rss_2.0Lingua Posnaniensis FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Lingua Posnaniensishttps://sciendo.com/journal/LINPOhttps://www.sciendo.comLingua Posnaniensis 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6006afa8e797941b18f33c1e/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220927T200211Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20220927%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=23fe54d1d3b13895b55a1da0f0974a47140842bf1b61657543794c8203e9b42f200300Reviews: Seino van Breugel. 2021. (Pacific Linguistics 664). Berlin–Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. Pp. xxviii + 378https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2021-0006ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Dangla-Migama and Afro-Asiatic III: Root Initial *ḅ-https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2021-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper is a new contribution to revealing the Afro-Asiatic heritage in the lexicon of the Dangla-Migama group of Chadic languages by means of interbranch comparison using a.o. the ancient Egypto-Semitic evidence.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Reviews: Ellen Smith-Dennis. 2020. . (Pacific Linguistics 659). Boston–Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. Pp. xxv + 532https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2021-0007ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Omotic lexicon in its Afro-Asiatic setting VI: Addenda to Omotic roots with *ḅ-, *ṗ-, *p- (or *f-)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2021-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper is a new contribution to revealing the Afro-Asiatic heritage in the lexicon of the Omotic languages by means of interbranch comparison using a.o. the ancient Egypto-Semitic evidence.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00On the position of onomatopoeia in adult language. Evidence from Slovakhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2021-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Onomatopoeic expressions are usually defined as verbal imitations of the sounds from the extra-linguistic reality. The position of onomatopoeia in languages varies cross-linguistically. In standard Slovak, onomatopoeia represents a sub-category of interjections. Onomatopoeic words are considered an important part of child’s vocabulary due to their sound-imitative nature and simple structure, but their role in language of the adults is not clear. The study presents the results of the research aimed at the analysis of the place of onomatopoeia in language of adult native Slovak language speakers. The research was carried out on the basis of two questionnaires in which the respondents were asked to (1) identify the sound imitated by the given onomatopoeia, that is, to identify the meaning of the onomatopoeia and (2) to capture the sound they heard by an existing lexicalized onomatopoeia. The research results indicate that although standard Slovak is a language relatively rich in lexicalized onomatopoeic expressions, adult natives are not very familiar with their meaning. Most of the respondents could not identify the sound mimicked by the given onomatopoeia and were not able to capture the sound by the existing lexicalized sound-imitating word. This finding supports the views about the marginal position of onomatopoeia in adult language.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Control structures in Kokborok: A case of syntactic convergencehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2021-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents a descriptive study of the control structures in Kokborok, a Tibeto-Burman language spoken in Tripura (one of the North-Eastern states in India) and demonstrates the contact-induced changes in the phenomenon of control in Kokborok which resulted due to the long-term contact with Bangla (Indo-Aryan), a genetically different language spoken in the state. The instances of genitive subject and the phenomenon of overt controllee in the embedded subject position in Kokborok are the cases in point. The instance of overt controllee described in this paper points to the deviation from the classic concept of PRO thereby demonstrating a property unique to the study of South Asian languages.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Angas-Sura Etymologies IXhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2021-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper is a new contribution to revealing the Afro-Asiatic heritage in the lexicon of the Angas-Sura group of Chadic languages by means of interbranch comparison using a.o. the ancient Egypto-Semitic evidence.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Dziedzice inscription and West Germanic rhotacismhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2020-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The inscription discovered in 1931 on the remains of a cinerary urn near Sedschütz, Upper Silesia, was at first proposed to be runic. Later analysed as a Germanic text written in Roman characters, the long-obscure Iron Age inscription has only recently been republished after being moved from the museum where it was originally conserved. Presumably executed by a member of the Buri, the early Germano-Roman text is only partially preserved and appears to feature key evidence for the early dialectal development of Germanic. Contemporary with the period of the Marcomannic Wars, its single interpretable lexical element seems to contain the earliest evidence for West Germanic rhotacism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Angas-Sura Etymologies VIIhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2020-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper as part of a long-running series is devoted to the etymological analysis of a new segment (namely that with initial dental *d-) of the Angas-Sura root stock, a small group of modern languages remotely and ultimately akin to pharaonic Egyptian and the well-known Semitic languages or Twareg in the Sahara etc. Doing so, I wish to continue the noble tradition initiated by J.H. Greenberg (1958), the founding father of modern Afro-Asiatic comparative linguistics (along with I.M. Diakonoff), who was the first scholar ever to have established by Neo-Grammarian the methods regular consonantal correspondences between Angas-Sura and ancient Egyptian in his pioneering (painfully isolated) paper on the ancient trichtomomy of the word-initial labials in both branches. Nowadays our chances in following this path are substantially more favourable being equipped with our gigantic comparative root catalogue system of the Egyptian etymologies ever published (ongoing since 1994) and of the Afro-Asiatic parental lexical stock (ongoing since 1999).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Reviews: Толковый словарь якутского языка // Саха тылын быhаарыылаах тылдьыта (Explanatory dictionary of the Yakut language [in fifteen volumes], in the text bellow referred to as <the Dictionary> or <Sleptsov 2004-2018>). Под общей редакцией академика Академии наук Респу-блики Саха (Якутия) П[ётра] А[лексеевича] Слепцова // Caxa Oрoспyyбyлyкэтин Наукатын академиятын академига П.А. Слепцов уопсай эрэдээксийэтинэн (under the general editorship of academician P[yotr] A[lekseyevich] Sleptsov of the Sakha [Yakut] Academy of Sciences). 2004-2018. Новосибирск // Новосибирскай: «Наука» (Novosibirsk: Nauka Publishers)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2020-0015ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Phonetic convergence in the shadowing for natural and synthesized speech in Polishhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2020-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The matter of shadowing natural speech has been discussed in many studies and papers. However, there is very little knowledge of human phonetical convergence to synthesized speech. To find out more about this issue an experiment in the Polish language was conducted. Two types of stimuli were used – natural speech and synthesised speech. Five sets of sentences with various phonetic phenomena in Polish were prepared. A group of twenty persons were recorded which gave the total number of 100 samples for each phenomenon. The summary of results shows convergence in both natural and synthesised speech in set number 1, 2, 4 while in group 3 and 5 the convergence was not observed. The baseline production shown that the great majority of participants prefer <italic>ɛn/ɛm</italic> version of phonetic feature which was reflected in 83 out of 100 sentences. In the shadowing natural speech participants changed <italic>ɛn/ɛm</italic> to <italic>ɛw/ɛ̃</italic> in 26 cases and in 4 <italic>ɛw/ɛ̃</italic> to <italic>ɛn/ɛm</italic>. When shadowing synthesised speech shift from <italic>ɛn/ɛm</italic> to <italic>ɛw/ɛ̃</italic> in 18 sentences and 4 from <italic>ɛw/ɛ̃</italic> to <italic>ɛn/ɛm</italic>. The intonation convergence was also observed in the perceptual analysis, however the analysis of F0 statistics did not show statistically significant differences.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Reviews: Dineke Schokkin. 2020. . . Pacific Linguistics [series], vol. 663. Berlin– –Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, pp. xxv + 434https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2020-0014ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Labile anticausatives in Jordanian Arabichttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2020-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examines the morpho-syntax of labile anticausative structures in Jordanian Arabic (JA). Although the transitive counterpart of anticausatives is marked via morphological affixes that reflect structural and lexical components in Classical Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic, a number of verbs involving causative alternation exhibit identical forms in JA (e.g., <italic>ġala</italic> [+T] ‘to CAUSE boil something’ vs <italic>ġala</italic> [–T] ‘to BECOME boil’). Such variation poses challenges for mapping between verb morphology and its lexical semantics. To handle such variation, which is also observed cross-linguistically, we argue in favour of Schäfer (2008; 2012), Schäfer &amp; Vivanco (2015), and Ramchand’s (2008) “causer-less” analysis over Koontz-Garboden’s (2009) “reflexive” analysis. This work further assumes the existence of a Voice phrase lacking a specifier (external argument) and assumes that Voice projection is headed by an implied Voice head (<sup>v</sup>causer) that syntactically assigns the accusative case to its new subject and semantically encodes the internal argument and describes the resultant subevent of the verb. The work also provides an alternative solution for voice projection that lacks an explicit specifier bearing [+agent] or [+causer] feature specification. The work assumes the presence of an inchoative Voice head [<sup>v</sup>inch] introducing the Spec Voice Phrase, which encodes an inchoative resultant state of an event achieved over its theme. Contrary to Al-Qadi (2015), the present model assumes that such verbs constitute a middle position between transitive and intransitive verbs in JA but do not constitute a separate class of their own. Evidently, the correct characterization of the anticausative subclass distribution is that it surfaces wherever v is transitive as well as in intransitive volitional contexts (a non-natural class). More intriguingly, the presented material suggests that there is an ongoing process of diachronic change in spoken Arabic varieties (including JA) that amounts to the development and expansion of an inchoative class where no external or internal inchoative detransitivizing morphemes are involved. This topic, which incorporates an intriguing diachronic dimension in addition to the syntactic details, is missing from the generative literature on Arabic morpho-syntax and is potentially of sufficient interest to merit investigation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Gender-related differences in the use and perception of verbal insults: the Bosnian perspectivehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2020-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper explores potential gender-linked differences in the use and perception of insulting language among Bosnian university students. The respondents were asked to provide one-word answers to four questions about the worst male-directed and female-directed insults, and about one-word descriptions of a male and female person who they view as the most detestable. The results indicate that the male and female respondents have a similar perception of the worst male-directed (<italic>lack of masculinity</italic>) and, to a lesser extent, femaledirected insults (<italic>sexual looseness</italic>). Surprisingly, insults of homosexual nature, as well as those pertaining to being unethical and physically unattractive were rarely mentioned. The results also reveal significant gender -of-insulter differences in the use of offensive words in reference to the most disliked person, as well as the tendency by the respondents of both genders to avoid using those insults that they perceive as the harshest.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00New Indo-Aryan associative plural markers derived from Old Indo-Aryan ‘other’ and their further grammaticalizationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2020-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper deals with associative plurals in New Indo-Aryan languages, which are derived from the Old Indo- Aryan <italic>apara</italic> ‘other’. These markers are found in a large number of NIA languages, but in many of these languages they underwent further grammaticalization into other grammatical units, such as honorific particle, standard plural marker, definiteness marker, marker of inalienable possession etc. Among the factors which underlie this grammatical development, contacts with non-Indo-Aryan languages play a significant role.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00How to choose the proper words? The process of vocabulary standardization in https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2020-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As with most fields of life, China can trace its history of word standardization back to ancient times, when the first dictionaries (such as <italic>Erya</italic>, ca. 3<sup>rd</sup> century B.C.) appeared. Modern Standard Chinese used in Mainland China – Putonghua – has been subject to standardization since its proclamation as the official national language of China in 1956. The definition states quite clearly that its base is formed by the Northern dialects. This statement concerns also vocabulary.</p> <p>However, it is not a simple matter to make a choice of words which are to be used throughout the country. On the one hand, the so-called “Northern dialects” are spoken by almost 70% of the Han Chinese population, i.e. by about 800 million people. Although the Northern dialects are said to be quite uniform, the vast area that they cover must bring diversity in vocabulary. On the other hand, the remaining 30% of the Han Chinese speak a range of mutually unintelligible tongues, which are bound to penetrate the Northern dialects.</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to show how the lexicon of Putonghua is being codified. An attempt will be made to reveal how the basic vocabulary was selected during the forming of Putonghua in the 1950s. Some of the tools used by the State Language Commission in order to control the process of vocabulary standardization will be described. Moreover, the paper intends to describe the ongoing changes in the Chinese lexicon. It will show the sources of new words that are gradually accepted into the authoritative dictionaries of modern Chinese.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Reviews: Mieczysław Jerzy Künstler. 2019. . Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 322https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2020-0007ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The grammatical distinction between count nouns and mass nouns in Mandarin Chinesehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2020-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this paper is to prove the Mass Noun Hypothesis wrong. The hypothesis claims that all common nouns in classifier languages like Mandarin Chinese are mass nouns. The objection against it consists in displaying its implausible deduction, where false conclusions have been drawn due to relying on the grammar of English, which is incongruent with the grammar of Chinese. Consequently, this paper defends the Count Noun Thesis, stating that in Chinese there are count as well as mass nouns. In support of this statement, first, the typology of numeral classifiers had to be established, which resulted in gathering and completing all the reasons to distinguish classifiers from measure words. After only this necessary differentiation was made, it was possible to show that the count/mass distinction exists in Mandarin Chinese. That is, count nouns by default have only one classifier, with certain disclaimers. Apart from that, count nouns, as in every language, may undergo some measurement with measure words. Mass nouns, however, in the context of quantification may appear only with measure words, but not with classifiers. These conditions naturally follow from the ontological status of the two types of nouns’ referents, i.e. bounded objects denoted by count nouns, and scattered substances denoted by mass nouns.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Chinese vocabulary and elements of culture reflected in the lexical meaning as a challenge in the teaching of Chinese as a foreign languagehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2020-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper describes the elements of Chinese culture enclosed in vocabulary and in the meaning of words; it is divided into four parts. Firstly, it is pointed out that, due to the fact that words are written down with Chinese characters, teachers of Chinese should purposefully help the students understand the rich culture contained in Chinese words, especially disyllabic compounds. Secondly, the article presents the investigation methods concerning compound words applied by the researchers of Chinese lexicon;It also assesses their applicability with regard to teaching a second language. Thirdly, the paper discusses five ways of incorporating Chinese culture during the process of formation of compound words, and points out their relationship with second language teaching. Finally, the paper discusses the methods applied in teaching Chinese vocabulary, and puts forward two methods of teaching vocabulary and their strategies at different levels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The Comparison of Kinship Terminology in the Yulin Dialect and in Cantonesehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/linpo-2020-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Yulin dialect is a sub-dialect of Cantonese, only used in Yuzhou and Fumian districts of the city of Yulin, located in the southeast of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. The kinship terms in Yue dialects include direct and indirect address terms, and usually are a combination of morphemes used to embody referential features (synthetic relation terms) and morphemes that distinguish the degree of kinship (ranking, collateral, spousal, generation and gender terms). This article offers a comparison, in terms of morphology, of kinship terms between the Yulin dialect and Cantonese. It is argued that the Yulin dialect and Cantonese have the same pattern of combining kinship terms, but approximately half of the compared kinship term logograms in the Yulin dialect are totally different from those in Cantonese as used in Canton, and the same terms are used in less than one-fourth of the cases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1