rss_2.0Journal of KONES FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of KONES System Model for Acoustics Based Telematic Micro Services in Iot for Transportation Setting<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Despite the wide adoption of Internet of things (IoT) with several webs standards and cloud technologies, building of city wide IoT based smart city platform for solving transportation problem remains a daunting task. Owing to the dynamic nature of IoT and components of transportation systems, smart city architecture would require development of a scalable, distributed and evolving architecture on the web. With the advancement in autonomous transportation system there is a need for in adaptive telematic system for communicating with other vehicles, sensor nodes etc. As transport, services have special requirements of which are related to the size and type of information to be exchanged between vehicles (vehicle-to-vehicle communication) and the control centre. . By the time the data makes its way to the cloud for analysis, the opportunity to act on it might be gone. Thus handling such huge streams of data on the fly is a daunting task. In the study we present an interoperable swarm, logic based mobile terminals running multimedia micro services based telematic system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Possibilities and Development of In-Cylinder Catalytic Coating<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to the legal changes in the exhaust emission limits in the European Union meeting the new norms becomes more challenging for car manufacturers. The recent progress in the exhaust aftertreatment technology and commercially available aftertreatment systems. However, as the exhaust, systems become more and more complex the problem of high emissions in many engine-operating points that are not currently a part of the type approval tests remains. The article aims to address the limitations of the oxidation catalysts in current aftertreatment systems, mainly their light-off temperature, by investigating new options for in-cylinder catalysts. Placing the catalytic layer within the combustion chamber avoids a number of problems associated with these catalysts being a part of the aftertreatment system. Engine emission tests have been performed comparing the effects of using an in-cylinder Pt-Rh catalytic layer in relation to hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides emissions. The viable methods of producing a catalytic layer on engine components along with the choice of components to use for catalytic surfaces have also been discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Wing-Engine Nacelle Aerodynamic Interference<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents an analysis of the wing-engine nacelle flow interference phenomenon on the example of a light twin-engine commuter aircraft. The problems of propulsion system integration with the wing in airplanes are now frequently the subject of advanced optimization research performed by aircraft manufacturers. The shape of the engine nacelle and its connection with the wing determines the quality of the flow around the wing in that area. This is important for high-lift devices placed at the wing trailing edge behind engine nacelle used during the take-off and landing process. Additionally the flow is effected by the disturbances generated by working propellers, the presence of air inlets and an exhaust system of the engine. The article presents a process of numerical optimization of an engine nacelle rear part shape. The main goal of the process was to eliminate the flow disturbances caused by the engine nacelle-wing interference phenomenon. During analysis, the Adjoint Solver method was used to designate nacelle body areas where modification should have the most important impact on the flow quality. The results obtained from adjoint solver were used in the process of finding the optimum shape of the rear part of the nacelle using a parametric geometry generator powered by Ansys Design Modeler and PARADES software. Comparative computational analysis for selected geometries of the engine nacelle was performed using commercial Ansys Fluent solver. Ansys Fluent is an advanced computational solver based on the finite volume method for solving the Navier-Stokes flow equations. Several dozen of geometric shapes were analysed in the optimization process of the nacelle rear part. The final result was the shape of the engine nacelle with correct flow without separation and vortex structures. The article presents results of calculations and visualization of the flow pattern for analysed cases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Testing of the Vehicle Heating System<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An important problem in the design of machinery and equipment at the stage of determining their structure is the issue of providing adequate thermal comfort to users while operating in variable climatic and environmental conditions. This issue is of particular importance because all types of machinery and devices are equipped with very expensive and automated control and monitoring system, which should guarantee adequate warming conditions and should work under different climatic conditions. Examples of these tendencies are special solutions for vibroacoustic insulation of the inside of the devices, special air conditioning equipment, special constructions, ergonomic inside solutions. The process of shaping the discussed structural design of vehicles in terms of meeting the relevant technical and operational criteria is currently being increasingly realized through experimental tests of prototypes supported by numerical calculations. The purpose of this paper is to present the methodology of conducting test stand as a stage for the experimental determination and verification of temperature distribution, the location of heating and air conditioning devices in a prototype vehicle in variable climatic conditions (minus 15<sup>º</sup>C). The research was carried out in a large-scale climate chamber. It covered the process of heating up the passenger area of the bus and the time of temperature stabilization on the inside of the vehicle while operating the heating systems. An additional attempt was made to test the heating system while the vehicle was in motion and to open the vehicle door to simulate the stopping of the vehicle at the bus stop. Another aspect that was analysed was the impact of the installed convector on the vehicle when the liquid heater was off.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Fuel Characterisation Through Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the article, light absorption properties of the fuel oil are considered with a view to create basis for establish optical indicator of the type and quality of this kind of crude oil derivative, in this case the Diesel fuel. The organic solvent – n-hexane – was chosen as a solvent to prepare samples of dilutions of Diesel fuel in several oil concentration. Spectrophotometer Aqualog Horiba were applied to record the absorbance spectra in the ultraviolet and visual range of the light (from 240 to 600 nm) for each previously prepared samples. Obtained results allow concluding that the changes of absorbance occur primarily in the wavelength range from 240 nm to 355 nm. Moreover, the absorbance spectra are characterized by the characteristic sharp peak located at 270 nm for excitation wavelength. Spectra of absorbance were converted to spectra of absorption coefficient based on Lambert-Beer law. Due to the independence the absorption coefficient from the fuel concentration, this parameter could be used as a potential indicator to access composition and quality Diesel fuel used in the diesel engine system. Therefore, preliminary tests allow concluding that absorption coefficient for selected wavelength located at 270 nm could be a sensitive indicator for quick access to fuel quality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Transport Model on Strategic Level of Management for Assessment of its Configuration<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the article is to present the issues related to the use of the transport model for ex-ante evaluation of the functional and operational configuration of ITS. Variants of ITS configuration have been presented based with use of ITS user needs from FRAME methodology and with use of ITS user services implemented in cities of Poland. The structure of the transport model on strategic level of traffic management has been presented in the context of the following impact of ITS configuration: changes in the use of paths in network, changes in the use of transport system modes, changes in the destinations of trips, and changes in the number of trips for various purposes. The results of transport model enable a comparison, using an incremental method, results of transport decisions of users, obtained in specified forecast horizons for the ITS variants of configuration. Structure of transport model presented in article is suitable for strategic level of traffic management with long-term results. While transport models for tactical level of traffic management with medium-term results, and for operational level of traffic management with short-term results are used to determine the characteristics, describing traffic conditions in a transport network, for example expected smoothness of traffic flows, and to determine dynamic characteristics describing for example information spread processes in dynamic traffic networks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Use of Hydraulic Booster in High-Pressure Fuel Pump with Hypocycloid Drive<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Common rail (CR) injection systems have been universally applied in passenger car engines for twenty years. Moreover, they are applied on a wide scale in trucks, machinery and stationary engines. They have many advantages such as very good fuel spraying due to high injection pressure, injection dose distribution to several smaller, or less heat generation compared to traditional systems. At the same time, the use of this type of system involves a number of problems. They are characterized, among other things, by the high cost of manufacturing and the high sensitivity to changes in the quality of the used fuel.</p> <p>The most important component of the common rail injection system is the high-pressure injection pump. The authors propose a new, alternative pump design with the hypocycloid drive – the article presents the issue of using this type of pump. Further sections describe the design of a pump utilizing a hypocycloid mechanism; demonstrate beneficial functional features and present selected results of the assembly’s dynamic simulation.</p> <p>The pump is also characterized by the possibility of multiplying the piston’s pitch while maintaining its diameter. It makes it possible to obtain much greater discharge per operating cycle. Taking into account the considerable quantity of fuel transferring by the pump, was also possible to propose an idea of use of hydraulic booster in such pump. In this field, the authors have presented schematic diagram of a pressure booster with a description of its operation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Problems of Real Driving Emissions Measurement<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article compares driving test data using the latest legislative proposals applicable to passenger cars. Real Driving Emissions procedures have been introduced in the Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/427. Currently, quantitative RDE requirements have been established to limit emissions from exhaust systems in all operating conditions in accordance with the road emission limits set out in Regulation (EC) No. 715/2007. Several measurements were performed on the same test route in accordance with the RDE test guidelines, which requires a number of criteria to be met. These criteria include the length of the measuring segments, their overall test timeshare, and the dynamic characteristics of the drive. A mobile device for reading the EOBD System information was used to record the engine and vehicle operating parameters during tests. This allowed for the monitoring of parameters such as: load value, engine speed and vehicle velocity. The obtained results were then analysed for their compatibility with the RDE procedure requirements. Despite the same research route, the obtained results were not the same. The analysis also uses the two-dimensional operating time-share characteristics expressed in vehicle velocity and acceleration co-ordinates. As a result, it was possible to compare the dynamic properties, share of operating time and, consequently, to check the validity of conducted drive tests in terms of their practicability and emission values.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Gyroplane Hub Connector with Positive Coning Angle<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents advantages and disadvantages of two blade teetering rotors with constructional dihedral angle greater than 0<sup>o</sup>. Several structural design solutions of rotor hub connector are shown in this work. However, the main attention is focused on innovative hub connector design and manufactured by Trendak Aviation Company during the project “Research and development works on innovative construction of aircrafts of weight over 560 kilograms”. Discusses structural advantages of the new rotor hub connector according to other construction. Also were raised issues related to the load of the gyroplane rotor during the flight, in particular the load of rotor blades root, during a gyroplane break manoeuvre, according to conning angle of rotor hub connector. The disadvantages of using the structural dihedral angle in teetering rotors are also presented, focusing on the rotor aeroelastic instability so-called waving, which from the literature analysed is concerned only with two blades teetering rotors. Performed a coarse analysis in SMOG program, prepared at the Institute of Aviation for the analysis of helicopter and gyroplanes rotors. The stability analysis of the rotor for a number of structural dihedral angle and blades setting pitch was performed. Basis of this analysis the stability boundary were determined for the analysed gyroplane rotor with connector hub with positive coning angle of 2.8<sup>o</sup>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Selected Presented Method Measured of Length Fatigue Gap on Compressor Blades Forming During Resonant Tests<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this work, the validation of selected presented method measured of length fatigue gap was shown. The article describes three methods of determining fatigue gaps. The object of the study was the first stage compressor blade from aircraft engine. Blades have defects on the leading edge. This defect on the blade (as a result of the resonance vibration) was the origin point of the fatigue gap. Two of the methods, fluorescent and thermovision, were optical. The fluorescent method was a direct measurement, whereas direct-indirect thermography. The last of the presented methods was an analytical method, showing an algorithm based on amplitude-frequency characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods were compared. As a result of the analysis performed by the algorithm, there were specified patterns defining the dependence of change in crack length depending on the asymmetry of AF characteristics. The accuracy of the following methods and the results obtained for chord length were determined. Thanks to such use, these results have a utilitarian meaning. Such a compilation allowed us to evaluate the usefulness of particular measurement methods. Proposed methods of measuring the length of fatigue crack are used in experimental studies. It is also possible to implement them for research conducted during the operation of an aircraft engine.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Guided Vehicles – The Survey<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Transport has always been a fundamental impulse for the development of civilization. The first fully automatically controlled vehicles for industrial application (previously called driverless vehicles) was design in 1954 year. This has been achieved more than 60 years ago. Unmanned Ground Vehicles are a whole family of autonomous vehicles use modern tools with all power today available electronics for navigation task and decision making process on the base artificial intelligence and (AI) algorithms. At present time a problem of the realization a fully reconfiguration navigation system working in real time mode for UGV vehicles is the subject of the research for many scientific units of the entire scientific world. The object of the statement constitute AGV short historical outline with actual trends marking. The special authors’ attention was focused on the solutions dedicated for so-called e-tools functionalities implementing in modern AGV vehicles. The main purpose of the article was focused on the set of issues involving the most problems in the whole material handling (MHD) family devices with any autonomous factor. The article is focused on the localization problem, trajectories founding, path planning, scheduling, workspace with environment mapping and AGV control issues. Described methods and tools are connected with chosen artificial intelligence solutions dedicated or adapted for autonomous vehicles’ needs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Fiat Multiair Valve-Lift System Using Atmega Microcontroller<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents a device based on the ATmega microcontroller for precise Fiat MultiAir valve-lift system control. The Fiat MultiAir system is the patented electromechanical actuation system of the inlet valves. It allows a control of the inlet valves open time for each combustion chamber independently. The described device has been installed in the Fiat 0.9 TwinAir CNG 80 HP internal combustion engine controlled by the ECU Master open motor controller. As the ECU Master Controller software and hardware does not support Fiat’s MultiAir system control, the above-mentioned device had to be designed. The device consists of the ATmega88 microcontroller, which analyses the signals from the shaft and the cam sensors. Then, the DC converter is powering the solenoid valves of the MultiAir system via two transistors. When the solenoid valve is closed, the incompressible hydraulic fluid transmits the inlet-cam lobe’s motion to the valve as in a traditional engine. When the solenoid valve is open, the oil bypasses the passage, decoupling the valve, which then closes conventionally via spring pressure. In order to find the specific moments of turning the solenoids on and off the measurements on the original Fiat motor controller have been performed. The acquired oscillograms have been analysed and presented in the article. Studied Fiat 0.9 TwinAir engine is a part of the power generation unit and has been coupled with the three-phase electric power generator MeccAlte 16 kW with an AC exciter.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Interference Between Pusher Propeller Slipstream and an Airframe – Literature Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the article, an aerodynamic interference between pusher propeller slipstream and the airframe of the aircraft powered by it has been presented, based on a literature study. A pusher propeller is one of popular types of the airplane propulsion. It is applied mainly in light sport aircrafts, in the UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), unorthodox vehicles, like compound helicopters, canard and joined wing aircrafts etc. The main advantage of pusher propeller is that the engine with the pusher propeller does not affect the visibility from the cockpit and allows placing an electronic equipment in the front part of the UAV’s fuselage. Furthermore, reduced cabin noise and increase in stability due to acting normal force aft of the centre of gravity are other benefits of this configuration. The pusher propeller impact on the airframe, especially on the wing, is qualitatively different from the tractor configuration. Main differences between both propulsions has been discussed, as well as aerodynamic benefits of the pusher propeller – like reduction of separated flow area and extending area of laminar boundary layer. However, an application of pusher propeller may have also negative impact, especially lower performance than tractor propeller. In the article the reasons of this suppression has been briefly discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Burnishing Process of the Stainless Steel in Aspect of the Reduction Roughness and Surface Hardening<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the article were presented influence of technological parameters of burnishing process on the degree of hardness and reduction roughness. Burnishing process carried out for stainless steels X2CrNiMo17-12-2. The experimental research were obtained in the surface layer increase in hardness and the material ratio curve a convex shaped, which, taking into account the load capacity of the surface will be directly affected by its resistance to wear and corrosion. The experimental research by application of the burnishing rolling – pressuring process (BRP) method were made in the Laboratory of Production Engineering at the Department of Marine Maintenance at the Faculty of Marine Engineering at the Gdynia Maritime University. After the studies it was found that the hardness of the surface layer and the roughness of the shaft necks an important influenced by technological parameters of processing (burnishing speed, feed and depth of burnishing). The objective of applying burnishing process may be, for example, the need to increase surface smoothness and dimensional accuracy of part. To achieve the objectives strengthen and smooth of burnishing stainless steel should be used the one pass burnisher roller and feed f<sub>n</sub> = 0.2 mm/rev and disk burnishing tool feed a<sub>n</sub> = 1.0 mm and burnishing speed v<sub>n</sub> = 70 m/min.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Telecommunications Systems in Transport<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the selected elements affecting reliability and security of the telecommunications networks, which support transport services. In terms of telecommunications security, the selected methods and mechanisms, which allow providing the required level of reliability and availability of the telecommunications networks, in the fault-free operation and emergency modes, were discussed. In the article, attention was paid to the impact of a way of operation and maintenance on security of the telecommunications networks, and also on a correlation between the telecommunications system security and the security culture within the administrative and decision-making bodies.</p> <p>The telecommunications networks used in transport ensure the broadly understood safe provision of data transmission services. Telecommunications networks consist of hardware and software systems, and the data transmission security depends both on hardware and software. It is a set of methods and mechanisms, which provides a high level of the system’s reliability and availability by selecting the appropriate system structure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Numerical Investigation of Connector with Elastomer Joint<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents works associated with the design, numerical analyses and experimental tests of an energy-absorbing mat designed for increasing the safety of the soldiers inside military vehicles, especially their legs. One of the most important branches of engineering interests is high technologies accompanying the safety of soldiers. Energy absorbing mats are one of an additional equipment of a military vehicle, which is directly targeted to increase leg safety during explosion of IED (Improvised Explosive Device) under vehicle. The presented invention allows protection legs of the crew’s feet resting on the floor of the vehicle during explosion of a mine or IED. In most solutions, crewmembers’ foot rests directly on the floor, causing serious injuries. The value of the load on the metatarsus and tibia is closely related to the overall vehicle structure, which generally has limitations in the use of available external and internal protection solutions. Energy absorbing mats are a universal solution because they are adaptable to any type of vehicle. Their role is particularly important in flat-bottomed armoured vehicles. The article will show the results of the analysis showing how the mat works. Experimental results will be compared with the results of numerical analysis. The analysis is conducted using the LS-DYNA explicit code.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Mathematical Model of Energy Efficiency of Hydraulic System<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the laboratory verification of the mathematical description of losses and energy efficiency of the hydraulic transmission with proportionally controlled cylinder supplied by the constant capacity pump in the system of constant pressure is presented. The axial piston pump with pivoting rotor supplied to the system consisted of proportional directional control valve and linear motor – hydraulic cylinder at constant pressure, cooperating with an overflow valve. The choice of the analysed system is not accidental. There is always a view in literature about the very limited energy capabilities of a proportional control system. For this purpose, measurement methods were developed and a test stand was adapted. It consists of two systems: tested and loading. Measurements during the tests were recorded up to date on the computer hard disk. In order to allow for comparison of the total efficiency of the system with the efficiency derived from the simulation, the k<sub>i</sub> coefficients determining the energy losses of the individual components were calculated. Investigations have shown a high convergence mathematical description of energy losses in the elements of the system efficiency and reality. This allows accurate simulation determining the energy efficiency of the field at every point in its operation, i.e. at any speed and any load-controlled hydraulic cylinder. The speed and load range of the hydraulic cylinder can also be accurately simulated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Graphical Modelling of Aerobatic Flight Trajectories<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the current state of knowledge related to mathematical and graphical modelling of aircraft trajectories, particularly those of aerobatic flights. The first part of the article is an introduction to the subject of training and aerobatic flight. In the second chapter of this work, the authors describe the basic definitions related to mathematical modelling, rules for glider aerobatics (rules for the pilots and for the judges) and specification of navigation software, which is using during competitions. In the further part of the article the authors present example possibilities of application of the mathematical modelling tools in General Aviation and describe the possibilities of implementing the obtained models in selected navigation and tracking systems. In the same part of the article there is a description of the AeroSafetyShow Demonstrator PL – an intelligent system of flights supervision and safety (ASSD+PL), which will be using to compare the real flights trajectory and the models build trough the mathematical software. ASSD+PL in also only tracking system using by the judges at glider aerobatic World Championships. The aim of this article is to validate the applicability of the system comparing to the actual aircraft trajectory with the models referred to as ‘ideal’ for aerobatic purposes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Economic Dimension of the Electromagnetic Process – Comparison Study of Costs of Repairs of Electric Vehicles and Powered with Conventional Fuels<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The development of electro-mobility in Poland is one of the inevitable processes awaiting the Polish automotive industry. For each potential electric vehicle user, the information on the vehicle’s operating costs therefore becomes an imperative of tremendous importance. The analysis of market prices of passenger cars clearly indicates that the costs of acquiring a new electric vehicle are much higher than conventional fuel vehicles. Therefore, the expectations of customers themselves become fundamentally significant, who in relation to the spare parts in the case of this category of vehicles expect the highest technological and quality standards while maintaining the suitable price parameter.</p> <p>The article attempts to signal the issues related to the evaluation of electro-mobility parameters by presenting the comparative study of the costs of repairing electric vehicles and vehicles fuelled by conventional fuels. Considerations were supplemented by authoritative cost simulations, including the comparison of the same models of vehicles equipped with both the conventional and ecological power units. The aim of the article is to draw attention to the essence of the research problem and to answer the question whether the total costs of operating electric vehicles are in reality significantly lower than that of vehicles fuelled by conventional fuel.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Oxides Emission Estimator for a Diesel Engine Use to Reduce the Emission of Harmful Substances in Exhaust Gas to Environment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article reports the results of experimental and numerical analysis of emissions of nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas to the environment from a turbocharged diesel engine of a tractor. The problem of identifying nitrogen oxides emissions from the exhaust gases was formulated and subsequently solved, based on data gained from measurements. The results of estimation of nitrogen oxides emissions were verified on the basis of research on a test object. The object of the study and a non-linear static model of nitrogen oxides emission were also described for two systems – with and without exhaust gas recirculation. The article demonstrates that the use of an adequately selected mathematical model can lead to the estimation of emissions of nitrogen oxides contained in the exhaust gas of diesel engines in an off-road vehicle. The created model can be used to control the valve of the exhaust gas of recirculation system and so reduce the emission of harmful substances to the environment. The presented research results show the comparison of estimated and measured nitrogen oxides concentration. The estimated value from the mathematical model concentration is about from 0.7 s to 1 s earlier than the value measured by the sensor, therefore the exhaust gas recirculation system could be controlled accordingly before nitrogen oxides are formed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue