rss_2.0Geologos FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Geologos 's Cover settings of Jurassic granitoids in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran: A review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present paper discusses the geochemical affinities, origin and ages of Jurassic granitoids of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SaSZ) in the eastern part of the Zagros Thrust Zone. A multidisciplinary, integrated approach was carried out using existing granitoid geochemical data (major, trace, rare earth element and isotopes) and knowledge of the regional geology (geodynamic and metamorphic setting), coupled with geophysical data (magnetic susceptibility) from granitoids in the SaSZ. We re-interpret and re-classify the Jurassic granitoids of this zone into three main genetic groups: S-type, I-type and A-type subduction-related ones. In the central to southern part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (between Hamadan and Sirjan), S-type magmatism appeared between 178 and 160 Ma during the Cimmerian orogeny, due to continental collision. To the north of the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (between Sanandaj and Ghorveh), I-type and A-type magmatism occurred between 158 and 145 Ma. This heterogenic tectonomagmatic system along the SaSZ suggests a heterogenic subcontinental lithospheric mantle, resulting in two Jurassic tectonomagmatic zones of (1) the Sanandaj-Ghorveh Zone and (2) the Hamadan-Sirjan Zone.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Coastal hydrogeology, by Jiao Jimmy and Vincent Post, 2019. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 403 pages. Hardback: price £49.99, ISBN: 9781107030596. characteristics, mode of transportation and depositional environment of the Stormberg Group in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: evidence from grain size and lithofacies analyses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Stormberg Group comprises the Molteno, Elliot and Clarens formations and is one of four stratigraphical groups that make up the Karoo Supergroup in South Africa. The group is the highest unit in the Karoo Basin, representing the final phase of preserved sedimentation. The major problem with the Stromberg Group is that the mode of transport, hydrodynamic energy conditions and depositional environment are still poorly understood. For the present paper, grain size and lithofacies studies on selected sandstones from the Molteno, Elliot and Clarens formations were performed so as to elucidate their textural characteristics, depositional processes, sedimentation mechanisms and hydrodynamic energy conditions and to discriminate different depositional environments. The statistical parameters of grain size distribution (mean grain size, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis) show that the sandstones are predominantly unimodal, fine grained, moderately well sorted, mesokurtic and near symmetrical. The bivariate diagrams of the aforementioned statistical parameters demonstrate that river and aeolian dune had the greatest impact on the depositional environments. Likewise, the C-M pattern (Passega diagram) shows that the sandstones were mostly deposited through tractive current process. Furthermore, the C-M diagram reveals the prevalence of rolling, suspension and graded suspension modes of sediment transportation. Seventeen sedimentary lithofacies were identified and grouped into seven lithofacies associations. These lithofacies associations indicate braided channel, overbank and swamp deposits for the Molteno Formation, alluvial fan/floodplain and playa deposits for the Elliot Formation and aeolian deposits for the Clarens Formation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Book reviews: The Nile Basin: Quaternary geology, geomorphology and prehistoric environments, by Martin Williams, University of Adelaide, 2019. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Hardback: price £105.00, ISBN: 9781107179196 of potholes formed on bedrock sandstones at Loei Dun, Phetchabun Geopark, Thailand<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Phetchabun National Geopark comprises varied geosites; one of the fluvial bedrock landforms distinguished here is Loei Dun. This shows many potholes in Mesozoic sandstone of the Nam Phong Formation (Khorat Group). A genetic study of the occurrence of the Loei Dun potholes lends it a higher geoheritage value. For the present study we did fieldwork and carried out petrographical and geotechnical analyses so as to classify and characterise the potholes and consider geotourism potentials. Petrographically, the bedrock sandstone is a lithic arenite which consists of 82-96 percent very fine to coarse, well-sorted subangular sand with low sphericity and calcite cementation. Our geotechnical analysis of the bedrock sandstone suggests that pothole occurrence may be linked to low rock strength and slake durability index with high rock absorption and porosity at Loei Dun. Field studies confirmed the impact of other factors such as joints/faults, fluvial conditions and biological weathering. There are five types of pothole, viz., simple ones, potholes with external furrows, compound potholes, breached potholes and lateral ones. The present study adds educational value to the Loei Dun geosite at Phetchabun Geoparks and cultural and economic aspects can be further strengthened through the development of geotourism in the area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Bank filtration for climate resilience: potentiality of a new site along the Ismailia Canal in Egypt<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bank filtration (BF) is a nature-based solution that can provide safe drinking water at a low cost, in being a green technology that benefits from natural ecosystem services and saves energy as well. The objective of the present paper is to evaluate the potentiality of a new site for bank filtration along a surface water source that experiences periods of both high and low flow. This site is located along the Ismailia Canal in the eastern Nile Delta fringe of Egypt. The present evaluation is based on exploratory drilling, installation of monitoring infrastructure and monitoring of both water level and water quality parameters for one year. The site has favourable hydrogeological conditions; the mean hydraulic conductivity of aquifer materials (sand and gravel) is 18.98 m/day. Moreover, there is a hydraulic connection between canal and aquifer; under steady conditions, the canal feeds the aquifer. Using different tracers, such as Cl, EC, Sr and SO<sub>4</sub>, the average bank filtration share is in excess of 95%. BF has reduced the particulates (turbidity) by 96%, total coliform by 99 % and total organic carbon (TOC) expressed as ultra-violet absorbance at 254 wavelengths (UVA254) by 44%. In addition, BF reduces concentrations of disinfection by-products due to its ability to remove organic matter. The potential degradation of TOC in the canal bed sediments may cause the release of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) to the bank filtrate water; this process is exaggerated during low-flow periods. Compared to conventional water treatment, BF is a cost-effective green technology, because no chemicals are used and no waste products are generated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Geological and palaeogeographical peculiarities of the Adamów Graben area, central Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>From a geological and palaeogeographical point of view, the area of the Adamów Graben in the vicinity of Turek ranks amongst the best known in central Poland, with several opencast mines located here where lignite was exploited for 57 years. These large-surface exposures provide a good opportunity for detailed geological studies of strata of Late Cretaceous to Holocene age. However, the present research focuses mainly on those deposits, forms and structures that have been most thoroughly examined and are best exposed. These are Cretaceous marls and gaizes, Paleogene ‘blue clays’ and the ‘Koźmin Gravels’, Neogene sandstones, as well as the Quaternary glacial ‘Lake Koźmin’, involutions and ‘Koźmin Las’. Some of these, e.g., the ‘Koźmin Gravels’ and ‘Koźmin Las’, are not known from other Polish territories. Furthermore, results obtained by the authors over a period of nearly 30 years also include data on palaeogeographical changes across some Cenozoic intervals, especially during the early Oligocene and late Weichselian.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Extreme hydrology and climate variability, monitoring, modelling, adaptation and mitigation, by A. Melesse, W. Abtew & G. Senay (Eds.), 2019. Elsevier Inc., Amsterdam. 580 pages. Paperback: price $170.00, ISBN 9780128159989 plate boundaries and fracture zones, by J.C. Duarte (Ed.), 2019. Elsevier Inc., Amsterdam. 478 pages. Paperback: price €137,55, ISBN 9780128120644., Campi Flegrei and Campanian volcanism, by Benedetto De Vivo, Harvey E. Belkin and Giuseppe Rolandi (Eds.), 2019. Elsevier Inc., Amsterdam. 520 pages. Paperback: price $175.00, ISBN 9780128164549 of the depositional sedimentary environment of Oligocene deposits (Qom Formation) in the Qom Basin (northern Tethyan seaway), Iran<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>During the Rupelian–Chattian, the Qom Basin (northern seaway basin) was located between the Paratethys in the north and the southern Tethyan seaway in the south. The Oligocene deposits (Qom Formation) in the Qom Basin have been interpreted for a reconstruction of environmental conditions during deposition, as well as of the influence of local fault activities and global sea level changes expressed within the basin. We have also investigated connections between the Qom Basin and adjacent basins. Seven microfacies types have been distinguished in the former. These microfacies formed within three major depositional environments, i.e., restricted lagoon, open lagoon and open marine. Strata of the Qom Formation are suggested to have been formed in an open-shelf system. In addition, the deepening and shallowing patterns noted within the microfacies suggest the presence of three third-order sequences in the Bijegan area and two third-order depositional sequences and an incomplete depositional sequence in the Naragh area. Our analysis suggests that, during the Rupelian and Chattian stages, the depositional sequences of the Qom Basin were influenced primarily by local tectonics, while global sea level changes had a greater impact on the southern Tethyan seaway and Paratethys basins. The depositional basins of the Tethyan seaway (southern Tethyan seaway, Paratethys Basin and Qom Basin) were probably related during the Burdigalian to Langhian and early Serravallian.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Leonard Horner in Bonn 1831–1833, finding loess and being incorporated into Lyell’s Loess Legion<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Leonard Horner (1785–1864) was a pioneer in the study of loess. His 1836 paper on the geology of Bonn contained detailed descriptions of loess in the Rhine valley. He identified and presented loess as an interesting material for geological study. He investigated loess in the crater of the Rodderberg with Charles Lyell in 1833. He presented the first significant paper on loess in Britain in 1833, but it was not published until 1836. With the assistance of G.A. Goldfuss and J.J. Noegerath he conducted early studies of the Siebengebirge and published the first geological map of the region, and the first picture of loess, at Rhondorf by the Drachenfels. He became the eleventh person to be included in the list of loess scholars which Charles Lyell published in volume 3 of the <italic>Principles of Geology</italic>. These were Leonhard, Bronn, Boue, Voltz, Steininger, Merian, Rozet, Hibbert in 1833, Noeggerath, von Meyer in 1835, Horner in 1837. Horner arrived after the publication of his studies on the loess at Bonn in 1836.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Characteristics of fluid inclusions in the Cenozoic volcanic-hosted Kushk-e-Bahram Manto-type Cu deposit of central Iran<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The Kushk-e-Bahram Manto-type Cu deposit is located in central Iran, within Eocene to Oligo–Miocene volcanic strata which occur in the central part of the Uremia-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (UDMA). Propylitization, silicification, argillization and carbonatization are the main types of alteration to have affected the pyroclastic and volcanic rocks. There are high amounts of oxide minerals, including malachite, azurite, hematite, magnetite and goethite. Three types of primary FIs have been determined in the Kushk-e-Bahram deposit, namely; I: two-phase liquid-rich FIs (L+V), II: mono-phase liquid FIs, III: two-phase vapour-rich FIs which have been identified based on petrographical studies. Based on FI studies of co-existing quartz and calcite, homogenization temperatures (Th) must have been between 67 and 228°C, with an average of 158°C. Moreover, salinity is between 14.0–30.3 wt% NaCl, equivalent to a 19.6% average. Fluid density values vary from 0.8 to 1.1 gr/cm<sup>3</sup>. Based on FI data and related diagrams, the depth of their trapping was estimated to be &lt;200 m and ore formation occurred at pressures of &lt;50 bars. Consequently, mineralogy, host rock and FIs characteristics in the Kushk-e-Bahram deposit are similar to the Manto-type Cu deposits in Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanic belts of Iran and South America.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Is the Złoczew lignite deposit geologically suitable for the first underground gasification installation in Poland?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The present study focuses on alternative methods of exploiting lignite in comparison to conventional opencast mining and combustion in power plants for the generation of electricity. In Poland, opencast lignite pits cover large areas, creating social and environmental conflicts. In order to stabilise the production level of electricity and reduce the negative effects of opencast mining, alternative ways of exploiting lignite are suggested, one of these being underground gasification <italic>in situ</italic>. The Złoczew lignite deposit, which will most likely be exploited in the near future, provides an opportunity to discuss the unconventional method of underground coal gasification (UCG). On the basis of technological and geological criteria that have been established to determine the suitability of Polish lignite for underground gasification, resources to be used this way have been estimated. Through gasification, over 15 million tonnes of lignite can be utilised, which is about 2.5 per cent of resources of the Złoczew deposit intended for opencast mining. With this in mind, we suggest to take action by starting a pilot installation, to be followed by a commercial one for underground gasification after completion of superficial mining. Naturally, any future application of this method will be preceded by assessment of geological conditions at the Złoczew opencast pit.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Depositional conditions on an alluvial fan at the turn of the Weichselian to the Holocene – a case study in the Żmigród Basin, southwest Poland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Presented are the results of research into the fluvio-aeolian sedimentary succession at the site of Postolin in the Żmigród Basin, southwest Poland. Based on lithofacies analysis, textural analysis, Thermoluminescence and Infrared-Optical Stimulated Luminescence dating and GIS analysis, three lithofacies units were recognised and their stratigraphic succession identified: 1) the lower unit was deposited during the Pleni-Weichselian within a sand-bed braided river functioning under permafrost conditions within the central part of the alluvial fan; 2) the middle unit is the result of aeolian deposition and fluvial redeposition on the surface of the fan during long-term permafrost and progressive decrease of humidity of the climate at the turn of the Pleni- to the Late Weichselian; 3) the upper unit accumulated following the development of longitudinal dunes at the turn of the Late Weichselian to the Holocene; the development of dunes was interrupted twice by the form being stabilised by vegetation and soil development.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-09-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Arab Water Security: Threats and Opportunities in the Gulf States in Archaeometry. Methods and case studies of permeability and porosity of sedimentary rocks in terms of unconventional geothermal resource explorations in Poland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Petrophysical investigations are fundamental to natural resource exploration. In order to recognise the geothermal potential of sedimentary rocks in central Poland, 259 samples were collected from prospective deep-lying geothermal reservoirs. Parameters measured include bulk density, skeletal density, effective porosity, permeability, average pore diameter and specific surface. Results indicate that at great depths (mostly &gt; 3,000 m below surface) sedimentary rocks show low values of porosity (mainly less than 5%) and permeability (only sporadically in excess of 1 md). These values call for a petrothermal use of reservoirs, for which an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) was developed. Reservoirs suited for the EGS are Carboniferous and Lower Triassic sandstones in the central part of Poland (Mogilno-Łódź Trough region and a small part of the Kujawy Swell and Fore-Sudetic regions). In addition, Carboniferous limestones in this area are potentially prospective.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-09-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Stratigraphy: A Modern Synthesis and composition of the Rosa Marina beach sands (Adriatic coast, southern Italy): a sedimentological/ecological approach<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Beach sands from the Rosa Marina locality (Adriatic coast, southern Italy) were analysed mainly microscopically in order to trace the source areas of their lithoclastic and bioclastic components. The main cropping out sedimentary units were also studied with the objective to identify the potential source areas of lithoclasts. This allowed to establish how the various rock units contribute to the formation of beach sands. The analysis of the bioclastic components allows to estimate the actual role of organisms regarding the supply of this material to the beach. Identification of taxa that are present in the beach sands as shell fragments or other remains was carried out at the genus or family level. Ecological investigation of the same beach and the recognition of sub-environments (mainly distinguished on the basis of the nature of the substrate and of the water depth) was the key topic that allowed to establish the actual source areas of bioclasts in the Rosa Marina beach sands. The sedimentological analysis (including a physical study of the beach and the calculation of some statistical parameters concerning the grain-size curves) shows that the Rosa Marina beach is nowadays subject to erosion.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-09-20T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1