rss_2.0Journal of Veterinary Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Veterinary Research of Veterinary Research 's Cover analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses originating from naturally infected sheep and goats from Poland based on the long terminal repeat sequences<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0064_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Previous <italic>gag</italic> and <italic>env</italic> sequence studies placed Polish small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) isolated from sheep and goats in subtypes B1, B2, A1, A5, A12, A13, A16–A18, A23, A24 and A27. This study extended the genetic/phylogenetic analysis of previously identified Polish SRLV strains by contributing long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0064_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>A total of 112 samples were analysed. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out on the LTR fragment using the neighbour-joining, maximum likelihood, and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean methods.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0064_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Polish caprine and ovine LTR sequences clustered within group A and grouped in at least 10 clusters (subtypes A1, A5, A12, A13, A16–A18, A23, A24 and A27). Most of the Polish strains (78%) belonged to the same subtype by the indication of the <italic>gag</italic>, <italic>env</italic> and LTR genomic regions. Discrepancies in affiliation depending on the particular sequence were observed in 24 (21%) strains, most of which came from mixed-species flocks where more than one SRLV genotype circulated. Sequences of the LTR reflected subtype-specific patterns. Several subtype-specific markers were identified, <italic>e.g</italic>. a unique substitution of T to A in the fifth position of the TATA box in A17, A27, A20 and B3.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0064_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>This study provides valuable insights into the genetic diversity of SRLV field strains in Poland, their phylogenetic relationships and their position in the recently established SRLV classification. Our results confirmed the existence of the ten subtypes listed and the readier emergence of new SRLV variants in mixed-species flocks.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Vaccine-induced rabies in a red fox in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0065_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Rabies as a zoonosis threatens public health worldwide. Several thousand people die each year of infections by the rabies virus (RABV). Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of wildlife was successfully implemented in many European countries and led to rabies being brought under control there. In Poland, ORV was introduced in 1993 using vaccines containing an attenuated strain of the rabies virus. However, attenuated rabies viruses may have residual pathogenicity and cause the disease in target and non-target animals.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0065_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>A red fox carcass was tested as part of national rabies surveillance, and its brain was screened for RABV infection using two conjugates and a fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The rabies virus was isolated in mouse neuroblastoma cells by rabies tissue culture infection test (RTCIT), and viral RNA was detected by heminested reverse transcriptase PCR (hnRT-PCR) as well as by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (rtRT-qPCR). An amplicon of 600 bp was subjected to Sanger sequencing. To differentiate between vaccine and field RABV strains, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using the Dra I, Msp I, Nla IV and Mbo II restriction endonucleases was performed.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0065_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The rabies virus was detected in the fox’s brain using FAT, RTCIT and molecular tests. The PCR-RFLP revealed of vaccine-induced rabies, and full-length genome analysis showed 100% nucleotide sequence identity of the isolate with the reference sequences of Street Alabama Dufferin Bern (SAD Bern) vaccine strains and other vaccine-induced rabies virus isolates detected in animals and deposited in GenBank.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0065_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>We detected vaccine-induced rabies for the first time in Poland in a fox during routine rabies surveillance.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Proteomic analysis of tear film in canine diabetic patients with and without retinopathy<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0053_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in human and animal patients. Early detection and treatment of the disease are important and can be facilitated by proteomic approaches providing biomarkers.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0053_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Tear films were collected on Schirmer strips from 32 canine patients (12 diabetic dogs without changes in the retina, 8 diabetic dogs with signs of DR, and 12 control dogs). Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to separate tear film proteins prior to their identification with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation–tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry and interrogation of protein function databases to find matches.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0053_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Five significantly differentially expressed proteins were identified; of those, one was downregulated (2ʹ-5ʹ-oligoadenylate synthase 3) and four were upregulated in the tear film of two diabetic groups (Ras-related protein RAB-13; aldo-keto-reductase family 1 member C3; 28S ribosomal protein S31, mitochondrial; and 60S ribosomal protein L5). The differentially expressed proteins identified in the tear film were involved in signalling pathways associated with impaired protein clearance, persistent inflammation and oxidative stress.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0053_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The results of our study confirm that the pathological process in the retina in the course of diabetes mellitus causes changes in the tear film proteome.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Histamine content in selected production stages of fish products<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0063_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Histamine intoxication, known as scombroid fish poisoning, is caused by the consumption of foods with high levels of histamine. This biogenic amine is formed as a result of histidine decarboxylation by bacterial decarboxylases present in food, including fish and fish products. The aim of this study was to investigate the content of histamine at different production stages of canned, marinated and smoked fish.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0063_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title><p>Raw fish, semi-finished fish products, and the final products of the same production batches were collected between 2019 and 2022 from different fish production facilities in Poland. A total of 133 raw fish samples and 76 smoked fish, 54 brined fish, 39 canned fish and 18 marinated fish final products were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0063_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Histamine was identified in 55 (17.2%) out of 320 tested samples, including 8 samples of raw fish with a histamine level above 100 mg/kg. However, no samples of fish products had histamine content above the European Union Commission limit.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0063_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>The obtained results show that fish products on the Polish market are generally safe for consumers in regard to histamine intoxication risk.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Potential risk of botulinum neurotoxin -producing clostridia occurrence in canned fish<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0060_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Heat treatment is indispensable in fish canning to provide an acceptable shelf life. Its optimisation reduces the risk of the presence of <italic>Clostridium botulinum</italic> spores, which could potentially cause botulism cases. This study evaluated canned fish samples for botulism neurotoxin (BoNT)-producing clostridia contamination and can bulging through microbiological contaminant growth. A new analytical approach was developed for detection of such clostridia and phenotypically similar species.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0060_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title><p>A total of 70 canned fish samples suspected of exhibiting bulging features were analysed. Culture methods were used to detect clostridia. The isolates obtained were evaluated on the basis of the exhibited phenotypic characteristics. Also, PCRs were used for the detection of genes determining BoNT production (non-toxic non-haemagglutinin (<italic>ntnh</italic>) genes) and the amplification of conservative 16S rDNA genes, which were Sanger sequenced. The obtained sequences were analysed using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0060_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p><italic>Clostridium</italic> genus species were isolated from 17 (24%) bulging and organoleptically changed samples. No <italic>ntnh</italic> genes were present in these isolates; however, sequencing confirmed the presence of <italic>C. sporogenes</italic>, a species with close affinity to <italic>C. botulinum</italic>.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0060_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>To eliminate the threat of foodborne botulism, laboratory diagnostic techniques must detect species of the <italic>Clostridium</italic> genus and elucidate their ability to produce BoNTs. Although <italic>Clostridium botulinum</italic> is the most common cause of botulism, the possibility may not be ignored that non-pathogenic <italic>Clostridium</italic> species may acquire botulinum toxigenicity. The similarity between the isolated strains of <italic>C. sporogenes</italic> and <italic>C. botulinum</italic> should be incorporated in the optimisation of heat treatment to guarantee a sterilised, microbiologically safe product.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of antimicrobial resistance and genetic correlations of in dairy cow mastitis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0055_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p><italic>Escherichia coli</italic> is a widespread environmental pathogen frequently causing dairy cow mastitis. This bacterium is particularly capable of acquiring antimicrobial resistance, which can have severe impacts on animal food safety and human health. The objective of the study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance and genetic correlations of <italic>E. coli</italic> from dairy cow mastitis cases in northern China.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0055_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Forty strains of <italic>E. coli</italic> from 196 mastitis milk samples were collected, susceptibility to 13 common antibiotics and the prevalence of resistance genes were tested in these strains, and the genetic characteristics were identified by multilocus sequence typing.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0055_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The results showed that most isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR) (75%), and the resistance rates to cefazolin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin were 77.5%, 55.0%, and 52.5%, respectively. The representative genes of the isolates were <italic>aadA</italic> (62.5%) and <italic>tet</italic>(B) (60.0%). Multilocus sequence typing showed 19 different sequence types (STs) and 5 clonal complexes (CCs) in the 40 isolates, mainly represented by ST10 and CC10. The strains of the same ST or CC showed a high level of genetic relatedness, but the characteristics of their antimicrobial resistance were markedly different.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0055_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Most <italic>E. coli</italic> isolates in the study were MDR strains. Some strains of the same ST or CC showed diverse resistance characteristics to common antimicrobials. Therefore, <italic>E. coli</italic> from dairy cow mastitis in northern China should be investigated to elucidate its antimicrobial resistance and genotypes.</p> </sec></abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-04T00:00:00.000+00:00A preliminary study of the poultry body weight effect of carvacrol in litter and of carvacrol residue in organ tissue of exposed chickens<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0054_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Carvacrol is an essential oil extracted from oregano which can be used as a natural additive in poultry litter and could have a positive impact not only on production rates but also on the quality of poultry meat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of carvacrol to litter on weight gain and the occurrence of residues in chicken tissues.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0054_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>One-day-old Ross 308 chicks were used for the study and were randomly divided into two experimental groups. For 42 days, one group was kept in a room with litter enriched with carvacrol and the second group was kept in a room with litter without carvacrol. After 42 days, the birds were sacrificed and necropsied. Carvacrol content was determined in homogenised organ tissue samples by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0054_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Weekly weighing results showed that exposure to carvacrol in litter had no impact on chicken body weight. The analysis of plasma, muscle, liver and lung tissue after 42 days’ exposure clearly indicated that there were residues of carvacrol in the analysed matrices.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0054_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Exposure of chickens to carvacrol left residues but did not affect body weight.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Genotoxic effect of cadmium and zinc in the peripheral erythrocytes of Prussian carp ( B.)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0057_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Cadmium and zinc are often found in aquatic environment and may accumulate in living organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of Cd, Zn, and their binary mixture on the peripheral blood erythrocytes of Prussian carp (<italic>Carassius gibelio</italic> B.).</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0057_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The fish were exposed to 4.0 mg/L Cd, 4.0 mg/L Zn or a mixture of 4.0 mg/L Cd and 4.0 mg/L Zn for a period of 14, 21 or 28 days. Genotoxic effects were investigated in peripheral blood cells using the comet assay and the erythrocyte micronucleus assay.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0057_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The results demonstrated that the frequencies of micronuclei (MN) and both nuclear and cellular abnormalities in erythrocytes were significantly higher in all exposure groups as compared to the control group. The fish exposed to the mixture of Cd and Zn presented the highest frequency of MN. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the frequency of MN and an increase in the occurrence of DNA integrity defects (DNA damage) with longer time of exposure to the metals studied.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0057_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Erythrocyte micronucleus and comet assays confirmed the genotoxicity of Cd and Zn. The results of the tests applied (which showed considerable variability) suggest the involvement of various toxicity mechanisms. Therefore, an integrative and comprehensive approach, using a set of assays for toxicity profile determination, should be adopted during ecotoxicological studies and environmental risk assessment pertaining to these elements.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Occurrence of bovine coronavirus and other major respiratory viruses in cattle in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0059_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a causative agent of enteric and respiratory diseases in cattle. Despite its importance for animal health, no data is available on its prevalence in Poland. The aim of the study was to determine the virus’ seroprevalence, identify risk factors of BCoV exposure in selected cattle farms and investigate the genetic variability of circulating strains.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0059_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Serum and nasal swab samples were collected from 296 individuals from 51 cattle herds. Serum samples were tested with ELISA for the presence of BCoV-, bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1)- and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV)-specific antibodies. The presence of those viruses in nasal swabs was tested by real-time PCR assays. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using fragments of the BCoV S gene.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0059_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Antibodies specific to BCoV were found in 215 (72.6%) animals. Seropositivity for BCoV was more frequent (P&gt;0.05) in calves under 6 months of age, animals with respiratory signs coinfected with BoHV-1 and BVDV and increased with herd size. In the final model, age and herd size were established as risk factors for BCoV-seropositivity. Genetic material of BCoV was found in 31 (10.5%) animals. The probability of BCoV detection was the highest in medium-sized herds. Polish BCoVs showed high genetic homology (98.3–100%) and close relatedness to European strains.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0059_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Infections with BCoV were more common than infections with BoHV-1 and BVDV. Bovine coronavirus exposure and shedding show age- and herd density-dependence.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Detection and antimicrobial resistance of other than in raccoons from the Madrid region of Spain<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0058_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Raccoons are an invasive alien species widely distributed in the Madrid region of Spain. These animals can carry a variety of enteric bacteria with associated antimicrobial resistance, which can infect humans and livestock. However, to our knowledge, the presence of non-<italic>E. coli Enterobacteriaceae</italic> in raccoons has not been previously studied.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0058_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>We conducted a study to examine the species distribution of <italic>Enterobacteriaceae</italic> isolates other than <italic>E. coli</italic>, as well as their antimicrobial resistance, in the faeces of 83 raccoons in the Madrid region.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0058_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>We detected 12 <italic>Enterobacteriaceae</italic> isolates other than <italic>E. coli</italic> belonging to seven different species: <italic>Citrobacter freundii</italic> (1 isolate), <italic>Citrobacter gillenii</italic> (3 isolates), <italic>Citrobacter murliniae</italic> (1 isolate), <italic>Citrobacter portucalensis</italic> (2 isolates), <italic>Enterobacter hormaechei</italic> subsp. <italic>hoffmannii</italic> (1 isolate), <italic>Hafnia paralvei</italic> (2 isolates) and <italic>Raoultella ornithinolytica</italic> (2 isolates). These isolates were found in 7 of the 83 (8.4%) animals studied. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the presence of non-<italic>E. coli Enterobacteriaceae</italic> in raccoon faeces. All isolates but one were resistant to at least one of the 14 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to ampicillin (83.3%), amoxicillinclavulanic acid (50%) and cefoxitin (33.3%) was the most frequent.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0058_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Our study indicates that raccoons are a potential source of infection with <italic>Enterobacteriaceae</italic> other than <italic>E. coli</italic> for humans and livestock in the Madrid region.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Characterisation of ORF3, M, N and E gene sequences of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus from domestic pigs in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0051_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is an enteric pathogen causing porcine epidemic diarrhoea and acute gastroenteritis in pigs of all ages. Previous analysis of the viral genome of PEDV in Poland was only based on the spike protein (S) gene sequences and no analysis of other genes has been performed. The aim of this study was to analyse the envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) protein and open reading frame 3 (ORF3) gene sequences.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0051_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Viral RNA from 18 Polish pig faecal samples that were quantitative reverse transcription PCR-positive for PEDV was analysed in four genomic regions (E, M, N and ORF3).</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0051_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Phylogenetic analysis based on these regions’ sequences revealed that Polish PEDV isolates were highly related and were clustered into group G2a across the four genes compared. Moreover, the Polish strains were located in distinct subclusters on the phylogenetic trees, which suggests the presence of at least three independently evolving PEDV genetic lines circulating in Poland. The occurrence of unique mutations in the sequences of Polish PEDV strains suggests that PEDV continues to undergo evolutionary processes, accumulating the mutations necessary for viral fitness in its natural hosts. The Polish PEDV strains differed genetically from the CV777 vaccine strain, suggesting the risk of relatively low vaccine efficacy if this strain is used.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0051_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Our results promote a better understanding of the genetic diversity of PEDV field isolates in Poland and highlight the importance of molecular characterisation of PEDV field strains for the development of an effective vaccine against PEDV.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of direct-fed microbial blend and on rumen fermentation pattern and degradability during simulated ruminal acidosis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0052_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>The use of probiotics and phytobiotics has attracted interest because of their protective effect against acidosis. <italic>Ferula elaeochytris</italic> (FE) is considered a good source of bioactive compounds, mainly monoterpene α-pinene. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a direct-fed microbial blend (Pro) and FE on rumen fermentation parameters <italic>in vitro</italic> under normal and acidosis conditions.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0052_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>An <italic>in vitro</italic> experiment using the Hohenheimer Futterwerttest (HFT) gas production system was conducted. An acidosis challenge was made to compare the effectiveness of the probiotics blend and FE extract on ruminal pH regulation. To generate different ruminal fermentation parameters, the design of the trial considered the 2 additives (Pro and FE) × 6 incubation times (2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h) × 2 conditions (acidosis and normal) × 2 incubation runs for each feedstuff (barley, alfalfa and straw).</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0052_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>An acidosis challenge was successfully induced. The Pro and FE additives had no impact on the observed rumen fermentation parameters such as volatile fatty acid concentration or ammonia (P = 0.001). The acidosis condition decreased total <italic>in vitro</italic> degradability (IVD) by 3.5% and 21.9% for barley and straw, respectively (P &lt; 0.001). The additives had different significant effects on the IVD of nutrients during both normal and acidosis conditions. In alfalfa samples, FE supplementation significantly decreased the IVD of all observed nutrients under the ruminal acidosis condition, although it had no effect during the normal condition.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0052_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>An acidosis challenge was successfully induced and the effect of additives was varied on fermentation parameters and rumen degradability of different feeds either under normal or acidosis conditions.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in staphylococci isolated from aviary capercaillies and free-living birds in south-eastern Poland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0050_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>The current study characterises <italic>Staphylococcus</italic> bacteria recovered from dead free-living birds and captive capercaillies kept in south-eastern Poland. The results provide novel information about the antimicrobial resistance phenotype/genotype and the virulence profile of these bacteria.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0050_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Samples of internal organs were taken from dead birds. <italic>Staphylococcus</italic> strains were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation–time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Susceptibility to 13 antibiotics was tested using a standard disc diffusion method on Mueller–Hinton agar. All isolates were screened for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes and staphylococcal enterotoxins (A to E), toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, exfoliative toxins A and B and Panton–Valentine leukocidin.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0050_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>A total of 129 bacterial strains belonging to 19 species of the <italic>Staphylococcus</italic> genus were isolated. A relatively high percentage of them resisted fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides and β-lactams to a significant degree and harboured the <italic>tet</italic>K, <italic>tet</italic>M, <italic>erm</italic>C, <italic>mph</italic>C and <italic>mec</italic>A genes. Strains of the coagulase-negative <italic>S. sciuri</italic>, <italic>S. xylosus</italic> and <italic>S. cohnii</italic> were isolated with genes encoding enterotoxin A and toxic shock syndrome toxin.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0050_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from aviary capercaillies and free-living birds have significant pathogenic potential, and greater attention must be paid to the coagulase-negative species, which are still often considered mere contaminants. Virulence factors associated with resistance to antimicrobials, this being multiple in some strains, seem most important because they can be easily transferred between animals, especially those living in a given area.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Seroprevalence and epidemiological risk factors for Kasba virus among sheep and goats in South Korea: a nationwide retrospective study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0037_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Kasba virus belongs to the Palyam serogroup of the <italic>Orbivirus</italic> genus and <italic>Reoviridae</italic> family. Kasba virus is the causative agent of many reproductive disorders in infected animals, which result in considerable economic losses, mainly in the cattle industry. The epidemiology of Kasba virus infection is poorly defined and remains unclear in South Korea.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0037_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>This study investigated the prevalence of antibodies against Kasba virus in sheep and goats in South Korea. Individual, management, and regional risk factors associated with seropositivity were also evaluated. In addition, a retrospective serosurvey was conducted.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0037_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Serum samples from 28 out of 441 sheep or goat flocks (6.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.4–9.0%) and 115 out of 1003 animals (11.5%, 95% CI 9.6–13.6%) were positive for antibodies against Kasba virus. According to our results, a history of reproductive problems increased the probability of Kasba virus positivity. Preventive measures such as routine insecticide application decreased this probability. We observed significant differences in the prevalence of seropositivity between southern provinces and northern provinces and between western provinces and eastern provinces at the individual level.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0037_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The virus was widely distributed among sheep and goats in South Korea, with seropositivity ranging from 6.8% in 2004 to 13.7% in 2008. The current study represents the first assessment of factors associated with Kasba virus seroprevalence in sheep and goats in South Korea.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-15T00:00:00.000+00:00High prevalence of infection in fighting cocks in Thailand determined with a molecular method<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0049_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Avian malaria caused by <italic>Plasmodium</italic> and the malaria-like parasites of the genus <italic>Haemoproteus</italic> has been regularly described in multiple regions worldwide. These parasites significantly affect many avian taxa, including domestic chickens and fighting cocks. There are limited epidemiological studies of these blood parasites in vertebrate hosts, especially in Thailand.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0049_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>This study used microscopic examination of blood samples and PCR amplification exploiting primers for nucleotide sequences of <italic>Plasmodium</italic> or <italic>Haemoproteus</italic> species based on the cytochrome <italic>b</italic> gene to determine the occurrence of <italic>Plasmodium</italic> spp. in fighting cocks.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0049_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Examination of 249 blood samples of fighting cocks revealed that 41.37% (103/249) were positive for malaria by microscopic examination and 88.76% (221/249) were positive by DNA amplification. Sequencing and DNA analysis of 61 PCR products revealed that infection by <italic>Plasmodium juxtanucleare</italic> was the most common avian malaria in fighting cocks in Thailand followed by infections by <italic>Plasmodium gallinaceum</italic>; however, <italic>Haemoproteus</italic> infection was not discovered.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0049_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>This study indicated that plasmodiasis is widespread in fighting cocks in Thailand although the prevalence was not clearly determined; therefore, prevention and control strategies for these protozoa should be improved, especially those for avoiding vector exposure and eliminating mosquito breeding sites.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Detection of a new emerging strain of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (GI.2) in China<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0048_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>In May 2020, an outbreak of rabbit haemorrhagic disease 2 (RHD2) caused by the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2, GI.2) occurred in Sichuan, China. The acute onset and short disease course resulted in rabbit mortality as high as 42.86%. Currently, basic research on the aetiology and genetic characteristics of GI.2 is lacking in China.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0048_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Pathological changes in various tissues from infected rabbits were investigated and the viral genome was characterised. This study used RT-PCR, histopathology and scanning electron microscopy to identify the pathogen in samples from infected rabbits that had died. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on whole genome sequence analysis, and recombination events were analysed.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0048_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>RT-PCR identified the presence of GI.2. Histopathology revealed liver cell necrosis and haemorrhaging into lung alveoli. Electron microscopy demonstrated spherical GI.2 particles that were 40 nm in size. The gene sequence length of the isolate was 7,445 bp (GenBank accession number MW178244). A phylogenetic analysis based on the genome of the isolated strain and 60 reference strains showed that the isolate was grouped together with GI.2 strain MT586027.1 in a relatively independent sub-branch. The results of the recombination analysis showed that the strain was recombined from the MT586027.1 (major parent) and MN90145.1 (minor parent) strains, and recombination breakpoints were at locations in the 2858–5137 nt range.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0048_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The results of this study extend our understanding of the molecular epidemiology of GI.2.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of natural and climatic conditions on the distribution and forms of contagious agalactia in sheep in Bessarabia, Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0047_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Contagious agalactia of ruminants is an endemic disease caused by <italic>Mycoplasma agalactiae</italic> in flicting significant losses on farms in deaths and forced slaughter of sick animals, abortions, births of sick young animals, and reduced milk and wool production. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of hydrometeorological conditions on the distribution and forms of contagious agalactia in sheep in Bessarabia, Ukraine.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0047_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The epizootic situation regarding contagious agalactia was studied during 2011–2021 on sheep farms in the south of the Odesa region in Bessarabia. Over two million blood samples from sheep aged 1–6 years were serologically investigated and the prevalence of agalactia was correlated with Selyaninov’s hydrothermal coefficient for each sampling year.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0047_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>High rates of infection of sheep with contagious agalactia (from 13.1% to 14.4%) were registered in 2012, 2016 and 2021, years which according to the hydrothermal coefficient of 1.0 were sufficiently moist. The lowest incidence rates, from 6.5% to 7.4%, were registered in the very dry 2013, 2014 and 2019 with hydrothermal coefficients of 0.5‒0.6. In sufficiently moist years, contagious agalactia of sheep manifested itself in the mastitic form, while in the dry period the mastitic form was half as prevalent, and the mixed, articular and ocular forms of the disease proliferated.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0047_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The results indicate the circulation of <italic>Mycoplasma agalactiae</italic> among small ruminants in Bessarabia, and that the prevalence and the course of the associated disease depend on the humidity of the climate, <italic>i.e</italic>. the value of the hydrothermal coefficient.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-02T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of a modified anaesthetic protocol on animal survival and the characteristics of ventricular arrhythmias in the course of acute myocardial infarction in a domestic pig model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0046_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most common causes of death in humans in highly developed countries. Among its most frequent complications affecting the patient’s prognosis are cardiac arrhythmias: ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF).</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0046_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The study aimed to characterise arrhythmias in 19 pigs subjected to experimentally induced MI obtained by occlusion of the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery using an angioplasty balloon. The anaesthetic protocol was modified to reduce mortality by including procedures stabilising haemodynamic disorders which develop during episodes of ischaemia and arrhythmia. During 30 min of experimentally induced ischaemia, the heart rhythm was recorded using a 12-lead ECG. The time, frequency, and type of arrhythmias were analysed.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0046_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Ventricular arrhythmias were found in 94.74% of the treated pigs. The most common were ventricular premature complexes, reported in 88.89% of pigs with arrhythmia. Ventricular tachycardia was recorded in 66.67% and ventricular fibrillation in 50% of pigs with arrhythmias.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0046_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Myocardial infarction due to proximal LAD occlusion is characterised by a high incidence of ventricular arrhythmias, especially VT and VF. Because of the high survival rate, this MI porcine model may serve as a model for research on acute ischaemic ventricular arrhythmias in humans. Additionally, it reduces the total number of animals required for testing while yielding meaningful results, which is in line with the 3R principle.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Prevalence of virulence genes among strains isolated from food and carcass swabs of different animal origins in Croatia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0045_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p><italic>Escherichia coli</italic> is present in the normal intestinal flora but some strains can cause intestinal and extraintestinal diseases, and research on its presence in food of animal origin is in the interests of public health. This study was designed to characterise <italic>E. coli</italic> strains according to their origin, their carriage of virulence genes specific for certain pathogroups, and phylogenetic group affiliation.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0045_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The study was carried out on 100 <italic>E. coli</italic> strains isolated from food samples of various animal origin as well as pig and cattle carcass swabs. Isolation of the strains was performed using two methods. One method included colony count and the other an overnight enrichment of the samples. Isolation was followed by DNA extraction and detection of virulence genes and phylogenetic group with conventional and multiplex PCRs.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0045_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>In this study, the most prevalent gene was <italic>EAST1</italic> (20%) and strains which carried it were identified as enteroadherent <italic>E. coli</italic>. Other pathogroups were represented in lower incidences. Phylogenetic group analysis revealed the prevalence of the A and B1 groups, with B1 mainly present in game and cattle strains, while the majority of pig and poultry strains were assigned to group A.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0045_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>This study provides an overview of the presence of potentially pathogenic strains and <italic>E. coli</italic> phylogenetic groups in Croatia, for which the data are limited. Further microbiological and molecular research is required to examine the epidemiological situation in the country.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Haematological and chosen biochemical parameter assessment of the antioxidant system in red deer () blood in early and late pregnancy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0044_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>The aim of this study was to investigate changes in haematological parameters and the antioxidant system in the early and late pregnancy of red deer (<italic>Cervus elaphus</italic>).</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0044_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Blood samples were collected from 30 red deer females 50 days after impregnation and 40 days before calving. Complete blood counts and stained blood smears were assessed. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) activities, glutathione disulphide (GSSG), total glutathione, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, uric acid, malondialdehyde (MDA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, cholesterol levels and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0044_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The haematological characteristics of blood collected in the third trimester showed higher haemoglobin levels, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (P &lt; 0.05) and a lower mean cell haemoglobin concentration (P &lt; 0.05) in comparison to samples collected on the 50<sup>th</sup> day after mating. Activity of CAT and MDA, LDL, and triglyceride levels were lower while GR, GSSG, total glutathione, total protein and BHB levels were increased in blood samples drawn in the third trimester compared with the first trimester blood samples. There were no changes in SOD, PON1 activities, TAS, bilirubin, albumin, HDL, cholesterol or uric acid concentrations.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0044_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Red deer’s compensatory mechanisms facilitate its optimal adaptation to seasonal changes evidenced by mild pronounced haematological disturbances and an effective antioxidant system during pregnancy.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1