rss_2.0Linguistic Frontiers FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Linguistic Frontiers Frontiers Feed Category of Thirdness in the New Mechanical Philosophy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper discusses some of the possible connections between the principles of modeling in the new mechanical philosophy and the modeling used by Charles S. Peirce in his work on categories and evolutionary theory. The main goal is to show that the theoretical approaches used in the new mechanism can be beneficial for disciplines that are not clearly labelled as either humanities or natural science – for example, biosemiotics – and that this philosophical movement can help close the gap between natural science and the humanities. In individual chapters, this text deals with: the difference between the doctrine of the universal mechanism and the doctrine of the new mechanism, exploring the concept of the category of Thirdness and evolutionary theory in the work of Charles S. Peirce and finally focusing on the similarities between Peirce’s work and the approach of the new mechanical philosophy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Magic: Tools for Transforming Reality<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The following paper focuses on the role and function of symbols in magical practice. The first part explains the symbol as a semiotic term with all its fundamental features, including the necessary function and condition of ordinary communication. The next section deals with symbols that fulfill the essential role of transforming reality within the framework of magical practice. Examples of sigil magic, Tarot, and amulets explain the paradigm, which uses symbolic language as a mandatory condition for its existence and simultaneously ignores the shared awareness of the origin of the symbol as a constitutional element of its functionality. This paper demonstrates how the symbols used in everyday communication and the symbols used in magical practice are two different entities performing distinct kinds of function, and primarily that they differ in requirements for being created and functional.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Challenge of Positioning Space and Time in Systemic Studies of Animal Utterances as Both Embodied and External Contexts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Animal utterances are metastudied based on a framework describing relations between aspects of utterance, genre, and lifeworld, <italic>form, content, act, time</italic>, and <italic>space.</italic> The study concerns a set of problems: How is context perceived theoretically and empirically? Where are time and space positioned? Is time and space studied separately or as chronotope, as spacetime, as a whole? What does embodied context mean? What are systemic studies? Of the studies two focus on systemic projects, two on complexity and contextual variations, two on time and space as separate phenomena, and three on spacetime. Since aspects such as signs, utterances, and genres evolved before language, they presumably constituted animals’ communicational system, working as a resource for communication even for all species, hominids and humans included. Studying such elements challenges how we conceive how they interrelate, especially in spacetime. The study revealed that spacetime was mostly positioned outside utterances and only occasionally as embodied. Integration of all key elements was not found in the excerpt.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Vadis, Biosemiotics?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This is a review of the recently published collective monograph Approaches to Biosemiotics by Rodríguez and Coca (eds.). The publication can be used as a window into the current trends in the research area of biosemiotics, especially in the connection with the social sciences. We review briefly each of the chapters of the monograph and make some general conclusions about the significance and importance of the book by Rodríguez and Coca.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Survey of Semeiotic as Practice of Reasoning<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>From which principal factors did Charles Peirce‘s scientific theory of Semeiotic evolve? How are those components different from foundational features in theories of semiotics.</p> <p>A major difference is shown in the fact that Semeiotic, a scientific theory of natural Semeioses, arises from Peirce‘s work in logic, especially the logic of relations. A semeiosis is precisely a relational phenomenon, thus a logic of relations is an essential part of the theory of Semeiotic. This essay will provide a roadmap for the development of Semeiotic from Peirce‘s logical researches. The essay concludes with some examples for use of Semeiotic for objective study of the activity of semeioses within various areas of scientific research.</p> <p>Instead of extensive textual references readers may consult which contains resources underlying the account of Peirce‘s work given here.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue lexical borrowing? The case of the Anglicism der Shitstorm in German<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper addresses the origin, evolution, and explosive profusion of the German Anglicism <italic>der Shitstorm</italic> referring to social media outrage across all registers in German. The word <italic>Shitstorm</italic> was declared <italic>Anglicism of the Year</italic> 2011 in the context of a project initiated by a group of German linguists that was designed to characterize Anglicisms as a positive contribution to the German lexicon. Using detailed corpus analysis, this paper explains the origin of the English etymon, its evolution and resemanticization over time. By comparing data from news media corpora in English and German, this study explains why the Anglicism <italic>Shitstorm</italic> is not perceived as vulgar in German. While German linguists behind the <italic>Anglicism of the Year</italic> intended to change the negative perception of the increasing influence of English in contemporary German, this analysis explains why Anglicisms like <italic>Shitstorm</italic> in German can be problematic in international contexts. From a wider perspective on the semiotics of a general German Anglophilia, the profusion of the Anglicism <italic>Shitstorm</italic> in German is representative of precisely the social media practices the word is used to describe. The case of the Anglicism <italic>der Shitstorm</italic> in German is therefore symptomatic of the influence social media have on all media.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue World of Codes: An Interview with Marcello Barbieri the history of semiotics in the USSR: Georgy Kh. Shingarov<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Georgy Kh. Shingarov is one of the few philosophers of the Soviet period who studied the conditioned reflex as a sign system. The originality of his theory, created in accordance with the provisions of dialectical materialism, is shown. He considered the signal in the model of the conditioned reflex as a sign, explaining its formation by the process of dialectical ‘sublation’, i.e. the transformation of a material unconditioned stimulus into an idealized object, devoid of the properties of materiality, but which is the result of the manifestation of matter. The socio-political conditions that determined the features of this theory are described.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue ongoing languaging revolution and more. Special Issue 2023 Introduction to do languaging(s), language games and languages<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article elaborates on substance-form aspects of integral communicative practices. Respective substance matters emerge with their shaping into formative and formal modes within the integral bio-social existence and experience of humans. Instrumentally modes help humans to shape or form their irregular substance matters into <italic>in-formed</italic> mental, behavioral and communicative practices.</p> <p>The article outlines interpretations of respective transformations and processes from Aristotle, Descartes and Kant to Russell, Wittgenstein, Austin and theoreticians of ongoing cognitive and languaging revolutions. The rigid opposing of the ultimate substance/form abstractions provokes conceptual impediments that result in the notorious pseudo-Cartesian mind-body problem. It is possible to overcome it by refocusing on actual middle ground integral developments including actual psychosomatic and mental processes, human communicative interactions and their pragmatic activities. A promising way to do that is to develop intellectual instruments similar to accommodating Hjelmslevean distinction of content and expression planes or relatively integral substance-form complexes.</p> <p>The article suggests a range of instrumentalities to methodologically reinterpret actual middle ground practices of languaging and language games. To that effect, it suggests a few complementary ways of their embedding and enacting, particularly new modes and procedures to conceptualize prerequisites and outcomes, externalities and affordances of the matching middle ground practices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Languaging and Extending our Agency in and through the Virtualities of Languaging: The Interplay of Causes and Constraints in Actualising the World<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In a process-ontological perspective, I consider some aspects of the ways in which human languaging enables persons to operate on and to actualize and de-actualize the modal potentials of their world. I examine Johanna Seibt’s notion of functional individuals to show how some aspect of the world can be selected and differentiated and thus located in some region of space-time by a particular linguistic (or other) operation. Rather than referring to an already given and present actuality, utterances actualise and situate functional individuals to varying degrees of definiteness, specificity, realness, and so on in occasions of languaging and in texts. Wordings enable and scaffold de-coupled intentional-semantic registration that coordinate selves and the functional individuals that populate their world. With reference to the nominal group and criteria of Thinghood, I consider concrete particulars and functional stuffs in relation to the capacity of our languaging to activate selective aspects of the modal potentials of the processes that we encounter in the world. This requires a process-ontological account of the world on which and in which we act in and through languaging. Languaging functions to sensibilize us to different aspects of the modal potentials that it activates.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue nonhumans speak? Languaging and worlds in posthumanist applied linguistics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper mobilises posthumanism as a way to theorise and articulate what <italic>language(s)/languaging</italic> may be for nonhuman animals. This is investigated via various concepts brought together: we turn to the ontological turn in anthropology to expand on what language is, or might be, amongst humans, and then discuss <italic>Umwelt</italic> and <italic>languaging</italic> as two possible modes of exploring ontologies and biosemiosis among nonhumans. The dialogue between posthumanism and biosemiosis is so far absent in the field of critical language studies. The aim, thus, is to contribute to the nascent field of posthumanist applied linguistics by tentatively linking discrete fields of enquiry for a productive exchange across disciplines, and to further the discussion of how nonhuman language is (or may be) ontologised.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue absent people: what languaging implies for radical embodiment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Re</italic>-<italic>evoking</italic> examines how languaging enacts human social intelligence. Turning from linguistic tradition, we reduce language to neither abstracta nor form. Rather, as human activity, languaging enables people to co-act as they direct attention within what Margolis (2010b; 2016) calls an enlanguaged world. Given their embodiment, people use languaging to evoke absent others in a flow of action, feeling, judgment, and attitudes. Although based on organism-environment coupling, languaging is also activity that re-evokes the absent. In an enlanguaged world, people use emplaced activity as part of practices, events, situations, artifacts, and so on. Hence, people reach beyond the body as they re-evoke the absent by languaging or, by definition, “activity in which wordings play a part.” As we suggest, absent people are evoked by <italic>othering</italic>. In common domains (e.g. a school), social habits give rise to dispositions during a history of co-acting that, later, can re-evoke absent others and past selves. Having begun with a literary example, we later turn to a detailed case study to show <italic>how</italic> a narrator brings feeling to languaging (in this case, frustration) as she re-evokes other people as they are for her. In conclusion, we suggest that radical embodiment needs to be extended to include how human practices link coupling with social intelligence as people channel what they do with the help of languaging.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue languaging: Reification profiles in language and gesture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper explores multimodal languaging of objects and words as an encultured practice. We report the results of the experiment where the participants explained the difference between close synonyms, enacting them as either objects or words in speech and gesture. The basic claim of the study is that speech and gesture as second-order language reflect the way they were acquired in developing the knowledge of objects and words in reification image-schemas. We found that i) object reification occurs twice more often; ii) enacting objects and words is affected by the same image-schemas expressed in speech and gesture types, still there are differences in their distribution in speech. This observation evidences that both gesture-specific and language-specific notions are part of languaging since the speech and gesture patterns present the way of packaging the shared idea of objects of reference.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue radical linguistics: on the need to overcome the language–practice divide<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article thematizes the language–practice divide which, in various forms, is posited by proponents of radical linguistics. In tracing the divide back to Saussure’s <italic>Course</italic>, an argument is made for its abolishment. More specifically, I unfold a criticism of Saussure’s account on the differences and similarities between the general phenomenon of language and the practice of a chess game, arguing that there are no grounds for assuming that the two differ in kind, let alone are essentially reducible to their synchronous elements. Finally, I make a move towards exploring the interplay of language and practice by stressing the enlanguaged nature of practical doings and how they emerge from basic cognitive attitudes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Workshop on European formalisms (Germanic countries and Eastern Europe) Formalism’ as an epistemological fact. Formalist Cinematographic Theory: a Refined Thinking of the Expressionist Film Conception?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>According to many researchers, Russian formalists do not want to recognize the influence of German expressionism on their work. This statement leads to a distinction between both theories in many fields, such as the field of cinema. In this sense, it is common to read nuanced definitions of expressionism and formalism. The present article tends to verify the truthfulness of these definitions and to show that formalism could be an extension of expressionism through an analysis of two reference works: <italic>Expressionism and Film</italic> (<italic>Expressionismus und Film</italic>) (1926) by Rudolf Kurtz et <italic>The Poetics of Cinema</italic> (<italic>Поэтика кино</italic>) (1927).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Formalism as Journalistic Scholarship; or, When Criticism Recognized Itself as a Genre<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article argues that Viktor Shklovsky and his allies’ theory cannot be duly appreciated and understood without accounting for their engagement in journalism. The latter was both practiced and theorized by Shklovsky’s group of the Russian Formalists, which stood out as a then rare combination of rigorous theory and extreme performativity. Accordingly, there was disagreement among the Formalists of Shklovsky’s group. On one hand, they did not want the kind of criticism that is published in periodicals and holds sway over contemporary writers to be naïve banter—the Formalists would rather criticism recognize the literariness of literature and hew to the patterns and laws they discovered. On the other hand, the Formalists applied these literary patterns to their own writing, creative or not, which is why Shklovsky wrote that he was both a fish zoologist and a fish. Hence the Formalists’ desire to make their scholarship and criticism performative. The conflict between rigor and performativity could be resolved only in a periodical, and while the Formalists, as this article explains, had a problem with issuing one fully of their own, Shklovsky’s literary magazine <italic>Petersburg</italic> was a short-lived exception. This magazine is as little studied as it is largely important—for both the history and theory of Russian Formalism, as well as journalism per se, which in 1920s Russia was recognized as a new modus vivendi of literature in the Formalists’ theory of factography (<italic>literatura fakta</italic>). The leading genre of factography was the feuilleton, and it is from this genre’s standpoint that the article analyzes Shklovsky’s Petersburg, and, in the second part, compares it with another literary magazine—the famous <italic>The Library for Reading</italic>, run by Osip Senkovsky, one of the prominent feuilletonists of the nineteenth century. The comparison of Shklovsky with Senkovsky as editors of these magazines makes it possible to appreciate both not as vivid exceptions but the very rule—a particular canon with its unique approach to culture that became relevant with the advent of fragmentation in our civilization and remains so to this day.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, or Time in Chiasmus: Viktor Shklovsky’s “Revolutionary Choice of the Past”<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An important part of Viktor Shklovsky’s legacy remains neglected by scholars of formalism and questioned for political reasons: his controversial critical and political interventions, as well as his work in propaganda on behalf of the Stalinist regime. Personal memories of Shkovsky and whatever is available in his publications from that period all convey a sense of compromising uncertainty. I am suggesting that his work during that period has special value, even though it arises from the shadow of a doubt that surrounds his private and public images as a Stalinist opportunist. Based on his earlier theoretical findings and his practical and critical competence in literature and film, Shklovsky found original analytical tools to reflect temporality, historical experience, and (Soviet) subjectivity under political violence. His profound critical revision of his early theoretical postulates in the light of historical experience gained during this controversial period is relevant nowadays.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Tynianov, Jan Mukařovský and Nikolai Marr in Juri Lotman’s Concept of History of Humanities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article focuses on Juri Lotman’s views of the origins of Tartu-Moscow structuralism. He reconstructed the genesis of the Tartu-Moscow School using the Hegelian model (thesis – antithesis – synthesis). In Lotman’s concepts of the 1960s and 1970s, the role of the “thesis” was always played by the Petrograd Association of Russian Formalists (OPOIaZ). Lotman selected different movements as the “antithesis”. In the 1960s, the productive antithesis to OPOIaZ was, for Lotman, the “semantic paleontology” of Nikolai Marr and his followers (such as Olga Freidenberg). In the 1970s, Lotman assigned this role to the functionalist structuralism of the Prague School (with a special focus on the work of Jan Mukařovský), but he never abandoned his sympathy for the work of Freidenberg.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue