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The staining method, and thus the chemical reagents used, affect the dimensions of drone sperm. Given the great research potential of modified spermatozoa of insects, a standard for slide preparation for the evaluation of morphological and morphometric semen parameters should be established, as this would facilitate result comparison between laboratories and increase the value of morphological analysis of sperm for predicting and assessing fertility.</p> </sec></abstract>ARTICLEtrue study on seroreactivity of goats exposed to colostrum and milk of small ruminant lentivirus–infected dams<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0071_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) causes caprine arthritis-encephalitis in goats and maedi-visna disease in sheep. Transmission is <italic>via</italic> ingestion of colostrum and milk from infected dams or long-term direct contact between animals. Lifelong seroconversion can occur several weeks after infection <italic>via</italic> ingestion. However, sub-yearling lambs that ingest contaminated colostrum may be able to clear the infection and become seronegative. Whether a similar phenomenon occurs in goats remains unknown. Therefore, the serological status of goats was studied longitudinally from the moment of natural exposure to colostrum and milk of SRLV-positive dams through the age of 24 months.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0071_s_009"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Between February 2014 and March 2017 a dairy goat herd was studied which had been infected with SRLV for more than 20 years and carried maedi-visna virus-like genotype A subtype A17. Thirty-one kids born to dams seropositive for SRLV for at least a year beforehand were followed. They ingested colostrum immediately after birth and then remained with their dams for three weeks. The goats were tested serologically every month using two commercial ELISAs. The clinical condition of the goats was also regularly assessed.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0071_s_010"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Out of 31 goats, 13 (42%) seroconverted at the age ranging from 3 to 22 months with a median of 5 months. Two goats seroconverted in the second year of life. The other eleven did so before the age of one year; two of these reverted to seronegative status. Only 9 out of 31 goats (29%) seroconverted in the first year of life and remained seropositive. They were early and stable seroreactors to which SRLV was transmitted lactogenically. The age at which they seroconverted ranged from 3 to 10 months with a median of 5 months. In 8 of the 18 persistently seronegative goats, a single isolated positive result occurred. No goats showed any clinical signs of arthritis. The level of maternal antibodies at the age of one week did not differ significantly between the stable seroreactors and the remainder.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0071_s_011"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Seroconversion appears to occur in less than 50% of goats exposed to heterologous SRLV genotype A <italic>via</italic> ingestion of colostrum and milk from infected dams and is delayed by 3–10 months. The natural lactogenic route of transmission of SRLV genotype A in goats appears to be less effective than this route of genotype B transmission reported in earlier studies.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLEtrue analysis of bovine macrophages (BoMac) cells after infection with bovine immunodeficiency virus<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0072_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) is found worldwide in cattle under natural conditions. However, the effect of BIV infection on immune functions has not been fully characterised.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0072_s_009"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Transcriptome analysis of BoMac cells after <italic>in vitro</italic> infection with BIV was performed using BLOPlus bovine microarrays. Genes identified as differentially expressed were subjected to functional analysis with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software (IPA).</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0072_s_010"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Out of 1,743 genes with altered expression, 1,315 were mapped as unique molecules. In total, 718 genes were identified as upregulated and 597 genes as downregulated. Differentially expressed genes were involved in 16 pathways related to immune response. The most enriched canonical pathway was leukocyte extravasation signalling. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) production was indicated as the most activated pathway and the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 4 (PFKFB4) signalling pathway was the most inhibited one. In addition, the study showed that the inflammatory response was decreased during BIV infection.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0072_s_011"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>This is the first report to describe the microarray analysis of changes in gene expression upon BIV infection of bovine macrophages. Our data indicated how BIV influences the expression of genes and signalling pathways engaged in the immune response.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue